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Sample records for genital organ morphology

  1. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  2. Functional morphology of the tubular genital organs in the female owl monkey (Aotus spp.).

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    Mayor, Pedro; Takeshita, Rafaela Sayuri Cicalise; Coutinho, Leandro Nassar; Sánchez, Nofre; Gálvez, Hugo; Ique, Carlos; Ruiz, Julio Cesar; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros

    2015-06-01

    Studies on reproductive morphology are important to understand the reproductive cycle of non-human primates. This study describes the functional morphology of the adult female tubular genital organs in 41 Aotus (12.8 ± 6.8 years old, ranging from 3 to 25 years), with respect to reproductive status and number of parturitions. In females with developing embryos, endometrial glands showed a higher secretion than other females, and the embryo implantation occupied this secretive endometrium. Changes in the thickening, number of layers, and keratinization in the vaginal epithelium suggest that vaginal cytology may be an indicator of the estrous cycle. Non-pregnant multiparous females had a larger uterine body than nulliparous females. Number of parturitions and reproductive state had an impact on tubular genital organs in female owl monkeys. These results can be useful for the development of biotechnologies of reproduction and for improvement of the management of this species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts.

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    Chen, X X; Yang, C W; Huang, L B; Niu, Q S; Jiang, S Z; Chi, F

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (pgilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (pGilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (pgilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts.

  4. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

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    X. X. Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05 the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05 compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05. Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05 in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts.

  5. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

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    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  6. Epidemiology and morphology of female genital organs cancer in Kabardino-Balkaria during the period from 1990 to 2014

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    A. A. Tkhakakhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and trend of incidence, geographical prevalence, the comparative analysis and morphology of cancer of uterus, ovaries, vaginas and vulvas among inhabitants of Kabardino-Balkaria during 1990–2014 are presented. Rates of a gain of these new growths considerably exceed the all-Russian indicators especially concerning an endometrium carcinoma, but “rejuvenation” of diseases in Kabardino-Balkaria is not observed. Carcinomas of a body and a neck of a uterus meet among inhabitants of mountainous areas of the region than flat more often. Cancer tumors of endometrium and ovaries affect city dwellers, unlike a uterus neck more. The received results allow revealing actively patients at early stages of diseases, to hold medical examination and preventive events more effectively, to plan rational tactics of treatment of patients.

  7. Prevalence and Types of Genital Lesions in Organ Transplant Recipients.

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    Nadhan, Kumar S; Larijani, Mary; Abbott, James; Doyle, Alden M; Linfante, Anthony W; Chung, Christina Lee

    2018-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common skin cancer diagnosed in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and confers significant mortality. The development of SCC in the genital region is elevated in nonwhite OTRs. Viral induction, specifically human papillomavirus (HPV), is hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of these lesions. To assess the prevalence and types of genital lesions observed in OTRs. This retrospective review included 496 OTRs who underwent full skin examination from November 1, 2011, to April 28, 2017, at an academic referral center. The review was divided into 2 distinct periods before a change in clinical management that took effect on February 1, 2016 (era 1) and after that change (era 2). Patient awareness of genital lesions was assessed. All lesions clinically suggestive of malignant tumors were biopsied and underwent HPV polymerase chain reaction typing. Number and types of genital lesions, proportion of malignant tumors positive for HPV, and patients cognizant of genital lesions. Of the total 496 OTRs, 376 OTRs were evaluated during era 1 (mean [SD] age, 60 years; age range, 32-94 years; 45 [65.2%] male; 164 [43.6%] white) and 120 OTRs were evaluated during era 2 of the study (mean age, 56 years; age range, 22-79 years; 76 [63.3%] male; 30 [25.0%] white). Overall, 111 of the 120 OTRs (92.5%) denied the presence of genital lesions during the history-taking portion of the medical examination. Genital lesions were found in 53 OTRs (44.2%), cutaneous malignant tumors (basal cell carcinoma and SCC in situ) in 6 (5.0%), genital SCC in situ in 3 (4.2%), and condyloma in 29 (24.2%). Eight of the 12 SCC in situ lesions (66.7%) were positive for high-risk HPV. Seven tested positive for HPV-16 and HPV-18, and 1 tested positive for high-risk HPV DNA but could not be further specified. Genital lesions in OTRs are common, but awareness is low. All OTRs should undergo thorough inspection of genital skin as a part of routine

  8. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

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    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae

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    Rafael Cardoso Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    shell. The constitutive elements of the male genital organs were studied, aiming to provide morphological data of the species which could be used in reproductive biology aimed at actions towards its preservation in captivity. The sample was composed of 10 adult males, captured by IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, license nº 002/01, euthanized, following rules from the Ethics Committee of UEMA's Veterinary Medicine School. The choelomic cavity was opened and the organs were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and subsequently dissected. The testis of K. scorpioides had ovoid shape and golden yellow coloration. The cylindrical epididymidis adhered dorsal-wise to the medial surface of the testis, ending in a small deferent duct. The deferent ducts did not form distinct blister and opened inside cloaca. The furrowed penis, located in the base of the cloaca, extending itself until the tail and it was composed by root, body and free part. The morphology data of the reproductive organs of these animals was similar to other turtles such as the sea turtle, suggesting a conservative morphological presentation among turtles.

  10. QTL for the species-specific male and female genital morphologies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

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    Sasabe, Masataka; Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2010-12-01

    Animals with internal fertilization often exhibit marked diversification in genital morphology among closely related species. However, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying genital evolution is still limited. We constructed genetic linkage maps and analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for F(2) hybrids of two closely related species of the carabid beetles Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) maiyasanus, which show matching male and female genital shapes within species, but marked differences in genital morphologies between species. The linkage maps comprised both amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Composite interval mapping to detect QTL for three traits of male copulatory piece (length, width, weight) and two traits for female vaginal appendix (length, width) resulted in the detection of one to five significant QTL for each trait. The QTL explained large proportions of phenotypic variance. Thus, the interspecific difference in the genital morphologies appeared to be determined by relatively small numbers of genes with large genetic effects. QTL of different traits for the same or different sexes co-occurred on five of eight linkage groups with significant QTL; in particular, three QTL for different male and female genital traits occurred almost at the same position. Each of the male genital traits showed uniform signs of additive genetic effects, suggesting that directional selection has led to species-specific morphologies. However, the signs of additive genetic effects in each female genital trait were not uniform, suggesting that coevolution between sexes is not necessarily concerted. This result requires further assessment because the sample size of F(2) females was small. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

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    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice. We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.

  12. Male Genital Morphology and Its Influence on Female Mating Preferences and Paternity Success in Guppies

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    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825

  13. The spider Harpactea sadistica: co-evolution of traumatic insemination and complex female genital morphology in spiders

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    Řezáč, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently in other arthropods. The research reported here demonstrates the first case of TI in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, in particular how the genital morphology and mating behaviour of Harpactea sadistica (Řezáč 2008), a spider from Israel, has become adapted specifically for reproduction based on TI. Males have needle-like intromittent organs and females have atrophied spermathecae. In other spiders, eggs are fertilized simultaneously with oviposition, but the eggs of H. sadistica are fertilized in the ovaries (internal fertilization) and develop as embryos before being laid. Sperm-storage organs of phylogenetically basal groups to H. sadistica provide males with last male sperm priority and allow removal of sperm by males that mate later, suggesting that TI might have evolved as an adaptive strategy to circumvent an unfavourable structure of the sperm-storage organs, allowing the first male to mate with paternity advantage. Understanding the functional significance of TI gives us insight into factors underlying the evolution of the genital and sperm-storage morphology in spiders. PMID:19403531

  14. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

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    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  15. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

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    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  16. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

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    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  17. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations.

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    Bazi, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  18. Incidental Detection of Metastatic Lobular Breast Carcinoma in the Female Internal Genital Organs 2 Years Following Modified Radical Mastectomy

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    Tsai-Fang Lee

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The present case provides evidence of breast cancer metastasis to the female internal genital organs. We suggest close gynecologic follow-up after surgical and medical management of breast cancer.

  19. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

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    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  20. Genital warts

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    ... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...

  1. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

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    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  2. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

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    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.).

  3. [A method to identify the three cryptic species of Protesilaus, (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from southern Brazil, based on genital morphology].

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    Murillo-Hiller, Luis Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    I describe the male genital structures of three species of butterflies from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Their external patterns do not differ enough to determine one species from another. All inhabit the same areas at the same time of the year. In an attempt to find a constant difference among them, as well as to establish the range of variability in each species, series of butterflies from different localities were dissected. The diagnostic structures found in all three species were named and drawn for their identification. Color patterns, width, separateness and presence or absence of the black bands and the color of the frons are not useful for recognizing P. nigricornis from P. stenodesmus or P. helios. The species group studied shows major morphological variability. For that reason, species level identification can be extremely difficult, particularly if the specimens are deteriorated. In conclusion, the only reliable way to correctly identify this species is by dissection of male genitalia.

  4. Clinico-morphological features of the female genital tract: review of the literature

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    S. O. Nikogosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review are provided data of the world literature on clinical and morphological features of neuroendocrine tumors of the female sexual sphere. Questions of pathogenesis and stages of development of new growths in embryogenesis considered. Historical references are given. Besides, in article questions of diagnostics and treatment of these tumors are taken up.

  5. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  6. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

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    Oksana Lobachevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  7. Morphological correlates of genital HPV infection: Viral replication, transcription and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, C.P.; Friedman, D.; Nuovo, G.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Current studies indicate a strong correlation between specific morphological changes and the presence of certain HPV strains in precancerous squamous epithelium of the cervix, vulva and vagina. HPV type 16 is the most commonly detected HPV type in cervical lesions in our experience, and 85% of these lesions exhibit some morphological features associated with aneuploid epithelium (CIN). However, over 50% of these lesions containing HPV 16 DNA exhibit, in addition, foci of epithelium indistinguishable from condyloma, although in our experience, only one HPV type(16) is detected in the majority of these lesions. DNA-DNA in situ hybridization analysis of these lesions containing HPV 16 DNA has demonstrated nucleic acids in areas resembling both condyloma and CIN, with the greatest concentration in mature cells containing cytoplasmic maturation. Ten percent of lesions containing HPV 16 produce detectable capsid antigens, and we have confirmed the presence of these antigens in the same areas which hybridize in-situ for HPV DNA. Recent studies using biotin and S-35 labeled RNa probes constructed in GEM-1 vectors indicate that early HPV genes are expressed primarily in the upper (more mature) regions of the neoplastic epithelium. Thus maturation appears to exert a positive influence on a variety of HPV functions in neoplastic epithelium, including DNA replication, early and late gene expression. It is possible that patterns of gene expression may vary between lesions associated with different HPV types or different morphologies. This possibility is being explored

  8. Observations on genital morphology and anatomy of a hybrid male muriqui (genus Brachyteles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Alan F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Anderson, Matthew J

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive anatomy of the muriqui (genus Brachyteles) is poorly known. This paper describes the anatomy of the testis, penis and striated penile muscles in a young adult (5.25-year-old) captive-born muriqui which died at the Rio Primate Center. Two forms of muriqui occur in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil, and both are endangered. The form which is found north of 21 degrees 00' S latitude is classified as B. hypoxanthus by some authorities and is considered to be a species separate from B. arachnoides. The male specimen described here was a hybrid (the sire was B. arachnoides and the mother B. hypoxanthus). Hybridization was associated with absence of spermatozoa in the testis and with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium. The structure of the prominent penis and striated penile muscles is discussed in relation to patterns of copulatory behavior and the likely occurrence of sperm competition in the muriqui. In addition, the occurrence of a baculum (os penis) is confirmed for this genus, and the first description of its morphology is provided.

  9. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the domestic donkey (Equus asinus Linné, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner-Martin, T F P; Forstenpointner, G; Weissengruber, G E; Eberhardt, L

    2009-04-01

    Although donkeys play an important role as companion or pack and draught animals, theriogenological studies and anatomical data on the genital organs of the jenny are sparse. To provide anatomical descriptions and morphometric data, the organa genitalia feminina, their arteries and the ligamentum latum uteri of 10 adult but maiden jennies were examined by means of gross anatomical and morphometric techniques. In comparison with anatomical data of horses obtained from literature the genital organs of jennies appear to be more voluminous in relation to the body mass and the position of the ovaries is slightly further cranial than in mares. In asses, the ovaries contain large follicles reaching a diameter of up to 40 mm. The mesosalpinx is much wider than in the horse forming a considerably spacious bursa ovarica. The asinine ligamentum teres uteri reveals a very prominent cranial end, the 'appendix'. Tortuous mucosal folds occur in the wall of the jenny's cervical channel. The vascularization of the female genital organs of asses is very similar to that of horses. One of the examined specimens reveals a large mucosal fold dividing the cranial part of the vagina into a left and right compartment.

  10. Impact of short-term HAART initiated during the chronic stage or shortly post-exposure on SIV infection of male genital organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

  11. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, buttocks, or genital area Swollen glands Unusual vaginal discharge If you have any symptoms of genital herpes, ... J.M. (2008). Understanding Herpes Simplex Virus: Transmission, Diagnosis, and Considerations in Pregnancy ... ...

  12. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  13. Anatomical description of genital organs and abdominal secreting glands of the beetle Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmare 1893) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Castro, Randal E.; Villalba Velasquez, Vladimir; Moreira Gonzalez, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of genital organs and abdominal glands of dermestoides Ulomoide have been described in laboratory conditions (diet of peanuts, 70% RH, 23 degrees C at 1300 msnm) to present biotechnological potential and submit pharmacological properties. The description is made in the Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia from the Instituto Tecnologico de Cartago, Costa Rica. The same was processed for macroscopic observation and for observing of internal structures using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the Unidad de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Ten females and ten males in adult stage were selected using stereoscope and entomological tweezers of manipulation. Digital images were captured of genital organs of each sex with the software package AverMedia EzCaptura 2,5 and equipment BioVid LWScientific, Inc. In females has been observed the mechanics of the ovipositional structure and has described reproductive functions and defense, as it has found two apical fences with sensory accumulations, meccano and chemoreceptor. Sclerotic internal structures have been reported to function in oviposition, as well as guides along with the elastic tissue of the oviduct form the final segment of the ovipositor. In males adeago has been identified, your internal extensions and particular form that allows its introduction and coupling during intercourse, also serving as guide surface of defensive secretions. The micrographs showed the presence of corrugated secreting glands in both sexes (1,05 mm long by 350 mm diameter) with strong adhesion to the abdominal wall by muscular tissue of convergence of secretory ducts associated with gonopore communication with glandular receptacle. Bacterial cells apparently have found inside the glands, this as possible pathological infection or as symbiotic organisms, which could not be clearly distinguished. The secretions were associated with a defense mechanism of the species, as the genital

  14. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Impacts of Grape Seed Oil Supplementation against the Acrylamide Induced Lesions in Male Genital Organs of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mansour Hasseeb*, Fahad Abdullah Al-Hizab and Mahmoud Abdel-Halem Hamouda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of grape seed oil (GSO on the lesions of experimental Acrylamide (ACR intoxication in male rat genital organs. Two experimental groups of concomitant administration of 2 dietary levels of GSO with the toxic dose of ACR were evaluated in comparison with a negative control group and other 3 positive control groups for each of the 2 dietary levels of GSO and the toxic dose of the ACR. The results, at the end of the experiment (3 weeks, revealed occurrence of the highest scale of the histopathologic changes in case of the group of ACR-intoxication. These changes were in the form of testicular degeneration, abnormal epididymal contents of immature spermatocytes and multinucleated giant cells. The prostate glands and seminal vesicles showed cystic dilatation with less secretory materials, epithelial hyperplasia, necrosis and desquamation. Nearly similar scales of lesions were seen in the group administrated by ACR with low levels of GSO, while the lesions in the other group of administration by ACR with the high levels of GSO were of less scales. The conclusion from this microscopic evaluation was the occurrence of a less and level-dependent impact ameliorating effect of GSO supplementation against ACR-induced lesions in male genital organs of the adult rats.

  16. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  17. THE SOCIAL AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF PATIENTS WITH THE ISOLATED GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH INFERTILITY, THE ACTIVE AND CLINICALLY CURED TUBERCULOSIS OF RESPIRATORY ORGANS IN COMBINATION WITH PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Mordyk; G. A. Valeyeva; A. A. Yakovleva; L. V. Puzyreva

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high incidence of tuberculosis of women of reproductive age research at 270 patients was conducted. The group of research included women with infertility and genital tuberculosis, pregnant women with active tuberculosis of lungs, pregnant women with clinically cured tuberculosis of respiratory organs. Pregnant women with tuberculosis of lungs were more often from sociopathic families, had venereal diseases, HIV infection, hepatitises.

  18. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  19. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications Morfologia dos órgãos genitais do macho do Lobo marinho (Arctocephalus australis e implicações biológicas

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    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.A capacidade do macho de espalhar seus genes a um grande número de descendentes e determinar a dinâmica populacional depende diretamente dos seus órgãos genitais. Estudos morfológicos em pinípedes são escassos e o significado funcional de algumas de suas características ecológicas ainda foi pouco discutido. Nossa hipótese é que Arctocephalus australis (A. australis apresenta adaptações morfofisiológicas em seus órgãos genitais capazes de interagir com o meio e garantir a perpetuação da espécie que apresenta apenas uma época de acasalamento que ocorre uma vez a cada ano. Sete A. australis machos, mortos recentes por causas

  20. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-11

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  1. Morphology of some body organs of juvenile river prawns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agro-based chemicals are in enormous use today to boost agricultural production and also recently in diverse environmental remedial activities. This study therefore aimed at assessing the potential toxicity and impact of hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2] on the morphology of some organs of the river prawn used as the test organism ...

  2. Genital herpes

    OpenAIRE

    Hollier, Lisa M; Straub, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes is an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). The typical clinical features include painful shallow anogenital ulceration. It is among the most common sexually transmitted diseases, with up to 23% of adults in the UK and US having antibodies to HSV-2.

  3. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... reviewed: February 2016 More on this topic for: ... I Find Out If My Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD View ...

  4. Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Momoko; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice. After 28 consecutive days of immobilization stress, behavioral tests were conducted and tissue sampling was performed. The results showed that the body weight of middle-aged mice was severely lowered by stress, but emotional behaviors were hardly influenced by either aging or stress. Aging influenced changes in amino acid metabolism in the brain and increased various amino acid levels in the uterus and ovary. In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, P; López-Plana, C; López-Béjar, M

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs of 51 adult female red brocket deer in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the north-eastern Peruvian Amazon. The infundibulum was characterized by a large diameter and the presence of a highly folded and ciliated epithelium, and the isthmus has a growing secretor epithelium and a thicker muscular layer. Whereas ciliated cells are more frequent in the infundibulum, epithelial secretory cells showing abundant apical secretory blebs are more frequent in the isthmus. In non-pregnant females in luteal phase, the endometrium transforms from a proliferative to a secretory type, showing a significant proliferation of endometrial uterine glands. The red brocket deer has four large circular folds in the cervix. The epithelium of the cervix is composed primarily of secretory cells. In pregnant females, the lumen of the endocervical canal is occupied by abundant mucous secretion. All pregnant females had one embryo or fetus, with a fetal sex ratio of 54.0% females to 46.0% males. This species has a cotyledonary, syndesmochorial and partially deciduate placenta, with 6-7 dome-shaped caruncles per female. The red brocket deer does not present a true cornification of the vaginal epithelial cells, and no vaginal epithelial pattern was determined according the reproductive state of the female. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. THE SOCIAL AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF PATIENTS WITH THE ISOLATED GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH INFERTILITY, THE ACTIVE AND CLINICALLY CURED TUBERCULOSIS OF RESPIRATORY ORGANS IN COMBINATION WITH PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high incidence of tuberculosis of women of reproductive age research at 270 patients was conducted. The group of research included women with infertility and genital tuberculosis, pregnant women with active tuberculosis of lungs, pregnant women with clinically cured tuberculosis of respiratory organs. Pregnant women with tuberculosis of lungs were more often from sociopathic families, had venereal diseases, HIV infection, hepatitises.

  7. Male genital cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, F D; Key, C R

    1995-01-01

    The estimated 165,000 cancers of the male genital system that will occur in the United States during 1993 represent one fourth of the expected 600,000 newly diagnosed cancers in American males for the year. Data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. This paper examines histologic data collected by the SEER program from 1973-1987 and focuses on incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival for the dominant histologic types of cancer that occur in the four major topographic divisions of the male genital system: prostate gland, testis, penis, and scrotum. Some less common histologic types within each organ are also discussed. The incidence of male genital cancer has increased rapidly over the period of study. Cancers of the prostate, most of which are adenocarcinomas, represent more than 92% of all male genital cancers. Among adolescents and young men, germ cell cancers of the testis predominate, but decline rapidly in occurrence after 40 years of age. Blacks had higher incidence rates for prostate cancer than whites; however, the situation was reversed for testicular cancer. Survival increased dramatically for testicular cancer. Cancers of the penis and scrotum of any histologic type are uncommon in the United States. The increased incidence of prostate adenocarcinomas and testis germ cell tumors indicates the need for further etiologic studies as a basis for prevention efforts.

  8. Female cosmetic genital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    Genital plastic surgery for women has come under scrutiny and has been the topic of discussion in the news media, online, and in medical editorials. In the absence of measurable standards of care, lack of evidence-based outcome norms, and little standardization either in nomenclature or training requirements, concern has been raised by both ethicists and specialty organizations.Some women request alteration of their vulvas and vaginas for reasons of cosmesis, increasing self-esteem, and improving sexual function. Patients must be assured their surgeon is properly trained and should understand that few validated long-term safety or outcome data are presently available in this relatively new field. Women also should be made aware that, although they may wish to cosmetically or physically alter their external genitalia, this does not mean that they are developmentally or structurally "abnormal." It is important that training guidelines for practitioners be established and that long-term outcome, psychosexual, and safety data be published. The genital plastic surgeon must have sufficient training in sexual medicine to withhold these procedures from women with sexual dysfunction, mental impairment, or body dysmorphic disorder. In an atmosphere in which trademarked marketing terms are becoming part of the lexicon, a more descriptive terminology is suggested, incorporating the terms "labiaplasty," "reduction of clitoral hood," "perineoplasty," "hymenoplasty," and "vaginoplasty." The term "female cosmetic genital surgery" is presented as a descriptive umbrella encompassing these genital plastic procedures.

  9. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Haruk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  10. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  11. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  12. Controlling the Morphology of Organic Crystals with Filamentous Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Whirang; Liu, Xiaomeng; Forrest, James; Fowler, Jeffrey D; Furst, Eric M

    2015-07-29

    The preparation of thiamethoxam (TMX) organic crystals with high morphological uniformity was achieved by controlled aggregation-driven crystallization of primitive TMX crystals and phage using the filamentous M13 bacteriophage. The development of a regular, micrometer-sized, tetragonal-bipyramidal crystal structure was dependent on the amount of phage present. The phage appears to affect the supersaturation driving force for crystallization. The phage adsorption isotherm to TMX was well-fitted by the Satake-Yang model, which suggests a cooperative binding between neighboring phages as well as a binding of phage with the TMX crystal surface. This study shows the potential of phage additives to control the morphology and morphological uniformity of organic crystals.

  13. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  14. Incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kalder, Matthias; Kostev, Karel

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer (BC or GOC) in Germany. A total of 29 366 women initially diagnosed with BC or GOC between 2005 and 2014 were available for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with BC or GOC within 5 years after the first cancer diagnosis in German gynecologist practices. Demographic and clinical data included age, type of cancer, and presence of metastases at diagnosis. The incidence rate of depression and anxiety per 100 person-years was calculated. We performed a multivariate regression model to analyze the association between depression and the variables of interest. In total, 7994 women were diagnosed with depression/anxiety (81.3% had BC and 18.7% had GOC). The incidence of depression and anxiety was 8.8 per 100 person-years in women with BC. In individuals with GOC, the incidence of depression/anxiety was 5.9 per 100 person-years. Breast cancer was associated with a 1.41-fold increase in the risk of developing depression or anxiety as compared with GOC. Patients with metastases also had a higher risk of being depressed and anxious than others (odds ratio = 1.40). Finally, women in the age groups of 41 to 50, 51 to 60, and 61 to 70 years were at a higher risk of depression/anxiety than women in the age group of 71 to 80 years (odds ratios equal to 1.50, 1.38, and 1.22). Women diagnosed with BC were at a higher risk of developing depression or anxiety than women with GOC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Functional anatomy of the female genital organs of the wild black agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa) female in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, P; Bodmer, R E; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2011-02-01

    This study examined anatomical and histological characteristics of genital organs of 38 black agouti females in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the North-eastern Peruvian Amazon. Females in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle had greater antral follicle sizes than other females, the largest antral follicle measuring 2.34mm. Antral follicles in pregnant females and females in luteal phase of the estrous cycle had an average maximum diameter smaller than 1mm. In black agouti females in follicular phase, some antral follicles are selected to continue to growth, reaching a pre-ovulatory diameter of 2mm. Mean ovulation rate was 2.5 follicles and litter size was 2.1 embryos or fetuses per pregnant female, resulting in a rate of ovum mortality of 20.8%. Many follicles from which ovulation did not occur of 1-mm maximum diameter luteinize forming accessory CL. The constituent active luteal tissues of the ovary are functional and accessory CL. Although all females had accessory CL, transformation of follicles into accessory CL occurred especially in pregnant females, resulting in a contribution from 9% to 23% of the total luteal volume as pregnancy advances. The persistence of functional CL throughout pregnancy might reflect the importance for the maintenance of gestation and may be essential for the continuous hormonal production. The duplex uterus of the agouti female is composed by two completely independent uterine horns with correspondent separate cervices opening into the vagina. In pregnant females, most remarkable observed uterine adaptations were induced by the progressive enlargement caused by the normal pregnancy evolution. The wild black agouti showed different vaginal epithelium features in accordance with the reproductive state of the female. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eVasilevsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver and spleen, necrosis (liver and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women.

  17. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology, and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Gyger, Joel; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pilloux, Ludovic; Greub, Gilbert; Stojanov, Milos; Baud, David

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver, and spleen), necrosis (liver) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen, and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women.

  18. Effects of Polymeric Dielectric Morphology on Pentacene Morphology and Organic TFT Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Rongbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the effects of the polymeric dielectric morphology on pentacene morphology and organic thin film transistor (TFT characteristics. The morphology and thickness of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP dielectric could be controlled by selecting a solvent. Higher the solvent’s boiling point is, thinner and smother COP films could be obtained. Using the solvent of trimethylcyclohexane, the spin-coated COP films of ca. 330 nm with the peak-to-valley of 7.35 nm and the roughness of root mean square of 0.58 nm were obtained, and pentacene TFT showed high mobility of 2.0 cm2V-1s-1, which originated from highly ordering of pentacene thin films deposited on the smoother and thinner COP films.

  19. A Nanoparticle Approach towards Morphology Controlled Organic Photovoltaics (OPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Yan, Quanxiang; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nano-particles grafted with two different organic oligomers were prepared; the oligomers used were a phenylene-vinylene (PV) oligomer and a 3,3'''-didodecylquaterthiophene. The graftings were performed by the use of two different functional groups, the PV oligomer was grafted by a hydroxyl......-group in the form of a phenol and a lithium derivative was used to graft the 3,3'''-didodecylquaterthiophene. The morphology and size of the grafted particles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the extent of the grafting was analyzed by NMR. Organic photovoltaics with normal geometry (ITO...

  20. Female Genital Mutilation - the Importance of Recognition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, AC

    2010-01-01

    Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...

  1. Crystal morphology variation in inkjet-printed organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnen, Andrew C.; Petrock, Anne M.; Chou, Tsengming; Samuels, Phillip J.; Fuchs, Brian E.; Lee, Woo Y.

    2011-11-01

    The recent commercialization of piezoelectric-based drop-on-demand inkjet printers provides an additive processing platform for producing and micropatterning organic crystal structures. We report an inkjet printing approach where macro- and nano-scale energetic composites composed of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystals dispersed in a cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) matrix are produced by direct phase transformation from organic solvent-based all-liquid inks. The characterization of printed composites illustrates distinct morphological changes dependent on ink deposition parameters. When 10 pL ink droplets rapidly formed a liquid pool, a coffee ring structure containing dendritic RDX crystals was produced. By increasing the substrate temperature, and consequently the evaporation rate of the pooled ink, the coffee ring structure was mitigated and shorter dendrites from up to ∼1 to 0.2 mm with closer arm spacing from ∼15 to 1 μm were produced. When the nucleation and growth of RDX and CAB were confined within the evaporating droplets, a granular structure containing nanoscale RDX crystals was produced. The results suggest that evaporation rate and microfluidic droplet confinement can effectively be used to tailor the morphology of inkjet-printed energetic composites.

  2. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...

  3. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  4. New histochemical and morphological findings in the female genital tract of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae: an attempt toward the elucidation of fertilization in ticks Novas características histoquímicas e morfológicas no trato genital feminino de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae: uma tentativa para a elucidação da fertilização nos carrapatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimiro García-Fernández

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available At present not only is the site of fertilization in ticks still unknown but it is also unclear as to how this mystery can be solved. Signs of fertilization can be observed throughout the female genital tract and these can be clues for the elucidation of the unsolved questions relating to ticks fertilization. In Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 the most important signs are the following: the final eversion of the acrosomal canal in females ready for oviposition; the presence of small tubules, resembling the subplasmalemal process of the spermatozoon between the oviduct cells; budding nuclei throughout the female genital tract; and the two Feulgen and DAPI positive areas in the oocyte at vitelogenesis. These morphological characteristics suggest that fertilization takes place in the internal cylinder which extends from the uterus to the ovary itself.Até o momento, não só o lugar da fertilização em carrapatos é desconhecido, mas também não é claro como este mistério possa ser esclarecido. Sinais de fertilização podem ser observados ao longo do trato genital feminino e estes podem ser pistas para a elucidação das questões relacionadas à fertilização em ácaros. Em Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, os sinais mais importantes são os seguintes: a eversão final do canal acrossômico em fêmeas prestes à oviposição; a presença de pequenos túbulos assemelhando-se a processos subplasmalêmicos dos espermatozóides entre as células do oviduto; brotamentos nucleares ao longo do trato genital feminino e as duas áreas Feulgen e DAPI positivas nos ovócitos em processo de vitelogênese. Estas características morfológicas sugerem que a fertilização ocorra no cilindro interno, o qual se estende desde o útero até o ovário inclusive.

