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Sample records for genic male sterility

  1. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  2. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two

  3. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two EG

  4. Mechanism of Sterility and Breeding Strategies for Photoperiod/Thermo- Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; XIAO Ying-hui; LEI Dong-yang

    2010-01-01

    To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes with photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive genes, but not the so-called pgms gene in P(T)GMS rice. The minor-effect genes, which exhibit accumulative effect on sterility, are the important factors for the critical temperature of sterility transition. The more minor-effect genes the sterile line holds, the lower the critical temperature of sterility transition is. The critical temperature of sterility transition will be invariable if all the minor-effect genes are homozygous. The strategies for breeding P(T)GMS rice were also proposed. The selective indices of critical photoperiod and temperature for sterility transition should be set according to varietal type and ecological region. Imposing selection pressure is a key technology for breeding P(T)GMS rice with lower critical temperature for sterility, and improving the comprehensive performance of the whole traits and combining ability is vital for breeding P(T)GMS rice lines.

  5. Inheritance of the Male Sterility in a New Photo/Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line B06S of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hao-hua; HUANG Wen-xin; PENG Xiao-song; ZHU Chang-lan; LIU Yi-bai

    2004-01-01

    The major male sterile genes in a new photo/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) line B06S of rice were analyzed by the manipulation of mixture distribution theory. The results indicated that a pair of major male sterile nuclear genes with large effects were responsible for controlling the male sterility of B06S.

  6. Molecular tagging of a genic male-sterile gene in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sterility of Pingxiang male-sterile rice (Pms), possiblyderided from a spontaneous mutation in Pingxiang fertile rice (Pmf), was previously reported to be controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. It can be restored to fertility either by a dominant epistatic gene or by higher temperature treatment at the early stage of inflorescence development. In order to tag the genic male-sterile gene, Pms, Pmf and Ce 64, a cytoplasmic male-sterile restoring line without the epistatic gene for Pms, were used to construct mapping populations. Two segregation populations, "(Pms/Ce 64) F1s (sterile plant)//Pmf " F1 and "Pms//(Pmf/Ce 64) F1" F1, were simul-taneously developed. Subsequently, the genic male- sterile gene was mapped between a simple sequence length poly-morphism marker, RM228, and a restriction fragment length polymorphism marker, G2155, with distances of 14.9 and 2.6 cM, respectively. The tagged dominant genic male-sterile gene is temporarily designated Ms-p.

  7. [Research progress of the bHLH transcription factors involved in genic male sterility in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongming, Liu; Ling, Zhang; Jianyu, Zhou; Moju, Cao

    2015-12-01

    Male sterility exists widely in the spermatophytes. It contributes to the study of plant reproductive development and can be used as an effective tool for hybrid seed production in heterosis utilization. Therefore, the study on male sterility is of great value in both theory and application. As one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs) play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development. This paper introduces the mechanism of bHLH regulating stamen development in several important model plants. Furthermore, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of genic male sterility resulting from bHLH dysfunction to provide references for crop breeding and theoretical studies.

  8. Inheritance of the Pale-Green Leaf Marker and Sterility Trait in Photo-Thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhen-tao; XUE Qing-zhong

    2003-01-01

    P/TGMS (photo-thermo sensitive genic male sterility) lines with pale-green leaf color have beendeveloped in japonica rice. The marker trait is used as an assistant selection in the production of the two-linessystem hybrid rice for the improvement of F1 seed purity. A joint inheritance study of both leaf color and malesterility is presented for P/TGMS line with pale-green leaf color. The segregation ratios for leaf color in the F2populations of the three crosses showed 13 : 3 and 15 : 1 at early and late sowing stages (April 26 and June23) respectively, implying that the leaf color is controlled by two genes with fertility gene as dominant. Steril-ity level is higher in the early sowing stage than that in the late sowing. The inducement of male sterility isclosely related to longer day-length and higher temperature at the developmental stages of young panicle. Thegenes to govern the leaf color and male fertility are inherited independently.

  9. Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.

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    Peng Qin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS, including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS, have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

  10. Plant Temperature for Sterile Alteration of a Temperature-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice, Peiai64S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forecast of sterile alteration for the temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line in two-line hybrid rice seed production was traditionally based on screen temperature determined by weather station. The article put forward a new approach based on plant temperature, which was more exact and direct than the traditional method. The result of the simulation of the self-seeded setting rate of a widely used TGMS line, Peiai64S, by several temperature parameters and durations, showed that the fertility was directly affected by the plant temperature at a height of 20 cm or the air temperature around it in three days duration. Using the stem temperature of three days at a height of 20 cm as the simulation parameter,the fertility of Peiai64S had the maximum, minimum and optimum temperatures as 22.8, 21.7 and 22.5℃, respectively,whereas 23.2, 21.5 and 21.8℃ when using the air temperature of three days around the height of 20 cm as the parameter.Such temperature indices can be used to conclude the sterile alteration of TGMS for safeguarding seed production of twoline hybrid rice. The article also established a statistic model to conclude plant temperature by water temperatures at inflow and outflow, and air temperature and cloudage from weather station.

  11. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy [Argicultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Henry T. [Texas Tech Univ., Department of Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock TX (United States)

    2001-03-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F{sub 2} mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  12. Approaches for Preventing the Male Sterllity Fluctuation of Photo-thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The male sterility fluctuation of photo-thermo-sensitive genic ma1e sterile〔P(T) GMS〕lines induced by low air temperature is a key problem troubling the application of two-line system hybrid rice. The paper suggests to solve this problem by the breeding approeches, i.e, developing low sterile critical temperature P(T)GMS lines, herbicie resistant restorer lines, herbicide sensitive P(T)GMS lines and tetracycline-conditioned P(T)GMS lines to ensure the hybrid purity; and by the hybrid seed production techniques, i.e, taking the correct procedure of foundation seed production, the suitable district and season for hybrid seed production and the deep irrigation method against cold weather in high summer.

  13. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A.

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    Weiping Fang

    Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.

  14. Identifying and mapping cDNA fragments related to rice photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The differentially expressed cDNA fragments have been obtained by differential screening with cDNA-RAPD technique in photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice.Some of them have been reassessed with Northern blot hybridization,from which a PGMS-related positive fragment,RPG43,has been identified.Further analysis on RPG43 with Southern blot and RAPD indicates that the fragment is a single-copy sequence and its mRNA has been processed after transcription.Sequence analysis reveals that RPG43 is 744 bp in length and contains a 60 bp region (from 126th to 185th bp) showing 72% homology to a human DNA sequence,pac pDJ- 356d6,on chromosome 11.So it is a new sequence found in plant and its GenBank access number is AF126027.In addition,RPG43 has been mapped to a position 3.8 cM away from RFLP marker R1553 on chromosome 5 of rice.

  15. Cytological study and PCD assay on pollen development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice with its normal fertility counterpart was conducted.The results showed that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice occurred first no later than the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage and continued during the entire process of pollen development till pollen degradation.This abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of tapetum.Although tapetum degeneration in the PSGMS rice initiated as early as at the PMC stage,it proceeded slowly and did not complete until the breakdown of the pollen,in sharp contrast to the rapid disintegration of the tapetal layer during the late microspore to the bicellular pollen stage in the fertile rice.Such cytological observation was supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT2 mediated dU TP Nick End Labeling)assay that detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD),indicating that the tapetum degeneration occurs in the process of PCD.

  16. Characterizations and identification of the candidate gene of rice thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 by mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Previous study indicated that the thermo-sensitive genic malesterile(TGMS) gene in rice was regulated by temperature.TGMS rice plays an important role in hybrid rice production,because the application of the TGMS system in two-line breeding is laborsaving,timesaving,simple,inexpensive,efficient,and eliminating the limitations of the cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS) system.'AnnongS' is the first discovered and deeply studied TGMS rice lines in China.'AnnongS-1' and 'Y58S',two derivatives of TGMS line AnnongS,...