  5. Morphology of the male agouti accessory genital glands (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 Morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias em cutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo J. Ayres de Menezes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the accessory genital glands of the male agouti was studied in twenty-three animals that were raised in captivity. Twenty animals had their genital glands dissected in situ for macroscopic description. The samples of each gland were recovered, embedded in paraffin, sliced and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. It was founded four pairs of glands: the vesicular glands, the coagulating glands, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands. Histological characteristics of the vesicular, coagulating and prostate glands showed similar morphology, within the pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The tubulo-alveolar type of the bulbourethral glands showed a lack of connective tissue among the tubules, a small amount of red stained presented it the cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuoles in the tissue. This study concluded that the agouti showed to have similar morphological aspect described in the others species of rodents.A morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias de cutias foram estudados em 23 animais criados em cativeiros. Vinte animais tiveram suas glândulas genitais dissecadas in situ para as descrições macroscópicas. Para o estudo microscópico foram utilizados três animais. Os fragmentos de cada glândula foram embebidos em parafina, seccionados e corados em hematoxilina e eosina. Foram encontrados quatro pares de glândulas: vesiculares, coaguladoras, próstata e bulbouretrais. As características histológicas da glândula vesicular, coaguladora e próstata mostraram morfologia similar, com epitélio colunar pseudoestratificado. O tipo tuboalveolar da glândula bulbouretral mostrou uma deficiência de tecido conjuntivo, citoplasma pouco corado e presença de vacúolos. Este estudo concluiu que a cutia apresenta as mesmas características morfológicas das glândulas genitais acessórias encontradas em roedores.

  6. Organic photovoltaics: Crosslinking for optimal morphology and stability

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.

    2015-04-25

    Organic solar cells now exceed 10% efficiency igniting interest not only in the fundamental molecular design of the photoactive semiconducting materials, but also in overlapping fields such as green chemistry, large-scale processing and thin film stability. For these devices to be commercially useful, they must have lifetimes in excess of 10 years. One source of potential instability, is that the two bicontinuous phases of electron donor and acceptor materials in the photoactive thin film bulk heterojunction, change in dimensions over time. Photocrosslinking of the π-conjugated semiconducting donor polymers allows the thin film morphology to be ‘locked’ affording patterned and stable blends with suppressed fullerene acceptor crystallization. This article reviews the performance of crosslinkable polymers, fullerenes and additives used to-date, identifying the most promising.

  7. Protective immunity against mouse upper genital tract pathology correlates with high IFNγ but low IL-17 T cell and anti-secretion protein antibody responses induced by replicating chlamydial organisms in the airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxue; Zeng, Hao; Li, Zhihong; Lei, Lei; Yeh, I-Tien; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    To search for optimal immunization conditions for inducing protective immunity against upper genital tract pathologies caused by chlamydial intravaginal infection, we compared protection efficacy in mice immunized intranasally or intramuscularly with live or inactivated C. muridarum organisms. Mice immunized intranasally with live organisms developed strong protection against both vaginal shedding of infectious organisms and upper genital tract pathologies. The protection correlated with a robust antigen-specific T cell response with high IFNγ but low IL-17. Although a significant level of IL-5 was also detected, these mice maintained an overall Th1-dorminant immunity following immunization and challenge infection. On the contrary, mice immunized intranasally with inactivated organisms or intramuscularly with live or inactivated organisms produced high levels of IL-17 and still developed significant upper genital tract pathologies. High titers of antibodies against chlamydial secretion antigens were detected only in mice immunized intranasally with live organisms but not mice in other groups, suggesting that the intranasally inoculated live organisms were able to undergo replication and immune responses to the chlamydial secretion proteins may contribute to protective immunity. These observations have provided important information on how to develop subunit vaccines for inducing protective immunity against urogenital infection with C. trachomatis organisms. PMID:22079265

  8. Protective immunity against mouse upper genital tract pathology correlates with high IFNγ but low IL-17 T cell and anti-secretion protein antibody responses induced by replicating chlamydial organisms in the airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxue; Zeng, Hao; Li, Zhihong; Lei, Lei; Yeh, I-Tien; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

    2012-01-05

    To search for optimal immunization conditions for inducing protective immunity against upper genital tract pathologies caused by chlamydial intravaginal infection, we compared protection efficacy in mice immunized intranasally or intramuscularly with live or inactivated Chlamydia muridarum organisms. Mice immunized intranasally with live organisms developed strong protection against both vaginal shedding of infectious organisms and upper genital tract pathologies. The protection correlated with a robust antigen-specific T cell response with high IFNγ but low IL-17. Although a significant level of IL-5 was also detected, these mice maintained an overall Th1-dorminant immunity following immunization and challenge infection. On the contrary, mice immunized intranasally with inactivated organisms or intramuscularly with live or inactivated organisms produced high levels of IL-17 and still developed significant upper genital tract pathologies. High titers of antibodies against chlamydial secretion antigens were detected only in mice immunized intranasally with live organisms but not mice in other groups, suggesting that the intranasally inoculated live organisms were able to undergo replication and immune responses to the chlamydial secretion proteins may contribute to protective immunity. These observations have provided important information on how to develop subunit vaccines for inducing protective immunity against urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation into gyneco-pathological disorders and identification of associated bacteria from the genital organs of cows in Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amirul Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the gynaeco-pathological disorders by post-mortem and histopathological examination, and to identify the associated bacteria. A total of 310 genital tracts of cows were collected from slaughter house of Dinajpur Sadar Upazilla during April 2009 to March 2010. Among the 310 samples, 31.29% (n=97/310 were affected with endrometritis. Similarly, 8.37% (n=26/310 cystic ovary, 6.77% (n=21/310 ovary hyperplasia, 4.84% (n=15/310 pyometra, 4.84% (n=15/310 parovarian cyst, 4.52% (n=14/310 hydrometra, 4.84% (n=15/310 ovary hypoplasia, 3.55%(n=11/310 ovaro-bursal adhesion, 1.29% (n=4/310 vaginal cyst and 0.66% (n=2/310 hemorrhagic uterine horn were detected by post-mortem examination, the cases were reconfirmed by histopathological studies. Uterine fluid (n=50 samples were collected, and were subjected for conventional bacteriological culture and biochemical analysis. Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. could be identified from 30% (n=15/50 and 8% (n=4/50 samples, respectively. In conclusion, various pathological disorders in the female reproductive system of cows are prevalent, that may cause reduction of calf production.

  10. Genital Self-Image and Considerations of Elective Genital Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Butler, Scott; Wagner, Brandon; Collazo, Erika; Caltabiano, Lucia; Herbenick, Debby

    2017-02-17

    The present study explores how genital self-image may be related to considerations of surgically altering one's genitals and documents the wanted genital changes among young adults. Evidence of a nontrivial proportion of respondents (98 of 1,110) had seriously considered elective genital surgery. Regression models indicate that, for both men and women, identifying as heterosexual and reporting lower composite genital self-image scores results in higher odds of considering genital surgery. Additionally for men, feeling unsatisfied with penis size increased the odds. Clinical and educational efforts to normalize and celebrate genital variation may influence considerations for genital modification in young adults.

  11. Female Genital Mutilation: A Visual Reference and Learning Tool for Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Catania, Lucrezia; Hindin, Michelle Jane; Say, Lale; Petignat, Patrick; Abdulcadir, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Health care providers for women and girls living with female genital mutilation have reported difficulties in recognizing, classifying, and recording female genital mutilation, which can adversely affect treatment of complications and discussions of the prevention of the practice in future generations. According to the World Health Organization, female genital mutilation is classified into four types, subdivided into subtypes. An agreed-upon classification of female genital mutilation is important for clinical practice, management, recording, and reporting, as well as for research on prevalence, trends, and consequences of female genital mutilation. We provide a visual reference and learning tool for health care professionals. The tool can be consulted by caregivers when unsure on the type of female genital mutilation diagnosed and used for training and surveys for monitoring the prevalence of female genital mutilation types and subtypes.

  12. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  13. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  14. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  15. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  16. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  17. Specific antibody in the equine genital tract following local immunisation and challenge infection with contagious equine metritis organism (Taylorella equigenitalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widders, P R; Stokes, C R; David, J S; Bourne, F J

    1986-01-01

    Antibody in serum, uterine and vaginal secretions was measured following local immunisation and experimental infection with the organism of contagious equine metritis (Taylorella equigenitalis). Intrauterine immunisation with killed T equigenitalis stimulated a systemic IgG titre and a uterine IgA and IgM response. Subsequent challenge with the organism, however, resulted in a characteristic metritis in both control and vaccinated mares. Antibody in serum and secretions was increased following challenge infection, dwarfing the response to immunisation. The local response was restricted to the IgA and IgM classes in both uterine and vaginal secretions. There was no elevation in local IgG antibody, although there was an increase in serum IgG in response to challenge infection. A second experimental challenge, following natural resolution of the initial infection and a period of reimmunisation, resulted in reduced clinical signs and bacterial isolation rates from both control and vaccinated mares, but no absolute protection from infection.

  18. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genital sores - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  19. Morphological Studies Of Vomeronasal Organ In The Wild Juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the juvenile Red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus) weighingbetween 0814 kg was studied by gross dissection and light mcroscopy. The organ was found to be present at the base of the nasal septum completely housed by the vomeronasal cartilage, but the various soft tissue ...

  20. Nanoscale Morphology of Doctor Bladed versus Spin-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Films

    KAUST Repository

    Pokuri, Balaji Sesha Sarath

    2017-08-17

    Recent advances in efficiency of organic photovoltaics are driven by judicious selection of processing conditions that result in a “desired” morphology. An important theme of morphology research is quantifying the effect of processing conditions on morphology and relating it to device efficiency. State-of-the-art morphology quantification methods provide film-averaged or 2D-projected features that only indirectly correlate with performance, making causal reasoning nontrivial. Accessing the 3D distribution of material, however, provides a means of directly mapping processing to performance. In this paper, two recently developed techniques are integrated—reconstruction of 3D morphology and subsequent conversion into intuitive morphology descriptors —to comprehensively image and quantify morphology. These techniques are applied on films generated by doctor blading and spin coating, additionally investigating the effect of thermal annealing. It is found that morphology of all samples exhibits very high connectivity to electrodes. Not surprisingly, thermal annealing consistently increases the average domain size in the samples, aiding exciton generation. Furthermore, annealing also improves the balance of interfaces, enhancing exciton dissociation. A comparison of morphology descriptors impacting each stage of photophysics (exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport) reveals that spin-annealed sample exhibits superior morphology-based performance indicators. This suggests substantial room for improvement of blade-based methods (process optimization) for morphology tuning to enhance performance of large area devices.

  1. Morphological aspects of poly-organic impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiment

    OpenAIRE

    TASHPULATOVA GUZAL ALIEVNA; MAVLYAN-HODZHAEV RAVSHAN SHUKHRATOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) on morphological responses of some organs of experimental animals has been studied. The RFEMR effect was shown to manifest itself by pathological changes in the structure of the majority of organs and tissues with the critical impact of the micro-vascular bed impairment on not only morphological, metabolic but also many other homeostasis shifts that occurred.

  2. Morphological changes in organs of sheep perished following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated with doses of 6.7 Gy. The main section finding was hemorrhagic diathesis. A detailed description is presented of changes in organs and mucous membranes, of the areas of hemorhages and ecchymoses. (M.D.)

  3. Genital tuberculosis in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Angeline Grace

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.

  4. A new kind of auxiliary heart in insects: functional morphology and neuronal control of the accessory pulsatile organs of the cricket ovipositor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structures is accomplished by special flow-guiding structures and/or autonomous pulsatile organs (“auxiliary hearts”). In this paper accessory pulsatile organs for an insect ovipositor are described for the first time. We studied these organs in females of the cricket Acheta domesticus by analyzing their functional morphology, neuroanatomy and physiological control. Results The lumen of the four long ovipositor valves is subdivided by longitudinal septa of connective tissue into efferent and afferent hemolymph sinuses which are confluent distally. The countercurrent flow in these sinuses is effected by pulsatile organs which are located at the bases of the ovipositor valves. Each of the four organs consists of a pumping chamber which is compressed by rhythmically contracting muscles. The morphology of the paired organs is laterally mirrored, and there are differences in some details between the dorsal and ventral organs. The compression of the pumping chambers of each valve pair occurs with a left-right alternating rhythm with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz and is synchronized between the dorsal and ventral organs. The more anteriorly located genital chamber shows rhythmical lateral movements simultaneous to those of the ovipositor pulsatile organs and probably supports the hemolymph exchange in the abdominal apex region. The left-right alternating rhythm is produced by a central pattern generator located in the terminal ganglion. It requires no sensory feedback for its output since it persists in the completely isolated ganglion. Rhythm-modulating and rhythm-resetting interneurons are identified in the terminal ganglion. Conclusion The circulatory organs of the cricket ovipositor have a unique functional morphology. The pumping apparatus at the base

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  6. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  7. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the

  8. Design of Bicontinuous Donor/Acceptor Morphologies for Use as Organic Solar Cell Active Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dylan; Mok, Jorge; Verduzco, Rafael; Ganesan, Venkat

    Two of the primary challenges limiting the marketability of organic solar cells are i) the smaller device efficiency of the organic solar cell relative to the conventional silicon-based solar cell and ii) the long term thermal instability of the device active layer. The achievement of equilibrium donor/acceptor morphologies with the characteristics believed to yield high device performance characteristics could address each of these two challenges. In this work, we present the results of a combined simulations and experiments-based approach to investigate if a conjugated BCP additive can be used to control the self-assembled morphologies taken on by conjugated polymer/PCBM mixtures. First, we use single chain in mean field Monte Carlo simulations to identify regions within the conjugated polymer/PCBM composition space in which addition of copolymers can lead to bicontinuous equilibrium morphologies with high interfacial areas and nanoscale dimensions. Second, we conduct experiments as directed by the simulations to achieve such morphologies in the PTB7 + PTB7- b-PNDI + PCBM model blend. We characterize the results of our experiments via a combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering techniques and demonstrate that the morphologies from experiments agree with those predicted in simulations. Accordingly, these results indicate that the approach utilized represents a promising approach to intelligently design the morphologies taken on by organic solar cell active layers.

  9. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, Peter; Fedder, Jens

    2007-01-01

    that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...... against the C-terminal part of the adhesion protein MgPa before infection of HFT organ culture. CONCLUSION: We have shown that the presence of M. genitalium, but not M. hominis, in the HFT organ culture affected the epithelium and resulted in cilia damage. The effect of infection with M. genitalium...

  10. Morphology of human Fallopian tupes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis - in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P.; Fedder, J.

    2006-01-01

    that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS We used an in vitro......-terminal part of the adhesion protein MgPa before infection of HFT organ culture. CONCLUSION We have shown that the presence of M. genitalium, but not M. hominis, in the HFT organ culture affected the epithelium and resulted in cilia damage. The effect of infection with M. genitalium on the HFT was, however...

  11. Genital ulcers in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes

  12. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  13. Controllable Synthesis of Organic Microcrystals with Tunable Emission Color and Morphology Based on Molecular Packing Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Zhou; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Wang, Xue-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Organic microcrystals are of essential importance for high fluorescence efficiency, ordered molecular packing mode, minimized defects, and smooth shapes, which are extensively applied in organic optoelectronics. The molecular packing mode significantly influences the optical/electrical properties of organic microcrystals, which makes the controllable preparation of organic microcrystals with desired molecular packing mode extremely important. In the study, yellow-emissive α phase organic microcrystals with rectangular morphology and green-emissive β phase perylene microcrystals with rhombic morphology are separately prepared by simply controlling the solution concentration. The distinct molecular staking modes of the H/J-aggregate are found in these two types of perylene microcrystals, which contribute to the different emission color, morphology, and radiative decay rate. What is more interesting, the α-doped β phase and the β-doped α phase organic microcrystals can also be fabricated by modulating the evaporation rate from 100 to 10 µL min -1 . The findings can contribute to the future development of organic optoelectronics at the microscale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Avaliação dos glicosaminoglicanos do tecido periuretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Feldner Jr

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar e quantificar os subtipos de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados (GAGs existentes no tecido peri-uretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital. METODOS: Foram incluídas 35 pacientes que se submeteram a cirurgia vaginal para correção de distopias genitais e/ou incontinência urinária de esforço ou por outra condição benigna. As pacientes foram avaliadas por anamnese padronizada, exame físico e urodinâmico e agrupadas segundo a existência do prolapso genital. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, amostras de aproximadamente 1,0 x 1,0 cm do tecido periuretral foram retiradas para avaliação. Os GAGs foram extraídos do tecido por proteólise e precipitação por ácido tricloroacético e caracterizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A quantificação foi feita por meio de densitometria a 525 nm do gel corado com azul de toluidina. Compararam-se os dados pela análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos estudados, houve maior predomínio de dermatam sulfato (DS, em torno de 85% do total de GAGs, seguido do condroitim sulfato (CS e do heparam sulfato (HS. Observou-se aumento significativo dos GAGs totais, do DS e do HS em mulheres com prolapso genital. Não se observou diferença significante com relação ao CS. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou diferenças na matriz extracelular do tecido periuretral com aumento de GAGs totais, DS e HS nas mulheres com prolapso genital.OBJECTIVE: To characterize and quantify periurethral tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Periurethral tissue was obtained from 35 women who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, for stress urinary incontinence, or for other gynecological benign conditions. Patients were submitted to a clinical history, physical and urodynamic examination and were divided in two groups according to genital prolapse. The standard biopsy with 1.0 x 1.0 cm was taken from periurethral

  15. Putative role of border cells in generating spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaratne, M W Nishani; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Lipski, Janusz; Thorne, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    Kölliker's organ is a transient epithelial structure, comprising a major part of the organ of Corti during pre-hearing stages of development. The auditory system is spontaneously active during development, which serves to retain and refine neural connections. Kölliker's organ is considered a key candidate for generating such spontaneous activity, most likely through purinergic (P2 receptor) signalling and inner hair cell (IHC) activation. Associated with the spontaneous neural activity, ATP released locally by epithelial cells induces rhythmic morphological changes within Kölliker's organ, the purpose of which is not understood. These changes are accompanied by a shift in cellular refractive index, allowing optical detection of this activity in real-time. Using this principle, we investigated the origin of spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ. Apical turns of Wistar rat cochleae (P9-11) were dissected, and the purinergic involvement was studied following acute tissue exposure to a P2 receptor agonist (ATPγS) and antagonist (suramin). ATPγS induced a sustained darkening throughout Kölliker's organ, reversed by suramin. This effect was most pronounced in the region closest to the inner hair cells, which also displayed the highest frequency of intrinsic morphological events. Additionally, suramin alone induced swelling of this region, suggesting a tight regulation of cell volume by ATP-mediated mechanisms. Histological analysis of cochlear tissues demonstrates the most profound volume changes in the border cell region immediately adjacent to the IHCs. Together, these results underline the role of purinergic signalling in initiating morphological events within Kölliker's organ, and suggest a key involvement of border cells surrounding IHCs in regulating this spontaneous activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Nursing Care of Women Who Have Undergone Genital Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Donna Scott

    2015-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), commonly called female genital mutilation, affects millions of women but is poorly understood by many health care providers. FGC procedures intentionally alter the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons and include partial or total removal of female genital organs. These procedures, which have no medical value, are usually done between birth and puberty. Health consequences vary in severity but can be devastating. Women who have experienced FGC may be reluctant to seek health care or to disclose their condition to providers. Suggestions for culturally competent care of women who have experienced FGC are outlined, focusing on understanding the cultural beliefs and values of women who have undergone these procedures and providing informed and sensitive care. © 2015 AWHONN.

  17. Male palp organ morphology of three species of ground spiders (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological account of the male copulatory organs of three species of ground spiders, Sergiolus capulatus, Herpyllus propinquus and Callilepis pluto (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, is presented. The large sclerites (subtegulum, tegulum and embolus appear to be homologous in all spiders. Sergiolus and Zelanda have a plesiomorphic palp organization. The increased complexity in the male bulb organization creates a locking mechanism that fixes the male palp position during intercourse in Callilepis, as well as in Encoptarthria, Trachyzelotes and Zelotes. The palp of Herpyllus, together with Anzacia, Drassodes and Intruda, demonstrates progressive modification of the male bulb.

  18. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  19. Neutron Scattering Provides a New Model for Optimal Morphologies in Organic Photovoltaics: Rivers and Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmun, Mark; Henry, Nathan; Yin, Wen; Xiao, Kai; Ankner, John

    2011-03-01

    The current model for the ideal morphology of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) is a phase-separated structure that consists of two pure phases, one an electron donor, the other an acceptor, that form an interpenetrating, bicontinuous, network on the length scale of 10-20 nm. In this talk, neutron scattering experiments that demonstrate that this model is incorrect for the archetypal conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction, poly[3-hexylthiophene] (P3HT) and the fullerene 1-(3-methyloxycarbonyl)propy(1-phenyl [6,6]) C61 (PCBM) will be presented. These studies show that the miscibility of PCBM in P3HT approaches 20 wt%, a result that is counter to the standard model of efficient organic photovoltaics. The implications of this finding on the ideal morphology of conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions will be discussed, where these results are interpreted to present a model that agrees with this data, and conforms to structural and functional information in the literature. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of conjugated polymer:fullerene mixtures dominate the formation of this hierarchical morphology and must be more thoroughly understood to rationally design and fabricate optimum morphologies for OPV activity.

  20. Effect of organic peroxides on the morphological, thermal and tensile properties of EVA-organoclay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites were prepared using an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA and organically modified Cloisite® 93A clay in the absence and presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP and dibenzyl peroxide (DBP as cross-linking agents. The results clearly show differences in the EVA-clay morphology of nanocomposites prepared in the absence of organic peroxides, and of those prepared in the presence of respectively DCP and DBP. It seems as if DCP may initiate grafting between the polymer and the clay, which results in an exfoliated morphology. The presence of clay seems to inhibit the initiation of EVA crosslinking by the DBP free radicals. These free radicals probably initiate hydroxylated edge-edge interaction between the clay layers, which gives rise to a flocculated morphology and reduced polymer-clay interaction. There is a good correlation between these morphologies and the thermal stabilities and total crystallinities of the nanocomposites. Clay incorporation and peroxide treatment did not significantly change the tensile properties.

  1. The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, K P; Frahm, H D; Stephan, H

    1986-01-01

    Bats are seasonal breeders and roost under a wide range of lighting conditions, from broad daylight to the total darkness of subterranean passageways and caves. Some are true hibernators. These characteristics and the paucity of information on their pineal organ prompted this investigation, which is based upon the pineals of 191 specimens of 88 species and 12 families of bats. Comparative morphological and volumetric observations have been made on serially sectioned brains of each species. Da...

  2. ANTECOLOGY ENTOMOPHILOUS ALPINE PLANTS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS. I MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kurashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants with yellow and white color dominated, 37% and 24%, respectively. The flowers of most species of plants - actinomorphic (70%. Most species have actinomorphic flowers (70%. The average height of the generative organs in communities varies from 7 to 22 cm. Wide variation and lack of correlation between morphological parameters of plants can talk about a wide variety of plants’ adaptations to pollinate, and they have no distinct syndromes of pollination.

  3. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital)

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

    2013-01-01

    Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesi...

  4. Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection, Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia L R; Prum, Richard O

    2015-07-01

    Genital coevolution between the sexes is expected to be common because of the direct interaction between male and female genitalia during copulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms of genital coevolution that include natural selection, female mate choice, male-male competition, and how their interactions generate sexual conflict that can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution. Natural selection on genital morphology will result in size coevolution to allow for copulation to be mechanically possible, even as other features of genitalia may reflect the action of other mechanisms of selection. Genital coevolution is explicitly predicted by at least three mechanisms of genital evolution: lock and key to prevent hybridization, female choice, and sexual conflict. Although some good examples exist in support of each of these mechanisms, more data on quantitative female genital variation and studies of functional morphology during copulation are needed to understand more general patterns. A combination of different approaches is required to continue to advance our understanding of genital coevolution. Knowledge of the ecology and behavior of the studied species combined with functional morphology, quantitative morphological tools, experimental manipulation, and experimental evolution have been provided in the best-studied species, all of which are invertebrates. Therefore, attention to vertebrates in any of these areas is badly needed. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... One type of herpes virus stays in the body by hiding within nerve cells. It can remain "asleep" (dormant) for a long time. ...

  7. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter at Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C. C.; Lyon, W. G.; Ross, D. L.; Pennington, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluble organic matter content (that is, humin) as a function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes.

  8. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  9. The genetics of reproductive organ morphology in two Petunia species with contrasting pollination syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Katrin; Klahre, Ulrich; Venail, Julien; Brandenburg, Anna; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2015-05-01

    Switches between pollination syndromes have happened frequently during angiosperm evolution. Using QTL mapping and reciprocal introgressions, we show that changes in reproductive organ morphology have a simple genetic basis. In animal-pollinated plants, flowers have evolved to optimize pollination efficiency by different pollinator guilds and hence reproductive success. The two Petunia species, P. axillaris and P. exserta, display pollination syndromes adapted to moth or hummingbird pollination. For the floral traits color and scent, genetic loci of large phenotypic effect have been well documented. However, such large-effect loci may be typical for shifts in simple biochemical traits, whereas the evolution of morphological traits may involve multiple mutations of small phenotypic effect. Here, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of floral morphology, followed by an in-depth study of pistil and stamen morphology and the introgression of individual QTL into reciprocal parental backgrounds. Two QTLs, on chromosomes II and V, are sufficient to explain the interspecific difference in pistil and stamen length. Since most of the difference in organ length is caused by differences in cell number, genes underlying these QTLs are likely to be involved in cell cycle regulation. Interestingly, conservation of the locus on chromosome II in a different P. axillaris subspecies suggests that the evolution of organ elongation was initiated on chromosome II in adaptation to different pollinators. We recently showed that QTLs for pistil and stamen length on chromosome II are tightly linked to QTLs for petal color and volatile emission. Linkage of multiple traits will enable major phenotypic change within a few generations in hybridizing populations. Thus, the genomic architecture of pollination syndromes in Petunia allows for rapid responses to changing pollinator availability.

  10. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer:fullerene nanoparticle films with thermally stable morphology for organic photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Natalie P. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Vaughan, Ben [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle (Australia); Williams, Evan L. [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Kroon, Renee [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Anderrson, Mats R. [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Sonar, Prashant [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Queensland Univ. of Technology (QUT), Brisbane (Australia). School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, Xiaojing [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Dastoor, Paul C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Belcher, Warwick J. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics

    2017-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene nanoparticles (NPs) offer two key advantages over bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), water-processability and potentially superior morphological control. Once an optimal active layer morphology is reached, maintaining this morphology at OPV operating temperatures is key to the lifetime of a device. Here in this paper we study the morphology of the PDPP-TNT (poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-naphthalene}):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) NP system and then compare the thermal stability of NP and BHJ films to the common poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) system. We find that material Tg plays a key role in the superior thermal stability of the PDPP-TNT:PC71BM system; whereas for the P3HT:PC61BM system, domain structure is critical.

  11. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-04-21

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells.

  12. In situ–Directed Growth of Organic Nanofibers and Nanoflakes: Electrical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Hansen Roana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic nanostructures made from organic molecules such as para-hexaphenylene (p-6P could form nanoscale components in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the integration of such fragile nanostructures with the necessary interface circuitry such as metal electrodes for electrical connection continues to be a significant hindrance toward their large-scale implementation. Here, we demonstrate in situ–directed growth of such organic nanostructures between pre-fabricated contacts, which are source–drain gold electrodes on a transistor platform (bottom-gate on silicon dioxide patterned by a combination of optical lithography and electron beam lithography. The dimensions of the gold electrodes strongly influence the morphology of the resulting structures leading to notably different electrical properties. The ability to control such nanofiber or nanoflake growth opens the possibility for large-scale optoelectronic device fabrication.

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  14. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  15. Morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.G. Richards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. These have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (Struthio camelus. A number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. These deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to the waxy cuticle and other organic components of the eggshell, which is reported to be absent in the ostrich eggshell. In this study, preliminary morphological and histochemical analyses, at the level of the light and electron microscope, have characterised the various organic components of the ostrich eggshell. The results of the histochemical and electron microscopical analyses suggest that there mayonly be 1 shell membrane in this species, which could play a major role in the limitation of bacterial penetration to the embryonic chamber. The shell membrane has a distinct elemental profile as determined by EDSanalysis. The matrix is shown to decrease in mesh size from the mammillary layer to the vertical crystal layer. The closer packing of the mesh may indicate the presence of a morphologically discernible termination signal to calcification or the remnants of an evolutionary calcified cuticle. The matrix of the pores may also forma defensive barrier against bacterial invasion, which could be damaged as a result of dipping the eggs before incubation.

  16. A Study on Active Layer Morphology of Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Jiangquan

    Ternary organic solar cells are emerging as a promising strategy to enhance device power conversion efficiency by broadening light absorption range with the incorporation of additional light absorbing components. In the bulk heterojunction of organic active layer, the third component is incorporated as either a sensitizer or a parallel component based on the amount added. My thesis study covers both cases and the underlying mechanism of morphology compatibility in ternary organic solar cells. Throughout the studies, synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray scattering is used to unveil the morphology of the ternary films from the molecular scale to nanometer scale and to promote the understanding of the morphology-device correlation in order to improve the device performance. For the sensitizing case, I employed 6% of the third component, PTB7, which is a high-performance low-bandgap polymer, into a prototypical binary system, P3HT:PC71BM and achieved 27% improvement in power conversion efficiency. Remarkably, this ternary system exhibited high PCE even with a thick active layer, 200 nm, a thickness at which the efficiency of PTB7:PC 71BM cell drops dramatically. It suggested a brand new route for high efficiency thick-film photovoltaic device, especially valuable for future large-scale solar cell manufacturing, via mixing one high-crystallinity polymer and one high-performance polymer. For the parallel case, same amount of two high-performance donor polymers, PTB7-Th and PPor-2 were blended with PC 71BM. A PCE as high as 9% was achieved, mainly due to the increase of short circuit current and fill factor arising from the enhanced light absorption, better charge carrier mobility and reduced charge recombination. Following the previous two specific systems, I then moved on to find out the general rule for compatible polymers to allow comparable loadings of each component. Four donor polymers with totally different chemical structures and absorption ranges were

  17. Fast printing and in situ morphology observation of organic photovoltaics using slot-die coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Church, Matthew; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P

    2015-02-04

    The mini-slot-die coater offers a simple, convenient, materials-efficient route to print bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that show efficiencies similar to spin-coating. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and GI small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) methods are used in real time to characterize the active-layer formation during printing. A polymer-aggregation-phase-separation-crystallization mechanism for the evolution of the morphology describes the observations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  19. Female Genital Mutilation in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Hussein Elduma

    2018-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The practice of female genital mutilation is spread all over the country. Poor women with low level of education are at high risk for this phenomenon. More efforts have to be provided to end this dangerous practice.

  20. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  1. Morphology Development in Solution-Processed Functional Organic Blend Films: An In Situ Viewpoint

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2017-04-17

    Solution-processed organic films are a facile route to high-speed, low cost, large-area deposition of electrically functional components (transistors, solar cells, emitters, etc.) that can enable a diversity of emerging technologies, from Industry 4.0, to the Internet of things, to point-of-use heath care and elder care. The extreme sensitivity of the functional performance of organic films to structure and the general nonequilibrium nature of solution drying result in extreme processing-performance correlations. In this Review, we highlight insights into the fundamentals of solution-based film deposition afforded by recent state-of-the-art in situ measurements of functional film drying. Emphasis is placed on multimodal studies that combine surface-sensitive X-ray scattering (GIWAXS or GISAXS) with optical characterization to clearly define the evolution of solute structure (aggregation, crystallinity, and morphology) with film thickness.

  2. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  3. Hormonal and barrier contraception and risk of upper genital tract disease in the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Holley, R L; Peipert, J; Randall, H; Sweet, R L; Sondheimer, S J; Hendrix, S L; Amortegui, A; Trucco, G; Bass, D C; Kelsey, S F

    2001-07-01

    Among women diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease, we examined the associations between hormonal or barrier methods of contraception and upper genital tract infection or inflammation. Participants were 563 patients from a treatment trial for pelvic inflammatory disease. All had pelvic pain; pelvic organ tenderness; and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Contraceptive use within the prior 4 weeks was compared among women with baseline upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, women with endometritis without upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, and women with neither upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia nor endometritis. Inconsistent condom use was significantly and independently associated with a 2 to 3 times elevated risk for upper genital tract infection. Upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia was not significantly associated with use of oral contraceptives, use of medroxyprogesterone, condoms used consistently, nor other barrier methods. No hormonal or barrier contraceptive method was related to a reduction in upper genital tract disease among women with clinical pelvic inflammatory diseases.

  4. Morphology of the utricular otolith organ in the toadfish, Opsanus tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard; Ehsanian, Reza; Mofrad, Alireza; Popova, Yekaterina; Varelas, Joseph

    2018-06-15

    The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self-motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize otolith mass and morphological polarization patterns of hair cells. Afferent nerve fibers were visualized following labeling with biocytin, and light microscope images were used to make three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of individual labeled afferents to identify dendritic morphology with respect to epithelial location. Transmission electron micrographs were compiled to create a serial 3-D reconstruction of a labeled afferent over a segment of its dendritic field and to examine the cell-afferent synaptic contacts. Major observations are: a well-defined striola, medial and lateral extra-striolar regions with a zonal organization of hair bundles; prominent lacinia projecting laterally; dependence of hair cell density on macular location; narrow afferent dendritic fields that follow the hair bundle polarization; synaptic specializations issued by afferents are typically directed towards a limited number of 7-13 hair cells, but larger dendritic fields in the medial extra-striola can be associated with > 20 hair cells also; and hair cell synaptic bodies can be confined to only an individual afferent or can synapse upon several afferents. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphological differentiation of taste organs in the ontogeny of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuwała, K; Jakubowski, M

    2001-11-01

    Morphological studies presented here provide additional cytological evidence that in the postnatal development of Salamandra salamandra there are two successive generations of taste organs: premetamorphic taste buds (TBs) in larval forms and taste disks (TDs) in postmetamorphic animals. The TBs have been found in the epithelium of the whole oropharyngeal cavity of larval forms, while in adults TDs appear only at the end of metamorphosis. The TDs can be papillary (or fungiform) on the soft (secondary) tongue and non-papillary outside the tongue. Two main cyto-morphological criteria distinguishing TDs from TBs have been established: (1) high differentiation of "nonsensory" components of a taste organ into several kinds of cells (often named "associate cells")--at least mucous cells and, separating them, wing cells; (2) a considerably larger area of the sensory epithelium than that in TBs, as the consequence of the large size of the mucous cells. In contrast to TDs each TB consists of longitudinally elongated supporting cells and taste cells, as well as of horizontally oriented basal cells, adjacent to the basement membrane. The sensory area in TBs measures 10-12 microm in diameter, while that in TDs has diameter of 45-90 microm. The anlage of the secondary tongue appears as a small folding of the floor epithelium just in front to the tip of the primary tongue in larvae 3 cm long, and is definitely formed in an animal with body length of about 6 cm.

  6. Influence of clay organic modifier on morphology and performance of poly(ε-caprolactone/clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two series of poly(e-caprolactone nanocomposites with different organo-modified clays (1 to 8 wt% were prepared by the solution casting method. Organoclays with polar (Cloisite®C30B and nonpolar (Cloisite®C15A organic modifier and with different miscibility with poly(e-caprolactone matrix, were chosen. Exfoliated and/or intercalated nanocomposite’s structures were obtained by using high dilution and an ultrasonic treatment for the composite preparation. The effect of the surface modification and clay content on the morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites was studied. Scanning electron microscopy excluded the formation of microcomposite. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the tendency toward exfoliated structure is higher for the Cloisite®C30B, which had better miscibility with poly(e-caprolactone matrix. Differences in spherulites’ sizes and morphology between two series of the nanocomposites were observed by the optical microscopy performed on as-casted films. Enthalpies of fusion and degrees of crystallinity were higher for nanocomposites than for neat poly(e-caprolactone and increase with the clay loading in both series, as a consequence of the clay nucleating effect. Decreased thermal stability of nanocomposites was ascribed to thermal instability of organic modifiers of the clays. The Halpin-Tsai model was used to compare the theoretically predicted values of the Young’s modulus with experimentally obtained ones in tensile tests.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172062

  7. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  8. Genital melanoma: prognosis factors and treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Domenico; Lamblin, Gery; Mathevet, Patrice; Hetu, Jessika; Berakdar, Isabelle; Beurrier, Frederic; Chopin, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Genital melanoma is a rare pathology. We present the experience of two comprehensive cancer centers in Lyon (France) in the management of genital melanoma in order to identify prognostic factors and optimal treatments. Between April 1992 and Mars 2014, 16 patients with a primary genital melanoma were referred to our department. Nine patients presented a vaginal melanoma, six vulvar melanomas and only one cervical melanoma. The median dimension of the lesion was 33.7 mm (5-100 mm). The AJCC stage ranged from IB to IIIC. 12 cases were the classic dark-blue flat melanoma and the other 4 cases were an atypical amelanotic tumor. Wide local surgery was performed in nine patients. A radical surgery was performed in six patients. In the large cervical melanoma, radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. In all the patients regional lymph node staging was performed. Adjuvant treatment was realized in nine patients. Two patients are alive without recurrence. Only one patient was lost to the first follow-up. The other 13 patients experienced a rapid recurrence. The median disease-free survival and the median overall survival were 11.8 months (2-49 m) and of 30.4 m (11-144 m), respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival could be linked to a clinical presentation (Breslow thickness and morphology of lesion) associated to the early diagnosis. In our small series, the most important prognosis factor remains the tumor thickness. These rare lesions should be treated in experienced centers in order to improve their prognostic.

  9. Hearing in tsetse flies? Morphology and mechanics of a putative auditory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, E J; Windmill, J F C; Robert, D

    2009-04-01

    Tympanal hearing organs are widely used by insects to detect sound pressure. Such ears are relatively uncommon in the order Diptera, having only been reported in two families thus far. This study describes the general anatomical organization and experimentally examines the mechanical resonant properties of an unusual membranous structure situated on the ventral prothorax of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae). Anatomically, the prosternal membrane is backed by an air filled chamber and attaches to a pair of sensory chordotonal organs. Mechanically, the membrane shows a broad resonance around 5.3-7.2 kHz. Unlike previously reported dipteran tympana, a directional response to sound was not found in G. morsitans. Collectively, the morphology, the resonant properties and acoustic sensitivity of the tsetse prothorax are consistent with those of the tympanal hearing organs in Ormia sp. and Emblemasoma sp. (Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The production of sound by several species of tsetse flies has been repeatedly documented. Yet, clear behavioural evidence for acoustic behaviour is sparse and inconclusive. Together with sound production, the presence of an ear-like structure raises the enticing possibility of auditory communication in tsetse flies and renews interest in the sensory biology of these medically important insects.

  10. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  12. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Nanostructured organic/inorganic semicondutor photovoltaics: Investigation on morphology and optoelectronics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna Pushpa Kumara

    oxide nanoparticles are used for tuning the conjugated polymer films due to their high electron accepting ability and optical absorption properties. In the zinc oxide structure, electrons exhibit higher mobility, which enhances the exciton dissociation efficiency. In addition, metal nanoparticles such as gold are added to the hole transport layer to enhance the overall hole transport ability. The optimum morphology of P3HT/PCBM films is described by two main features: 1) the molecular ordering within the donor or acceptor phase, which affects the photon absorption and carrier mobility; and 2) the scale of phase separation between the donor and the acceptor, which can directly influence the exciton dissociation and charge transport and/or collection processes. Hence, the molecular ordering and the phase separation between the donor and acceptor phases are crucial for solar cells with high efficiency. Optimization of the morphology of the organic/inorganic hybrid layers will be achieved via thermal annealing. The main goal of this work is to fabricate inorganic nanoparticles incorporated polymer PV devices with increased power conversion efficiency (PCE). This goal is achieved through four research objectives which are 1) enhancement of exciton generation and morphology by CuO NPs, 2) enhancement of exciton transportation and carrier diffusion by thermal annealing, 3) Improvement of exciton dissociation and electron mobility using ZnO NPs, and 4) improvement of hole collection ability using Au NPs. The key findings in this research can be applied to fabricate solar cells with higher power conversion efficiencies.

  14. Scaling of Morphological Characters across Trait Type, Sex, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voje, Kjetil Lysne

    2016-01-01

    Biological diversity is, to a large extent, a matter of variation in size. Proportional (isometric) scaling, where large and small individuals are magnified versions of each other, is often assumed to be the most common way morphological traits scale relative to overall size within species. However, the many traits showing nonproportional (allometric) scaling have motivated some of the most discussed hypotheses on scaling relationships in biology, like the positive allometry hypothesis for secondary sexual traits and the negative allometry hypothesis for genitals. I evaluate more than 3,200 allometric parameters from the literature and find that negative allometry, not isometry, is the expected scaling relationship of morphological traits within species. Slopes of secondary sexual traits are more often steeper compared with other traits, but slopes larger than unity are also common for traits not under sexual selection. The steepness of the allometric slope is accordingly a weak predictor of past and present patterns of selection. Scaling of genitals varies across taxonomic groups, but negative allometry of genitals in insects and spiders is a consistent pattern. Finally, I find indications that terrestrial organisms may have a different scaling of morphological traits overall compared with aquatic species.

  15. Genital myiasis associated with genital piercing. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Melecchi Freitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Myiasis is caused by larval infestation that usually occurs in exposed wounds. Dermatobia hominis is the most common fly species responsible for this parasitic infection. Genital piercing is an ornamental practice used in certain social circles. At placement, it transverses the skin surface and, as such, may be related to complications. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 31-year-old man with a history of wound infection secondary to genital piercing who was exposed to an environment with flies, leading to myiasis. Mechanical removal and systemic antiparasitic drugs are possible treatments for myiasis. However, prevention that includes wound cleaning and dressing is the best way to avoid this disease. CONCLUSIONS: Genital piercing can lead to potential complications and myiasis may occur when skin lesions are not properly treated.

  16. A program for analyzing the morphological organization of tessellated cellular mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilts, D M; Doughty, M J

    1996-09-01

    We have constructed a computer program that allows sequential sets of data from tessellated cellular mosaics to be evaluated such that the presence and position of abnormal cells in the mosaic can be easily, quickly, and quantitatively identified. Conventional parametric analysis of the global morphological organization of large tessellated cellular mosaics does not provide the necessary granularity of analysis to allow for rapid identification of such atypical cellular structures. Our program, written in C using structured programming techniques, provides the needed analytical granularity for detailed studies of subsections of large cellular mosaics, while also providing conventional statistical evaluation of the data set. The architecture of the program is modular and designed as a set of procedures and subprocessess that can either analyze the entire mosaic or discrete sets of cells within the larger sample. The types of morphological heterogeneity (or dishomogeneity) that the program can investigate occur in a variety of biological mosaics where there is a continuum of the structural features, including fairly regular linear stacked arrays of cells or tissue partitions, to less regular mosaics of epithelial or endothelial cell layers, to heterogeneous patterns found on tissue surfaces, such as fluorescein dye-highlighted features on the human conjunctiva. The program has been used to successfully evaluate several different types of mosaics.

  17. Multiscale active layer morphologies for organic photovoltaics through self-assembly of nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Timothy S; Bag, Monojit; Renna, Lawrence A; Shen, Xiaobo; Algaier, Dana D; Lahti, Paul M; Russell, Thomas P; Venkataraman, Dhandapani

    2014-09-10

    We address here the need for a general strategy to control molecular assembly over multiple length scales. Efficient organic photovoltaics require an active layer comprised of a mesoscale interconnected networks of nanoscale aggregates of semiconductors. We demonstrate a method, using principles of molecular self-assembly and geometric packing, for controlled assembly of semiconductors at the nanoscale and mesoscale. Nanoparticles of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were fabricated with targeted sizes. Nanoparticles containing a blend of both P3HT and PCBM were also fabricated. The active layer morphology was tuned by the changing particle composition, particle radii, and the ratios of P3HT:PCBM particles. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated from these aqueous nanoparticle dispersions with comparable device performance to typical bulk-heterojunction devices. Our strategy opens a revolutionary pathway to study and tune the active layer morphology systematically while exercising control of the component assembly at multiple length scales.

  18. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  19. The Management of Pediatric Genital Injuries at a Pediatric Emergency Department in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hirokazu; Nomura, Osamu; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2018-04-25

    Genital injuries among children are often associated with consumer products or specific activities. There are few descriptive studies from Asia on pediatric genital injuries seen in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic features of accidental genital injuries among children. A retrospective chart review of children aged 15 years or younger who visited our ED for genital injuries between March 2010 and November 2014 was conducted. Data on age, arrival time at the ED, location of the incident, mechanism of injury, objects, injured organ, consultation with specialists, emergency operation, sedation at the ED, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in this analysis. Girls comprised 71% of the subject pool. The median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 4-9 years). Straddle injuries were the most common form of injury (56%). Male genital injuries occurred mostly outdoors (64%). Common consumer products associated with pediatric genital injuries were furniture (21%), exercise equipment (17%), and bicycles (15%). Thirty-two patients were examined by a surgeon, gynecologist, or urologist. The most commonly injured organs were the penis (55%) in boys and the labia (60%) in girls. Most patients (93%) were treated at the ED and discharged. The characteristics of accidental genital injuries among Japanese children were similar to those of children in other countries. The strategy for preventing genital injuries used in the West might be applicable to the East Asian context.

  20. Gross morphology and histology of the olfactory organ of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, S.; Gallus, L.; Ghigliotti, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. Knowledge of the fundamental biology and ecological role of the Greenland shark is limited, and the sensory biology of the Greenland shark has been poorly studied. Given the potential relevant contribution...... of chemoreception to the sensory capability of the Greenland shark to forage and navigate in low-light environments, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ (the olfactory rosette) through morphological, histological and immunohistochemical assays. We found that each olfactory rosette...... neurons, presence of unusually large cells along the olfactory fiber bundles) deserve further investigation. Overall, the structure of the olfactory rosette suggests a well-developed olfactory capability for the Greenland shark coherent with a bentho-pelagic lifestyle....

  1. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle.

  2. The gram stain smear: A screening test for genital mycoplasmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of 168 vaginal specimens from women examined for genital mycoplasmas showed that more of these organisms were isolated from specimens whose Gram stain smears were devoid of Gram positive bacilli (GPB) (43%) as against those whose smears contain GPB (22.1%). This result was found to be statistically ...

  3. Curbing Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour ... Popularizing the danger of female genital mutilation, partnering with NGOs, media campaign, organizing workshops & seminars, briefing & debriefing and mounting billboards were identified as some of the roles libraries and information can play in eradicating this injustice against women.

  4. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  5. The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, K P; Frahm, H D; Stephan, H

    1986-08-01

    Bats are seasonal breeders and roost under a wide range of lighting conditions, from broad daylight to the total darkness of subterranean passageways and caves. Some are true hibernators. These characteristics and the paucity of information on their pineal organ prompted this investigation, which is based upon the pineals of 191 specimens of 88 species and 12 families of bats. Comparative morphological and volumetric observations have been made on serially sectioned brains of each species. Data include brain and body weights, mean pineal dimensions and volume, a computed pineal size index for each species and salient characteristics and relations of the pineal organ of the 12 chiropteran families. Generally speaking, despite some exceptions, larger bodied bats also have larger pineals. Bats of the microchiropteran families such as the Emballonuridae, Megadermatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and a few vespertilionids (for example, Myotis adversus) and molossids (for example, Tadarida mops), have very large pineal organs, of which many reach the brain surface. All of these bat families inhabit dark caves. By contrast, in megachiropterans (pteropodids) which roost in broad daylight, the pineal lies deeply recessed and covered by the cerebral hemispheres. It is postulated that in general the superficial and deep location of pineal in micro- and megachiropteran species respectively may be a consequence of several factors, such as their habitat and their neocortical and cerebellar development. A system of classifying chiropteran pineal organs has been presented; in most species they are either of Type A or of Type AB. Most species have non-uniformly distributed parenchymal cells arranged in cords or clusters. In some species (for example, Rhinolopus trifoliatus and R. luctus) morphologically distinct dorsal and ventral divisions are observed. Pineal vascularity appears to be related to its size. Intrapineal neurons are rare and, when present, are associated with

  6. Effect of Solvent-Assisted Nanoscaled Organo-Gels on Morphology and Performance of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Li-Jian; Hu, Xiao-Lian; Ye, Tao

    2012-01-01

    with that of the organo-gels in solution. Through this knowledge, we eventually achieve controlled morphology and optimized organic solar cells (OSCs) performance. Our results present a significant step forward for understanding the self-assembly behavior of conjugated polymers, control of their morphology......This paper reports how the morphology of a polymer–fullerene derivative blend is tuned via the different aggregate states of the polymer in solutions. Based on a copolymer with benzodiothiophene and thiophene-3-carboxylate as alternating units (PBDTCT), we explored the polymer aggregation (i...

  7. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  8. Morphological Control of the Photoactive Layer in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Yisong

    2011-07-23

    For its inherent advantages, such as lightweight, low cost, flexibility, and opportunity to cover large surface areas, organic solar cells have attracted more and more attention in both academia and industry. However, the efficiency of organic solar cell is still much lower than silicon solar cells, but steadily rising as it now stands above 8%. The architecture of bulk heterojunction solar cells can improve the performance of organic solar cell a lot, but these improvements are highly dependent on the morphology of photoactive layer. Therefore, by controlling the morphology of photoactive layer, most commonly composed of a P3HT donor polymer and PCBM small molecule, the performance of organic solar cells could be optimized. The use of solvent additives in the solution formulation is particularly interesting, because it is a low cost method of controlling the phase separation of the photoactive layer and possibly removing the need for subsequent thermal and solvent vapor annealing. However, the role of the solvent additive remains not well understood and much debate remains on the mechanisms by which it impacts phase separation. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the solvent additive on the individual components (solvent, donor and acceptor) of the solution and the photoactive layer both in the bulk solution, during solution-processing and in the post-processing solid state of the film. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the additive on the blended solution state and resulting thin film phase separation. Finally, we propose a new method of controlling phase separation based on the insight into the role of the solvent additive. In the first part, we used an additive [octandiethiol (OT)] in the solvent to help the aggregation of P3HT in the solution. From the UV-vis experiments, the crystallinity of P3HT in the solutions increased while it decreased in thin films with steady increase of additive concentration. This

  9. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand all | Collapse all What is FGC? The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN) define FGC ... What are the different types of FGC? The World Health Organization (WHO) describes four major types of FGC. Types ...

  10. Morphological analysis of the enamel organ in rats treated with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Morais Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l., and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 - 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 mm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis.

  11. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong

    2012-07-10

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz), forming a film composed of the metal-ligand complex. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex leads to marked changes in the morphology and optical properties of the film. X-ray diffraction studies show that the chemical annealing process converts amorphous ZnTPP films to crystalline ZnTPP•ligand films, whose porphryin planes lie nearly parallel to the substrate (average deviation is 8° for the ZnTPP•pz film). Organic solar cells were prepared with ZnTPP donor and C 60 acceptor layers. Devices were prepared with and without chemical annealing of the ZnTPP layer with a pyrazine ligand. The devices with chemically annealed ZnTPP donor layer show an increase in short-circuit current (J SC) and fill factor (FF) relative to analogous unannealed devices, presumably because of enhanced exciton diffusion length and improved charge conductivity. The open circuit voltages (V OC) of the chemically annealed devices are lower than their unannealed counterpart because of enhanced polaron pair recombination at the donor/acceptor heterojunction. A net improvement of 5-20% in efficiency has been achieved, after chemical annealing of ZnTPP films with pyrazine. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María M; Toft, Gunnar; Jensen, Morten S

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce....

  13. Structural analyses of acessory genital glands of maned sloths (Bradypus torquatus, Illiger, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sloths belong to the Mammalian class and Xenarthar Order, presenting very peculiar corporal designs and habits of life. One particular species, Bradypus torquatus, belongs to the Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, this research aims to contribute to knowledge of the male genital organ morphology of the maned sloth on account of the fact that it has so far only been inadequately elucidated by existing science. In this research, six Bradypus torquatus males were used, provided by the Anatomy Laboratory of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia/USP, originally donated by the Reserva Zoobotânica Matinha, Ilhéus/BA. The commom carotid arteries of the animals were canulated and the arterial systems were washed with 40°C water for posterior injection of 10% water formaldehyde solution. The animals were dissected for gross evaluation and sections of tissue from the seminal vesicles and prostates were collected and submitted to light microscopy. The maned sloth presented two genital accessory glands, a prostate and a vesicular gland. It was established through histology that the vesicular gland followed the norm for mammals, but that the prostate showed a peculiar aspect, dividing into muscular and urethral forms.

  14. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  15. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  16. A Study on Organic-Metal Halide Perovskite Film Morphology, Interfacial Layers, Tandem Applications, and Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dallas A.

    Organic-metal halide perovskites have brought about a new wave of research in the photovoltaic community due to their ideally suited optical and electronic parameters. In less than a decade, perovskite solar cell performance has skyrocketed to unprecedented efficiencies with numerous reported methodologies. Perovskites face many challenges with high-quality film morphology, interfacial layers, and long-term stability. In this work, these active areas are explored through a combination of studies. First, the importance of perovskite film precursor ratios is explored with an in-depth study of carrier lifetime and solvent-grain effects. It was found that excess lead iodide precursor greatly improves the film morphology by reducing pinholes in the solar absorber. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent was found to mend grains, as well as improve carrier lifetime and device performance, possibly by passivation of grain boundary traps. Second, applications of perovskite with tandem cells is investigated, with an emphasis for silicon devices. Perovskites can easily be integrated with silicon, which already has strong market presence. Additionally, both materials' bandgaps are ideally suited for maximum tandem efficiency. The silicon/perovskite tandem device structure necessitated the optimization of inverted (p-i-n) structure devices. PEDOT:PSS, copper oxide, and nickel oxide p-type layers were explored through a combination of photoluminescent, chemical reactivity, and solar simulation results. Results were hindered due to resistive ITO and rough silicon substrates, but tandem devices displayed Voc indicative of proper monolithic performance. Third, replacement of titanium dioxide n-type layer with iron oxide (Fe 2O3, common rust) was studied. Iron oxide experiences less ultraviolet instability than that of titanium dioxide under solar illumination. It was found that current density slightly decreased due to parasitic absorption from the rust, but that open circuit voltage

  17. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  18. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  19. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  20. Karyotype Plasticity in Crickets: Numerical, Morphological, and Nucleolar Organizer Region Distribution Pattern of Anurogryllus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Schneider, Marielle; Ariza Zacaro, Adilson; Ferreira, Amilton; Maria Cella, Doralice

    2010-01-01

    Within the Orthopteran species, those of the suborder Ensifera have been rarely studied from the cytogenetic point of view, mainly due to the difficulties for taxonomic identification of its species. The Gryllidae is the second largest family of this suborder and possesses some genera, such as Anurogryllus, that occur only on the American continents. The aim of this work was to determine the karyotype characteristics, the meiotic chromosome behaviour, and the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) pattern of Anurogryllus sp (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). In the analyzed sample, high levels of numerical, morphological, and NORs polymorphisms were detected. Within five distinct karyotypes that were found, the basic karyotype of Anurogryllus sp. showed 2n(♂) = 22 + X0 with acrocentric autosomes and a metacentric X sex chromosome; furthermore, a conspicuous secondary constriction related to the NOR was present along the entire short arm on pair 5. The other four types of karyotypes arose from centric fusions between elements of pairs 1/3, 2/6, 4/7 and a NOR partial translocation from pair 5 onto the long arm terminal region of one element of the fused pair 2/6. Such intraspecific variability and the consequences of high levels of polymorphism are discussed, leading to conjectures about the mechanisms that led to these chromosome rearrangements. PMID:20673072

  1. Comparison of Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage of a Midsized Male in the Supine and Seated Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and morphology of abdominal organs due to postural changes have implications in the prediction of trauma via computational models. The purpose of this study is to use data from a multimodality image set to devise a method for examining changes in organ location, morphology, and rib coverage from the supine to seated postures. Medical images of a male volunteer (78.6±0.77 kg, 175 cm in three modalities (Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Upright MRI were used. Through image segmentation and registration, an analysis between organs in each posture was conducted. For the organs analyzed (liver, spleen, and kidneys, location was found to vary between postures. Increases in rib coverage from the supine to seated posture were observed for the liver, with a 9.6% increase in a lateral projection and a 4.6% increase in a frontal projection. Rib coverage area was found to increase 11.7% for the spleen. Morphological changes in the organs were also observed. The liver expanded 7.8% cranially and compressed 3.4% and 5.2% in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions, respectively. Similar trends were observed in the spleen and kidneys. These findings indicate that the posture of the subject has implications in computational human body model development.

  2. Male genital self-mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilsheimer, H; Groves, J E

    1979-04-01

    Men who intentionally mutilate or remove their own genitals are likely to be psychotic at the time of the act, to have a number of goals and aims relating to conflicts about the male role, and to be vulnerable to sociocultural and psychological forces in a causal network as yet unknown. However, from a review of the cases of 53 male self-mutilators, it appears that a significant number involve individuals not psychotic at the time of the act but rather having character disorders and rageful feelings toward themselves or women, and transsexual males who premeditate their own gender conversion surgery. The psychiatric consultant's role in the management of such an individual in the general hospital setting includes not only care of a patient with a psychotic or impulse disorder but also involves support of the house staff, who are distressed by the fear, guilt, hopelessness, anger, and revulsion that the patient's act of genital self-mutilation causes.

  3. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  4. Genital lubrication: A cue-specific sexual response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Megan L; Dawson, Samantha J; Lalumière, Martin L

    2018-02-12

    Women's genital responses are sensitive to the presence and intensity of sexual cues, yet some stimulus features (e.g., male vs. female actors, consensual vs. non-consensual interactions) have little influence on the magnitude of response-a phenomenon called low cue-specificity. Genital responses are typically assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, a measure of vaginal vasocongestion, itself a precursor to lubrication. One explanation for low cue-specificity is the preparation hypothesis: Women genitally respond to almost all sexual cues because lubrication functions to protect genital organs from potential injury should vaginal penetration occur. In order to test the preparation hypothesis, both vaginal vasocongestion and introital lubrication were assessed in a sample of 20 women in response to sexually explicit films. While patterns of vasocongestion were consistent with low cue-specificity for gender cues and type of sexual activity, lubrication was specific to women's most preferred sexual stimulus categories. These results are inconsistent with the preparation hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS PRIMARY AMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB is increasing in young women throughout the world. We report a case of young woman apparently having no sings & symptoms of Tuberculosis. CASE REPORT: 18 years young female patient was referred to us as a case of Primary Amenorrhea. She had Normal secondary sexual characters & normal Breast Development (Tanner staging of Breast - IV. She had negative Progesterone Cha llenge Test (PCT. Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test was negative. Diagnosis of End Organ Problem was done. Diagnosis of Genital Tuberculosis was confirmed by hysterolaparoscopy. She was given AKT for six months. DISCUSSION: Hysterolaparoscopy is impo rtant investigation in a case of Primary Amenorrhea with negative Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test. Tuberculosis with its varied presentation can present as primary amenorrhea in young unmarried female.

  6. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Atypical Genital Herpes: Report of Five Cases

    OpenAIRE

    UUSKÜLA, ANNELI; RAUKAS, ELVE

    2004-01-01

    Manifestations of human genital herpes virus (HSV) infection are not limited to the typical cluster of genital lesions. Here we present 5 case histories suggestive to clinically atypical genital herpes (HSV detected with the polymerase chain reaction) collected in 2001 from a private outpatient clinic specializing in dermatological and venereal diseases. The clinical presentations included mucopurulent cervicitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, recurrent urethritis, and lower hack pain.

  8. Atypical genital herpes: report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Raukas, Elve

    2004-01-01

    Manifestations of human genital herpes virus (HSV) infection are not limited to the typical cluster of genital lesions. Here we present 5 case histories suggestive to clinically atypical genital herpes (HSV detected with the polymerase chain reaction) collected in 2001 from a private outpatient clinic specializing in dermatological and venereal diseases. The clinical presentations included mucopurulent cervicitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, recurrent urethritis, and lower back pain.

  9. Controlling the nanoscale morphology of organic films deposited by polyatomic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, L; Fuoco, E R; Ahu-Akin, F; Wijesundara, M B J; Li, Maozhen; Tikhonov, A; Schlossman, M

    2003-01-01

    Hyperthermal polyatomic ion beams can be used to fabricate thin film nanostructures with controlled morphology. Several experiments are described in which mass-selected and non-mass-selected polyatomic ion beams are used to create nanometer thick films with controlled surface and buried interface morphologies. Fluorocarbon and thiophenic films are grown on silicon wafers and/or polystyrene from 5 to 200 eV C sub 3 F sub 5 sup + or C sub 4 H sub 4 S sup + ions, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to analyze the morphology and chemistry of these films. Polyatomic ions are found to control film morphology on the nanoscale through variation of the incident ion energy, ion structure and/or substrate.

  10. Tumorigenic Effects of Tamoxifen on the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu M.D., Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen is widely used for endocrine treatment and breast cancer prevention. It acts as both an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue and an estrogen agonist in the female lower genital tract. Tamoxifen causes severe gynecologic side effects, such as endometrial cancer. This review focuses on the effects of prolonged tamoxifen treatment on the human female genital tract and considers its tumorigenicity in the gynecologic organs through clinical data analysis. Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of benign endometrial lesions such as polyps and hyperplasia and a two- to four-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal patients. Moreover, the incidence of functional ovarian cysts is significantly high in premenopausal tamoxifen users. To prevent tamoxifen from having severe side effects in gynecologic organs, frequent gynecological examination should be performed for both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who are treated with this drug.

  11. Investigation of organic solvents assisted nano magnesium oxide nanoparticles and their structural, morphological, optical and antimicrobial performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, B.; Rajendran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Investigation on the structural, morphological, optical studies and antimicrobial performance of organic solvent assisted magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are in 16–18 nm of grain size prepared by sol–gel method. The XRD studies shows as synthesized products are in cubic phase with periclase structurer. The well disperesd spherical morphology were obtained in SEM and TEM. The organic solvent methanol had profound effects on the size of the nano particles. The optical absorption edge energy was present in UV region and the corresponding band gap energy values are 4.5 and 4.9 eV for water with ethanol and methanol mediated MgO sample respectively. The PL emission spectrum has a emission peak at 340 and 353 nm which is due to surface defects. The obtained MgO nanoparticles showed superior antimicrobial activities for the gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using the ELISA reader at 450 nm.