  17. Studies on Pingxiang dominant genic male sterile (PDGMS) rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIYaoHui; YANLong'an; LIUQiuying; KUANGXianyan; ZHANGXiaobo

    1998-01-01

    So far, 14 examples of dominant genie male sterility on 10 crop species have been discovered in the world. In crossing sterile plants of non-pollen-type F2 of cultivar wild combination (Ping'ai 58/ Huaye) as female parent with fertile plants F4 of the wild-cultivar combination (Huaye/Ping'ai 58) as male parent, a typical abortive plant was found in the progeny.

  18. Genetic Analysis and Primary Mapping of pms4,a Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility Gene in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To understand the genetic characteristics of a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line Mian 9S,some reciprocal crosses were made between Mian 9S and six indica rice materials,Yangdao 6,Luhui 602,Shuihui 527,Mianhui 725,Fuhui 838 and Yixiang 1B.Genetic analysis results suggested that the photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) of Mian 9S was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene.Thus,the F2 population derived from the cross of Yangdao 6/Mian 9S was used to map the PGMS gene in Mian 9S.By using SSR markers,the PGMS gene of Mian 9S was mapped on one side of the markers,RM6659 and RM1305,on rice chromosome 4,with the genetic distances of 3.0 cM and 3.5 cM,respectively.The gene was a novel PGMS gene and designated tentatively as pros4.In addition,the application of the pros4 gene was discussed.

  19. Isolation and Analysis of the Promoter of OsRacD from Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei-hong; WU Nai-hu

    2006-01-01

    By using OsRacD cDNA as probe to screen the genomic library of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice line Nongken 58S, a positive clone containing 2 kb promoter and 396 bp coding region of OsRacD was obtained. Compared with the promoter of OsRacD cloned by reverse PCR from normal rice variety Nongken 58 (Nongken 58N), the homology was 99.8%, and the different nucleotides were outside the predicted response elements in promoter, suggesting that the fertility between rice varieties Nongken 58S and Nongken 58N under the long-day conditions was not attributed to the difference in the structure of OsRacD upstream regulation sequences, but to the developmental regulation of gene differential expression.

  20. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  1. Development, inheritance and breeding potential of a recessive genic male sterile line D248A in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Yang, Minmin; Wu, Kun; Zhou, Xinan; Zhao, Yingzhong

    2013-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has great potential for heterosis exploitation in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Two spontaneous male-sterile plants were discovered in a Chinese sesame cultivar (Zhuzhi 4) in 2006. By consecutive sib mating with fertile plants from Zhuzhi 4, a new sterile line, D248A, was developed. Anatomy studies showed that D248A has thin, small and greenish anthers on which there are no or little pollen grains. The pollens are irregularly shaped and completely aborted, resulting in no germination and no formation of pollen tubes as revealed by acetocarmine stain or semi-solid suspension culture. Furthermore, D248A has a better performance in growth vigor, bloom duration and yield per plant than the other GMS lines (i.e. 95 ms-2A and 95 ms-5A). To investigate the inheritance mode of fertility, D248A was crossed and backcrossed with six varieties, and a segregating ratio of 3:1 and 1:1 for fertile and sterile plants was observed in F2 and BC1 populations, respectively. These results suggested that D248A is controlled by a recessive GMS gene. The average yield of four D248A-derived F1 hybrids is as high as 1695 kg·ha(-1), which is almost twice of that of 95 ms-5A-derived F1 hybrids. These results indicated that this newly developed recessive GMS line has great potential in sesame hybrid breeding.

  2. Aberrant Meiotic Prophase I Leads to Genic Male Sterility in the Novel TE5A Mutant of Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Wang, Shasha; Li, Keqi; Yuan, Rong; Gao, Hongfei; Luo, Junling; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents. We then analyzed the transcriptome differences between young floral buds of sterile plants and its near-isogenic fertile plants through RNA-Seq. A total of 3,841 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, some of which were associated with homologous chromosome behavior and cell cycle control during meiosis. Dynamic expression changes of selected candidate DEGs were then analyzed at different anther developmental stages. The present study not only demonstrated that the TE5A mutant had defects in meiotic prophase I via detailed cytological analysis, but also provided a global insight into GMS-associated DEGs and elucidated the mechanisms of GMS in TE5A through RNA-Seq. PMID:27670217

  3. Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2009-09-01

    9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the esp gene and construct a high-resolution map surrounding the esp gene. From the survey of 512 AFLP primer combinations, 3 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained and successfully converted to codominant or dominant SCAR markers. Furthermore, a codominant SSR marker (Ra2G08) associated with the esp gene was identified through genetic map integration. For fine mapping of the esp gene, these PCR-based markers were analyzed in a large BC1 population of 2545 plants. The esp gene was then genetically restricted to a region of 1.03 cM, 0.35 cM from SSR marker Ra2G08 and 0.68 cM from SCAR marker WSC6. The SCAR marker WSC5 co-segregated with the target gene. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of esp and will facilitate the selection of RGMS lines and their temporary maintainers.

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the fertile and sterile flower buds of a dominant genic male sterile line in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Tan, Mingpu; Yu, Haijuan; Li, Liang; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Minmin; Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Yingzhong

    2016-11-10

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a globally important oilseed crop with highly-valued oil. Strong hybrid vigor is frequently observed within this crop, which can be exploited by the means of genic male sterility (GMS). We have previously developed a dominant GMS (DGMS) line W1098A that has great potential for the breeding of F1 hybrids. Although it has been genetically and anatomically characterized, the underlying molecular mechanism for male sterility remains unclear and therefore limits the full utilization of such GMS line. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome profiling was carried out in two near-isogenic DGMS lines (W1098A and its fertile counterpart, W1098B) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to male sterility. A total of 1,502 significant DEGs were detected, among which 751 were up-regulated and 751 were down-regulated in sterile flower buds. A number of DEGs were implicated in both ethylene and JA synthesis & signaling pathway; the expression of which were either up- or down-regulated in the sterile buds, respectively. Moreover, the majority of NAC and WRKY transcription factors implicated from the DEGs were up-regulated in sterile buds. By querying the Plant Male Reproduction Database, 49 sesame homologous genes were obtained; several of these encode transcription factors (bHLH089, MYB99, and AMS) that showed reduced expression in sterile buds, thus implying the possible role in specifying or determining tapetal fate and development. The predicted effect of allelic variants on the function of their corresponding DEGs highlighted several Insertions/Deletions (InDels), which might be responsible for the phenotype of sterility/fertility in DGMS lines. The present comparative transcriptome study suggested that both hormone signaling pathway and transcription factors control the male sterility of DGMS in sesame. The results also revealed that several InDels located in DEGs prone to cause loss of function, which might contribute to

  5. Premature tapetum degeneration: a major cause of abortive pollen development in photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yinlian; Zhao, Sha; Yao, Jialing

    2009-08-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  6. Premature Tapetum Degeneration: a Major Cause of Abortive Pollen Development in Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinlian Shi; Sha Zhao; Jialing Yao

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  7. Development of Commercial Thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Accelerates Hybrid Rice Breeding Using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TMS5 Editing System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding offers an important strategy to improve rice production, in which the cultivation of a male sterile line is the key to the success of cross-breeding. CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been widely used in target-site genome editing, whereas their application for crop genetic improvement has been rarely reported. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced specific mutations in TMS5, which is the most widely applied thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) gene in China, and ...

  8. Breeding double low super hybrids with dominant genic male sterility three lines in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Maolin; Zhao Yun

    2005-01-01

    A double low homozygous two-type sterile line ZY-2AB, its near-isogenic temporary maintainer line ZY-4, and the full sterile line ZY-3 derived from the cross of ZY-2A with ZY-4, were developed to breed three-line dominant GMS hybrid in Brassica napus. Three years data showed that the ratios of sterile and fertile plants fit the expected 1:1 ratio in ZY-2AB, and the 1:0 ratio in ZY-3, respectively. Some double low super hybrid combinations were screened out when the full sterile line ZY-3 was used as female parent, among which the combination 01Z24 increased 36.88 percent more yield than control and the combination 98Z131 has been passed through the Sichuan Provincial Regional Test and registered in Sichuan Province. Two years data showed that the agronomic performance of the two-line hybrids derived from crosses of ZY-2A with restorer lines versus that of the three-line hybrids produced by ZY-3 was not different for any of the nine most important agronomic characteristics, revealing that near-isogenic line of homozygous two-type line was used as temporary maintainer could effectively avoid the disadvantage of three-way cross hybrid in breeding three-line dominant GMS hybrid.

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  10. Uncovering Male Fertility Transition Responsive miRNA in a Wheat Photo-Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Line by Deep Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fang Bai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs which play important negative regulatory roles at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in plants. Wheat is the most commonly cultivated plant species worldwide. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in the spikelets of photo-thermosenisitive genic male sterile (PTGMS wheat line BS366 during male fertility transition. Through mapping on their corresponding precursors, 917–7,762 novel miRNAs were found in six libraries. Six novel miRNAs were selected for examination of their secondary structures and confirmation by stem-loop RT-PCR. In a differential expression analysis, 20, 22, and 58 known miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between developmental stages 1 (secondary sporogenous cells had formed, 2 (all cells layers were present and mitosis had ceased, and 3 (meiotic division stage, respectively, of fertile and sterile plants. Some of these differential expressed miRNAs, such as tae-miR156, tae-miR164, tae-miR171, and tae-miR172, were shown to be associated with their targets. These targets were previously reported to be related to pollen development and/or male sterility, indicating that these miRNAs and their targets may be involved in the regulation of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366. Furthermore, target genes of miRNA cleavage sites were validated by degradome sequencing. In this study, a possible signal model for the miRNA-mediated signaling pathway during the process of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366 was developed. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the roles of miRNAs in male fertility in PTGMS lines of wheat.

  11. Uncovering Male Fertility Transition Responsive miRNA in a Wheat Photo-Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Line by Deep Sequencing and Degradome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian-Fang; Wang, Yu-Kun; Wang, Peng; Duan, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Shao-Hua; Sun, Hui; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Ma, Jing-Xiu; Wang, Na; Zhang, Feng-Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Chang-Ping

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs which play important negative regulatory roles at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in plants. Wheat is the most commonly cultivated plant species worldwide. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in the spikelets of photo-thermosenisitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) wheat line BS366 during male fertility transition. Through mapping on their corresponding precursors, 917-7,762 novel miRNAs were found in six libraries. Six novel miRNAs were selected for examination of their secondary structures and confirmation by stem-loop RT-PCR. In a differential expression analysis, 20, 22, and 58 known miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between developmental stages 1 (secondary sporogenous cells had formed), 2 (all cells layers were present and mitosis had ceased), and 3 (meiotic division stage), respectively, of fertile and sterile plants. Some of these differential expressed miRNAs, such as tae-miR156, tae-miR164, tae-miR171, and tae-miR172, were shown to be associated with their targets. These targets were previously reported to be related to pollen development and/or male sterility, indicating that these miRNAs and their targets may be involved in the regulation of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366. Furthermore, target genes of miRNA cleavage sites were validated by degradome sequencing. In this study, a possible signal model for the miRNA-mediated signaling pathway during the process of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366 was developed. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the roles of miRNAs in male fertility in PTGMS lines of wheat.

  12. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  13. Mapping of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 with EST and SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the cDNA suppression subtraction hybridization method, a spikelet-specific cDNA library was constructed that expressed at meiosis stage in rice. A total of 121 cDNA fragments were selected from the library and used as EST (expressed sequence tags) markers to detect the polymorphism between Annong N, a normal fertile Indica rice line and Annong S-1, its spontaneous mutant with thermo-sensitive genic male sterility, using the RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique. HN57, one of the EST probes, could detect polymorphism between them. The results of segregation analysis with the F2 population developed from Annong S-1 and Annong N indicate that HN57 co-seg- regates with the thermo-sensitive genic male-sterility controlled by tms5, the recessive gene in Annong S-1. This marker is located on the 31.2-cM region of the chromosome 2 of RGP (rice genome research program) genetic map. To further determine the location of tms5, 80 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers around this region were developed, and 12 of them were polymorphic. And finally, the tms5 was mapped within region of 181 kb by using these new markers.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of genic male sterility-related genes in Brassica rapa using a newly developed Br300K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis, floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K. Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility.

  15. Introgression of Gene for Non-Pollen Type Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility to Thai Rice Cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TANEE Sreewongchai WEERACHAI Matthayatthaworn CHALERMPOL Phumichai PRAPA Sripichitt

    2014-01-01

    .... To transfer tgms gene(s) control ing TGMS to Thai rice cultivars by backcross breeding method, a male sterile line was used as a donor parent while Thai rice cultivars ChaiNat 1, PathumThani 1, and SuphanBuri 1 were used as recurrent parents...

  16. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ge LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province, China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%. On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  17. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu-ge; LIU Yi-bai; JIN Su-juan; ZHU Xiao-yuan; WANG Feng; LI Jin-hua; LIU Zhen-rong; LIAO Yi-long; ZHU Man-shan; HUANG Hui-jun

    2008-01-01

    The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province,China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%). On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  18. Development of Commercial Thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Accelerates Hybrid Rice Breeding Using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TMS5 Editing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; He, Ming; Li, Jing; Chen, Liang; Huang, Zhifeng; Zheng, Shaoyan; Zhu, Liya; Ni, Erdong; Jiang, Dagang; Zhao, Bingran; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding offers an important strategy to improve rice production, in which the cultivation of a male sterile line is the key to the success of cross-breeding. CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been widely used in target-site genome editing, whereas their application for crop genetic improvement has been rarely reported. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced specific mutations in TMS5, which is the most widely applied thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) gene in China, and developed new “transgene clean” TGMS lines. We designed 10 target sites in the coding region of TMS5 for targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and assessed the potential rates of on- and off-target effects. Finally, we established the most efficient construct, the TMS5ab construct, for breeding potentially applicable “transgene clean” TGMS lines. We also discussed factors that affect the editing efficiency according to the characteristics of different target sequences. Notably, using the TMS5ab construct, we developed 11 new “transgene clean” TGMS lines with potential applications in hybrid breeding within only one year in both rice subspecies. The application of our system not only significantly accelerates the breeding of sterile lines but also facilitates the exploitation of heterosis. PMID:27874087

  19. Introgression of Gene for Non-Pollen Type Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility to Thai Rice Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANEE Sreewongchai; WEERACHAI Matthayatthaworn; CHALERMPOL Phumichai; PRAPA Sripichitt

    2014-01-01

    For the two-line hybrid rice system, pol en sterility is regulated by recessive gene that responds to temperature. The recessive gene controlling thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) is expressed when the plants are grown in conditions with higher or lower critical temperatures. To transfer tgms gene(s) control ing TGMS to Thai rice cultivars by backcross breeding method, a male sterile line was used as a donor parent while Thai rice cultivars ChaiNat 1, PathumThani 1, and SuphanBuri 1 were used as recurrent parents. The BC2F2 lines were developed from backcrossing and selfing. Moreover, the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for identifying tgms gene and the linked marker was used for assisting selection in backcrossing. The identification lines were confirmed by pol en observation. The results showed the success of introgression of the tgms gene into Thai rice cultivars. These lines will be tested for combining ability and used as female parent in hybrid rice production in Thailand.