  12. Manipulation of Intermolecular Interactions for Active Layer Morphology Optimization in Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Leonel

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are an attractive solar energy technology for low-current applications. Herein is described the supramolecular design and methodology to manipulate intermolecular interactions in order to create an active layer in OPVs devices composed of crystalline and amorphous donor-acceptor domains, which has been proposed as the ideal morphology for high performance. To this end, a series of symmetric and asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives containing either an amide (capable of hydrogen-bonding) or ester endgroups were synthesized. The symmetric designs faced problems with solubility, strong segregation and low performance, so asymmetric donors having one amide/ester were used. Upon addressing initial stability problems, analysis of the ester films with X-ray diffraction displayed greater crystallinity and pi-pi stacking. The amide formed short aggregates with smaller, less ordered domains, resulting from competition between hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking, which interestingly endowed devices with higher current and 50% increase in device efficiency over the ester. To better match solar emission, the DPP core was substituted by benzodithiophene (BDT). Amides again outperformed esters, but introduction of a benzothiadiazole ?-spacer between the amide/ester endgroups led to electron traps and lowered performance; replacing it with phenyldithiophene reduced stacking ability. A recurring issue was the competition between noncovalent interactions, which motivated the use of barbituric acid endgroups, but solubility was compromised. After addressing each problem, a design having a BDT core with planar ?-spacers, connected by an alkyl linker to the hydrogen-bonding endgroups is predicted to display optimized optoelectronic properties and cooperative noncovalent interaction. Next, a series of BDT-core molecules with DPP endgroups and alkyl tails resembling solvent additives (which improve donor-acceptor interaction but increase

  13. Effects of Organic Additives on the Morphology of Various Calcium Phosphates Prepared via Solution and Emulsion Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Isao; Wei, Tingting; Kikushima, Yuta; Riman, Richard E.; Akazawa, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles were prepared through the reaction between calcium nitrate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate in a solution and a multiple emulsion. Organic compounds were added into the phosphate solution with the aim of modifying the morphology. Large parallelogrammic particles of DCPD were obtained with no additive. By adding 2- aminoethanol, the product was changed to rhombic in shape and reduced to one-twentieth in s...

  14. Functional morphology and evolution of the hyper-elongated intromittent organ in Cassida leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoko; Michels, Jan; Appel, Esther; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-02-01

    The peculiar phenomenon of hyper-elongation of intromittent organs is well known in a number of insect groups. However, the unresolved questions of how and why such a phenomenon originated independently many times continue to attract biologists' attention. To be able to detect the evolutionary driving mechanisms that enabled insects to repeatedly acquire such a peculiarity, first of all the structural key features and the mechanics of these organs have to be determined. In the present study, the morphology of the reproductive organs of two species of the beetle genus Cassida, with a special focus on the male structures, was scrutinised in detail during copulation and at rest using different microscopy techniques. We found that the hyper-elongated structure of the intromittent organ, called flagellum, is part of the male ejaculatory duct. When the flagellum is inserted into the female spermathecal duct, longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct, but not the flagellum, are shortened. These results strongly suggest that the contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct causes propulsion of the flagellum into the highly spiralled spermathecal duct of the female. The tip of the cuticular flagellum is curled up, which can suggest that its physical properties differ from those of the rest of the flagellum. Considering the preceding modelling studies, this property aids the flagellum in penetrating within the highly spiralled and very variable female duct. Based on our morphological results and in comparison with the morphology of intromittent organs of other beetles, we discuss the evolutionary origin of the hyper-elongation in the Cassida species and propose a hypothesis that explains the independent origin of the hyper-elongation of intromittent organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological influence of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures (nanozigzag, nanohelics and nanorod) on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sadaf Bashir; Hou, Mengjing; Shuang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhengjun, E-mail: zjzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Glancing angle deposition technique is used to fabricate various columnar nanostructures in a single step to tune physiochemical properties. • Enhanced surface area induces porosity, with dispersion of active sites at different length scales of pores. • The increase interface between nanostructures and organic dye is promising factor to enhance photocatalytic degradation. • Morphologies having high surface to volume ratio increases the number of catalytic reaction sites to facilitate organic molecules adsorption favorable for reaction kinetics. - Abstract: Hierarchical nanostructures have drawn significant attention and incredible performance in photodriven chemical conversion area due to its unique physicochemical properties. Herein, we study the morphological influence of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures on photocatalytic degradation of different organic dyes methyl blue, methyl violet and methyl orange present in industrial wastewater. Nanorod, nanohelics and nanozigzag TiO{sub 2} nanofilms were fabricated by using galancing angle deposition technique (GLAD). TiO{sub 2} nanofilms were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and raman analysis. BET surface area analysis were carried out by using nitrogen adsorption desorption curves. The results show that TiO{sub 2} morphology had great influence on photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes due to difference in specific surface area and pore volume of nanostructures. The photocatalytic degradation experiments were carried out for three hours under UV–vis light irradiation. Catalysis recycling and organic dyes concentration influence were also studied. In case of high concentration of organic dyes, negligible degradation rate is observed. TiO{sub 2} nanozigzag films show better degradation performance than nanohelics and nanorod due to presence of large surface area for reaction, higher porosity with dispersion of active sites at different length

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baku Takahara

    Full Text Available Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10(-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation.

  17. The microvasculature of python pit organs: morphology and blood flow microkinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, Richard C; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Nakano, Masato; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Funakoshi, Kengo; Kadota, Tetsuo

    2003-05-01

    Boid snakes have infrared sensing pits that resemble crotaline pits in electrophysiological function and ultrastructure, but differ in gross morphology, number, and location: boids have three or more simple pits in the labial scales vs a single facial pair with more complex morphology in the crotalines. We studied the morphology of the capillary bed and the microkinetics of blood flow in a boid snake, the ball python, Python regius, and compared them with the already known condition in crotalines. We used a Doppler blood flow recorder in conjunction with an electrocardiograph to measure blood flow and heartbeat, and resin casts, transmission electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy to study capillary morphology. Blood flow in response to infrared stimulus was virtually identical in the two taxa, but the morphology of the capillary bed differed drastically. In the ball python pits, the capillary bed consisted of a forest of vertically oriented loops with a characteristic dome at the top in contact with the receptor layer of the fundus. Immunohistochemical staining showed pericytes constricting the capillaries and domes with smooth muscle alpha-actin-labeled processes. Since latency of response was as short as 1 ms, the capillaries were apparently responding under local control to provide both nutrition and cooling to the heat-sensitive receptors. We concluded that mitochondria-filled receptors provided with a swiftly responding cooling system were nature's most efficient way of attaining infrared imaging.

  18. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  19. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  20. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  1. Female Genital Cutting in Contemporary Eritrea: Determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The observation that about 90% of Eritrean women were circumcised in 2002 increased interest to understand the trends, determinants, and consequences of female genital cutting (FGC). The study used data from the 2002 EDHS and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation Survey to consider factors that influence the ...

  2. Female genital schistosomiasis : pathological features and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  3. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  4. Intestinal morphology, digestive organ size and digesta pH of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal morphology and pH of digesta of broiler chickens at 35 days old were studied. Birds were reared on these dietary treatments (T). T1, positive control, contained 668 g salinomycin and 500 g zinc bacitracin per kg of feed. Treatments, T2, T3 and T4, contained graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) ...

  5. Intestinal morphology, digestive organ size and digesta pH of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tnkukwana

    2015-08-30

    Aug 30, 2015 ... digestion and absorption of nutrients required for the bird's maintenance and growth (Mateos et al., 2002;. Baurhoo et al. ... morphological and physiological changes of the GIT occurring only during the post-hatch period, including increases in .... ratio or feed : gain (FCR) at 35 d old are shown in Table 4.

  6. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  7. Upper third molar internal structural organization and semicircular canal morphology in Plio-Pleistocene South African cercopithecoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Amélie; Dumoncel, Jean; Thackeray, John Francis; Bruxelles, Laurent; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Bam, Lunga; Hoffman, Jakobus; de Beer, Frikkie; Braga, José

    2016-06-01

    Despite the abundance of cercopithecoids in the fossil record, especially in South Africa, and the recent development of morphometric approaches, uncertainties regarding the taxonomic identification of isolated cranio-dental specimens remain. Because cercopithecoids, nearly always found in stratigraphic association with hominin remains in Plio-Pleistocene deposits, are considered as sensitive ecological and chronological biomarkers, a significant effort should be made to clarify their palaeobiodiversity by assessing additional reliable morphological diagnostic criteria. Here we test the relevance of both molar crown internal structure and bony labyrinth morphology for discrimination of fossil cercopithecoid species. We use microtomographic-based 3D virtual imaging and quantitative analyses to investigate tooth endostructural organization and inner ear shape in 29 craniodental specimens from the South African sites of Kromdraai, Makapansgat, Sterkfontein and Swartkrans and provide the first detailed description of the internal structural condition characterizing this Plio-Pleistocene primate assemblage. Our preliminary results show that enamel-dentine junction morphology could be informative for discriminating highly autapomorphic taxa such as Theropithecus, while semicircular canal shape is tentatively proposed as an efficient criterion for diagnosing Dinopithecus ingens. Further research in virtual paleoprimatology may contribute to the identification of unassigned isolated fossil remains and shed new light on the internal craniodental morphology of extinct primate taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  9. Implications of Genital Mutilation at Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    Given the potential significance of mutilation of the external genitalia in medicolegal fatalities, a review of the literature was undertaken to identify subcategories. Such mutilations may have been sustained sometime before death, around the time of death, or after death. The most common type of ante mortem genital mutilations involves cultural practices such as male circumcision. Less common male mutilations such as subincisions are tribally based. Female genital mutilation is found particularly in African, Middle Eastern, or Asian populations. Self-inflicted genital injuries are most common in males and may be related to attempts at suicide, or to self-harming practices. The latter have a strong association with psychiatric illnesses. Postmortem injuries may arise from animal predation or deliberate mutilation of a corpse. The latter may be associated with ante mortem genital injuries in sadistic homicides. The range of possible causes of genital mutilations in forensic cases necessitates extremely careful evaluation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Alterations of morphology of lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators under the influence of gold nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Bucharskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, gold nanoparticles (GNPs are widely used in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnostics and therapy. Accordingly, the potential toxicity hazards of these nanomaterials and human safety concerns are gaining significant attention. Here, we report the effects of prolonged peroral administration of GNPs with different sizes (2, 15 and 50nm on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals. The experiment was conducted on 24 white mongrel male rats weighing 180–220g, gold nanospheres sizes 2, 15 and 50nm were administered orally for 15 days at a dosage of 190μg/kg of animal body weight. The GNPs were conjugated with polyethylene glycol to increase their biocompatibility and bioavailability. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of GNPs with size of 50nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of GNPs.

  11. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Dodge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont

  12. Optical and Morphological Studies of Thermally Evaporated PTCDI-C8 Thin Films for Organic Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PTCDI-C8 due to its relatively high photosensitivity and high electron mobility has attracted much attention in organic semiconductor devices. In this work, thin films of PTCDI-C8 with different thicknesses were deposited on silicon substrates with native silicon dioxide using a vacuum thermal evaporator. Several material characterization techniques have been utilized to evaluate the structure, morphology, and optical properties of these films. Their optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient have been extracted from the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE. X-ray reflectivity (XRR and atomic force microscopy (AFM were employed to determine the morphology and structure as well as the thickness and roughness of the PTCDI-C8 thin films. These films revealed a high degree of structural ordering within the layers. All the experimental measurements were performed under ambient conditions. PTCDI-C8 films have shown to endure ambient condition which allows pots-deposition characterization.

  13. Revealing the Chemistry and Morphology of Buried Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Monroe P; Gearba, Raluca; Stevenson, Keith J; Vanden Bout, David A; Dolocan, Andrei

    2017-07-06

    With power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of photovoltaics (OPVs) still lack wide adoption, despite significant recent advances. Currently, the most progress in OPV device performance is achieved by "trial-and-error" preparation procedures that lead to complex and largely unknown-despite tremendous analytical efforts-morphologies. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle, chemical imaging methodology that combines experimental high spatial sensitivity and chemical selectivity with theoretical modeling, capable of analyzing the three-dimensional composition and morphology of virtually any device. Allowing the precise measurement of composition and direct visualization of film morphology with depth, our approach reveals the intricate buried donor/acceptor (D/A) interface of a model polymer/fullerene system, poly(3-hexylthiphene-2,5-diyl)/[6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM). In particular, our technique is able to identify and quantify the D/A interface length, that is, the extent of molecular mixing at the D/A interface, a parameter crucial for device performance, yet never measured. Extracting this parameter allows demonstrating that, contrary to the general understanding, when starting with a fully mixed D/A phase in our model system, thermal annealing, which is known to substantially (however limited) increase the device performance by phase segregation, does not create but small amounts of pure phases, leaving the device mostly mixed, which limits the performance improvement.

  14. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zheng, Sixun, E-mail: szheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-10-15

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and {alpha},{omega}-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic-inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic-inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic-inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  15. Specific-pathogen-free pigs as an animal model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q T; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A; Cox, Eric

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C. trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C. trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C. trachomatis infection of the genital system.

  16. Effect of titanium oxide–polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Maliakal, Ashok; Sidorenko, Alexander; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide–polystyrene core–shell nanocomposite (TiO 2 –PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO 2 –PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as α-sexithiophene (α-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100× higher on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for α-sexithiophene (α-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO 2 –PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2×) increase in mobility with increasing TiO 2 –PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation rate produces organic polycrystalline films with small grain

  17. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During, D. N.; Ziegler, A.; Thompson, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how...... neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx) to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results: To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging...

  18. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becegato, Estella Z; Andrade, Janaina P; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Silva, Fernanda M de Oliveira e

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract of Sotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  19. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELLA Z. BECEGATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract ofSotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  20. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  1. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound

  2. Female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, M U

    2004-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of female genital mutilation (FGM) procedures in a Nigerian population. Five hundred consecutive women were evaluated for evidence of FGM. The WHO classification system was utilized. Demographic and sociocultural information was collected. Thirty-four percent of women were found to have some type of FGM. Type I and Type II procedures were the most common. Fifty-five percent of women were unaware they had FGM and 62% with FGM did not know the reason. Twenty-one percent of women said they were going to have FGM on their daughters. FGM is still broadly practiced among ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. Educational efforts need to be directed at eliminating this practice.

  3. Cosmetic genital surgery in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul L

    2017-08-11

    Clinicians are faced with increasing requests for female cosmetic genital surgery and prominent amongst these is labiaplasty. The implications of labiaplasty in adolescence are explored with emphasis on what is known about normal genital appearances, pubertal development, anatomy and physiology and the options for surgical intervention including risks and implications. Faced with what is known to date on female cosmetic genital surgery then such interventions should be avoided in adolescence in the absence of defined medical indications until at least the age of 18 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyesung; Brown, Patrick R; Bulović, Vladimir; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-11

    In this work, organic photovoltaics (OPV) with graphene electrodes are constructed where the effect of graphene morphology, hole transporting layers (HTL), and counter electrodes are presented. Instead of the conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) PEDOT:PSS HTL, an alternative transition metal oxide HTL (molybdenum oxide (MoO(3))) is investigated to address the issue of surface immiscibility between graphene and PEDOT:PSS. Graphene films considered here are synthesized via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using a copper catalyst and experimental issues concerning the transfer of synthesized graphene onto the substrates of OPV are discussed. The morphology of the graphene electrode and HTL wettability on the graphene surface are shown to play important roles in the successful integration of graphene films into the OPV devices. The effect of various cathodes on the device performance is also studied. These factors (i.e., suitable HTL, graphene surface morphology and residues, and the choice of well-matching counter electrodes) will provide better understanding in utilizing graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes in future solar cell applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Influence of aggregated morphology on carbon dioxide uptake of polythiophene conjugated organic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shanlin; Du, Zhengkun; Huang, Wei; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-01-01

    Two novel thiophene-based conjugated networks CMPs-TTT and CMPs-DTBT were designed and prepared with different steric configuration building blocks by FeCl 3 oxidative coupling polymerization. UV–vis spectra, FE-SEM and TEM images showed CMPs-TTT and CMPs-DTBT having the different aggregated morphologies. After porous analysis and gas adsorption test, the result showed CO 2 uptake capacity of CMPs-DTBT with amorphous aggregation model is 2.88 times and 2.66 times greater than that of CMPs-TTT with large lamellar structure model at 273 K and 298 K (1.0 bar), respectively. As a result, this communication proved that change the topological structure of the polymer can influence the CO 2 adsorption capacity significantly. - Graphical abstract: Two thiophene-based conjugated networks were prepared with different steric configuration building blocks, and they show various CO 2 uptake capacity and sorption isosteric enthalpies, although they have identical chemical constitution. - Highlights: • Topological-directed design and synthesis two conjugated porous polymers. • Two thiophene-based CMPs show different aggregated morphologies. • They exhibit similar porosity structure and different CO 2 uptake capacity

  6. Impact of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioural and Molecular Biology Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eAmbrosone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2 is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of its toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles 25nm in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria. The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioural assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35nM NPs and a LT50 of 38h. At sub lethal doses the morpho-physiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation.

  7. Pathologic morphology of experimental rats inside organs in an eco-toxic influence in uranium-mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manekenova, K.B.; Bekenova, F.K.; Dalabaeva, K.Sh.; Asanova, G.N.; Popova, M.R.; Dosmagambetova, Zh.K.; Konganbaev, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Complex of negative influence on experimental rats inside organs was studied in the region with uranium mining industry. Laboratory rats of both sexes were used in the experiments. All animals were divided into three groups A, B, C. Animals of A and B groups were kept directly in condition of uranium-mining deposit about for 1 month. Animals of C group were kept in adjoining Shantobe village for 1 month. At the end of the experiment the inside organs of experimental rats were morphologically examined. The inconvertible changes in liver, myocardium and lungs of all experimental rats groups were pathohistologically found out. This fact improves the negative ecological state not only in mine, but also in adjoining regions

  8. Electrochemical strain microscopy probes morphology-induced variations in ion uptake and performance in organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharagopal, R.; Flagg, L. Q.; Harrison, J. S.; Ziffer, M. E.; Onorato, J.; Luscombe, C. K.; Ginger, D. S.

    2017-07-01

    Ionic transport phenomena in organic semiconductor materials underpin emerging technologies ranging from bioelectronics to energy storage. The performance of these systems is affected by an interplay of film morphology, ionic transport and electronic transport that is unique to organic semiconductors yet poorly understood. Using in situ electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), we demonstrate that we can directly probe local variations in ion transport in polymer devices by measuring subnanometre volumetric expansion due to ion uptake following electrochemical oxidation of the semiconductor. The ESM data show that poly(3-hexylthiophene) electrochemical devices exhibit voltage-dependent heterogeneous swelling consistent with device operation and electrochromism. Our data show that polymer semiconductors can simultaneously exhibit field-effect and electrochemical operation regimes, with the operation modality and its distribution varying locally as a function of nanoscale film morphology, ion concentration and potential. Importantly, we provide a direct test of structure-function relationships by correlating strain heterogeneity with local stiffness maps. These data indicate that nanoscale variations in ion uptake are associated with local changes in polymer packing that may impede ion transport to different extents within the same macroscopic film and can inform future materials optimization.

  9. Multiple organ failure syndrome in the newborn: morphological and immunohistochemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Nemolato, Sonia; Faa, Armando; Obinu, Eleonora; Puxeddu, Elisabetta; Fraschini, Matteo; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Zaffanello, Marco; Fanos, Vassilios

    2012-10-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) syndrome, also known as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) represents a common but complex problem in critically ill patients in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) centers, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. MOF is considered the result of an inappropriate generalized inflammatory response of the newborn to a variety of acute insults. This study was aimed at analyzing, at histology, multiple organ pathological changes in two newborns admitted to the NICU center of our University Hospital, who showed a progressive clinical picture of MOF, in order to verify the pathological changes of vascular structures and of endothelial cells in the different organs affected by MOF. All the samples obtained at autopsy for histological examination showed specific organ pathological changes, especially related to modifications in vascular structures and, in particular, in endothelial cells. The most interesting findings were found in the intestinal barrier, in the lower respiratory tract and in the endothelial barrier. The loss of the gut barrier could allow the passage into the blood of microbial factors that could trigger the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) leading to endothelial damage. Our preliminary study underlines the principal role probably played by intestinal and vascular changes in the origin of MOF in newborns.

  10. Process-morphology scaling relations quantify self-organization in capillary densified nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ashley L; Stein, Itai Y; Cui, Kehang; Wardle, Brian L

    2018-02-07

    Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern. Both experiments and models show that further tuning of the cellular pattern is possible by altering the NF-substrate adhesion strength, which could enable the broad use of this facile approach to predictably pattern NF arrays for high value applications.

  11. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.S. Santos

    2012-12-01

    characterize histologically the structural components of the genital organs of male Spix's yellow-toothed cavies regarding their chronological development. For the analysis we used animals at birth and with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 and 150 days of age. Fragments of the epididymis, vas deferens, penis and accessory sex glands were collected, fixed and processed for light microscopic. The epididymis had a simple columnar epithelium and at each sexual stage the epididymis was noted different in size of the tubular lumen and regarding the presence of sperm in the lumen at 45 days of age. The epithelium of vas deferens was found to be pseudo-stratified columnar with increasing presence of stereocilia with advancing age. The vesicular gland showed a folded mucosa that varied according to stage of sexual development. The prostate was not very developed, with a small lumen in Spix's yellow-toothed cavy at birth and at 15 days of age; at 45 days showed variable wrinkling of the epithelium. The male genital organs underwent morphological transformations in line with age and sexual development, what helped to determine the onset of puberty, which in the species studied occurred at 45 days of age.

  12. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  13. Male genital modification : A sexual selection interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowanchilde, R

    1996-06-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.

  14. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Edouard; O. Olatunbosun; L. Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into ...

  15. In-line, roll-to-roll morphology analysis of organic solar cell active layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossander, Lea Hildebrandt; Dam, Henrik Friis; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2017-01-01

    We present the first comparative in situ small and wide angle X-ray scattering study of two polymers that are relevant for organic photovoltaics, during coating on a flexible substrate. From the obtained measurements we identified several differences between the drying of the two polymers. The po...

  16. Morphology versus vertical phase segregation in solvent annealed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalenko, A.; Stoyanova, V.; Pospisil, J.; Zhivkov, I.; Fekete, Ladislav; Karashanova, D.; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Oct (2015), s. 238981 ISSN 1110-662X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  17. Morphology and cytology of the olfactory organs in small juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2003-01-01

    The olfactory organs in juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris, studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), consisted of two bilaterally radial rosettes per specimen, fan-shaped, located medio-ventrally, one in each of two olfactory chambers. In D. aruanus...

  18. Control of the interphase interaction and morphology in the organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Murias, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2010), s. 45-50 ISSN 1934-8959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymer * interphase interaction * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.davidpublishing.com

  19. Female genital mutilation/cutting in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Afolabi, Bosede B; Bello, Oluwasomidoyin O; Adeyanju, Ayodeji S

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal. FGM/C is often performed by a nonmedical practitioner with the aim of fulfilling religious or cultural rites and sometimes for economic benefits with the resultant acute, intermediate and late complications. It is sometimes performed by medical practitioners when it is speciously believed that its medicalization reduces the complications associated with the practice. The sensitivity of FGM/C is amplified when compared to male circumcision and voluntary alterations of the female external genitalia like piercing and tattooing as similar practices. The magnitude of the physical and psychosocial consequences of FGM/C outweighs the presumed benefits of the procedures highlighting the need for improvement of the multiple preventive measures by all the stakeholders and in all the sectors.

  20. Health information interventions for female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Providing information and education to women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) could be an important influence on their healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare providers also need adequate knowledge and skills to provide good quality care to this population. Recent WHO guidelines on managing health complications from FGM contain best practice statements for health education and information interventions for women and providers. This qualitative evidence synthesis summarizes the values and preferences of girls and women living with FGM, and healthcare providers, together with other evidence on the context and conditions of these interventions. The synthesis highlights that healthcare providers lack skills and training to manage women, and women are concerned about the lack of discussion about FGM with providers. There is a need for more training for providers, and further research to understand how health information interventions may be perceived or experienced by women living with FGM in different contexts. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  1. [Morphological observation on hypopus of Lepidoglyphus destructor by optical microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, H; Ning, T; Qiang, C; Chao-Pin, L I

    2017-07-03

    Objective To observe the external morphology of Lepidoglyphus destructor hypopus under an optical microscope. Methods The samples were collected in a store of Chinese medicinal herbs in Huainan City in September, 2016, the L. destructor and the hypopus were isolated, and then made of slide specimens. The slide samples were prepared and observed under an optical microscope. Results The L. destructor hypopus and protonymph were found. The inactive hypopus was oval in shape, the feet were not welldeveloped, there was a distinct transverse seam on its back, and there were 2 pairs of genital sensory organs. Conclusion The optical microscopy shows the morphological characteristics of L. destructor hypopus, which can provide the basis for the biological classification and the prevention.

  2. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

  3. 'Who's who' in two different flower types of Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae: morphological and molecular analyses of flower organ identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Katja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2 were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are

  4. Morphology of immune organs after very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus infection in vaccinated hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, J P; Woźniakowski, G; Gaweł, A

    2016-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) outbreaks in poultry flocks may be associated with overriding of vaccine immune protection by very virulent (vvMDV) or very virulent plus (vv+MDV) strains. This paper presents the study on lymphoid organ morphology in the latent phase of MD caused by vv+MDV which break post-vaccinal protection in hens. We also immunohistochemically examined B and T populations as well as B/T and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of lymphocytes in lymphatic organs and, as a background, in MD lymphomas from non-lymphatic organs. The number of antigen expressed cells was evaluated as a percentage of positive cells in the one power field. Organ samples were collected from 24 dead reproductive hens (Ross 308 line) in age between 35-56 weeks, infected with vv+MDV. The hens originated from farms with MD outbreaks, despite earlier routine vaccination with CVI988/Rispens + HVT. The control organ samples originated from 15 clinically healthy hens at the same age and line, subjected to the same vaccination schedule. The number of CD3+, CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cells was significantly lower in MDV infected thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils in comparison to that found in the control organs. The proportion of CD4+ was also distinctly reduced in the thymus and limited in the spleen of MDV infected hens. This study revealed that infection with field vv+MDV isolates might break post-vaccinal protection and influence the central and peripheral immune system. The decrease in CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cell number in the thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils suggests that primarily these cells are involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity against MDV transformed cells during latency.

  5. Relation between morphology and work function of metals deposited on organic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, T. U.; Das, A.; Park, S.; Hoyer, W.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2004-07-01

    Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is employed to determine the work function of silver and indium films grown on two perylene derivatives, dimethylen-3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxyiimide (DiMe-PTCDI) and 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). The PTCDA and DiMe-PTCDI substrates were prepared as thick organic layers on sulphur passivated GaAs(0 0 1), where the molecular planes of PTCDA and DiMe-PTCDI are parallel and tilted with respect to the substrate surface, respectively. The crystalline structure of the evaporated metal layers is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is found to be strongly dependent on the underlying organic substrate. Correspondingly, work functions are found to be different by more than 200 meV in agreement with the crystalline orientation of the metal films.

  6. Reconstructive surgery for female genital mutilation starts sexual functioning in Sudanese woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazari, Atif B E; Berg, Rigmor C; Mohammed, Wafaa A; Gailii, Enas B; Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2013-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia and/or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other nontherapeutic reasons. The study aims to describe the method of and findings from reconstructive surgery for FGM victims. We present a case of a 24-year-old Sudanese female, who had undergone ritual FGM type III as a young girl. She had suffered from a large, vulval mass for the last 6 years and came to the clinic because of apareunia. We performed mass excision and reconstructive surgery of the mutilated genital tissue. The giant mass was successfully removed. Remaining genital tissues were approximated and sutured, with hemostasis assured for the reconstructed organs on each side. Reconstructive surgery for women who suffer sexual consequences from FGM is feasible, with a high degree of client acceptance and satisfaction. It restores some of women's natural genital anatomy, and offers the potential for improved female sexuality. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Micro–mesoporous iron oxides with record efficiency for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide: morphology driven catalysis for the degradation of organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A template-free solid-state synthesis of a morphologically controlled and highly organized iron(III)oxide micro–mesoporous Fenton catalyst has been engineered through a simple two-step synthetic procedure. The 3D nanoassembly of hematite nanoparticles (5–7 nm) organized into a ro...

  8. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  9. Effect of Pentacene-dielectric Affinity on Pentacene Thin Film Growth Morphology in Organic Field-effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Kim; M Jang; H Yang; C Park

    2011-12-31

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fabricated by depositing a thin film of semiconductor on the functionalized surface of a SiO{sub 2} dielectric. The chemical and morphological structures of the interface between the semiconductor and the functionalized dielectric are critical for OFET performance. We have characterized the effect of the affinity between semiconductor and functionalized dielectric on the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The crystalline microstructure/nanostructure of the pentacene semiconductor layers, grown on a dielectric substrate that had been functionalized with either poly(4-vinyl pyridine) or polystyrene (to control hydrophobicity), and grown under a series of substrate temperatures and deposition rates, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoemission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By comparing the morphological features of the semiconductor thin films with the device characteristics (field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and hysteresis) of the OFET devices, the effect of affinity-driven properties on charge modulation, charge trapping, and charge carrier transport could be described.

  10. A morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Lee, Jae-Yuk; Lee, Sang; Yun, Youngmin; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) were studied histologically to evaluate their morphological characteristics. Grossly, the VNO, encased by cartilage, has a paired tubular structure with a caudal blind end and a rostral connection through incisive ducts on the hard palate. In the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) consists of galectin-3-positive supporting cells, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, and basal cells. The vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) consists of a pseudostratified epithelium. The AOB strata included a vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), a glomerular layer (GL), a mitral/tufted cell layer, and a granular cell layer. All lectins used in this study, including Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), labeled the VSE with varying intensity. In the AOB, both the VNL and the GL reacted with BSI-B4, SBA, and WGA with varying intensity, but not with UEA-I. This is the first morphological study of the VNO and AOB of the Korean roe deer, which are similar to those of goats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea, structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  12. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex. PMID:19508706

  13. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Nuclear Morphology and Heterochromatin Organization from Whole-Mount Plant Tissue Using NucleusJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desset, Sophie; Poulet, Axel; Tatout, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context. Here, we describe a whole mount tissue preparation procedure coupled to DNA staining using the PicoGreen ® intercalating agent suitable for image analysis of the nucleus in living and fixed tissues. 3D Image analysis is then performed using NucleusJ, an open source ImageJ plugin, which allows for quantifying variations in nuclear morphology such as nuclear volume, sphericity, elongation, and flatness as well as in heterochromatin content and position in respect to the nuclear periphery.

  14. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  15. Expeditious organic-free assembly: morphologically controlled synthesis of iron oxides using microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Jiahui; Varma, Rajender S.

    2013-08-01

    A microwave hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of iron oxides, α-Fe2O3, β-FeOOH, and the junction of α-Fe2O3-β-FeOOH. This method is absolutely organic-free, and various structures could be obtained simply by changing the use of the iron source and NaOH. The as-prepared sea urchin-like β-FeOOH exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2.A microwave hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of iron oxides, α-Fe2O3, β-FeOOH, and the junction of α-Fe2O3-β-FeOOH. This method is absolutely organic-free, and various structures could be obtained simply by changing the use of the iron source and NaOH. The as-prepared sea urchin-like β-FeOOH exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and the reaction profile of the microwave system. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02663a

  16. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Smyslov, R; Khripunov, A K; Bugrov, A N; Ezdakova, K V; Kopitsa, G P; Chetverikov, Yu O; Tkachenko, A A; Angelov, B; Pipich, V; Szekely, N K; Baranchikov, A E; Latysheva, E; Haramus, V

    2017-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO 2 nanoparticles, Tb 3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl- o -aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb 3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO 2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb 3+ luminescence. (paper)

  17. Morphology and adsorption of chromium ion on uranium 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid metal organic framework (MOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vala Remy M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the synthesis of metal organic framework of uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid (U-H4btec MOF by solvothermal method. The obtained MOF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA. The morphology of the uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid MOF observed by SEM, revealed the presence of flaky porous structure. Adsorption of Cr3+ from aqueous solution onto the uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid MOF was systematically studied. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to determine the adsorption capacity of the MOF to form a monolayer. Kinetic determination of the adsorption of Cr3+ suggested both chemisorption and physisorption probably due to the presence of carbonyl groups within the MOF and its porous structure.

  18. El pene voluntarioso: parcialidad de la pulsión genital. // The self-willed penis: partiality of the genital drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chia.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work, besides presenting the characteristics of the so-called genital stage regarding the alterations each one of the components of the drive suffer, examines the idea that the genital stage constitutes the integration —either biological or psychic— of the partial drives. In this sense, it aims to show, based on descriptions done by several thinkers not necessarily psychoanalysts, that the genitality, at least in its male version, turns out to be problematic since it introduces a relation of surprise in the order of the egoic representations of the individual as regards to its own sex organ. By this way, we paradoxically conclude that the genitality is the expression of a partial drive (as opposed to an apparent totality whose source is the penis. // Este trabajo, además de poner de presente las características de la llamada fase genital, en lo tocante a las modificaciones que se suceden en cada uno de los componentes de la pulsión, interroga la idea de que la fase genital constituye la integración acaso biológica, acaso psíquica- de las pulsiones parciales. En este sentido intenta mostrar, tomando como base descripciones hechas por varios pensadores no necesariamente psicoanalistas, que la genitalidad, al menos en su versión masculina, resulta problemática en la medida en que introduce una relación de extrañeza en el orden yoico, del sujeto respecto a su propio órgano sexual. Por esta vía se concluye con la idea paradójica de que la genitalidad es la expresión de una pulsión parcial (en oposición a una aparente totalidad cuya fuente es el pene.

  19. Interface Engineering and Morphology Study of Thin Film Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei

    Solar energy harvesting through photovoltaic conversion has gained great attention as a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution to meet the rapidly increasing global energy demand. Currently, the high cost of solar-cell technology limits its widespread use. This situation has generated considerable interest in developing alternative solar-cell technologies that reduce cost through the use of less expensive materials and processes. Perovskite solar cells provide a promising low-cost technology for harnessing this energy source. In Chapter two, a moisture-assist method is introduced and studied to facilitate grain growth of solution processed perovskite films. As an approach to achieve high-quality perovskite films, I anneal the precursor film in a humid environment (ambient air) to dramatically increase grain size, carrier mobility, and charge carrier lifetime, thus improving electrical and optical properties and enhancing photovoltaic performance. It is revealed that mild moisture has a positive effect on perovskite film formation, demonstrating perovskite solar cells with 17.1% power conversion efficiency. Later on, in Chapter four, an ultrathin flexible device delivering a PCE of 14.0% is introduced. The device is based on silver-mesh substrates exhibiting superior durability against mechanical bending. Due to their low energy of formation, organic lead iodide perovskites are also susceptible to degradation in moisture and air. The charge transport layer therefore plays a key role in protecting the perovskite photoactive layer from exposure to such environments, thus achieving highly stable perovskite-based photovoltaic cells. Although incorporating organic charge transport layers can provide high efficiencies and reduced hysteresis, concerns remain regarding device stability and the cost of fabrication. In this work, perovskite solar cells that have all solution-processed metal oxide charge transport layers were demonstrated. Stability has been

  20. Morphological features, distribution and compartmental organization of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced-diaphorase interneurons in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernácer, Javier; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2005-08-29

    Striatal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive (+) cells are one of the major classes of striatal interneurons. The present study analyzes their somatodendritic morphology, distribution pattern, and compartmental organization in the caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen (Put) of nine normal human brains. The following striatal territories are examined: 1) the precommissural head of the CN; 2) the postcommissural head of the CN; 3) the body of the CN; 4) the gyrus of the CN; 5) the tail of the CN; 6) the precommissural Put; and 7) the postcommissural Put. Three morphologically distinct types of NADPH-d+ neurons were found in each of these territories. The two most common NADPH-d+ neurons displayed an ovoid or triangular perikaryon from which several thick primary dendrites emerged, although much less numerous, bipolar-shaped NADPH-d+ cells were also observed. The highest density of NADPH-d+ neurons was found in the gyrus of the CN, followed by the body of the CN, tail of the CN, postcommissural head of the CN, postcommissural Put, precommissural head of the CN, and precommissural Put. The matrix was the striatal compartment with the densest NADPH-d+ neuronal population. Some of these cells also occurred in the center and peripheral regions of the striosomes located in the head of the CN and in the Put. In the body and gyrus of the CN, the striosomes were largely devoid of these striatal interneurons. Knowledge of the density and distribution of these interneurons should advance our understanding of the organization of the normal human striatum and help to evaluate the effects of neurodegenerative processes on cell density. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of the vestibular end organs. [morphological indexes of inner ear anatomy and microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, H. H.; Ades, H. W.; West, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vestibular end organs, after chemical fixation, were freeze dried, coated with gold and palladium, and studied in the scanning microscope. Scanning microscopy gives a good three dimensional view of the sensory areas and allows study of both gross anatomy and microstructures. Cross anatomical features of the structure of the ampullae are demonstrated. The form of the statoconia in different species of animals is shown. New aspects of the structure of the sensory hairs are revealed. The hair bundles in the central areas of the cristae and in the striola of the maculae differ structurally from the hair bundles at the periphery of the sensory regions. Furthermore, some hair bundles consisting of very short stereocilia were observed. The relationship between the cupula and the statoconial membrane to the epithelial surface is discussed.

  3. Data on the detail information of influence of substrate temperature on the film morphology and photovoltaic performance of non-fullerene organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data contains additional data related to the article “Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Film Morphology and Photovoltaic Performance of Non-fullerene Organic Solar Cells” (Jicheng Zhang et al., In press [1]. Data include measurement and characterization instruments and condition, detail condition to fabricate norfullerene solar cell devices, hole-only and electron-only devices. Detail condition about how to control the film morphology of devices via tuning the temperature of substrates was also displayed. More information and more convincing data about the change of film morphology for active layers fabricated from different temperature, which is attached to the research article of “Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Film Morphology and Photovoltaic Performance of Non-fullerene Organic Solar Cells” was given.

  4. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  5. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  6. Correction of Free Radical Lipid Oxidation in Internal Female Genital Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Belyaevsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper descries a specific view on the mechanism responsible for development of the resistance of an inflammatory process in the female genital tract to drugs and on the role of a free radical process activation factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Emphasis is laid on the importance of measures to diminish cell membrane permeability, by correcting their structural and functional states with antioxidants. Key words: inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative defense, cell membrane structural and functional state.

  7. The distribution of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in the genital tract of normal artificial insemination bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, N A; Rosendal, S; Miller, R B

    1985-01-01

    Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.

  8. Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Lamacz, M

    1987-12-01

    Three pediatric cases of girls, one with idiopathic precocious puberty and two with a birth defect of the sex organs, exemplify the proposition that genital exposure and the physical examination of the genitals may be experienced subjectively as nosocomial sexual abuse. Negative sequelae persisted into adulthood. The dogma of the new victimology industry is that children never lie about sexual abuse. Consequently providers of pediatric and ephebiatric (pubertal and adolescent) sexual health care already are progressively at risk of being falsely accused of nosocomial (from the Greek nosokomeion, from nosos, disease, + komeion, to take care of: pertaining to or originating in a hospital, as nosocomial disease) sexual abuse.

  9. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase

  10. A rose by any other name? Rethinking the similarities and differences between male and female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Robert; Svoboda, J Steven

    2007-09-01

    In this article, we offer a critical examination of the tendency to segregate discussion of surgical alterations to the male and female genitals into separate compartments--the first known as circumcision, the second as genital mutilation. We argue that this fundamental problem of definition underlies the considerable controversy surrounding these procedures when carried out on minors, and that it hinders objective discussion of the alleged benefits, harms, and risks. We explore the variable effects of male and female genital surgeries, and we propose a scale of damage for male circumcision to complement the World Health Organization's categorization of female genital mutilation. The origins of the double standard identified are placed in historical perspective, and in a brief conclusion we make a plea for greater gender neutrality in the approach to this contentious issue.

  11. Immunocontraception in Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): morphologic changes in reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Murali; Bruner, R; Schlafer, Donald H; Yarrow, Greg K; Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell A

    2011-12-01

    Eastern gray squirrels (EGS) (Sciurus carolinensis) damage trees through bark stripping or gnawing due to territorial marking or agonistic gnawing behavior in concert with higher densities. This study was conducted to determine the effects of a contraceptive vaccine on EGS and its reproductive organ histology. Free-ranging urban EGS were vaccinated with the immunocontraceptive GonaCon. All EGS were > or = 6 mo of age as determined by a combination of pelage characteristics and body weights. The vaccine was administered by injection at a dosage rate of 0.4 ml containing 400 microg of GnRH-mollusk protein conjugate i.m. in the thigh to 33 EGS (17 male [m], 16 female [f]) in trapping session 1 (TS1), 23 (14 m, 9 f) in trapping session 2 (TS2), and 11 (8 m, 3 f) in trapping session 3 (TS3). A sham injection containing 0.4 ml saline-AdjuVac was given as control to 22 EGS (16 m, 6 f) in TS1, 20 (12 m, 8 f) in TS2, and 8 (4 m, 4 f) in TS3. In the last trapping session (TS4), 35 EGS (16 treated, 19 control) were killed for necropsy to evaluate histologic changes in testes and ovaries. Treated EGS males had testicular, prostatic, and epididymal atrophy compared with control EGS males. The tubuli seminiferi and prostatic glandular lumen of treated EGS males were atrophic, and the epididymal lumen contained no sperm cells. No histologic changes were observed in treated EGS females; however, females likely were not collected when changes due to GonaCon would have been observed. There were no observable histologic differences in the pituitary gland of treated and control EGS. There were no statistically significant differences in either testosterone or progesterone concentrations between control and treated EGS. Although there were no serious side effects to the vaccine, six EGS developed injection site abscesses. GonaCon may be a potential tool for EGS population control.

  12. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  14. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  16. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  17. [Forensic medical evaluation of a burn injury from combustion of flammable fluids on the human body based on morphological changes in internal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushkadamov, Z K

    2009-01-01

    The author describes morphological features of splanchnic organs in the patients that suffered an injury from combustion of flammable fluids at the body surface. The burn injury is a specific form of trauma originating from a combination of several injurious factors including thermoinhalation and intoxication with combustion products in the absence of oxygen in the centre of the hot spot. A rather specific combination of morphological changes in internal organs along with results of laboratory studies provides the most reliable criterion for forensic medical diagnosis of burn injuries from combustion of flammable fluids on the human body.

  18. Crystal growth mechanisms and morphological control of the prototypical metal-organic framework MOF-5 revealed by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillas, Pablo; Anderson, Michael W; Attfield, Martin P

    2012-11-26

    Crystal growth of the metal-organic framework MOF-5 was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the first time. Growth under low supersaturation conditions was found to occur by a two-dimensional or spiral crystal growth mechanism. Observation of developing nuclei during the former reveals growth occurs through a process of nucleation and spreading of metastable and stable sub-layers revealing that MOFs may be considered as dense phase structures in terms of crystal growth, even though they contain sub-layers consisting of ordered framework and disordered non-framework components. These results also support the notion this may be a general mechanism of surface crystal growth at low supersaturation applicable to crystalline nanoporous materials. The crystal growth mechanism at the atomistic level was also seen to vary as a function of the growth solution Zn/H(2)bdc ratio producing square terraces with steps parallel to the direction or rhombus-shaped terraces with steps parallel to the direction when the Zn/H(2)bdc ratio was >1 or about 1, respectively. The change in relative growth rates can be explained in terms of changes in the solution species concentrations and their influence on growth at different terrace growth sites. These results were successfully applied to the growth of as-synthesized cube-shaped crystals to increase expression of the {111} faces and to grow octahedral crystals of suitable quality to image using AFM. This modulator-free route to control the crystal morphology of MOF-5 crystals should be applicable to a wide variety of MOFs to achieve the desired morphological control for performance enhancement in applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. African, male attitudes on female genital mutilation: an Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Usama; Rane, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice where female genital organs are altered for non-medical reasons. The custom is outlawed in Australia and associated with an array of medical consequences. Due to the recent influx of migrants from regions endemic to FGM, the practice is becoming a growing concern locally. This federal government funded study aimed to elicit the poorly understood perceptions that young, Sub-Saharan African, migrant males residing in Townsville, Australia have on FGM. Through piloted questionnaires we found that amongst the 67 participants, 23.9% believed that FGM should be allowed under Australian Law. The independent predictors of supportive attitudes in favour of FGM were having resided in Australia for five or less years (p = .016, 95% CI 0.99-8.09) and coming from a basic educational background (high school or TAFE) (p = .003, 95% CI 1.3-12.4). This study also found that participant perceptions on FGM were amenable to change through educational interventional strategies. Impact statement Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice where female genital organs are altered for non-medical reasons. The role that males play in the continuation of this outlawed practice remains poorly understood. No research has ever been conducted in Australia looking at the perception that young, migrant males have on FGM. Several European-based studies have examined the perceptions of older, poorly educated, migrant male cohorts. Generally, these studies show that the attitudinal support for FGM and intention to practice remains relatively high amongst these cohorts. This study examined the attitudes of a young, Sub-Saharan African, migrant, male cohort residing in Australia. This adds to the literature base by establishing the perceptions and associated socio-demographic variables of this unique and influential subset of the migrant population. This directly facilitates the development of interventional strategies

  20. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  1. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti | Martinelli | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year.

  2. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

  3. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  4. Anti-wear properties of the molluscan shell Scapharca subcrenata: Influence of surface morphology, structure and organic material on the elementary wear process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Limei; Tian, Ximei; Wang, Yinci; Hu, Guangliang; Ren, Luquan

    2014-01-01

    As a typical natural biological mineralisation material, molluscan shells have excellent wear-resistance properties that result from the interactions amongst biological coupling elements such as morphology, structure and material. The in-depth study of the wear-resistance performance of shells and the contribution made by each coupling element may help to promote the development of new bionic wear-resistant devices. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of surface morphology (rib distribution on the shell), structure (rib coupled with nodules) and material (organic matter) on the anti-wear performance of the molluscan Scapharca subcrenata shell. The effect and contribution of each of these biological coupling elements were systematically investigated using the comparative experiment method. All three were found to exert significant effects on the shell's wear-resistance ability, and their individual contributions to that ability were revealed. Organic material can be classified as the principal coupling element, rib morphology as the secondary coupling element and the combined rib-nodule structure as the general coupling element. - Highlights: • We found that the S. subcrenata shell has an anti-wear ability. • This is related to the morphology, structure and material of the shell surface. • Organic material is the principal coupling element in its anti-wear ability. • Rib morphology could be considered the secondary coupling element. • The coupled structure could be regarded as the general coupling element

  5. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

  6. I knew how it feels but couldn’t save my daughter; testimony of an Ethiopian mother on female genital mutilation/cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie; Mekete, Beza Tamirat

    2017-01-01

    Background World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation/cutting as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is common in Ethiopia, especially among Somali (99%) ethnic groups. Even though FGM/C is labeled illegal practice according to the revised 2005 Penal Code of the country, the practice is still responsible for misery of many girls in Ethiopia. Me...

  7. Templating Organosilicate Vitrification Using Unimolecular Self Organizing Polymers: Evolution of Morphology and Nanoporosity Development with Network Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Star-shaped polymers with a compatibilizing outer corona were dispersed into a thermosetting organosilicate matrix and used to create a nanoporous material. These environmentally responsive copolymers create nano-sized domains through a matrix-mediated collapse of the interior core of the core-corona polymeric structure. This approach relies on the outer corona of the star to compatibilize the insoluble core with the thermosetting resin and prevent aggregation such that these individual molecules template the crosslinking of the matrix and ultimately generate a single hole. The organic polymer was selectively thermalized leaving behind its latent image in the matrix with a pore size that reflected the size of the polymer molecule, and provided the expected reduction in dielectric constant. The morphology development as a function of arm number, molecular weight and volume fraction in mixtures with organosilicates as a function of cure/network conversion was investigated by SAXS, SANS, DMA, TEM and FE-SEM measurements. Amphiphilic star-shaped polymers of various block lengths and arm number, prepared by tandem controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from dendritic initiators, were further tailored to facilitate contrast enhancement for various measurements by the incorporation of either ferrocenyl units or deuterated monomers. The pore sizes achieved by the star and dendrimer-like star macromolecular architectures range from ∼7 to 40nm, depending on the molecular weight and architecture

  8. Assessment of Morphological and Functional Changes in Organs of Rats after Intramuscular Introduction of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sizova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7 with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injection sites. The quantity of muscle fibers having positive Perls’ stain increased with increasing number of injections. However, the concentration of the most chemical elements and iron significantly decreased in the whole skeletal muscle system (injection sites are not included. Consequently, it increased up to the control level after the sixth and the seventh injections. Among the studied organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen, Caspase-3 expression was revealed only in spleen. The expression had a direct dependence on the number of injections. Processes of iron elimination from preparation containing nanoparticles and their agglomerates had different intensity.

  9. Templating Organosilicate Vitrification Using Unimolecular Self Organizing Polymers: Evolution of Morphology and Nanoporosity Development with Network Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-C.

    2004-12-13

    Star-shaped polymers with a compatibilizing outer corona were dispersed into a thermosetting organosilicate matrix and used to create a nanoporous material. These environmentally responsive copolymers create nano-sized domains through a matrix-mediated collapse of the interior core of the core-corona polymeric structure. This approach relies on the outer corona of the star to compatibilize the insoluble core with the thermosetting resin and prevent aggregation such that these individual molecules template the crosslinking of the matrix and ultimately generate a single hole. The organic polymer was selectively thermalized leaving behind its latent image in the matrix with a pore size that reflected the size of the polymer molecule, and provided the expected reduction in dielectric constant. The morphology development as a function of arm number, molecular weight and volume fraction in mixtures with organosilicates as a function of cure/network conversion was investigated by SAXS, SANS, DMA, TEM and FE-SEM measurements. Amphiphilic star-shaped polymers of various block lengths and arm number, prepared by tandem controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from dendritic initiators, were further tailored to facilitate contrast enhancement for various measurements by the incorporation of either ferrocenyl units or deuterated monomers. The pore sizes achieved by the star and dendrimer-like star macromolecular architectures range from {approx}7 to 40nm, depending on the molecular weight and architecture.

  10. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  11. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

    2010-01-01

    testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...

  12. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  13. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  14. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  15. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  16. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  17. Rectal Lipoma Associated with Genital Prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female genital prolapse. In the present case, as the patient is post‑menopausal and with co‑existing partial rectal prolapse, vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. Diagnostic approaches usually include endoscopy, contrast‑enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, and barium enema. Endoscopic biopsies usually fail to diagnose ...

  18. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6[3]: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...

  19. FEMALE_GENITAL. NEW.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital,. Sagamu. KEY WORDS: Female genital. Cutting ... need to improve female education among this population, intensify anti-FGC campaigns and more ..... it as a health problem and a human rights abuse issue that.

  20. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Groeneveld

    www.sciencedirect.com. Opinion article. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights. A.E. Groeneveld. Department of Urology, Mbabane Clinic, Swaziland. Received 22 November 2012; received in revised form 1st December 2012; accepted 1st December 2012. 'All procedures that involve partial or complete ...

  1. Female genital mutilation - from tradition to femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose

  2. Male genital hygiene beliefs and practices in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M S; Bukusi, E; Cohen, C R; Shell-Duncan, B A; Holmes, K K

    2004-12-01

    Attitudes and practices concerning genital hygiene may influence topical microbicide use by men. This study examines knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene, genital hygiene, circumcision and hygiene, and to genital hygiene before and after sex among men in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted 463 interviews of men recruited by respondent driven sampling techniques and 10 focus group discussions with a subsample of 100 volunteers from this group. Men were asked individual quantitative survey and qualitative group discussion questions about general hygiene behaviours, genital hygiene, and the temporal relation of genital hygiene behaviours to sexual encounters. Bathing once daily was associated with education, income, and inside tap water. Genital washing aside from regular bathing and washing before sex ever were negatively associated with bathroom crowding. Genital hygiene before the most recent sexual encounter was uncommon and negatively associated with HIV risk perception, bathroom crowding, and ethnicity. Men believed genital hygiene before sex would arouse suspicions of infidelity or cool sexual ardour. Genital hygiene after sex was associated with education, religion, and having inside tap water. Genital hygiene after the most recent sexual encounter was associated with age, income, and with men having at least one child. Genital hygiene behaviours were associated with resource access factors and group discussions suggest that they are modulated by interactions in sexual partnerships. Topical microbicides may improve hygiene before and after sex.

  3. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Genital tuberculosis: an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai B; Naha, Moumita; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Arora, Raksha

    2014-10-01

    To assess the role of genital tuberculosis as an etiological factor for ectopic pregnancy. A total of eighteen women of ectopic pregnancy with concomitant female genital tuberculosis and a total of one hundred thirty six patients of ectopic pregnancy over a period of three years were enrolled. Mean age of patients with ectopic pregnancy and concomitant female genital tuberculosis was twenty-six and mean parity was 0.7. Most of these patients were in poor socio-economic group. Diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis was made by presence of granuloma in histopathological examination of endometrial aspirate or tubal specimen, positive acid fast bacilli in microscopy or culture, positive polymerase chain reaction in endometrial tissue and positive findings of genital tuberculosis during laparoscopy or laparotomy. Genital tuberculosis was responsible for 13.2% of all cases of ectopic pregnancy in the present study. Genital tuberculosis appears to be an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India.

  5. Effects of Organic amendments and Biofertilizer Application on some Morphological Traits and Yield of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi darzi

    2017-02-01

    absorption of mineral nutrients like N, P and K by plants and then increase of biomass amount has a positive effect on secondary metabolites concentration such as essential oil and subsequently the enhanced essential oil content. Increased essential oil yield in treatment of 12 tonnes vermicompost per hectare and biofertilizer can be owing to the improvement of yield attributes such as herb dry yield and essential oil content. Conclusion:Integrated application of organic manures and biofertilizer positively influenced morphological traits and yield of hyssop, as the highest herb dry yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were obtained in treatment of integrated application of 12 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer and treatment of integrated application of 10 t/ha compost, 6 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer. On the base of research results, organic amendments and biofertilizer application can be caused in improvement of morphological characters and yield of hyssop.

  6. Strategies for optimizing organic solar cells. Correlation between morphology and performance in DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynands, David

    2011-02-04

    This work investigates organic solar cells made of small molecules. Using the material system {alpha}{omega}-bis(dicyanovinylene)-sexithiophene (DCV6T)-C{sub 60} as model, the correlation between the photovoltaic active layer morphology and performance of the solar cell is studied. The chosen method for controlling the layer morphology is applying different substrate temperatures (T{sub sub}) during the deposition of the layer. In neat DCV6T layers, substrate heating induces higher crystallinity as is shown by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The absorption spectrum displays a more distinct fine structure, a redshift of the absorption peaks by up to 11 nm and a significant increase of the low energy absorption band at T{sub sub}=120 C compared to T{sub sub}=30 C. Contrary to general expectations, the hole mobility as measured in field effect transistors and with the method of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) does not increase in samples with higher crystallinity. In mixed layers, investigations by AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy reveal a stronger phase separation induced by substrate heating, leading to larger domains of DCV6T. This is indicated by an increased grain size and roughness of the topography, the increase of the DCV6T luminescence signal, and the more distinct fine structure of the DCV6T related absorption. Based on the results of the morphology analysis, the effect of different substrate temperatures on the performance of solar cells with flat and mixed DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions is investigated. In flat heterojunction solar cells, a slight increase of the photocurrent by about 10% is observed upon substrate heating, attributed to the increase of DCV6T absorption. In mixed DCV6T:C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cells, much more pronounced enhancements are achieved. By varying the substrate temperature from -7 C to 120 C, it is shown that the stronger phase separation upon substrate heating facilitates the

  7. Anatomy and arterial vascularization of female genital system of margay (Leopardus weidii

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    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The margay (Leopardus wiedii belongs to Carnivora order and present’s nocturnal habits. There are few studies using this specie, whereas it is between feline species vulnerable to extinction. Thus, we propose a descriptive study about female genital system and behavior of the arteries responsible for the blood supply to these organs in margay. It used one exemplary victim of poaching that to death. The animal was stored in freezer. Subsequent to defrost at room temperature, it proceeded with the solution injection Leoprene Latex ‘650’ colored in red for better identification of vessels before the adjacent strutures. The specimen was fixed using an aqueous 10% formaldehyde with subsequent immersion in the same fixative solution. The genital system were dissected and the organs and arterial branches were identified and photodocumented. The female genital system of margay consists of a pair of ovaries, uterus with a pair of uterine horns, vagina and vulva. The arterial distribution of female system have a common vessel to iliac artery which branches and leads to internal pudendal artery sends a branch along the pudendal nerve pathway, urogenital artery. This, we performed divided into two branches, cranial and caudal. The cranial branch irrigates laterally cervix and uterine horns and caudal branch, vagina and vulva. The ovarian arteries, peers, originate from abdominal aorta only vascularization the ovaries. The female genital system and vascularization of the genitals organs of margay resembles of domestic carnivores including cats and some wild felines like the ocelot and find differences with the same description held in other domestic and wild species.

  8. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso AA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  11. Evolution of external female genital mutilation: why do males harm their mates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginot, Pierick; Uhl, Gabriele; Fromhage, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition may select for male reproductive traits that influence female mating or oviposition rate. These traits may induce fitness costs to the female; however, they may be costly for the males as well as any decrease in female fitness also affects male fitness. Male adaptations to sperm competition manipulate females by altering not only female behaviour or physiology, but also female morphology. In orb-weaving spiders, mating may entail mutilation of external structures of the female genitalia, which prevents genital coupling with subsequent males. Here, we present a game theoretical model showing that external female genital mutilation is favoured even under relatively high costs of mutilation, and that it is favoured by a high number of mate encounters per female and last-male sperm precedence.

  12. Morphologic features of Sancassania berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae), a common mite of stored products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) is the leading threatening mite in breeding industry of Eupolyphaga sinensis and public health. Living specimens of S. berlesei were obtained from the surface of Eupolyphaga sinensis and purified with double-distilled water. The egg, larva, nymph, hypopus, adult male and female of S. berlesei were screened and picked out under microscope. Morphological variations of S. berlesei, including its legs, setae, external genitalia and accessories, are clearly identified under SEM. The larva has three pairs of legs, with no leaf-like setae, yet its coxal rod is well-developed. By nymph stage, four pairs of legs and the fourth dorsal seta arise, whereas the genital area looks still under-developed. At hypopus, the claws and tarsules appear well-built, and leaf-like setae, setae of tibia and setae of genu are seen. The sucker plate totally contains nine suckers and four shell-like dimplings in which there are symmetric distributions with 1 pair of central suckers, 2 pairs of side suckers and 1 pair of anterior suckers, respectively. One pear-like posterior sucker is located at the back of sucker plate. All suckers are smooth except for anterior sucker with radial stripe. The genital sense organ of adults exhibits itself with cordiform external aspect and typical ossification texture; whereas the male is dissimilar with the female regarding seta number on the genital sense organ. Description of the morphological structure in great detail for S. berlesei tends to supply the important information for the taxonomy and further study. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF PELVIC PAIN IN YOUNG WOMEN WITH GENITALS INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyakova A.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive issue of modern gynecology can be considered widespread and substantial "rejuvenation" of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs in women of reproductive age.Ascending path of infection prevails in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the internal genital organs. Invasion of microbes in the internal genital organs may occur during the various manipulations, different pelvic operations and in the postpartum period. The degree of colonization of microorganisms of the vagina and cervix plays an important role in the development of the infectious process. In obstetrics and gynecology inflammatory diseases can be caused by pathogenic and non- pathogenic (opportunistic microorganisms. Among the pathogens causing the defeat of the female genital organs, most often found N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis. Opportunistic pathogens, part of the normal flora of the genital tract, in certain circumstances, can become agents of post-partum, post-abortion, post-operative complications and inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs. Among the opportunistic pathogens that are part of the normal microflora of the female genital organs, found hemolytic and non-hemolytic streptococci (the most important are streptococci groups A, B, D, coagulasenegative staphylococci and micrococci (allocated 60% and 35% of healthy women, respectively. They can cause secondary infectious processes of the urinary system, inflammatory diseases of the genital organs of pregnant women and mothers with immunosuppression. These microorganisms are often the agents of inflammatory diseases in the newborn, especially with low weight and malnutrition children. Gram-negative opportunistic bacteria that are isolated from the genital tract, can also be agents of inflammatory processes of various localization. Escherichia coli is the most frequently obtain and cause urinary tract infection in pregnant and postpartum women. It is also causative agent of

  14. Female genital mutilation and cutting: An anatomical review and alternative rites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden. FGM/C procedures are classified into four types. Infibulation is the narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning of the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris. Deinfibulation is necessary to improve health and well-being and to allow intercourse or facilitate childbirth. Clitoral reconstruction is feasible for genitally mutilated patients. Female genital cosmetic surgery should be classed as FGM/C type IV. Both immediate and long-term complications are associated with FGM/C. It remains primarily a cultural rather than a religious practice. Different interventions have been used to persuade communities to abandon it. Alternative rites of passage are seen as an important strategy for eliminating this harmful practice. Such alternative rituals avoid genital cutting and involve educating girls about family life and women's roles, exchange of gifts, celebration, and a public declaration for community recognition. FGM/C is a violation of human rights and must be abandoned. Clin. Anat. 30:81-88, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  16. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: cancer epidemiology;complications;Canada;epidemiology;Evaluation;Female;Genital Diseases,Female;Humans;Incidence;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Risk Factors;Uterine Cervical Neoplasms;virology. Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection du...