  20. Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of the photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene pms1(t) in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fei ZHOU; Xian-yin ZHANG; Qing-zhong XUE

    2011-01-01

    Pei'ai64S, an indica sterile variety with photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) genes, has been widely exploited for commercial seed production for "two-line" hybrid rice in China. One PTGMS gene from Pei'ai64S, pms1(t), was mapped by a strategy of bulked-extreme and recessive-class approach with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insert and deletion (In-Del) markers. Using linkage analysis for the F2 mapping population consisting of 320 completely male sterile individuals derived from a cross between Pei'ai64S and 93-11 (indica restorer) lines, the pms1(t) gene was delimited to the region between the RM21242 (0.2 cM) and YF11 (0.2 cM) markers on the short arm of chromosome 7. The interval containing the pms1(t) locus, which was co-segregated with RM6776, is a 101.1 kb region based on the Nipponbare rice genome. Fourteen predicted loci were found in this region by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) Genomic Annotation. Based on the function of the locus LOC_Os07g12130 by bioinformatics analysis, it is predicted to encode a protein containing a Myb-like DNA-binding domain, and may process the transcript with thermosensory response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results revealed that the mRNA levels of LOC_Os07g12130 were altered in different photoperiod and temperature treatments. Thus, the LOC_Os07g12130 locus is the most likely candidate gene for pms1(t). These results may facilitate not only using the molecular marker assisted selection of PTGMS genes, but also cloning of the pms1(t) gene itself.

  1. Photoperiod-and thermo-sensitive genic male sterility in rice are caused by a point mutation in a novel noncoding RNA that produces a small RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Zhou; Zhenlan Liu; Letian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu; Chuxiong Zhuang; Qinjian Liu; Jing Li; Dagang Jiang; Lingyan Zhou; Ping Wu; Sen Lu; Feng Li; Liya Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS and TGMS) are the core components for hybrid breeding in crops.Hybrid rice based on the two-line system using PGMS and TGMS lines has been successfully developed and applied widely in agriculture.However,the molecular mechanism underlying the control of PGMS and TGMS remains obscure.In this study,we mapped and cloned a major locus,p/tms12-1 (photo- or thermo-sensitive genic male sterility locus on chromosome 12),which confers PGMS in the japonica rice line Nongken 58S (NK58S)and TGMS in the indica rice line Peiai 64S (PA64S,derived from NK58S).A 2.4-kb DNA fragment containing the wild-type allele P/TMS12-1 was able to restore the pollen fertility of NK58S and PA64S plants in genetic complementation.P/TMS12-1 encodes a unique noncoding RNA,which produces a 21-nucleotide small RNA that we named osa-smR5864w.A substitution of C-to-G in p/tms12-1,the only polymorphism relative to P/TMS12-1,is present in the mutant small RNA,namely osa-smR5864m.Furthermore,overexpression of a 375-bp sequence of P/TMS12-1 in transgenic NK58S and PA64S plants also produced osa-smR5864w and restored pollen fertility.The small RNA was expressed preferentially in young panicles,but its expression was not markedly affected by different day lengths or temperatures.Our results reveal that the point mutation in p/tms12-1,which probably leads to a loss-of-function for osa-smR5864m,constitutes a common cause for PGMS and TGMS in the japonica and indica lines,respectively.Our findings thus suggest that this noncoding small RNA gene is an important regulator of male development controlled by cross-talk between the genetic networks and environmental conditions.

  2. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile rice 5460S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芳; 金德敏; 伏健民; 张超良; 谢纬武; 王斌; 杨仁崔; 张洪斌

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a detailed physical map of the thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile (TGMS) gene-encompassing region and finally clone the TGMS gene, a high-quality rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from TGMS rice 5460S was constructed. The method of constructing BAC library was examined and optimized. The 5460S library consists of 19 584 BAC clones with an average insert size of 110 kb, which represents about 5 times rice haploid genome equivalents. Rice inserts of up to 140 kb and 250 kb were isolated and appeared stable after 100 generations of serial growth. Hybridization of BAC clones with mitochondrial and chloroplastic genes as probes demonstrated that this library has no organellar contamination. The 5460S library was screened with 3 molecular markers linked to tmsl gene as probes and at least 1 BAC clone was identified with each probe. The insert ends of positive clones were successfully isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) technique.

  3. Determination of genetic relationships among elite thermosensitive genic male sterile lines (TGMS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) employing morphological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Kumar Singh; Priti Upadhyay; Pallavi Sinha; Ashish Kumar Mall; Sanjay Kumar Jaiswal; Atul Singh; Ranjith Kumar Ellur; Sunil Biradar; R. M. Sundaram; Sukhpal Singh; Ilyas Ahmed; B. Mishra; A. K. Singh; C. Kole

    2011-04-01

    A set of morphological traits and SSR markers were used to determine the genetic relationship among 12 elite thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines developed at three different research institutions of India. Agro-morphological data recorded on 20 morphological traits revealed a wide base of genetic variation and a set of four morphological traits could distinguish most of the TGMS lines. Analysis with 30 SSR markers (20 EST-SSRs and 10 genomic SSRs) revealed 27 markers to be polymorphic, amplifying a total of 83 alleles. Each SSR marker amplified 2–6 alleles with an average of 2.76 alleles per marker and a PIC value varying from 0.54 to 0.96. Cluster analysis based on SSR and morphological data clearly differentiated the lines according to their source of origin. Correlation analysis between morphological and molecular data revealed a very poor association ($r = 0.06$), which could be attributed to selection pressure, genetic drift, sampling error and unknown relationship among related lines. The SSR markers discriminated the genotypes distinctly and quantified the genetic diversity precisely among the TGMS lines. Data on the yield per plant indicated that the genotypes grouping under a similar cluster showed same heterotic behaviour as compared to the genotypes from different clusters when crossed to similar pollinators.

  4. 大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育恢复基因BrMsf3的标记%SRAP Marker Analysis of Recessive Genic Male Sterile Restoring Gene in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张淑江; 李菲; 章时蕃; 孙日飞

    2011-01-01

    对一大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育系454AB的恢复基因BrMsf3进行了SRAP标记,构建包含320个单株的分离群体,筛选SRAP标记1 128个,筛选出与恢复基因BrMsf3连锁的2个标记BMe10SA4和M52K2,与恢复基因BrMsf3的遗传距离为4.35 cM和7.74 cM.%Genic male sterility lines were widely used in F1 seed production in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis ) . A recessive genic male sterile line 454AB which contained 320 individuals was constructed for this study. SRAP techniques and bulked segregant analysis ( BSA ) were used to screen markers linked to the RGMS restoring gene. Among the 1 128 primer combinations, only BMel0SA4 and M52K2 showed polymorphism between bulks of male sterile and fertile. The genic distances between restoring gene with BMe10SA4 and M52K2 were 4.35 cM and 7.74 cM, respectively.

  5. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  6. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”细胞学观察%Cytology Observation of Anther for Genic Male Sterility of AB Line Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 郑鹏婧; 张欣; 毕高熵

    2012-01-01

    以大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”为材料,对其可育与不育株的花器结构进行比较,并进行细胞学观察来明确该雄性不育类型的败育时期及败育原因.结果表明,大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”可育株的萼片长、花瓣长、花瓣宽、雄蕊长和雌蕊长都极显著高于不育株对应部位;不育植株和可育植株花蕾大小与花发育时期相对应;不育花蕾在2.5 mm后就已经败育,败育时期可能发生在减数分裂后期到四分体时期,该时期绒毡层细胞液膨大、呈现液泡化,将四分体挤压到药室的中间,致使四分体大量发育异常,小孢子得不到营养,不能形成正常的小孢子,导致小孢子完全解体,在开花前败育.%In this experiment, the materials are genic male sterility of AB Line Chinese cabbage. Comparisons between sterile flower and fertile flower on flower organic structure in Chinese cabbage, and cytology observation of anther, to find out the stage and reason of abortion. The results showed that: the sepal length, petal length, petal width, the stamens length of fertile plants and sterile plants in Chinese cabbage are very obviously different; development of anther was observed by using acid carmine staining and paraffin section method, stertility has been aborted after 2. 5 mm, abortion may occur during after meiosis stage to tetrad stage, tapetal cells showed vacuolation and crushed tetrad into central parts during this period. A large number of tetrads become abnormal, microspore development can not enough space and nutrition. Finally, microspores completely resolved and cause abortion before flowering.

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice Mapeamento de controladores de caracteres quantitativos de macho-esterilidade gênica termossensível em arroz indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Neves de Alcochete

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select and use microsatellite markers, to map genomic regions associated with the genetic control of thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS in rice. An F2 population, derived from the cross between fertile and TGMS indica lines, was used to construct a microsatellite-based genetic map of rice. The TGMS phenotype showed a continuous variation in the segregant population. A low level of segregation distortion was detected in the F2 (14.65%, whose cause was found to be zygotic selection. There was no evidence suggesting a cause-effect relationship between zygotic selection and the control of TGMS in this cross. A linkage map comprising 1,213.3 cM was constructed based on the segregation data of the F2 population. Ninety-five out of 116 microsatellite polymorphic markers were assembled into 11 linkage groups, with an average of 12.77 cM between two adjacent marker loci. The phenotypic and genotypic data allowed for the identification of three new quantitative trait loci (QTL for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice. Two of the QTL were mapped on chromosomes that, so far, have not been associated with the genetic control of the TGMS trait (chromosomes 1 and 12. The third QTL was mapped on chromosome 7, where a TGMS locus (tms2 has recently been mapped. Allelic tests will have to be developed, in order to clarify if the two regions are the same or not.O objetivo deste estudo foi selecionar e utilizar marcadores microssatélites, para mapear as regi��es genômicas associadas ao controle genético de macho-esterilidade termossensível (TGMS em arroz. Uma popu- lação F2, derivada do cruzamento entre linhagens indica fértil e TGMS, foi usada para construir um mapa genético de arroz, baseado em marcadores microssatélites. O fenótipo TGMS analisado apresentou uma variação contínua na população segregante. Um baixo nível de distorção da segregação foi detectado na população segregante

  8. Genetic Studies on Photo- and Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility of Indica Rice%籼型光温敏核不育水稻雄性不育性遗传研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓启云; 盛孝邦; 段美娟; 李新奇

    2001-01-01

    以安农S-1等籼型光温敏核不育系和二九青等不同生态型常规籼稻品种为材料,在长日高温条件下考察分离群体单株的套袋自交结实率,应用极大似然法系统研究了籼型光温敏核雄性不育性的遗传规律,结果表明:a)安农S-1、测64S、衡农S-1和W6154S等不育系的不育性遗传受1对隐性主基因控制,而W7415S的不育性受至少2对隐性主基因控制;b)光温敏不育主基因的表达受微效多基因的修饰,不同不育系的微基因效应有明显差异;c)不同生态型常规籼稻品种中均具有主效恢复基因,同时也存在相应的影响不育性表达效果的遗传背景(其实质就是微效多基因群),而且品种间有较大差异。对光温敏不育系不育起点温度“漂移”机制以及在育种实践中如何选育不育起点温度“缓漂移”的实用光温敏新不育系等问题进行了讨论。%The inheritance of photo- and thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (PTGMS) in rice was studied on the basis of the bagged seed setting rate of segregating populations from the crosses of five indica PTGMS lines and three conventional indica varieties of different ecotypes under long daylength conditions by the Maximum Likelihood method. The results showed that: a) The sterility of Annong S-1, Ce-64S, Hengnong S-1 and W6154S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes, while that of W7415S was controlled by more than one pair of recessive major genes; b) The expression of sterile major genes was modified by minor genes and the effect of minor genes was varied with PTGMS lines; c)The conventional indica varieties of different ecotypes possessed both the corresponding dominant major gene(s) and the genetic background affecting the expression of male sterility. The genetic background, in fact, was a group of minor genes and there existed a great difference among varieties. Furthermore, the mechanism of drift in critical sterility

  9. Molecular Markers and Agronomic Traits of a New Kind of Genic Male Sterile Material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus L.%新型甘蓝型油菜核不育材料绵7AB-4-2农艺性状鉴定及分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩杰; 汤天泽; 袁代斌; 蒙大庆; 蒲晓斌; 张锦芳; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to investigate the agronomic traits and breeding characteristics of genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus. [Method] The differences in agronomic traits and polymorphisms in SSR markers, between the genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were investigated by hybridization and molecular identification; and the percentage of sterile individuals of Mian 7AB-4-2 and of the hybrids with its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 from test cross and back cross were also studied. [Result] Mian 7AB-4-2 was not significantly different in agronomic traits from its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 at 0.05 probability level. The percentages of sterile individuals in the pollinated fertile Mian 7AB-4-2 plants were over 60%, and that in its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 was about 25%. In test crosses with other nine sterile lines, Mian 7AB-4-1 kept the percentage of sterile individuals of sterile lines over 90%, and the percentage of sterile individuals from back cross over 80%. With regard to molecular markers, Mian 7AB-4-2 and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were different in the band number from SSR primers a2 and E10. [Conclusion] The results indicate that Mian 7AB-4-2 is helpful for rapeseed breeding, quickening the application of new materials in field breeding.

  10. 基于体细胞组织培养的甘蓝型油菜核三系保持系绵7MB-1亲本繁殖与F1制种%Reproduction of the Three-line Genic Male Sterile Line Parent Mian 7MB-1 (Brasscia Napus L.) and Seed Production of F1 Based on Somatic Tissue Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙大庆; 陈军; 袁代斌; 张跃非; 郭子荣; 胥岚; 李芝凡; 蒲定福; 汤天泽; 贺启川

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the reproduction of the three-line genic male sterile (GMS) line parent Mian 7MB-1 (B.Napus L.) and the seed production of F1 through somatic tissue culture. [Method] Through hybridization, a new breeding material Mian 7MB-1 in three-line genic temporary maintainer line propagated by tissue culture was used to improve the sterile plant rate of rapeseed in dual-purpose recessive GMS line, such as Mian 7AB type, S45AB type, and etc. And then the variety comparative test was performed. [Result] In order to avoid some fertility restoration phenomena occurring during the process of self-reproduction, Mian 7AB was propagated in bulk with somatic tissue culture of temporary maintainer line plant stem. The propagated temporary maintainer line seedlings were applied to the breeding and seed production of net room male sterile line parent, promoting the sterile plant rate of the male sterile line parent to 91.7%-93.5%. The male sterile line parents per hectare were enough for the seed production of hybrid F1 in 7 500-15 000 hm2. [Conclusion] Compared with the original dual-purpose GMS line, the seed production ultilizing male sterile line with high sterile plant rate greatly reduced the labor, significantly improved the seed yield, ensuring the seed quality and forming a perfect breeding and seed production system.