  17. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, O N; Elusiyan, J B E; Adeyemi, A B; Taiwo, O T

    2012-06-01

    For more than 25 years, efforts have been geared towards curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to see if all these efforts have made any impact in reducing the prevalence of FGM appreciably in the south-West of Nigeria. To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation and profiling the trends of FGM affected patients. A prospective study based on direct observation of the external genitalia by health-care workers . Five hundred and sixty five females less than 15 years of age. The children emergency and gynaecological wards of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria from 1st of January to December 31s 2007. Forty one point nine percent of the patients examined had female genital mutilation, 93.2% of these had the procedure before attaining the age of one year. Type 2 FGM predominated (58.22%). The procedure was performed predominantly (64.6%) by traditional birth attendants. The decision to have the procedure done was influenced in 78% of cases by mothers and grandmothers. In 35.4% of cases, there were immediate and short term complications. Demands of tradition predominated (59.1%) as the most important reason for the practice of female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM appears to be still highly prevalent and resistant to change probably due to deep rooted socio-cultural factors. Strategies such as public education campaigns highlighting its negative impact on health and disregard for human rights should be evolved.

  18. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ≥ 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women.

  19. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  20. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Levi M. J. [School of Polymers; Bhattacharya, Mithun [School of Polymers; Wu, Qi [School of Polymers; Youm, Sang Gil [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Nesterov, Evgueni E. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Morgan, Sarah E. [School of Polymers

    2017-06-28

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  1. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Levi M J; Bhattacharya, Mithun; Wu, Qi; Youm, Sang Gil; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Morgan, Sarah E

    2017-07-12

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  2. Urologic and male genital manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge; Beça, Sara; Cid, María C

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis, which predominantly affects small-sized blood vessels. Major organ involvement includes the upper/lower respiratory tract and kidneys. In contrast, genitourinary disease is rare in GPA patients, reported in <1% of cases in large cohorts. Manifestations at this level include prostatitis, destructive urethritis, genital ulcers, orchitis and renal masses. Also, high-dose cyclophosphamide, one of the main immunosuppressive drugs used for GPA treatment, is associated with bladder toxicity, i.e., hemorrhagic cystitis and cancer. Here, we review the main urogenital symptoms associated with this ANCA-associated vasculitis. In addition, cyclophosphamide-induced urologic complications are detailed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical or medical interventions for female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Deinfibulation can prevent or treat gynecological and obstetric complications in women living with type III female genital mutilation (FGM), and subsequently improve childbirth outcomes. Recently published WHO guidelines recommend use of deinfibulation in both circumstances. However, to really impact practice, evidence-based guidance needs to be matched with evidence-based implementation strategies. This qualitative evidence synthesis provides information on the factors that facilitate or act as barriers to use of deinfibulation, and the context and conditions that are necessary for implementing the procedure, including healthcare providers' knowledge and experience, the service delivery environment, as well as broader health system contexts. This information is of great value for policy makers and others considering this as an option for better clinical care of women living with FGM. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  4. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  5. Existential Anxiety in Diagnostic Process of Genital Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hallac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to have a cancer diagnosis is a concrete threat and a stressful life experience for individuals. Cancer is interpreted as fatal, painful, frightening and scary disease by the patients and makes them realize the presence of death and their own mortality. Facing the reality of death brings an existential questioning of self. This questioning is directly related to the interpretation and biopsychosocial characteristics of the individual and clearly influenced by the patients’ previous experiences and type of cancer involved. The occurrence of a genital organ cancer would lead patient to evaluate the meaning of being human and review his life, his values and his routine habits. This process has significant effect upon the patient’s response and coping mechanisms with cancer. Nurses have a unique position among medical team members for helping such patients to find a meaning in their life by providing necessary support at every stage of the cancer.

  6. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. T...

  7. Determination of Three-Dimensional Morphology and Inner Structure of Second-Phase Inclusions in Metals by Non-Aqueous Solution Electrolytic and Room Temperature Organic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Guo; Keming Fang; Hanjie Guo; Yiwa Luo; Shengchao Duan; Xiao Shi; Wensheng Yang

    2018-01-01

    The secondary-phase particles in metals, particularly those composed of non-metallic materials, are often detrimental to the mechanical properties of metals; thus, it is crucial to control inclusion formation and growth. One of the challenges is determining the three-dimensional morphology and inner structures of such inclusions. In this study, a non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and a room-temperature organic technique were developed based on the principle of electrochemistry to deter...

  8. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonanc...

  9. Toward Improved Lifetimes of Organic Solar Cells under Thermal Stress: Substrate-Dependent Morphological Stability of PCDTBT:PCBM Films and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Ho Chiu, Kar; Shahid Ashraf, Raja; Fearn, Sarah; Dattani, Rajeev; Cheng Wong, Him; Tan, Ching-Hong; Wu, Jiaying; Cabral, João T.; Durrant, James R.

    2015-10-01

    Morphological stability is a key requirement for outdoor operation of organic solar cells. We demonstrate that morphological stability and lifetime of polymer/fullerene based solar cells under thermal stress depend strongly on the substrate interface on which the active layer is deposited. In particular, we find that the stability of benchmark PCDTBT/PCBM solar cells under modest thermal stress is substantially increased in inverted solar cells employing a ZnO substrate compared to conventional devices employing a PEDOT:PSS substrate. This improved stability is observed to correlate with PCBM nucleation at the 50 nm scale, which is shown to be strongly influenced by different substrate interfaces. Employing this approach, we demonstrate remarkable thermal stability for inverted PCDTBT:PC70BM devices on ZnO substrates, with negligible (stress and minimal thermally induced “burn-in” effect. We thus conclude that inverted organic solar cells, in addition to showing improved environmental stability against ambient humidity exposure as widely reported previously, can also demonstrate enhanced morphological stability. As such we show that the choice of suitable substrate interfaces may be a key factor in achieving prolonged lifetimes for organic solar cells under thermal stress conditions.

  10. Genital piercings: what is known and what people with genital piercings tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E

    2006-06-01

    General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.

  11. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  12. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  13. Eradicating Female Genital Mutilation; a Viable Reality. Raising Awareness in the Men Involved

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Ismael; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Gombau Giménez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is considered by a number of International Organizations as an affront on human rights and an act of violence against women and young girls. Furthermore, being the result of an intense discrimination between genders, it hierarchizes and perpetuates inequality and denies women the right to physical and psychosexual integrity. Aims. To endeavour towards the eradication of FGM via the testimony of men from countries where this practice is performed. Methodology. A...

  14. Pyrosequencing of the genital microbiotas of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women reveals Lactobacillus iners as the predominant Lactobacillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Landay, Alan L; Zariffard, Reza; French, Audrey L; Patel, Pranjal; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The species of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women were determined by 16S gene pyrosequencing. Lactobacillus iners sequences were the predominant lactobacillus sequences in 66% of HIV(+) women and 90% of HIV(-) women. This has implications for resistance of HIV(+) and HIV(-) women to genital colonization by pathogenic organisms.

  15. Pyrosequencing of the Genital Microbiotas of HIV-Seropositive and -Seronegative Women Reveals Lactobacillus iners as the Predominant Lactobacillus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Gregory T.; Gilbert, Douglas; Landay, Alan L.; Zariffard, Reza; French, Audrey L.; Patel, Pranjal; Gillevet, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    The species of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women were determined by 16S gene pyrosequencing. Lactobacillus iners sequences were the predominant lactobacillus sequences in 66% of HIV+ women and 90% of HIV− women. This has implications for resistance of HIV+ and HIV− women to genital colonization by pathogenic organisms.

  16. Genital prolapse in adult women with classical bladder exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhal, Rola S; Deans, Rebecca; Creighton, Sarah M; Wood, Dan; Woodhouse, Christopher R J

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the incidence and risk factors for genital prolapse in adult women with bladder exstrophy and to describe the long-term outcome of the Gore-Tex wrap procedure for genital prolapse. A retrospective observational study on adult women with classical bladder exstrophy in a tertiary referral centre for disorders of sex development, including complex urogenital anomalies. Medical notes were reviewed and a confidential postal questionnaire on urinary continence and symptoms of prolapse was carried out. Fifty-two women with bladder exstrophy and a mean age of 39 years (range 23 to 63) were identified, of whom 27 patients (52%) developed pelvic organ prolapse. Twenty-three out of 27 (85%) were treated surgically while only 4 patients were managed expectantly. Risk factors for prolapse included pregnancy in 10 (37%) patients and introitoplasty in 1 patient (4%). Of the 23 women treated surgically, 16 (70%) were treated using a Gore-Tex wrap, while 7 had other surgical procedures including colposuspension and hysterosacrocolpopexy. In the Gore-Tex wrap group, 12 out of 16 patients (75%) had had a successful result after the first repair compared with 2 out of the 7 patients (28%) in the group treated using other procedures. Mean follow-up was 8 years (range 1-15). One patient developed an infection after the procedure and another patient had Gore-Tex erosion. Prolapse is a common gynaecological complaint in adult women with bladder exstrophy and the majority will require treatment. At present the Gore-Tex wrap offers good results with a low rate of serious complications.

  17. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  18. Female genital mutilation: a urology focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elinor

    2016-10-13

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM. This article explores the urological complications experienced by women who have undergone this practice, and the effects this can have on their health and wellbeing.

  19. The First Organ-Based Ontology for Arthropods (Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems - OArCS) and its Integration into a Novel Formalization Scheme for Morphological Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Christian S; Göpel, Torben; Runge, Jens; Keiler, Jonas; Klussmann-Fricke, Bastian-Jesper; Huckstorf, Katarina; Scholz, Stephan; Mikó, István; J Yoder, Matthew; Richter, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Morphology, the oldest discipline in the biosciences, is currently experiencing a renaissance in the field of comparative phenomics. However, morphological/phenotypic research still suffers on various levels from a lack of standards. This shortcoming, first highlighted as the "linguistic problem of morphology", concerns the usage of terminology and also the need for formalization of morphological descriptions themselves, something of paramount importance not only to the field of morphology but also when it comes to the use of phenotypic data in systematics and evolutionary biology. We therefore argue, that for morphological descriptions, the basis of all systematic and evolutionary interpretations, ontologies need to be utilized which are based exclusively on structural qualities/properties and which in no case include statements about homology and/or function. Statements about homology and function constitute interpretations on a different or higher level. Based on these "anatomy ontologies", further ontological dimensions (e.g., referring to functional properties or homology) may be exerted for a broad use in evolutionary phenomics. To this end we present the first organ-based ontology for the most species-rich animal group, the Arthropoda. Our Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems (OArCS) contains a comprehensive collection of 383 terms (i.e., labels) tied to 296 concepts (i.e., definitions) collected from the literature on phenotypic aspects of circulatory organ features in arthropods. All of the concepts used in OArCS are based exclusively on structural features, and in the context of the ontology are independent of homology and functional assumptions. We cannot rule out that in some cases, terms are used which in traditional usage and previous accounts might have implied homology and/or function (e.g. heart, sternal artery). Concepts are composed of descriptive elements that are used to classify observed instances into the organizational framework of the

  20. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  1. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    despite cost implications. Keywords: Genital ... Ojiyi, et al.: Local risk factors in genital HPV infection. 530. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. The HPV has been shown to be a determinant of the natural history of ..... identified in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of HPV 18.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the infection rate of genital Mycoplasmas (MH and UU) among pregnant females and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to provide a provisional idea about the effectiveness of antibiotics used empirically to treat cases of genital infections in pregnant women. High vaginal swabs of 50 ...

  3. Genital ulcer disease in Ilorin, Nigeria | Onile | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other common causes were lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), gential herpes and primary syphilis, each acounting for 12.5 percent of the cases. An unusual presentation of oro-genital aphthosis, with hyperkeratosis and paraesthesia of a localized area on the palm, in addition to the usual genital and oral lesions was ...

  4. Preliminary observation of genital secretions, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...

  5. Correlates of female genital mutilation (FGM) among patients of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efforts to combat female genital mutilation (FGM) may not avail much if the factors promoting it are not well understood. An observer rated instrument consisting of socio-demographic variables and items concerning female genital mutilation drawn from Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster ...

  6. Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer ... Keywords: Perception, practice, female education, female genital cutting, traditional birth attendants. Introduction ... girls and women are genitally mutilated while 2 million are at risk ...

  7. Knowledge of genital herpes infection among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...

  8. Urinary and Genital Tract Obstruction as a Complication of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaginosis, and genital herpes and obstetric complications including perinatal death.[1,3-10] All types of FGM have been shown to be associated with complications. In this report, we present the case of a 23-year-old. Nigerian girl, with obstructed micturition and genital tract obstruction, as a complication of Type 3 FGM, with ...

  9. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  10. Asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...

  11. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...

  12. Vulvar and genital trauma in pediatric and adolescent gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Diane F

    2004-10-01

    This review will look critically at recent research articles that pertain to children and adolescents who present with genital injuries. Many recently published articles have noted that the history as given by the child or adolescent is the most important factor in determining the etiology of genital injuries as abuse or accidental. The history is more important than any documented or lack of documented findings on physical examination. Distinguishing whether the injury was accidental or caused by abuse is of significance to the family and the injured child or adolescent. Genital examinations of victims of documented abuse are often normal. Examinations of pregnant adolescents may appear normal, the only evidence that intercourse has taken place being pregnancy. Documented accidental genital injuries are described; unfortunately such injuries can easily be confused with sexual abuse. Photographic documentation of injuries by colposcopic photography has allowed a new level of peer review, improving the understanding of what are normal and non-specific findings, many of which were considered to be abnormal in the past. The psychological impact of living in a violent, war-torn culture, or surviving a traumatic genital injury are reviewed. New ideas on the management of genital trauma are also reported. Increasingly, victims of sexual abuse are found to have normal examinations, and the victim's history becomes the most important determining factor. Peer review has led to a better understanding of the wide variations in the normal genital examination. Psychological support for these victims is important in the management of genital injuries.

  13. Influences of organic cation and hydrochloric acid additive on the morphology and photoluminescence of HC(NH2)2PbBr3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Chen, Yunlin; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Zhang, Bing

    2017-11-01

    The hydrohalic acid additives have been used in perovskite thin films to improve the film morphology and optical properties. However, our study demonstrated that the hydrochloric acid (HCl) additive greatly improved the surface coverage but lowered the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensities of HC(NH2)2PbBr3 (HC(NH2)2 = FA) films. The effects of organic cation and hydrochloric acid additive on the morphology and photoluminescence of FAPbBr3 films were investigated. We found that FAPbBr3 films prepared with HCl additive in low FABr concentration environment displayed good film quality but weak PL emission intensity. The optical properties of FAPbBr3 films have close relationship with FABr concentration. The optical absorption edge of FAPbBr3 showed a blue shift with increasing the FABr concentration. The strong PL emission intensities of FAPbBr3 can be obtained from the solutions with high FABr concentration.

  14. Shape- and morphology-controlled sustainable synthesis of Cu, Co, and in metal organic frameworks with high CO2 capture capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2012-11-06

    We studied the effects of various surfactants on the shape and morphology of three metal organic frameworks (MOFs), i.e., Co-MOF, Cu-MOF, and In-MOF, which were synthesized under microwave irradiation. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen sorption. The effects of microwave irradiation time, temperature, and surfactant template were investigated. The synthetic parameters, including the type of surfactant template and the reaction temperature, played crucial roles in the size, shape, and morphology of the MOF microcrystals. We also evaluated these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2. Of the synthesized materials, Cu-MOF demonstrated the highest CO2 capture capacity, even at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A new model for the morphology of P3HT/PCBM organic photovoltaics from small-angle neutron scattering: rivers and streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Dadmun, Mark

    2011-06-28

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted increasing interest as a lightweight, low-cost, and easy to process replacement for inorganic solar cells. Moreover, the morphology of the OPV active layer is crucial to its performance, where a bicontinuous, interconnected, phase-separated morphology of pure electron donor and acceptor phases is currently believed to be optimal. In this work, we use neutron scattering to investigate the morphology of a model OPV conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction, poly[3-hexylthiophene] (P3HT), and surface-functionalized fullerene 1-(3-methyloxycarbonyl) propyl(1-phenyl [6,6]) C(61) (PCBM). These results show that P3HT and PCBM form a homogeneous structure containing crystalline P3HT and an amorphous P3HT/PCBM matrix, up to ca. 20 vol % PCBM. At 50 vol % PCBM, the samples exhibit a complex structure containing at least P3HT crystals, PCBM crystals, and a homogeneous mixture of the two. The 20 vol % PCBM samples exhibit behavior consistent with the onset of phase separation after 6 h of thermal annealing at 150 °C, but appear to be miscible at shorter annealing times. This suggests that the miscibility limit of PCBM in P3HT is near 20%. Moreover, for the 50 vol % PCBM sample, the interface roughens under thermal annealing possibly owing to the growth of PCBM crystals. These observations suggest a different morphology than is commonly presented in the literature for optimal bulk heterojunctions. We propose a novel "rivers and streams" morphology to describe this system, which is consistent with these scattering results and previously reported photovoltaic functionality of P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunctions.

  16. Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Farzad; Moghaddam, Parviz R; Ghorbani, Reza; Hassani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure.

  17. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  18. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  20. Gender differences in genital lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Simone; DI Landro, Anna; Naldi, Luigi; Minghetti, Sara; Fierro, Maria T; Verrone, Anna; Caproni, Marzia; Micali, Giuseppe; Gaspari, Valeria; Papini, Manuela; DI Lernia, Vito; Germi, Lerica; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Belloni Fortina, Anna; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Bilenchi, Roberta; Corazza, Monica

    2018-01-24

    Studies specifically conducted to assess gender differences in genital lichen sclerosus (GLS) are not available. This multicenter study aimed to identify possible gender-related differences on GLS clinical features, history and course, through collecting data from a large mixed-sex sample of patients. This was a cross-sectional study on 729 subjects (53.8% females, 46.2% males) affected with GLS, consecutively observed within a network of 15 Italian dermatology units. The following information was specifically collected: clinical features and severity of symptoms related to GLS, extragenital involvement, previous therapies, diagnostic suspicion at referral, type of referring physicians, development of genital squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Females complained of symptoms more frequent and severe than men; pallor and scarring-sclerosis-atrophy were the most frequent features without gender differences; itching- related signs were more frequent in females than in males as well as extragenital involvement; prior to receiving a definitive diagnosis, females received treatment more frequently than males; 40% of patients were referred with a misdiagnosis; the highest rate of correct suspected diagnosis at referral came from dermatologists than from other physicians; duration of the disease was found to predispose to SCC development. Our findings highlighted several gender differences on clinical presentation and symptom profile of GLS. In spite of some characteristic features, misdiagnosis at referrals was frequent.

  1. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  3. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C., E-mail: Christina.villeneuve@laplace.unvi-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); Le Borgne, D. [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  4. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

  5. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  7. Anatomical and micro-morphological analysis of the fruit and vegetative organs of Inula oculus-christi L. in the Pannonian part of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inula oculus-christi L. is a perennial plant, 20-60 cm high, growing in south-east Europe, central and southern Russia and some parts of Asia. It belongs to Pontic-Pannonian floristic element. In Pannonian part of Serbia this species is extremely rare, with very few recently confirmed literature and herbarium data. According to the field data for the period from 2013 to 2015, only one population of this species was recorded in Pannonian part of Serbia, on the site of Rimski Šanac, which is threatened by anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, anatomical and micro-morphological features of I. oculus-christi have not been documented so far. Therefore, in order to get better knowledge of the biology this species, as well as on the basis of the abovementioned, its anatomical and micro-morphological characteristics were investigated. Cross sections of the leaf, stem, rhizome and fruit were obtained using cryotechnique procedure by Leica CM 1850 cryostat. Using a light microscopy, detailed descriptions of anatomical characteristics of the analysed organs were given. The scanning electron microscopy revealed specific qualitative features of leaf and fruit that characterize the species. Obtained data may be useful in determination of this species and represent the valuable contribution to its micro-morphological and anatomical differentiation from other congeneric and related species. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173002

  8. Enhanced upper genital tract pathologies by blocking Tim-3 and PD-L1 signaling pathways in mice intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Tim-3 & PD-L1 signaling pathways play important roles in negatively regulating immune responses, their roles in chlamydial infection have not been evaluated. Methods Neutralization antibodies targeting Tim-3 and PD-L1 were used to treat mice. Following an intravaginal infection with C. muridarum organisms, mice with or without the dual antibody treatment were compared for live chlamydial organism shedding from the lower genital tract and inflammatory pathology in the upper genital tract. Results Mice treated with anti-Tim-3 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies displayed a time course of live organism shedding similar to that of mice treated with equivalent amounts of isotype-matched IgG molecules. The combined antibody blocking failed to alter either the lower genital tract cytokine or systemic humoral and cellular adaptive responses to C. muridarum infection. However, the antibody blocking significantly enhanced C. muridarum-induced pathologies in the upper genital tract, including more significant hydrosalpinx and inflammatory infiltration in uterine horn and oviduct tissues. Conclusions The Tim-3 and PD-L1-mediated signaling can significantly reduce pathologies in the upper genital tract without suppressing immunity against chlamydial infection, suggesting that Tim-3 and PD-L1-mediated negative regulation may be manipulated to attenuate tubal pathologies in women persistently infected with C. trachomatis organisms.

  9. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2012-01-01

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and α,ω-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic–inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: ► POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. ► The organic–inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. ► The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. ► The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  10. Kinetic Study of Organic Dye Degradation Using ZnO Particles with Different Morphologies as a Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Yong Pung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel approach using zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO2·2H2O and ammonia (NH4OH solution as precursors. By adjusting the reaction parameters such as amount of ammonia and reaction time as well as complexing agent aluminium sulphate Al2(SO43, ZnO particles with different morphologies, that is, rodlike, ricelike and disklike could be synthesized. The effectiveness of ZnO particles with different morphologies (rodlike, ricelike and disklike on the photocatalytic activity has been studied. The results showed that rodlike ZnO particles were the most effective in degrading the Rhodamine B (RhB solution under the illumination of ultraviolet (UV light. The rate constant was found to be first order, with rodlike particles the highest (0.06329 min−1, followed by rice-like ZnO particles (0.0431 min−1 and disk-like ZnO particles (0.02448 min−1.

  11. Uterine artery embolization: The interventional treatment of female genital diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The uterus is the major female sex organ and is essential for pregnancy. The organ is located in the pelvic cavity. It is usually fist-sized with its volume changing from 75 to 200 cc depending on the menstrual cycle. There are various diseases associated with the uterus, including malignancy, uterine myoma, postpartum hemorrhage, and vascular malformation. The conventional surgical treatment for these diseases is hysterectomy. However, hysterectomy has some risk, and there may be complications associated with the surgery and anesthesia. In addition, hysterectomy results in loss of fertility and loss of female characteristics, both of which may lead to emotional problems. After uterine artery embolization (UAE) was performed for post-partum bleeding in 1979 and for uterine myoma in 1995, interventional treatment of UAE replaced the existing surgical treatment of hysterectomy. UAE is performed widely as a minimally invasive treatment modality that can preserve the uterus, make pregnancy and childbirth possible and resolve emotional problems. The interventional treatment has become increasingly popular to treat various female genital diseases.

  12. An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.

  13. Determination of Three-Dimensional Morphology and Inner Structure of Second-Phase Inclusions in Metals by Non-Aqueous Solution Electrolytic and Room Temperature Organic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary-phase particles in metals, particularly those composed of non-metallic materials, are often detrimental to the mechanical properties of metals; thus, it is crucial to control inclusion formation and growth. One of the challenges is determining the three-dimensional morphology and inner structures of such inclusions. In this study, a non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and a room-temperature organic technique were developed based on the principle of electrochemistry to determine the three-dimensional morphologies and inner structures of non-metallic inclusions in Al-killed steel, Si-killed steel, and ductile cast iron. The inclusions were first extracted without any damage to the inclusions, and then the collected inclusions were wrapped and cut through Cu ion deposition. The results revealed that the inclusions in Al-killed steel had an irregular morphology, that those in the Si-killed steel were mainly spherical, and that almost all the spheroidal graphite in the ductile cast iron featured a uniform globular morphology. In addition, nucleation was not observed in the inner structures of the inclusions in the Al-killed steel, while some dendritic or rod-like MnS phase precipitates appeared on the silicate inclusion surfaces, and some silicate-rich phases were detected in their inner matrix. For spheroidal graphite, rare-earth oxides (one particle or more were observed as nuclei in the center of almost every graphite particle. The formation and evolution of inclusions in these types of metals can be better understood by means of the two developed methods.

  14. Female genital mutilation and pregnancy: associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Claudine; Rymer, Janice

    2016-09-22

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that has no medical benefit and severe health consequences for girls and women. This article discusses the risks to patients who are pregnant and have had FGM. It will describe urinary tract infections caused by FGM, and how this condition increases the risk of preterm labour and delivery. It will also address the difficulty in vaginal examinations that can be caused by FGM and instances when this can delay diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it will explore a number of intrapartum risks caused by FGM and the role of deinfibulation in pregnancy. Finally, it will look at the link between maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and FGM.

  15. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

  16. [Ritualistic female genital mutilation. The sentiment of the women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, F; Abboud, P; Mansour, G; Zanardi, M; Quéreux, C

    2001-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practiced and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture.

  17. Clitoral Reconstruction Using a Vaginal Graft After Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañero, Ivan; Labanca, Trinidad

    2018-03-08

    Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation is a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore vulvar appearance. We describe a novel surgical technique for clitorolabial reconstruction using a vaginal graft. We present a series of 32 consecutive women who underwent this procedure at Iván Mañero Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, and were prospectively followed. The total Female Sexual Function Index changed favorably from 16 before surgery to 29 after surgery (PFemale Self-Image Genital Scale changed favorably from 11 to 23 (Pgenital mutilation was associated with improved sexual function and genital aesthetic perception.

  18. Morphological, histochemical and computed tomography on the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson’s organ of Egyptian native breeds of goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Kamal Moawad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vomeronasal organ (Jacobson’s organ is a chemosensory paired tubular organ located on both sides of the nasal septum at its base. It plays an essential role in reproduction process and social behaviors. Objective: The current study investigated both anatomical and histological structure of the vomeronasal organ (VNO in Egyptian native breeds of goats using cross sectional anatomy, histological techniques and computed tomography (CT. Methodology: A total of thirty heads obtained from adult and apparently healthy goats of both sexes were collected from Beni-Suef slaughterhouse in Beni-Suef province, Egypt then subjected to anatomical, histological and computed topographical studies. Results: Grossly, the VNO appeared as two blind ducts on the either sides of the nasal septum at the floor of nasal cavity extending from the nasal opening of incisive papilla rostrally to the upper 2nd premolar teeth caudally. It connected with mouth by two nasopalatine ducts. The histological examinations revealed two types of lining epithelium; non sensory type lining the cranial portion and the lateral wall of the middle portion of the vomeronasal duct (VND, whereas an olfactory type was the lining epithelium of the medial wall of the middle and the whole caudal portions. The lamina propria submucosa exhibited vascular loose connective tissues, serous glands, nerve bundles and encapsulated by hyaline cartilage. Conclusion: The obtaining olfactory epithelium in VNO may indicate an essential role of this organ in sexual relationships and sociosexual behaviors through perception of pheromones.

  19. Fatores de risco para o prolapso genital em uma população brasileira Risk factors for genital prolapse in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moura Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de prolapso genital na população brasileira. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle envolvendo 316 pacientes que foram submetidas a estadiamento de prolapso, utilizando-se o sistema de quantificação de prolapso dos órgãos pélvicos. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No Grupo Caso, foram incluídas 107 pacientes com prolapso nos estádios III ou IV, e no Controle, 209 mulheres com estádios 0 ou I. As mulheres selecionadas respondiam à anamnese na qual eram questionadas sobre a presença de possíveis fatores de risco para prolapso genital, tais como: idade, idade da menopausa, paridade, tipos de parto (vaginal, cesariana ou fórcipe, ocorrência de macrossomia fetal, história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau de distopia genital, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS: as variáveis que se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos foram: idade, índice de massa corpórea, paridade, número de partos vaginais, de cesarianas, de partos fórcipe, peso do recém-nascido e história familiar positiva para prolapso. Raça, idade da menopausa, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos. Após a regressão logística, somente três variáveis se apresentaram como fatores de risco independentes: presença de pelo menos um parto vaginal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva. A cesariana se mostrou como fator protetor. CONCLUSÕES: na população brasileira, os fatores de risco independentes para prolapso foram a presença de pelo menos um parto normal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva para distopia.PURPOSE: to evaluate risk factors for the development of genital prolapse in the Brazilian population. METHODS: case-control study involving 316 patients submitted to prolapse staging, according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Case Group

  20. The impact of genital self-image on sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Yaakobi, Tal; Levy, Sigal; Peled, Yoav; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Krissi, Haim

    2017-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse on overall sexual function. However, psychological variables thought to be associated with sexual function, have not been fully explored. We assessed the sexual functioning of women with pelvic floor disorders while measuring for psychological factors such as distress and genital self-image. In a cross-sectional study, 155 women in an urogynecology outpatient clinic of a tertiary health center completed a demographic questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Index-18 (BSI-18), Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), Genital Self-Image Scale-20 (GSIS-20) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Linear regression showed that when controlling for age and depression, GSIS significantly predicted FSFI total score (Beta=0.38, pself-image. This variable is more important than self-reported symptoms, type of specific disorder or other demographic variables. Older women tended not to complete the scales concerning more intimate matters. We suggest that urogynecologists should inquire about genital self-image as well as sexual function in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging and quantifying the morphology of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle at the sub-nanometre level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Gloter, Alexandre; Stephan, Odile; Zagonel, Luiz F.; Koole, Rolf; Meijerink, Andries; Mulder, Willem J. M.; de Groot, Frank M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The development of hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles is of interest for applications such as drug delivery, DNA and protein recognition, and medical diagnostics. However, the characterization of such nanoparticles remains a significant challenge due to the heterogeneous nature of these

  2. Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, J F; Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Bass, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the association between lower genital tract inflammation and objectively diagnosed endometritis. We analyzed the first 157 patients enrolled in the PEACH study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of outpatient and inpatient therapy for PID. Women less than 38 years of age, who presented with a history of pelvic discomfort for 30 days or less and who were found to have pelvic organ tenderness (uterine or adnexal tenderness) on bimanual examination, were initially invited to participate. After recruitment of the first 58 patients (group 1) we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99). We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58) compared to 49.5% (49/99) in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of vaginal white blood cells or mucopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%), but a low specificity (19.4%) for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness.