  11. Fine Mapping of a Recessive Genic Male Sterility Gene (Ms 1) in Rapeseed (Brassica napus )%甘蓝型油菜隐性上位互作核不育基因(Ms1)精细定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莹芬; 陈凤祥; 李强生; 胡宝成; 吴新杰; 侯树敏; 范志雄; 费维新; 荣松柏

    2011-01-01

    Genie male sterility is one of the most valuable resources for heterosis utilization in Brassica napus. The recessive epistatic genic male sterile line 9012A has been playing an increasing role in hybrid cultivar development in China. That sterility is controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicated sterile genes (msl and msl) and one pair of recessive epistatic inhibitor gene {rf). Homozygosity at the rf locus (rfrf) inhibits the expression of the two recessive malt sterility genes in homozygous ms lmslms2ms2 plants and results in a male fertile phenotype (TAM line, mslmslms2ms2rfrf). In this study, 884 pairs of AFLP and 506 pairs of SRAP maker system were used for investigating the genotype of Ms lms lms2ms2rfrfand mslmslms2ms2rfrf segregated in a NIL population of 304 individuals. As a result, we obtained 14 makers tightly linked with the Msl gene, of which 4 markers co-segregated. The AFLP marker E-ACA/P-CTG reported by Ke et al. Has a genetic distance of 0.1 cM in our research population. BLAST analysis with sequences of tightly linked makers shows that, some of the sequences have high similarities with those genomic DNA sequences from Arabidopsis chromosome 5. Most notably, these sequences generated from the most tightly linked markers with Msl gene were perfectly anchored to one of the terminal of chromosome C9 of Brassica olerecea. All of these results of this study will benefit for map-based cloning and maker assistant selection of Ms 1 gene. Additionally, the segregation of the markers link with Msl gene which has been reported by other authors was investigated and compared in our segregated population in this paper.%甘蓝型油菜细胞核雄性不育是杂种优势利用的重要途径.隐性上位互作核不育系9012A已经广泛用于杂交种子生产,其不育性受两对隐性重叠不育基因(ms1和ms2)与一对隐性上位抑制基因(rf互作控制.ms1和ms2同时纯合(ms1ms1ms2ms2)表现不育,但隐性纯合rf(rfrf)对ms1ms1ms2ms2的表

  12. Genetic analysis and gibberellins treatment effects on dwarfism of maize genic male sterile mutant induced by space flight%太空诱变玉米核不育突变体矮化的遗传及外施赤霉素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静; 程江; 曹墨菊

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility provides an effective way for maize hybrids production. Plant dwarfism is one of the important target traits in crop breeding. Maize research institute of Sichuan Agricultural University obtained a genic male sterile mutant induced by space flight which was controlled by a pair of recessive genes. This mutant has the traits of sterility and dwarfism both needed by breeding. In order to find the genetic rules and reasons of dwarfism of the maize genic male sterile mutant, taking this sterile mutant as mother and inbred lines 178, 478 as father, fertility identification and plant height analysis of test cross F1 , F2 , genotype and plant height analysis of fertile F2 , fertility identification and plant height, tassel length, internode number and internode length analysis of sister cross off-springs were done. Meanwhile, gibberellins were applied on sister cross off-springs, fertility and plant height of which were examined. The results were as follows: The plant height difference of F1 at the background of 178 and 478 which was significant was the same with that between 178 and 478; Sterile plant height was significantly lower than fertile plant height in F2 at the background of 178 or 478, and the difference of sterile plant heights was not significant in F2 at the background of 178 and 478, while the difference of fertile plant heights was significant; In fertile F2 at the background of 178 or 478 of which the off-springs’ fertility separated, the difference between homozygous and heterozygous plant heights was all not significant; In sister cross off-springs, separation ratio of fertile and sterile plants met 1 ∶ 1, and sterile plant height, tassel length, in-ternode number and internode length were significantly less to those of fertile plant; Exogenous application of gibberellins did not affect the fertility of sterile plants, and the sterile plants showed certain sensitivity to gibberellins at seedling stage, but the plant height of which

  13. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  14. 光温敏核雄性不育小麦BS366花粉母细胞减数分裂的细胞学研究%Studies on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Photoperiod-temperature Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Wheat Line BS366

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建青; 张立平; 赵昌平; 许晨光; 王灵云; 苑少华

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, cytological studies were conducted on pollen mother cells meiosis ofphotoperiod temperature sensitive genic male sterile wheat line BS366 by using carbol fuchsin and chromosome squash technique.Some abnormalities of meiosis were observed in stertile condition.They were lagged chromosomes, chromosome bridges, scattered chromosomes and micronucleus.During meiosis Ⅱ, chromosome segregations were not synchronous.At dyad stage, the cell plate was out of flatness and the cell was incomplete divided.At tetrad stage,the tetrad cells were not coincident with each other in size.The percentage of abnormal tetrad was 62.88%, and 89.5% of matured pollen grains were sterile.Abnormal chromosome behavior and cell morphology during meiosis may be the important reason for fertility reduction of photoperiod-temperature sensitive genic male sterility wheat pollen.%以小麦光温敏核雄性不育系BS366为材料,采用卡宝品红压片法研究花粉母细胞减数分裂的细胞学变化.结果表明:不育环境下的BS366花粉母细胞减数分裂过程中染色体和细胞形态异常现象较多.染色体异常主要表现为:染色体落后,染色体桥、染色体散乱排列,微核、染色体分离不同步.细胞形态异常表现为:二分体时期细胞质不完全分裂,细胞板不平整;四分体时期子细胞大小不一.花粉母细胞减数分裂后,异常四分体的比例为62.88%;成熟花粉粒中败育率为89.5%.推测减数分裂期间异常的染色体行为以及细胞形态可能是影响花粉育性降低的重要原因.

  15. 抑制差减杂交法研究复等位基因遗传的大白菜核雄性不育分子机制%The Molecular-mechanism Research of Genic Multiple-allele Inherited Male-sterile in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞琴; 宋倩; 辛喜凤; 周雪; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    AB01, the two-type line of multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Chinensis ) was bred by our research group, the technology system of this material had been build, but its sterile molecular mechanism was not clear yet. In this research, sterility and fertility cDNA libraries including 27 differentially expressed clones were constructed using the fertile and sterile buds of AB01 by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 25 ESTs were homology to known sequence of the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI). The 25 genes, with homology to known proteins, could be divided into 4 groups (7 flowers developing-felated genes, 5 lipid metabolism, 3 energy metabolism genes, 3 chloroplast related genes and 7 encode the unclassified proteins). The results suggested the molecular mechanism of genic multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage was related with lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and photosynthesis progress.%AB01是本课题组培育的复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜甲型“两用系”,目前已建立了一套该材料的应用技术体系,但其不育分子机制尚不明确.本研究以AB01的不育株和可育株为材料,利用抑制差减杂交技术构建了正反抑制差减cDNA文库,并通过测序及生物信息学手段寻找育性相关基因,以此来推断该材料的不育分子机制.研究共找到27个差异表达基因,其中25个基因在NCBI数据库中均有同源序列,这些基因中7个与花发育相关,5个与脂类代谢相关,3个与活性氧及能量代谢相关,3个与光合作用及叶绿体合成相关,其余7个为功能未知基因.由此推测复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜不育的发生与脂类、能量代谢及光合作用有关.

  16. Breeding and Identification of Herbicide-resistant Genic Male-sterile Line Yu98-8A1 of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)%新型抗除草剂棉花不育系Yu98-8A1的培育及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 谢德意; 赵元明; 李武; 赵付安; 段铮铮; 祝水金; 房卫平

    2013-01-01

    通过连续回交,将抗除草剂基因EPSPS-G6转育花粉败育彻底(无微量花粉,不育度达100%)的棉花单基因隐性控制的核不育系Yu98-8A,进而培育成抗除草剂核不育系Yu98-8A1.对该转育不育系花冠表型测量观察表明,与同质系正常可育株比较,不育株花冠较小,不育株子房直径略大于可育株,花柱长和花柱外露长度均明显高于同质系正常可育株,花柱头外露为其最显著的表型特征;显微观察显示,不育系Yu98-8A1小孢子败育主要是在四分体形成后的小孢子发育期.小孢子败育特征表现为花粉粒无内含物、无刺突产生,最后解体、退化.PCR分子鉴定表明,抗除草剂基因EPSPS-G6转育入Yu98-8A,除草剂抗性试验表明,该转育不育系可抗质量百分比浓度达0.3%的草甘膦.该抗除草剂核不育系的培育在棉花杂种优势利用方面有重大利用价值.%Yu98-8A1,a herbicide-resistant cotton genic male-sterile line,was developed from a genic malesterile line Yu98-8A by successive backcrossing cotton line EHC09-002 which possessed the herbicide-resistant gene EPSPS-G6.Compared with homogeneity normal fertile plants,its significant characteristics included smaller corolla,bigger Ovary diameter,style length,and exposed stigmas by corolla phenotype observation.Among theses characteristics,exposed stigmas was the most significant one.Cytological observation showed that the anther abortion of Yu98-8A1 occurred during the stage of microspore development,which displayed without inclusion in pollen grain and spinescent protuberance on the pollen wall,and the microspore appeared abnormal and break down gradually.PCR identification and glyphosate resistance test indicated that herbicide-resistant gene EPSPS-G6 had been successfully aggregated into Yu98-8A,and the anti-herbicide concentration reached up to 0.3%.The cultivation of herbicide-resistant sterile line made Yu98-8A1 have significant value in the utilization of

  17. Cloning and Characterization of a Genic Male Sterility-related Gene BrLTP1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜核雄性不育相关基因BrLTP1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 叶雪凌; 李承彧; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-25,通过RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆了该基因的全长cDNA序列.序列分析表明,该基因编码脂质转移蛋白,命名为BrLTP1.BrLTP1全长cDNA序列为750 bp,推测编码1个包含183个氨基酸残基的前体蛋白.BrLTP1蛋白含有典型的脂质转移蛋白N端信号肽,保守的AAI结构域和半胱氨酸位点.预测BrLTP1蛋白含有多种修饰性位点,包括1个PKC磷酸化位点,2个N-糖基化位点和10个N-端豆蔻酰基化位点.基因表达模式表明,BrLTP1在两用系不育株花蕾中受到强烈抑制,在可育株的大花蕾、成熟花药以及花瓣中高水平表达.%The gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line ‘AB02' of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment, TDF-25, was only found in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of BrLTPl, coding lipid transfer protein in Chinese cabbage, was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR. The BrLTPl gene was 750 bp long in cDNA and hypothetical protein BrLTPl included 183 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the BrLTPl protein has ten N-myristoylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, and one PKC phosphorylation site. Gene expression characteristics indicated that BrLTPl was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with a extremely low expression level in sterile buds.

  18. Combining Ability Analysis of Wheat Thermo-photo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line K78S and Its Derived Lines%小麦温光敏雄性核不育系K78S及其衍生不育系的配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉仙; 杨和仙; 刘翠华; 李宏生; 顾坚; 杨木军; 赵红; 杨兆春; 李绍祥; 刘琨; 耿智德

    2012-01-01

    84 hybrid F1 were produced with 14 thermo-photo-sensitive genic male sterile wheat lines and 6 restorers by 14×6 incomplete diallel cross,for the purpose of evaluating the combining ability of male sterile lines.The general combining ability(GCA) and special combining ability(SCA) of male sterile lines were investigated on 7 traits.The results showed that the variances of GCA in grains per spike,1000-grains weight,spike length and spikelet per spike were significant at 0.01 level,suggesting that these four traits were mainly determined by additive effects,while the variances of GCA and SCA in yield per plant,spikes per plant and plant height were both significant at 0.01 level,indicating both additive and non-additive effects played important roles for these three traits.Parents with better GCA were generally characterized as having bigger GCA values in yield and yield components,and more yield components with positive GCA value,such as male sterile lines S1,S6,S7,S9,S12,S13 and S14.According to the analysis on SCA effects of yield component from top ten combinations with the highest SCA value for yield component,grains per spike was the most important component for combination with strong heterosis,then the spikes per plant and 1000-grain weight.The result is helpful not only for selecting combination,but also for breeding sterile lines and restorers.Moreover,the phenotypic values of spikelet per spike and plant height of male sterile line,spikes per plant,grains per spike,1000-grain weight and plant height of restorer,were all positively and significantly correlated with their GCA values,which meant the phenotypic values of these traits could be directly used as a guide to combination selection.%为了评价小麦温光敏核不育系的配合力,采用14×6不完全双列杂交对14个温光敏核不育系和6个恢复系的7个性状进行了配合力分析。结果表明,穗粒数、千粒重、穗长和小穗数的一般配合力(GCA)方差达

  19. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops.

  20. 水稻光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S花粉败育的细胞学机理%Cytological Mechanism of Pollen Abortion in Photoperiod-Temperature Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line Peiai 64S in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯九焕; 卢永根; 刘向东

    2000-01-01

    采用半薄切片及薄切片技术,对水稻光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S与正常水稻品种IR36的花粉形成发育过程进行了比较研究.结果表明,小孢子母细胞减数分裂之前,培矮64S与IR36的发育过程基本相似.但从减数分裂开始,培矮64S的雄性性细胞出现一些异常变化,并最终发育至二胞花粉早期败育.这些变化主要发生在两个阶段:(1)减数分裂前期,约半数的小孢子母细胞的胞质出现异常,游离核糖体稀少,并具有不发育线粒体和大量泡状内质网.这类异常的小孢子母细胞在随后的发育中逐渐液泡化并最终解体.(2)早期小孢子形成之后,几乎所有小孢子外壁均发育异常,表层与里层之间界限不清,缺少中间透明带,同时内壁没有形成.但是,在花粉发育的整个过程中,培矮64S与IR36绒毡层的发育和降解过程基本相似.据此认为,培矮64S的花粉败育可能是由小孢子母细胞或花粉外壁的异常发育造成的,而不是由绒毡层发育引起的.%By using the methods of semi-thin and thin section, the process of pollen development was comparatively studied in Peiai 64S, a photoperiod-temperature sensitive genic male sterile line (PTGMS) and IR36, a fertile cultivar in rice. The development of Peiai 64S and IR36 did not differ up to microsporocyte formation stage;but since meiosis stage, male reproductive cells of Peiai 64S underwent several structural changes and ultimately terminated by early bicellular stage. These abnormal changes mainly occurred at two stages: (1) at meiotic prophase, almost half of Peiai 64S microsporocytes exhibited aberration, with sparse free ribosomes, underdeveloped mitochondria and many swollen endoplasmic reticula. These abnormal cells became dramatically vacuolated and hereafter disintegrated completely at later stage. (2) After the early uninucleate stage, nearly all of Peiai 64S microspores possessed malfunctional exine that was deviod of electron

  1. 光敏核不育水稻幼苗叶片脂氧合酶活性及其基因表达的昼夜变化%Diurnal Fluctuation of Lipoxygenase Activity and Its Gene Expression in Photo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊宝; 曾晓春; 何永明; 向妙莲; 付永琦; 黄友明