  3. Sequential Processing for Organic Photovoltaics: Design Rules for Morphology Control by Tailored Semi-Orthogonal Solvent Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Jordan C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; Hawks, Steven A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; Ferreira, Amy S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; Yee, Patrick [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; Subramaniyan, Selvam [Departments of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-1750 USA; Jenekhe, Samson A. [Departments of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-1750 USA; Tolbert, Sarah H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095 USA; Schwartz, Benjamin J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095-1569 USA; California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095 USA

    2015-03-18

    Design rules are presented for significantly expanding sequential processing (SqP) into previously inaccessible polymer:fullerene systems by tailoring binary solvent blends for fullerene deposition. Starting with a base solvent that has high fullerene solubility, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), ellipsometry-based swelling experiments are used to investigate different co-solvents for the fullerene-casting solution. By tuning the Flory-Huggins χ parameter of the 2-CP/co-solvent blend, it is possible to optimally swell the polymer of interest for fullerene interdiffusion without dissolution of the polymer underlayer. In this way solar cell power conversion efficiencies are obtained for the PTB7 (poly[(4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)(3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl)]) and PC61BM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) materials combination that match those of blend-cast films. Both semicrystalline (e.g., P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)) and entirely amorphous (e.g., PSDTTT (poly[(4,8-di(2-butyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)-alt-(2,5-bis(4,4'-bis(2-octyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2'3'-d]silole-2,6-diyl)thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole)]) conjugated polymers can be processed into highly efficient photovoltaic devices using the solvent-blend SqP design rules. Grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray diffraction experiments confirm that proper choice of the fullerene casting co-solvent yields well-ordered interdispersed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) morphologies without the need for subsequent thermal annealing or the use of trace solvent additives (e.g., diiodooctane). The results open SqP to polymer/fullerene systems that are currently incompatible with traditional methods of device fabrication, and make BHJ morphology control a more tractable problem.

  4. Morphology of the teleost ampullary organs in marine salmontail catfish Neoarius graeffei (Pisces: Ariidae) with comparative analysis to freshwater and estuarine conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Arnault R G; Whitehead, Darryl L; Bennett, Michael B; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that due to the relative conductivity of the environment, and to maintain sensory function, ampullary organs of marine Neoarius graeffei would differ morphologically from those described previously for estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. Unlike the ampullary systems of N. graeffei from freshwater and estuarine habitats, the ampullary pores of marine specimens occur in two distinct patterns; numerous pores seemingly randomly scattered on the head and ventro-lateral regions of the body, and pores arranged in distinctive vertical lines above the lateral line on the dorso-lateral body of the fish. Light and electron microscopy revealed that the ampullary organs also differed morphologically from estuarine and freshwater specimens in the presence of longer ampullary canals, a hitherto unreported canal wall composition, and in the collagen sheath surrounding both the canal and the ampulla proper within dermal connective tissues. Ampullary pores were wider in marine individuals and opened to the longest ampullary canals reported for this species. The canal wall was lined by cuboidal and squamous epithelial cells. Each ampullary canal opened into a single ampulla proper containing significantly more receptor cells than estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. The distribution of ampullary pores as well as the microstructure of the ampullary organs indicates that the electrosensory system of marine N. graeffei differs from those of estuarine and freshwater specimens in ways that would be expected to maintain the functionality of the system in a highly conductive, fully marine environment, and reveals the remarkable plasticity of this species' ampullary system in response to habitat conductivity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Metal Organic Framework Crystals in Mixed-Matrix Membranes: Impact of the Filler Morphology on the Gas Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetghadam, Anahid; Seoane, Beatriz; Keskin, Damla; Duim, Nicole; Rodenas, Tania; Shahid, Salman; Sorribas, Sara; Le Guillouzer, Clément; Clet, Guillaume; Tellez, Carlos; Daturi, Marco; Coronas, Joaquin; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2016-05-10

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) and Matrimid ® or 6FDA-DAM have been investigated. The MOF loading has been varied between 5 and 20 wt%, while NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) with three different morphologies: nanoparticles, nanorods and microneedles have been dispersed in Matrimid ® . The synthesized membranes have been tested in the separation of CO 2 from CH 4 in an equimolar mixture. At 3 bar and 298 K for 8 wt% MOF loading, incorporation of NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) nanoparticles leads to the largest improvement compared to nanorods and microneedles. The incorporation of the best performing filler, i.e. NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) nanoparticles, to the highly permeable 6FDA-DAM has a larger effect, and the CO 2 permeability increased up to 85 % with slightly lower selectivities for 20 wt% MOF loading. Specifically, these membranes have a permeability of 660 Barrer with CO 2 /CH 4 separation factor of 28, leading to a performance very close to the Robeson limit of 2008. Furthermore, a new non-destructive technique based on Raman spectroscopy mapping is introduced to assess the homogeneity of the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. The MOF contribution can be calculated by modelling the spectra. The determined homogeneity of the MOF filler distribution in the polymer is confirmed by FIB-SEM analysis.

  6. Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in Pikine Hospital, Senegal. Abdoul A Diouf, Moussa Diallo, Aissatou Mbodj, Omar Gassama, Mamour Guèye, Jean C Moreau, Alassane Diouf ...

  7. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

  8. The ultrasound research's results of the peri menopausal women's genitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodkhoeva, M.F.; Djonova, B.Yu.; Barieva, L.S.; Djonbekova, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of ultrasound research of the peri menopausal women's genitals revealed that the sizes of the ovaries of women with the climacteric syndrome are smaller that the size of ovaries of the women with the physiologic menopause

  9. A contribution to the functional morphology of the femoral chordotonal organ in the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsek, S; Devetak, D; Strus, J; Pabst, M A

    2003-10-01

    The femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) and the subgenual organ (SGO) of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea were examined by conventional light and confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to search for neuroactive substances which are used for neurotransmission in sensory cells of these organs. Antibodies against serotonin, histamine and choline acetyltransferase were tested immunohistochemically. In the FCO, antiserum against serotonin strongly labelled cell bodies and axons of about 16 sensory cells. In the proximal scoloparium all 12 sensory cells showed immunoreaction with antiserotonin. In the distal scoloparium only four of 40 sensory cells were immunoreactive. These results suggest that different neuroactive substances are employed as neurotransmitters in the FCO of the green lacewing and that the proximal scoloparium and the distal scoloparium are functionally differentiated. Contrary to the FCO in the locust, acetylcholine was not found as a neurotransmitter in the FCO of the green lacewing. Additionally, histamine showed a negative result in the sensory cells of the FCO. Other neuroactive substances seem to be used as transmitters in the SGO because none of the tested antibodies showed positive reaction.

  10. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  11. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  12. [Genital piercings: epidemiology, sociocultural aspects, sexuality and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Does spontaneous genital tract trauma impact postpartum sexual function?

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Rebecca G.; Borders, Noelle; Leeman, Lawrence M.; Albers, Leah L.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in sexual function are common in postpartum women. In this comparative, descriptive study, a prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to documentation of genital trauma at birth and assessment of sexual function three months postpartum. The impact of spontaneous genital trauma on postpartum sexual function was the focus of the study. Trauma was categorized into minor trauma (no trauma or 1st degree perineal or other trauma that was not sutured) or major trauma (2nd, 3rd, or ...

  14. The clinical manifestations of recurrence of genital herpes

    OpenAIRE

    ISRAILOV KHIKMATJON TUYGUNOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of genital herpes (GH) was characterized as vesicular in 67.3 % cases, in 18.2 % erosive, in 10 % erosiveulcer and in 4.5 % cases as a ulcer lesion of the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals by predisposing a massive discharge of herpes viruses into the environment and which is epidemiologically unfavorable factor due to the spreading of these viruses among the population.

  15. Clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation/cutting: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Rodriguez, Maria I; Petignat, Patrick; Say, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Clitoral reconstruction following female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a new surgical technique reported to be a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore a vulvar appearance similar to uncircumcised women. However, data on safety, care offered, and evaluation of sexual and pain outcomes are still limited. This study aims to present the care offered and clinical outcomes of two women who received multidisciplinary care, including psychosexual treatment, with clitoral reconstruction. We report their long-term outcomes, and the histology of the removed periclitoral fibrosis. We report the cases of two women with FGM/C types II and III who requested clitoral reconstruction for different reasons. One woman hoped to improve her chronic vulvar pain, as well as improve her sexual response. The other woman requested surgery due to a desire to reverse a procedure that was performed without her consent, and a wish to have a genital appearance similar to non infibulated women. They both underwent psychosexual evaluation and therapy and surgery. The histology of the periclitoral fibrosis removed during surgery was analyzed. At 1-year postoperatively, the first woman reported complete disappearance of vulvar pain and improved sexual pleasure, including orgasm. Our second patient also described improved sexuality at 1-year follow-up (increased sexual desire, lubrication, vulvar pleasure, and sensitiveness), which she attributed to a better self body image and confidence. Both women reported feeling satisfied, happy, and more beautiful. We show a positive outcome in pain reduction and improved sexual function, self body image, and gender after psychosexual therapy and clitoral reconstruction. More evidence is needed about clitoral reconstruction to develop guidelines on best practices. Until research is conducted that rigorously evaluates clitoral reconstruction for its impact on pain and sexuality, we advise always

  16. Aspergillosis of a dog genital tract-Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, Marta J; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Kozdrowski, Roland

    2009-05-01

    The information about aspergillosis locations in the reproductive organ is scarce. This short paper deals with aspergillosis in the dog genital tract with hyphae present in semen. There are two therapy schemes used in visceral mycoses, non-invasive treatment and surgical intervention. Considering the future reproductive career of the dog, we decided on antifungal drugs administration. Based on the microbiological results, we administered amoxycillin with clavulonate (Synulox 500mg, twice daily) orally. Itraconazole was used as an antimycological agent (Orungal, 100mg, twice daily) every other week. In 8th week of therapy no Aspergillus spp. growth was noted, yet slight Penicillium growth was observed. After 12 weeks of treatment, no fungus growth was present. Neither spores or hyphae were seen in the microscopic examination. Three months after the termination of the therapy, the dog mated with two females. In one case, unifetal pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound examination on day 42 after mating. Due to purulent discharge on day 45 after mating, the owner decided to terminate the pregnancy. In the other case, severe pyometra appeared 12 days after the second mating and the owner decided to put the female to sleep. The pathogen eradication from the ejaculates may be treated as a serious success, yet the lack of litters after mating calls for an explanation and consequences of Aspergillus spp. infection need to be considered.

  17. Psychological and counselling interventions for female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) are more likely to experience psychological problems than women without FGM. As well as psychological support, this population may need additional care when seeking surgical interventions to correct complications of FGM. Recent WHO guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for women and girls experiencing anxiety disorders, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. The guidelines also suggest that preoperative counselling for deinfibulation, and psychological support alongside surgical interventions, can help women manage the physiological and psychological changes following surgery. This synthesis summarizes evidence on women's values and preferences, and the context and conditions that may be required to provide psychological and counselling interventions. Understanding women's views, their own ways of coping, as well social and cultural factors that influence women's mental well-being, may help identify the types of interventions this population needs at different times and stages of their lives. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  18. Clitoral keloids after female genital mutilation/cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Özer; Akbaş, Murat; Özbey, Ertuğrul Gazi; Adıyeke, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to describe the presentation of long-term complications of female genital mutilation/cutting and the surgical management of clitoral keloids secondary to female genital mutilation/cutting. Twenty-seven women who underwent surgery because of clitoral keloid between May 2014 and September 2015 in Sudan Nyala Turkish Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective descriptive case series study. The prevalence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 74.1%, respectively (type 1: 1/27, type 2: 6/27, and type 3: 20/27). All patients had long-term health problems (dysuria, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, and chronic pruritus) and sexual dysfunction. Keloids were removed by surgical excision. There were no postoperative complications in any patient. Although clitoral keloid lesions can be seen after any type of female genital mutilation/cutting, they usually develop after type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting. Most of these keloids were noticed after menarche. Keloids can be removed by surgical excision and this procedure can alleviate some long-term morbidities of female genital mutilation/cutting.

  19. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig Alcaraz, M; Siles González, J; Solano Ruiz, C

    2014-03-01

    Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation. The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors that favour its discontinuation. An integrative review was performed of publications from the period 2006 to 2013 included in the MedLine, PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, CINAHL and CUIDEN databases. We selected 16 studies focusing on diverse contexts that assessed the attitudes of both men and women regarding the perpetuation of this practice. Ten corresponded to studies conducted in countries of residence. Several areas of investigation were explored (factors contributing to the continuation of female genital mutilation, factors contributing to its discontinuation, feelings about the health system). It is possible that the relevant studies may not have been included given the limitations of the literature review and the invisibility of the phenomenon studied. This review demonstrates the strong social pressure to which women are subjected as regards the practice of female genital mutilation. However, many other factors can contribute to eroding beliefs and arguments in favour of this practice, such as the globalization, culture and social environment of countries in the West. Nurses occupy an essential position in detecting and combating these practices. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  1. Effect of dietary organic zinc sources on growth performance, incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue zinc concentrations, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary organic zinc (Zn sources on growth performance, the incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue Zn concentration, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits. A total of 120 New Zealand White rabbits aged 35 d and with an initial body weight of 755±15 g, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups for a 49 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were designed with different Zn supplements as follows: (1 Control group: 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4; (2 ZnLA group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn lactate; (3 ZnMet group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn methionine; (4 ZnGly group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn glycine. The results showed that, when compared with rabbits fed ZnSO4, supplementation with ZnLA improved (P4. Supplementing with ZnLA increased duodenum villi height (681.63 vs. 587.14 μm, P4, except that feeding ZnMet led to higher (P4. The results indicated that supplementation with 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnLA could improve growth performance, increase liver Zn concentration and enhance duodenum morphology, while reducing the incidence of diarrhoea in growing rabbits.

  2. Cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks particles as efficient carriers for lansoprazole: Study of morphology and chemical composition of individual particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Guo, Tao; Lachmanski, Laurent; Manoli, Francesco; Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Manet, Ilse; Guo, Zhen; Wu, Li; Zhang, Jiwen; Gref, Ruxandra

    2017-10-15

    Cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) represent an environment-friendly and biocompatible class of MOFs drawing increasing attention in drug delivery. Lansoprazole (LPZ) is a proton-pump inhibitor used to reduce the production of acid in the stomach and recently identified as an antitubercular prodrug. Herein, LPZ loaded CD-MOFs were successfully synthesized upon the assembly with γ-CD in the presence of K + ions using an optimized co-crystallization method. They were characterized in terms of morphology, size and crystallinity, showing almost perfect cubic morphologies with monodispersed size distributions. The crystalline particles, loaded or not with LPZ, have mean diameters of around 6μm. The payloads reached 23.2±2.1% (wt) which corresponds to a molar ratio of 1:1 between LPZ and γ-CD. It was demonstrated that even after two years storage, the incorporated drug inside the CD-MOFs maintained its spectroscopic characteristics. Molecular modelling provided a deeper insight into the interaction between the LPZ and CD-MOFs. Raman spectra of individual particles were recorded, confirming the formation of inclusion complexes within the tridimensional CD-MOF structures. Of note, it was found that each individual particle had the same chemical composition. The LPZ-loaded particles had remarkable homogeneity in terms of both drug loading and size. These results pave the way towards the use of CD-MOFs for drug delivery purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Effect of Organic Compounds, Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties,yield and Yield Components of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Saeidnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the source of organic fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable crop production is growing. In order to evaluate the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizer on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage Sorghum (sorghum bicolor a field experiment was conducted in the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2008.The treatments were seed inoculation with the combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, Compost (15 t/ha, Vermicompost (10 t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and compost (10t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and Vermicompost (7t/ha, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense combination, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and compost (15t/ha, chemical fertilizer (80 kg/h urea fertilizer and 50 kg/h super phosphate fertilizer and control. Harvesting was performed in 2 cuts in flowering stage. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and SPAD reading was significantly affected by the treatments. Stem diameter was not affected by any treatments. There was a significant difference among all treatments in terms of fresh and dry forage yield. There were no significant differences among all treatments in terms of stem and leaf dry matter. In general, result of this experiment indicated that organic amendments and biofertilizers could be acceptable alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  4. Influence of Blend Morphology and Energetics on Charge Separation and Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Incorporating a Nonfullerene Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung

    2017-11-27

    Nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) in blends with highly crystalline donor polymers have been shown to yield particularly high device voltage outputs, but typically more modest quantum yields for photocurrent generation as well as often lower fill factors (FF). In this study, we employ transient optical and optoelectronic analysis to elucidate the factors determining device photocurrent and FF in blends of the highly crystalline donor polymer PffBT4T-2OD with the promising NFA FBR or the more widely studied fullerene acceptor PC71BM. Geminate recombination losses, as measured by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, are observed to be significantly higher for PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends. This is assigned to the smaller LUMO-LUMO offset of the PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends relative to PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, resulting in the lower photocurrent generation efficiency obtained with FBR. Employing time delayed charge extraction measurements, these geminate recombination losses are observed to be field dependent, resulting in the lower FF observed with PffBT4T-2OD:FBR devices. These data therefore provide a detailed understanding of the impact of acceptor design, and particularly acceptor energetics, on organic solar cell performance. Our study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for the design of NFAs in organic solar cells.

  5. STUDY ON EFFICACY OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO AMELIORATE AFLATOXIN - INDUCED PATHO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LYMPHOID ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Lakkawar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Diatomaceous earth (DAE in reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler diet was evaluated. DAE was supplemented 2000 mg/kg of feed along with 0.5 and 1 ppm of AF in feed. A total of 240 healthy day old broiler chicks were divided into 6 groups comprising of control and treatment groups. Feeding of AF resulted in reduction in size of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, petechial haemorrhages were observed on the surface of the thymus. Histopathology revealed varying degree of lymphocytolysis and depletion of lymphoid cells in thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, the ceacal tonsils also revealed a mild to moderate degree of lymphoid depletion. The supplementation of DAE to aflatoxin-mixed feed revealed significant improvement characterised by decreased severity of lesions in lymphoid organs. The macroscopic and microscopic changes in the birds fed DAE in combination with AF included those that were observed in AF- alone fed birds, but of reduced magnitude and severity. The study concluded that 2% DAE in feed can be effectively used to reduce the the histotoxic effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid organs in broiler chicken.

  6. Effect of In Situ Annealing Treatment on the Mobility and Morphology of TIPS-Pentacene-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Huidong; Tang, Ying; Yang, Jianjun; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bottom gate top contact structure were fabricated by using a spray-coating method, and the influence of in situ annealing treatment on the OFET performance was investigated. Compared to the conventional post-annealing method, the field-effect mobility of OFET with 60 °C in situ annealing treatment was enhanced nearly four times from 0.056 to 0.191 cm2/Vs. The surface morphologies and the crystallization of TIPS-pentacene films were characterized by optical microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction. We found that the increased mobility was mainly attributed to the improved crystallization and highly ordered TIPS-pentacene molecules.

  7. Co-metal-organic-frameworks with pure uniform crystal morphology prepared via Co2 + exchange-mediated transformation from Zn-metallogels for luminol catalysed chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xue Qian; Xiao, Bo Wen; Li, Chun Mei; Wang, Dong Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang

    2017-03-01

    Cation exchange-mediated transformation from Zn-metallogels (MOGs), which was a mild facile strategy relative to the demanding hydrothermal method, was employed to develop Co2 + metal-organic frameworks (Co-MOFs) at room temperature. The obtained Co-MOFs was of uniform octahedral morphology and possessed high activity to catalyze luminol chemiluminescence without extra oxidants. By adding cysteine, the CL emission of luminol-Co-MOFs system was further enhanced. Based on this phenomenon, Co-MOFs was utilized to build a practical sensing platform for cysteine determination. Under the optimized conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) was proportional to the concentration of cysteine in the range of 2-10 μM, and the detection limit was 0.49 μM (3S/N). Moreover, the established method was applied to the determination of cysteine in commercially available pharmaceutical injections.

  8. Measurements of female genital appearance in Chinese adults seeking genital cosmetic surgery: a preliminary report from a gynecological center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yujiao; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Fengyong; Li, Senkai; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and comprehensive measurements of the external genitalia in female adults are of great significance in surgery designs and for aesthetic evaluation in genital plastic surgeries. The authors carried out a 319-case study and provided baseline data and morphometric reference for plastic surgery involving the genital deformity caused by trauma or burns and male-to-female transsexual operations. Our study design recruited 319 women referred to the out-patient clinic from August 2010 to August 2013. From each individual we measured 16 parameters and assessed the significance of variations in age, height, weight, BMI, and marital status (as a proxy for parity). We tried to establish a female external genitalia database of the population presenting for cosmetic surgery and define the general proportions of female genitalia in Chinese adults from the data we obtained. A wide range of values was noted in female genital measurements especially in labia minora parameters. Four parameters, including clitoral prepuce length, clitoris to urethra, labial length, and perineal body length had a proportional relationship to some extent. The position of the clitoris and urethral orifice was found to be regular in female adults. Compared with unmarried women, perineal body length decreased (P = 0.048), while the apex to perineum (bilateral) and labial length increased (P = 0.005, 0.006, cosmetic surgery. Although the ranges of genital measurements vary, there is a proportional relationship in female genital appearance, which should be heeded in surgical designs and genital aesthetic evaluation.

  9. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  10. Support growing for eradicating female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.

  11. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  12. The eversible tentacle organs of Polyommatus caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae): Morphology, fine structure, sensory supply and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatzy, W; Jatho, M; Kleinteich, T; Gorb, S N; Hustert, R

    2017-11-01

    In their late (3rd and 4th) larval stages, caterpillars of the myrmecophilous lycaenid (Lepidoptera) species Polyommatus coridon and Polyommatus icarus, possess on their 8th abdominal segment two eversible so called tentacle organs (TOs). Previous histological and behavioural results have proposed that the TOs may release a volatile substance that elicits "excited runs" in attendant ants. In our study we investigated for the first time the temporal in- and eversion pattern of TOs. Using nerve tracing, Micro-CT, light- and electron microscopy techniques we studied (i) the histology of the 8th abdominal segment, (ii) the fine structure of the cuticular and cellular apparatus of the TOs, (iii) the attachment sites of the retractor muscle of each TO and (iv) the fine structure of the long slender tentacle hairs which are exposed to the outside, when the TOs are everted and fold back into the TO-sac during inversion. Our data show that the tentacle hairs are typical insect mechanoreceptors, each innervated by a small bipolar sensory cell with a tubular body in the tip of the outer dendritic segment. The latter is enclosed by a cuticular sheath previously called the "internal cuticular duct" and misinterpreted in earlier studies as the space, where the tentacle hairs actively secrete fluids. However, we found no glandular structures nearby or in the wall of the TO-sac. Also we did not reveal any conspicuous signs of secretory activity in one of the enveloping cells belonging to a tentacle hair. Although highly unusual features for an insect mechanoreceptor are: (a) the hair-shaft lumen of tentacle hairs contains flocculent material as well small vesicles and (b) the thin cuticular wall of the hair-shaft and its spines possess few tiny pores. Our data do not support the assumption of previous studies that volatile substances are released via the tentacle organs during their interactions with ants which in turn are supposed to cause excited runs in ants. Copyright © 2017

  13. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  15. Epidemiologic features of male genital malformations and subtypes in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Canfield, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Although distinct categories of male genital malformations share some common risk factors, few studies have systematically compared epidemiologic features across phenotypes. We evaluated the relationship between several maternal and infant characteristics and five categories of male genital malformations: second- or third-degree hypospadias, hypospadias (regardless of degree), small penis, cryptorchidism, and any male genital malformation. Data for 16,813 cases with isolated male genital malformations and 1,945,841 male live births delivered from 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. For each phenotype category, 13 maternal and infant variables were assessed, and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated based on the same multivariable Poisson regression model. A significant negative association was observed between previous live births versus no previous live births and four phenotypes (e.g., adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] for any male genital malformation: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.81). The prevalence of 4 of the phenotypes was significantly higher among multiple versus singleton pregnancies (e.g., aPR for any male genital malformation: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.47). We also observed significant associations between multiple phenotypes and residential region at delivery, delivery year, month of conception, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and birthplace, including significant associations for trends (maternal age, maternal education, and birth year modeled ordinally). Our results allow for comparison of characteristics across phenotypes and suggest that there may be some common risk factors for multiple male genital malformations (e.g., characteristics related to maternal estrogen levels), while other risk factors may be unique to specific defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sex redefined: the reclassification of oral-genital contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Gillen, Martie; Akande, Katrina

    2010-06-01

    Although partially anecdotal, some evidence suggests that oral-genital contact is increasingly excluded from young people's notions of what behaviors constitute sex. Such a shift may have implications for STD prevention. In 2007, a convenience sample of 477 university students participated in a survey that included the question "Would you say you 'had sex' with someone if the most intimate behavior you engaged in was" each of 11 behaviors. Chi-square tests and independent samples t tests were used to assess gender differences, and chi-square analyses were used to compare the data with similar data collected in 1991. Predictors of beliefs concerning the classification of oral-genital contact were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The majority of respondents indicated that penile-vaginal intercourse and penile-anal intercourse constitute sex (98% and 78%, respectively), but only about 20% believed the same was true of oral-genital contact. The proportion classifying oral-genital contact as sex in 2007 was about half that in 1991. This difference was consistent for both sexes and for both giving and receiving oral-genital stimulation. Responses did not vary by respondents' sexual experience or demographic characteristics. Sociocultural conceptualizations of oral-genital contact have shifted in a way that may leave people who engage in this activity unmindful of its potential health risks. Sex education programs, which generally focus on penile-vaginal contact, could help STD prevention efforts by explaining the risks associated with oral-genital stimulation and the measures that can be taken to minimize those risks.

  17. Controlling Blend Morphology for Ultra-High Current Density in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2018-01-23

    Due to the high absorption coefficient and modulated band gap of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors (NFAs), photons can be utilized more efficiently in near-infrared (NIR) range. In this report, we highlight a system with a well-known polymer donor (PTB7-Th) blended with a narrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (IEICO-4F) as active layer and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as the solvent additive. The optimization of the photoactive layer nanomorphology yields short-circuit current density value (Jsc) of 27.3 mA/cm2, one of the highest value in OSCs reported to date, which competes with other types of solution processed solar cells such as perovskite or quantum dot devices. Along with decent open-circuit voltage (0.71V) and fill factor values (66%), a power conversion efficiency of 12.8% is achieved for the champion devices. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) elucidate that the origin of this high photocurrent is mainly due to increased π-π coherence length of the acceptor, the domain spacing as well as the mean-square composition variation of the blend. Optoelectronic measurements confirm a balanced hole and electron mobility and reduced trap-assisted recombination for the best devices. These findings unveil the relevant solvent processing-nanostructure-electronic properties correlation in low band gap non-fullerene based solar cells, which provide a helpful guide for maximizing photocurrent that can pave the way for high efficiency organic solar cells.

  18. Evolution of genital asymmetry, exaggerated eye stalks, and extreme palpal elongation in Panjange spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe several new species of the previously monotypic Panjange lanthana species group from the Philippines and document their extraordinary morphology. Some species show strong male genital asymmetry, a phenomenon that seems to be exceedingly rare in spiders. Males of most species have eye stalks, and in two species these eye stalks are among the longest ever recorded in spiders. Some species show a tendency for male genital (pedipalp elongation, and one species has the longest and thinnest palps ever recorded in Pholcidae. A cladistic analysis is performed including all described and several undescribed species of Panjange (except for one “problem species”, supporting the lanthana group and its close relationship with members of the possibly paraphyletic cavicola group. The following eight new species are described: Panjange malagos Huber sp. nov.; Pa. casaroro Huber sp. nov.; Pa. camiguin Huber sp. nov.; Pa. hamiguitan Huber sp. nov.; Pa. isarog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. dinagat Huber sp. nov.; Pa. marilog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. bukidnon Huber sp. nov.

  19. No Evidence of Human Papillomaviruses in Non-genital Seborrheic Keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Nahidi, Yalda; Meshkat, Zahra; Esmaili, Habibollah; Gharib, Masoumeh; Gholoobi, Aida

    2013-07-01

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a benign epidermal tumor of unknown etiology. Because of its wart-like morphology, Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been suggested as a possible causative agent. Viral involvement, however, has not been confirmed yet despite research and the association between HPVs and seborrheic keratosis has not been studied among Iranian population by PCR. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the presence of HPVs DNA in non-genital SK by PCR. Fifty biopsy specimens obtained from patients with non-genital SK and 50 controls were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No HPVs DNA was detected by PCR within the tissue extracts from paraffin-embedded SK samples, while one of the controls was HPVs DNA positive. The age range of the patients was 20 to 82 yrs (mean = 52). Twenty-eight patients (56%) were males and 22 patients (44%) were females. The most common anatomic site was the face. Histopathologic changes due to viral infection such as koilocytosis (10%), dyskeratosis (66%), mitosis (28%), and parakeratosis (88%) were evident within the lesions. The most common histologic type was acanthotic type. Our results showed that there is no association between HPVs and seborrheic keratosis in investigated subjects.

  20. External morphology of the two cypridiform ascothoracid-larva instars of Dendrogaster: The evolutionary significance of the two-step metamorphosis and comparison of lattice organs between larvae and adult males (Crustacea, Thecostraca, Ascothoracida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbasov, G.A.; Grygier, M.J.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2008-01-01

    (cyprid) and Facetotecta (y-cyprid), and we discuss the evolutionary significance of these ontogenies. We found lattice organs in both the second ascothoracid-larvae and in adult males of Dendrogaster. We could not observe both ascothoracid-larvae and males in any single species, but our data suggests...... that the lattice organs change significantly at the molt between these two instars. The lattice organs of second ascothoracid-larvae have no distinct keel and are situated in wide, shallow pits, whereas they have the ground pattern "crest-in-a-trough" morphology in adult males of two additional species examined...... for comparison. The positions of the terminal pores of lattice organs 1 and 2 also seem to change during maturation. These findings show that comparative data on lattice organ morphology for phylogenetic purposes must derive from strictly homologous instars, viz., the second ascothoracid-larva (a...

  1. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  2. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  3. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  4. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  5. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  6. Smoking cessation counseling in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Joseph T; Crigger, Mary; English, Emily; Wan, Jim; Likes, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal dysplasia. We will study the prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with genital dysplasia and effect of counseling on smoking cessation. All patients with genital dysplasia were screened for smoking history. One clinician provided smoking cessation counseling using the US Department of Health 5 A's technique: ask patients about their smoking status, advise smokers to quit, assess their readiness to quit, assist with their smoking cessation effort, and arrange for follow-up visits. Patients were informed on how smoking may cause worsening of genital dysplasia and increased risk of progression to cancer. Each patient received 2 counseling sessions, but no pharmacological or psychological interventions. Smoking cessation was evaluated by patient self-report via phone or during clinic visits. From January 2007 to December 2010, 344 patients were referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic for evaluation of genital dysplasia. Patients who were smokers (n=125, 36%) were counseled to cease smoking in 2 counseling sessions, with 100% compliance for attendance. At study analysis (July 2011), 83 patients still smoke and 40 patients quit smoking (smoking cessation rate of 32%). Caucasian patients (P=.0013) and patients with vulvar dyplasia (P=.411) seemed to smoke more than other races and patients with cervical/vaginal dysplasia respectively. Smoking cessation counseling for the genital dysplasia patients who smoked was associated with smoking cessation in 32% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

  8. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  9. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  10. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle chemiresistors: Influence of film morphology and ionic strength on the detection of organics dissolved in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Edith [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)], E-mail: Edith.Chow@csiro.au; Herrmann, Jan; Barton, Christopher S.; Raguse, Burkhard; Wieczorek, Lech [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2009-01-19

    The influence of film morphology on the performance of inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle chemiresistors has been investigated. Nanoparticles deposited from a single-solvent system resulted in a 'coffee ring'-like structure with most of the materials deposited at the edge. It was shown that the uniformity of the film could be improved if the nanoparticles were deposited from a mixture of solvents comprising N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and water. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that both 'coffee ring' and 'flat' films were qualitatively similar suggesting that the films have similar nanoscale structures. To form the functional chemiresistor device, the 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine coating on the nanoparticle was exchanged with 1-hexanethiol to provide a hydrophobic sensing layer. The performance of 1-hexanethiol coated gold nanoparticle chemiresistors to small organic molecules, toluene, dichloromethane and ethanol dissolved in 1 M KCl in regard to changes in impedance and response times was unaffected by the film morphology. For larger hydrocarbons such as octane, the rate of uptake of the analyte into the film was significantly faster when the flatter nanoparticle film was used as opposed to the 'coffee ring' film which has a thicker edge. Furthermore, the presence of potassium and chloride ions in the solution media does not significantly affect the impedance of the nanoparticle film at 1 Hz (<2% variation in film impedance over more than four orders of magnitude change in ionic strength). However, the ionic strength of the media affected the partitioning of the analyte into the hydrophobic nanoparticle film. The response of the sensor was found to increase with an increased salt concentration due to a salting-out of the analyte from the solution.

  11. Autoradiographic binding studies with [3H]oestradiol and [3H]dihydrotestosterone in the autonomic genital ganglion (plexus of Frankenhaeuser) of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, G.; Stumpf, W.E.; Thiedemann, K.-U.; Drews, U.

    1985-01-01

    Male, female and Tfm mice (testicular feminization) were injected with [ 3 H]oestradiol or [ 3 H]dihydrotestosterone, and autoradiograms prepared of male accessory sex organs and of the cervico-vaginal portion of the female reproductive tract. After injection of [ 3 H]oestradiol in male, female and Tfm animals a nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in a subpopulation - about 20-30% - of the neurons of the genital ganglion. No such concentration was seen after [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone. The results suggest a direct genomic effect of oestradiol on certain neurons of the autonomic genital ganglion in both sexes. (author)

  12. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P PCR in ulcers of 6 (50%) of 12 HIV-positive patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that men with chancroid were significantly more likely than male patients without ulcers to report sex with a crack cocaine user, exchange of money or drugs for sex, and multiple sex partners. The strong association between genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  13. Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with genital anomalies and menstrual disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; Koppe, J. G.; Poll, N. E.; Boer, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrated that early exposure to phenobarbital decreases reproductive function. This study investigates whether prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants affects human genital tract development. METHODS: Genital anomalies at birth were studied retrospectively in 90

  14. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  15. The Evolution of a Female Genital Trait Widely Distributed in the Lepidoptera: Comparative Evidence for an Effect of Sexual Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor; Hernández-Baños, Blanca Estela; Cordero, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. Methodology/Principal Findings We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry), presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually antagonistic

  16. The evolution of a female genital trait widely distributed in the Lepidoptera: comparative evidence for an effect of sexual coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sánchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry, presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually

  17. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes and Genital Mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovský

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cervical colonization by genital mycoplasmas in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM. Method: We studied 225 women between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation with PPROM. Cervical swabs were obtained for genital mycoplasmas and standard vaginal smears of bacterial culture were performed at the time of patients’ admission. In the control group were 225 women with a normal pregnancy. Results: Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 68 % (152/225 and Mycoplasma hominis was detected in 28 % (63/225 of the patients with PPROM between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation and. In the control group Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 17 % (38/225 and Mycoplasma hominis in 15 % (35/225 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an association between cervical colonization with genital mycoplasmas and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

  19. Vaccines for Chlamydia infections of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Louise M; McNeilly, Celia

    2008-02-01

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is an escalating global public health concern causing considerable morbidity and socioeconomic burden worldwide. Although antibiotics are used to treat symptomatic urogenital infections, chlamydial infection remains asymptomatic in approximately 50% of infected men and 70% of infected women. The major clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infection in women include mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Genital infection with C. trachomatis markedly enhances the risk for reproductive tract sequelae in women, including tubal factor infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy. Definitive infection control of chlamydial infections will likely be achievable through a safe and efficacious vaccine. This will require identifying protective chlamydial antigens in animal models as well as identifying effective adjuvants and delivery systems that target subunit vaccines to immune inductive sites or secondary lymphoid tissues, and will be safe for use in humans.

  20. The Size of Labia Minora and Perception of Genital Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang; Drue, Henrik Christian; Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe and to assess the size of labia minora in normal women, including the womenʼs perception of their genitals to offer better counseling to the women seeking for labiaplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in the ou......OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe and to assess the size of labia minora in normal women, including the womenʼs perception of their genitals to offer better counseling to the women seeking for labiaplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken...... of labia was 15 mm, and 90% of labia were less than 26.5 mm. Fifty-six percent of the women had visible labia minora. Regarding perception, 86.5% considered their labia as being normal. Within the group of women who perceived their genitals to be abnormal, 73.3% had visible labia minora. Among women...

  1. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus and Genital Anomalies in Male Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations overall, but studies on genital anomalies in boys are conflicting and possible causal mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have mainly assessed pre-gestational and gestational...... diabetes in combination. Yet considering the vulnerable time windows for the genital anomalies, associations could well differ between types of diabetes and between the two genital anomalies and we therefore aimed to study this further. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of 2,416,248 singleton live......-born boys from Denmark (1978-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012) was carried out using Danish and Swedish register-based data. Using Cox regression models, we estimated hazard ratios for hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal diabetes. We considered type and severity of diabetes, as well as timing...

  2. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  3. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  4. Coexistence of urethritis with genital ulcer disease in South Africa: influence on provision of syndromic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R; Fehler, H; Htun, Y; Radebe, F; Jensen, J; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether syndromic management of genital ulcer disease was sound, if based on the premise that men with genital ulcers rarely have a concomitant urethral infection. Methods: Specimens were taken in 1998 from 186 mine workers in Carletonville, South Africa, who were seen consecutively with genital ulcers. The specimens comprised a swab from the ulcer, a urethral swab for a Gram stained smear, and 10–15 ml of a first catch urine sample. The latter was tested by ligase chain reaction assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis specific DNA sequences and by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Mycoplasma genitalium. Ulcer inducing micro-organisms were detected either by a multiplex PCR assay, or in the case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serologically, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Results: Most (54%) of the ulcers were chancroidal, 18% were herpetic (HSV type 2), 6.5% primary syphilitic, and 3.2% due to LGV. More than one micro-organism was detected in 9.1% of the ulcers and less than 10% were undiagnosed. Microscopic examination of the urethral smears showed that 99 (53%) of the men had urethritis, of whom 45 (45%) were infected with N gonorrhoeae. Of the 54 men (55%) who had non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), 11 (19.6%) harboured C trachomatis or M genitalium. Almost two thirds (64.5%) of the men had HIV infection, but this did not seem to have influenced the aetiology of the ulcers. Nor was a particular ulcer associated with one type of urethritis more than the other. Neither C trachomatis nor M genitalium was associated significantly with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in either HIV positive or HIV negative men. Conclusion: The combination of antibiotics used for the management of genital ulcer disease in men in this South African mining population needs to be widened to encompass frequently occurring concomitant gonococcal urethritis

  5. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy P

    2017-11-01

    After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. X-ray diagnostics of female genitals in child age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Koeln Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of special X-ray diagnostics of female genitals are described, that were made in 41 children within a period of 12 years. The superiority of the X-ray-technique arises from the impossibility of the manual examination in newborn and infants and the avoidance of diagnostic techniques like laparoscopy or laparotomy. All the examination techniques are described. In intersexualmarked patients the discrimination into six types after Shopfner is preferred. Malformations and tumours are dealt with briefly. The relations between skeleton and female genitals are pointed out at the example of the gonadal dysgenesis. (orig.) [de

  7. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  8. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  9. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  10. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Bego?a Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short? and long?term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  11. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  12. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  13. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  14. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  15. Effect of level of alimentation on visceral organ mass and the morphology and Na+, K+ adenosinetriphosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, R E; Hoagland, T A

    1987-10-01

    Changes in ovine visceral organ mass and small intestinal mucosa morphology and metabolism due to short-term and prolonged modifications in level of alimentation were studied. Thirty-six lambs were fed for 21 d at either 100 or 50% ad libitum levels of intake. For the next 5 d, lambs either remained on the same intake levels or were switched from 100 or 50% or from 50 to 100% ad libitum intake levels and were subsequently slaughtered. Levels of alimentation the last 5 d before slaughter had a significant effect on weights of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach complex and liver, while only the weight of the liver was affected by 21-d adaptation period. Weights of the heart, lungs, carcass and visceral fat were not affected by level of alimentation. Villus height and mucosal mass at a constant intestinal tissue weight were modified by level of alimentation 5 d before slaughter but static to the previous 21-d nutritional plane. Activity of Na+, K+ ATPase of jejunal mucosa was not influenced by level of alimentation 5 d before slaughter, but was influenced by 21-d adapted level of alimentation. Results from this study are interpreted to indicate that weights of the liver and alimentary tract and small intestinal mucosa development are highly sensitive to changes in level of alimentation.

  16. Effect of polyethylene and organic mulches in different intervals of irrigation on morphological characteristics and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahdipour Afra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of polyethylene and organic mulches in different Irrigation intervals on morphological characteristics and seed grain of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. hybrid Azrgol, an experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications at research farm of college of Aboureihan, University of Tehran during year of 2009. Main factor was three irrigation interval including of 7, 12 and 17 days and sub-factors were treatments without mulch as control and different types of mulch (polyethylene, cow manure including of 8.5 t.ha-1,17 t.ha-1, 25 t.ha-1, wheat stubble mulch in three levels of 2.5, 5.5 and 7.5 t.ha-1. Plant height, head diameter, seed number in each head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil yield, harvest index were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of irrigation period and the effect of mulches for all measured traits were significant. Highest seed yield with average of 2.965 t.ha-1 was obtained from 7 days irrigation and also polyethylene mulch and stubble mulch level three in different irrigation periods, had the highest yield. The overall results showed that, using mulches by reducing irrigation water use can increases the quality and quantity seed yield. Regarding the results of the study and non-toxic effects of stubble mulches in agriculture, we suggest their usage.

  17. An Unfused-Core-Based Nonfullerene Acceptor Enables High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells with Excellent Morphological Stability at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuixing; Zhan, Lingling; Liu, Feng; Ren, Jie; Shi, Minmin; Li, Chang-Zhi; Russell, Thomas P; Chen, Hongzheng

    2018-02-01

    Most nonfullerene acceptors developed so far for high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs) are designed in planar molecular geometry containing a fused-ring core. In this work, a new nonfullerene acceptor of DF-PCIC is synthesized with an unfused-ring core containing two cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) moieties and one 2,5-difluorobenzene (DFB) group. A nearly planar geometry is realized through the F···H noncovalent interaction between CPDT and DFB for DF-PCIC. After proper optimizations, the OSCs with DF-PCIC as the acceptor and the polymer PBDB-T as the donor yield the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.14% with a high fill factor of 0.72. To the best of our knowledge, this efficiency is among the highest values for the OSCs with nonfullerene acceptors owning unfused-ring cores. Furthermore, no obvious morphological changes are observed for the thermally treated PBDB-T:DF-PCIC blended films, and the relevant devices can keep ≈70% of the original PCEs upon thermal treatment at 180 °C for 12 h. This tolerance of such a high temperature for so long time is rarely reported for fullerene-free OSCs, which might be due to the unique unfused-ring core of DF-PCIC. Therefore, the work provides new idea for the design of new nonfullerene acceptors applicable in commercial OSCs in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mice deficient in MyD88 Develop a Th2-dominant response and severe pathology in the upper genital tract following Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Lei, Lei; Chang, Xiaotong; Li, Zhihong; Lu, Chunxue; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yimou; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming

    2010-03-01

    MyD88, a key adaptor molecule required for many innate immunity receptor-activated signaling pathways, was evaluated in a Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection model. Compared with wild-type mice, MyD88 knockout (KO) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract during the first week of chlamydial infection. MyD88 KO mice developed a Th2-dominant whereas wild-type mice developed a Th1/Th17-dominant immune response after chlamydial infection. Despite the insufficient production of early inflammatory cytokines and lack of Th1/Th17-dominant adaptive immunity, MyD88 KO mice appeared to be as resistant to chlamydial intravaginal infection as wild-type mice based on the number of live organisms recovered from vaginal samples. However, significantly high numbers of chlamydial organisms were detected in the upper genital tract tissues of MyD88 KO mice. Consequently, MyD88 KO mice developed more severe pathology in the upper genital tract. These results together have demonstrated that MyD88-dependent signaling pathway is not only required for inflammatory cytokine production in the early phase of host response to chlamydial infection but also plays a critical role in the development of Th1/Th17 adaptive immunity, both of which may be essential for limiting ascending infection and reducing pathology of the upper genital tract by chlamydial organisms.

  19. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  20. Management of painful clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-02-08

    Traumatic neuromas are the result of regenerative disorganized proliferation of the proximal portion of lesioned nerves. They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C involves partial or total removal of the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It can involve cutting of the clitoris and can cause psychological, sexual, and physical complications. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms and management of women presenting with a clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). We identified women who attended our specialized clinic for women with FGM/C who were diagnosed with a traumatic neuroma of the clitoris between April 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. We reviewed their medical files and collected socio-demographic, clinical, surgical, and histopathological information. Seven women were diagnosed with clitoral neuroma. Six attended our clinic to undergo clitoral reconstruction, and three of these suffered from clitoral pain. The peri-clitoral fibrosis was removed during clitoral reconstruction, which revealed neuroma of the clitoris in all six subjects. Pain was ameliorated after surgery. The seventh woman presented with a visible and palpable painful clitoral mass diagnosed as a neuroma. Excision of the mass ameliorated the pain. Sexual function improved in five women. One was not sexually active, and one had not yet resumed sex. Post-traumatic clitoral neuroma can be a consequence of FGM/C. It can cause clitoral pain or be asymptomatic. In the case of pain symptoms, effective treatment is neuroma surgical excision, which can be performed during clitoral reconstruction. Surgery should be considered as part of multidisciplinary care. The efficacy of neuroma excision alone or during clitoral reconstruction to treat clitoral pain should be further assessed among symptomatic

  1. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  2. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    OpenAIRE

    I. Martínez Montero; M.A. García Mutiloa; R. Ezcurra; G. Campo; E. Arpa; R. Obregozo

    2004-01-01

    Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis). El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated...

  3. Microbiological studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... Abstract. An abattoir survey was undertaken to investigate genital bacterial infections of ewes in tropical arid zone of. Nigeria. Vaginal and uterine samples were collected and cultured using standard bacteriological techniques. The results of the study showed that the isolates were Escherichia coli (32%), ...

  4. Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle. ... Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.

  5. Support for the continuation of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On multivariate logistic regression analysis, perception of gender role, sex, place of residence, highest education in the household and religion remained to be important predictors of attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had low gender role ...

  6. Automated detection and categorization of genital injuries using digital colposcopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Kelwin; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    handcrafted features and deep learning techniques in the automated processing of colposcopic images for genital injury detection. Positive results where achieved by both paradigms in segmentation and classification subtasks, being traditional and deep models the best strategy for each subtask type...

  7. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Objective: To determine women's views on aspects of female genital mutilation and the prevalence among the study population. Method: ... Conclusion: There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing support for .... Reduced sexual satisfaction. 21. 50.0.

  8. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique. ... We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml) with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora ...

  9. Hand-foot-genital syndrome - analysis of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Mauri J; Urbanetz, Almir A

    2018-04-11

    Hand-food-genital syndrome (HFGS) is a rare genetic condition. This report describes the cases of two patients, aged 33 and 15, presenting related somatic abnormalities. HFGS stems from an autosomal anomaly linked to the HOXA 13 gene. Therapeutic procedures are discussed in order to identify the best treatment approach to the patients, as well as possible conditioning genetic anomalies.

  10. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with STDs were clinically assessed and investigated microbiologically, histopathologically and serologically and thereafter reclassified aetiologically. The incidence rate of STDs was 271.3 per 100,000 (.03%) populations per year. Male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The frequency of genital ulcers was 18.9% while that of ...

  11. Practice of female genital cutting amongst adults in Ilorin Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practice of female genital cutting amongst adults in Ilorin Metropolis, north-central Nigeria. S.A. Aderibigbe, B.W. Alatishe-Muhammad, H.A. Ameen, A.G. Salaudeen, M.J. Saka, M.M.B. Uthman, O.A. Bolarinwa, T.M. Akande, H.O. Raji ...

  12. Unusual Causes of Genital Injuries and their Management in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three cases of genital injuries caused by self-amputation, dog bite and cassava grating machine are presented. Accidental partial amputation of the penis through dog bite and de-gloving by cassava grating machine and unusual and, to our knowledge, have never been reported before. A previous report from this center ...

  13. The Relationship between Female Genital Mutilation and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing ... While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity.

  14. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  15. First HSV-1 non primary genital herpes in two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Chaine, Bénédicte; Maylin, Sarah; Minier, Marine; Vallée, Pascale; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Legoff, Jérôme; Janier, Michel

    2016-05-01

    First HSV-1 genital episodes in HSV-2 infected patients however, had never been demonstrated until the 2 cases we observed. This scarcity could reflect the lower impact of HSV-2 on western populations but questions the existence of cross-protection between viral types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Female Genital Mutilation: Perceptions and beliefs in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female Genital Mutilation: Perceptions and beliefs in a Nigerian rural community. H.O Bodunrin. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v6i1.23080 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle. East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a.

  18. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. Results: One hundred and sixty six (166) cases of genital malignancies were recorded during the 6‑year review. Majority of the patients were in the fifth and sixth decades ...

  19. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    showed willingness to circumcise their daughters indicating considerable reduction in uptake of the practice. A larger ... Conclusion: There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing ... Keywords: Female genital mutilation; campaign against: Southeast Nigeria.

  20. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia and Gonococcal infections in at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonococcal infections in women at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Design: Structured interviews and clinical examination of participants and obtaining vaginal swabs to test for gonorrhoea and chlamydia infections.

  1. Female genital mutilation: are we winning? | Makinde | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For more than 25 years, efforts have been geared towards curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to see if all these efforts have made any impact in reducing the prevalence of FGM appreciably in the south-West of Nigeria. Objective: To ...

  2. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with many women being victims of this harmful practice and its complications. The practice is rife in Southeast Nigeria and efforts have been made to discourage it. Objective: To determine women's views on ...

  3. Review: Female genital mutilation: A tragedy for women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC) constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girlsand women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences,both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the pastfew decades.

  4. The Perspectives And Practices Of Female Genital Mutilation Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Female genital mutilation is a gender based harmful practice that exposes women and the girl child to medical and obstetric complications. Accurate information is necessary for its eradication. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 women aged 15-60 years at the University of Nigeria ...

  5. Female genital cutting: current practices and beliefs in western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Chen, Peggy G; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O; Karfo, Kapouné; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    To conduct a cross-national comparative study of the prevalence and correlates of female genital cutting (FGC) practices and beliefs in western Africa. Data from women who responded to the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2005 and 2007 were used to estimate the frequencies of ever having

  6. Psychiatric aspects of male genital self-mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Gattaz, W F

    1991-01-01

    From the beginning of the century to this day 57 cases of male genital self-mutilation have been reported in the English literature. In German publications we found 5 case descriptions. Although no precise data are available on the prevalence of male genital self-mutilation, such acts are presumably much more frequent than the small number of published cases would suggest. In the literature several features are regarded as risk factors for self-mutilation, such as e.g. homosexual or transsexual tendencies, repudiation of the male genitals, absence of a competent male for identification during childhood, feeling of guilt for sexual offences, and self-injury in the anamnesis. The most frequent diagnoses are schizophrenia and affective psychosis; alcohol intoxication was diagnosed in about one-fourth of the cases published. In the present paper we summarize data from the literature on epidemiology, psychopathology, psychodynamic and sociocultural factors in male genital automutilation and we describe 2 new cases of self-castration in which several of the risk factors described above were observed. We conclude that although it is difficult to estimate the risk of self-castration in view of the heterogeneity of the respective patient groups, the danger of such deeds should be kept in mind if the above factors are present.

  7. Female Genital Mutilation among Edo People: The complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years ...

  8. INFANT-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (IFGM) IN CITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLESSING

    dimensions to the practice of FGM in Nigeria, the role of women in propagating FGM and its child right ... Infant-Female Genital Mutilation (IFGM) in cities and the role of women in perpetuating FGM: a probe on why FGM ..... possession of vagina, clitoris or breast among other remarkable features of the female body, provides ...

  9. Potential pathogens in the lower genital tract at manual vacuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the carriage rates of potential pathogens in the lower genital tract and factors associated with colonization among women with incomplete abortion. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The Manual Vacuum Aspiration room of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Subjects: Two ...

  10. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  11. Female genital cutting among the Hausa community in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: One hundred and seventy seven females and 68 males were interviewed. The males had a higher level of education compared with the females (p<0.05). Female genital cutting was a prevalent practice in the community as 80% of all the respondents were aware of the practice and 69.9% of the females reported ...

  12. An institutional survey of female genital mutilation in Lagos, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) as a procedure can have serious physical and psychological health consequences in girls and women. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of FGM and the socio-demographic factors which influence the practice among women in Lagos State. Methods: This was a ...

  13. Lymphomas of the female genital tract in Ibadan | Odukogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study Design: Records of subjects were analysed for their sociodemographic and clinicopathological characteristics, recruiting only those who satisfy the criteria for diagnosing genital tract lymphomas according to Kosari et al1. Retrievable archival paraffin blocks of subjects were also analysed using immunophenotyping.

  14. Attitudes towards female genital cutting among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study aimed to determine the attitudes of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria, towards female genital cutting. Method: The study was conducted over a period of six months, between November 2010-April 2011, at the antenatal clinic of the ...

  15. Health Workers' Knowledge of and Experience with Female Genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to assess the experience and the knowledge of the health workers practicing in our environment on Female genital cutting (FGC). Two hundred and fifty were interviewed with self-administered structured questionnaire. Their mean age was 35.2±8.3 years. Type I 82(66.6%) was the commonest FGC ...

  16. Gurya cutting and female genital fistulas in Niger: ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.

  17. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  18. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...

  19. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and ...

  20. Visceral Effect of Female Genital Mutilation as Explained by Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included self-reproach, poor self-image, painful menstrual periods and severe bleeding. Men whose partners were genitally mutilated confirmed that their wives faced these challenges. Based on these findings, it is recommended that counselling and education should be given to groups that still enforce this practice.

  1. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome has considerably altered the pattern of female genital cancers.[1]. In developed countries, the introduction of routine screening and treatment for premalignant lesions of the cervix has lead to a dramatic fall in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the past five decades.

  2. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron Ar; Hankins, Catherine A.; Gray, Ronald H.; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D.

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention.

  3. Anorectal carcinoma involving the female genital tract: the morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Carcinoma of the colon and anorectum affect a younger age group in Africans, and patients often present late with advanced disease. Method: A retrospective review of 22 females treated for anorectal carcinoma. Results: Fourteen females had genital tract involvement; their mean age was 33.8 years. Thirteen ...

  4. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Female genital mutilation/cutting: Knowledge, practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. Background. Despite global efforts at eradicating female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), the act continues to be performed globally. Objective. To determine the experience of schoolteachers about FGM/C and their possible role in contributing to its eradication. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional survey ...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude ...

  7. Female genital mutilation with coexisting pregnancy: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female Genital mutilation (FGM) is an ancient practice that is common among the Africans. It has found a place in the socio-cultural belief of the people despite several attempts that have been made for its eradication. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with the type IV FGM secondary to the ...

  8. Awareness and knowledge of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An estimated 130 million reported cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) occur globally, and every year at least 3 million girls and young women are at risk of undergoing this practice. This study was carried out to assess awareness and knowledge of FGM in a sub-urban community, Edo State, to help raise ...

  9. Female genital cutting/mutilation in Africa deserves special concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ismail Khalaf Editor-in Chief

    Association (PAUSA) to give special concern to health problems in. Africa, the editorial board of the African .... Female genital cutting/mutilation in Africa deserves special concern: An overview. 121. The governments of all the ... Going with this, Egypt banned FGM in 2007, despite pressure from some Islamic groups [27].

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this condition have abnormally short thumbs and first (big) toes, small fifth fingers that curve inward ( clinodactyly ), short feet, and fusion or delayed hardening of bones in the wrists and ankles. The other bones in the arms and legs are normal. Abnormalities of the genitals and urinary ...

  11. The immunology of genital human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a presentation by Margaret Stanley, Reader in Epithelial Biology, at the University of Cambridge, in which she reviews the evidence to date regarding the immunology of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in genital warts. In this she explains that investigations into the immunology of genital wart infections indicate that the replication cycle of papilloma viruses is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation - a strategy for immune evasion. While the papilloma virus infects primitive basal cells, viral replication and viral assembly are confined to differentiating superficial epithelial cells. Viral replication and release are confined to cells destined for death and are not associated with inflammation. Such findings suggest that the immune system is ignorant or indifferent to the infection. Evidence from regressing genital warts in humans and animal models suggests that HPV is a cell-mediated immune response of the Th1 type offering a strategy for immunotherapy in benign disease. This is supported by evidence from trials with immunomodulatory agents. While strategies to elicit cytotoxic responses are required for malignant HPV associated lesions, the problems of immune evasion associated with these approaches should not be underestimated. Present optimal therapeutic strategies for genital human papilloma viruses infection would therefore appear to require the induction of a virus specific immune response, either by immunomodulatory agents and/or immunisation with the relevant viral antigens.

  12. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... How can we re-examine the impact of 25 years of concerted action aimed at eliminating female genital mutilation (FGM) – excision – in Francophone West Africa? Why, how, by whom and for whom has the digital revolution been used over the past 10 years to achieve that end? If young people – both male ...

  13. Ultrafast Charge and Triplet State Formation in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Low Band Gap Polymer/Fullerene Blends: Influence of Nanoscale Morphology of Organic Photovoltaic Materials on Charge Recombination to the Triplet State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of thin films of two types of morphologies of diketopyrrolopyrrole low band gap polymer/fullerene-adduct blends is presented and indicates triplet state formation by charge recombination, an important loss channel in organic photovoltaic materials. At low laser fluence (approaching solar intensity charge formation characterized by a 1350 nm band (in ~250 fs dominates in the two PDPP-PCBM blends with different nanoscale morphologies and these charges recombine to form a local polymer-based triplet state on the sub-ns timescale (in ~300 and ~900 ps indicated by an 1100 nm absorption band. The rate of triplet state formation is influenced by the morphology. The slower rate of charge recombination to the triplet state (in ~900 ps belongs to a morphology that results in a higher power conversion efficiency in the corresponding device. Nanoscale morphology not only influences interfacial area and conduction of holes and electrons but also influences the mechanism of intersystem crossing (ISC. We present a model that correlates morphology to the exchange integral and fast and slow mechanisms for ISC (SOCT-ISC and H-HFI-ISC. For the pristine polymer, a flat and unstructured singlet-singlet absorption spectrum (between 900 and 1400 nm and a very minor triplet state formation (5% are observed at low laser fluence.

  14. Sex determination mode does not affect body or genital development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Whiteley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD. However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps. This is possible because of the transitional sex determination system of this species, in which genetically male individuals reverse sex at high incubation temperatures. This can trigger the evolutionary transition of GSD to TSD in a single generation, making P. vitticeps an ideal model organism for comparing the effects of both sex determination processes in the same species. Results We conducted four incubation experiments on 265 P. vitticeps eggs, covering two temperature regimes (“normal” at 28 °C and “sex reversing” at 36 °C and the two maternal sexual genotypes (concordant ZW females or sex-reversed ZZ females. From this, we provide the first detailed staging system for the species, with a focus on genital and limb development. This was augmented by a new sex chromosome identification methodology for P. vitticeps that is non-destructive to the embryo. We found a strong correlation between embryo age and embryo stage. Aside from faster growth in 36 °C treatments, body and external genital development was entirely unperturbed by temperature, sex reversal or maternal sexual genotype. Unexpectedly, all females developed hemipenes (the genital phenotype of adult male P. vitticeps, which regress close to hatching. Conclusions The tight correlation between embryo age and embryo stage

  15. Surface Morphology of Polyimide Thin Film Dip-Coated on Polyester Filament for Dielectric Layer in Fibrous Organic Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of wearable electronics automatically leads to the concept of integrating electronic functions on textile substrates. Since this substrate type implies certain challenges in comparison with their rigid electronic companions, it is of utmost importance to investigate the application of materials for generating the electronic functions on the textile substrate. Only when interaction of materials and textile substrate is fully understood, the electronic function can be generated on the textile without changing the textile’s properties, being flexible or stretchable. This research deals with the optimization of the dielectric layer in a fibrous organic field effect transistor (OFET. A transistor can act as an electrical switch in a circuit. In this work, the polyimide layer was dip-coated on a copper-coated polyester filament. After thoroughly investigating the process conditions, best results with minimal thickness and roughness at full insulation could be achieved at a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min. The polyimide solution was optimal at 15w% and the choice for the solvent NMP was made. In this paper, details on the pre-treatment methods, choice of solvent and dip-coating speed and their effect on layer morphology and thickness, electrical properties and roughness are reported. Results show that the use of polyimide as a dielectric layer in the architecture of a fibrous OFET is promising. Further research deals with the application of the semiconductor layer within the mentioned architecture, to finally build an OFET on a filament for application in smart textiles.

  16. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  17. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.

  18. Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Essam ElDin S.; Eldahshoursy, Mohammed Z.; Gamal, Wael M.; Badawy, Abdelbasset A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes. PMID:26941498

  19. [Habits and traditions of female college students related to intimate clothing, genital adornments, genital hair removal and sexual practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Paulo César; Polo, Renata Colbachini; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Reis, Virgínia Vieitez; Beghini, Joziani; Bardin, Marcela Grigol

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practices and care with the genital area of female college students. A descriptive analytical study evaluated the habits and traditions of 364 students from the University of Campinas (Unicamp) regarding the use of underwear, body piercings, tattoos, hair removal and sexual practices. A questionnaire with 42 questions assessed the most current practices among female college students. All questions were self answered and the questionnaires, without any identification, were placed in sealed ballot boxes to ensure the confidentiality of information. The responses were tabulated in Microsoft® Excel 2007 to obtain univariate analysis. The mean age of the college students in the study was 21 years (SD ± 2.7), and 84% were white. The volunteers who participated in this study were from the biological science area (50%), the exact science area (29%) or the humanity area (21%). It was observed that 61.8% of the respondents wear cotton panties, but at the same time 75.4% wear tight jeans, and only 18.4% wore no panties when sleeping. Only one participant reported having had genital piercing and none of them reported tattooing. Most female college students do genital waxing, and approximately 1/3 of them do so completely. After hair removal, 2/3 apply an anti-inflammatory and/or moisturizer to the region. Only 62% use condoms and 17.6% use a lubricant during intercourse. Half of them receive oral sex, 17.9% practice anal sex and 26.6% of them report feeling pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge after intercourse was reported in 25.6% of the cases. Young female college students from Brazilian public universities have many inadequate care habits related to their genital area. They do not use genital piercing and tattoos, but report having pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge after sex in a large number of cases.

  20. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)