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of lipoxygenase( LOX) activity in light and dark periods in photo⁃sen⁃sitive genic male sterile( PGMS) rice,PGMS rice N5088S and D38S,conventional rice Zhongzao25,Yanjing No.7 and Zhongjiazao17,and 3⁃line sterile rice G2A and Dong B11A were cultured in light incubator under different photoperiods ( 12L/12D, 14L/10D and 10L/14D ) and different light/dark ( L/D ) temperature re⁃gimes(30℃/30℃ and 30℃/26℃),and the diurnal fluctuations of LOX activity in seedling leaves were an⁃alyzed.Also,the diurnal fluctuations of OsLOXs gene expression were analyzed with real⁃time RT⁃PCR method in PGMS rice.The results indicated that LOX activities in PGMS rice were higher in the dark period and lower in the light period under all the experiment conditions,while in conventional or 3⁃line sterile rice there were no significant differences between the light and dark periods. LOX activities in the dark period were higher in PGMS rice than that in conventional or 3⁃line sterile rice.Among the 13 LOX genes tested,8 OsLOX genes were detected,and the expression levels of OsLOX2, OsLOX3,OsLOX4, OsLOX8 and OsLOX13 trended to be higher in the dark period and lower in the light period in PGMS rice of N5088S and/or D38S under the conditions of 30 ℃/26 ℃(L/D) and 12L/12D photoperiod.The study leads to a conclusion that seedling leaves of PGMS rice N5088S and D38S have a characterized diurnal fluctuation of a higher level in the dark period and a lower level in the light period in LOX activity and expressions of several OsLOXs.%为探查光敏核不育( PGMS)水稻中脂氧合酶( LOX)活性的光暗期变化特性,以 PGMS水稻 N5088S和D38S、常规水稻中早25、盐粳7号和中嘉早17及三系不育水稻G2A和东B11A为材料,在不同光周期(12L/12D、14L/10D和10L/14D)和光/暗期温度(30℃/30℃和30℃/26℃)下,研究了其幼苗叶片中LOX活性的昼夜变化,并采用RT-PCR方法

  2. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向卵圆型大白菜'60'的转育%Introgression of genic male sterile gene of Chinese cabbage into ovate ecotype Chinese cabbage variety '60'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪松; 许明

    2009-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,运用合成转育模式将大白菜'189'细胞核雄性不育基因转入基因型为msms的卵圆型白菜'160'中,获得了卵圆型白菜'160'的新甲型'两用系'及相应的不育系和保持系.%Based on the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genie male sterility, the synthesis transferring method was used to transfer the gene of male sterility into the orbicular-ovate type Chinese cabbage variety '160', whose genotypes were msms by crossing, inbreeding, sibling and test crossing. New AB lines type I,new male sterile lines and their corresponding temporary maintainer lines of Chinese cabbage variety '160' were obtained from the transferred progenies of the Chinese cabbage variety '189'.

  3. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  4. Genetics of Fertility Restoration in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pepper hybrid seeds production using male sterility could lower cost by reducing time and labour, and increase the genetic purity of the F1 seeds. To investigate the genetics of fertility restoration of the Peterson cytoplasmic sterility in pepper, a doubled haploid population of 115 pepper lines obtained from anther culture of the F1 hybrid between Yolo Wonder (sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (fertility restorer line) and the parental lines were test-crossed by 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genic male sterile line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed in greenhouse and open field with the following three criteria: pollen index (PI, visual estimation of pollen amount per flower), pollen number (PN, pollen counting under microscope), and seed number (SN, the number of seeds per fruit in open pollination). Correlations between the each couple of criteria within, as well as between the cultivation methods ranged from 0.55 to 0.84. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype (DH line) and environment were the significant sources of variation of the fertility.Narrow sense of heritance of fertility restoration ranged from 0.38 to 0.92, depending on the criteria and environment. The distribution of the progeny was continuous between the parental genotypes indicating the quantitative inheritance of fertility restoration. Inferred from segregation according to Snape et al.(1984), the number of segregating genes was estimated to be that three to four genetic factors were involved in pollen traits (PI and PN) and five to eight genetic factors in seed production (SN). The heredity analysis of the CMS will be helpful for understanding of the genetic mechanism of the fertility restoration and the exploitation of the CMS in hybrid seed production.

  5. Comparative Transcriptomes Profiling of Photoperiod-sensitive Male Sterile Rice Nongken 58S During the Male Sterility Transition between Short-day and Long-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingguo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. Results To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD and long-day (LD at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold, and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.

  6. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Genetic improvement of thermosensitive genic male sterile lines under genotype-distinguishable environment in rice(Oryza sativa L.)%水稻(Oryza sativa L.)温敏核不育系在有利于遗传型鉴别环境下的遗传改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李容柏; M.P.Pandey

    2003-01-01

    Low critical sterility point(CSP),high male fertility recovery and high outcrossing ability are critical characters of a TGMS line in rice for use as a female parent in pure hybrid seed production and economical self multiplication.In this study, selection efficiency of these characters related to different environments were analyzed.The results showed that the effect of genotype on critical sterility point of temperature,male fertility recovery,stigma and panicle exsertions,growth and vigour and adaptability of TGMS lines were modified due to environments.Higher expression of the character did not lead to high discrimination among the genotypes as these characters had identical degree of expression.Similar expression of tms genes on male sterility at high temperature was revealed.This suggested the necessity of performing selection under appropriate genotype-distinguishable environment.High selection efficiency for low CSP and high male fertility recovery was obtained under relatively lower temperature.High stigma exsertion was selected with high efficiency under high humidity condition,while high panicle exsertion was effectively selected under high temperature.For improvement of growth-vigour and adaptability,selection under relatively poorer soil nutrient environment was highly efficient.%低不育起点温度(CSP)、高自繁育性和高的异交结实率对于水稻温敏核雄性不育系配制纯合的杂交种子和获得经济的自繁种子有重要意义.本研究分析了不同环境对这些性状选择效率的影响,结果表明,温敏核雄性不育系的雄性不育起点温度、自繁雄性可育性、柱头外露率和穗伸出率、生长势和适应性的选择效应受环境影响.在某种环境下遗传材料的这些性状过高的表达并没有导致高的区分度,因为在这种情况下性状在株间表现较整齐一致,温敏核雄性不育基因(tms)在高温下雄性不育性也表现相似的结果,因此认为有必要在适

  8. The dynamics of gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. .1. Frequencies of male-steriles and their cytoplasmic male sterility types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Luyten, R.M.J.M.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of a gynodioecious breeding system (hermaphrodites and male-steriles) was studied in Plantago lanceolata. Cytoplasmic-nuclear inheritance is important in the maintenance of male-steriles. The male-sterile trait is cytoplasmically based (CMS), and male fertility can be restored by nuc

  9. From pollen actin to crop male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Actin plays an important role in the life activity of animal and plant cells. Pollen cells have plenty of actin whose structure and characteristics are very similar to the animal actin. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of plant actin gene are very similar to those of the animal gene. The content of pollen actin from male sterile plants is much more lower than that from its maintainer plants. The expression of actin gene is organ-specific during the plant development. The expression quantity of actin gene in pollen is much more higher than those from root, stem and leaf. The expression plasmid of the anti-sense actin gene was constructed, transferred to the protoplasts of wheat and tomato to inhibit the expression of actin gene in pollen and thus the male sterile plants of wheat and tomato were obtained. The actin in pollens from the transgenic plants was reduced significantly, whereas the pistil was not affected. This study might pave a new way to breeding male sterile lines for the application of hybrid vigor of wheat and tomato.

  10. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  11. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  12. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  13. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  14. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  15. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  16. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  17. Male sterility in triploid dandelions: asexual females vs. asexual hermaphrodites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmans, P G; Den Nijs, J C M; Van Tienderen, P H

    2006-01-01

    Male reproductive output, pollen in plants and sperm in animals has been shown to constitute a substantial cost for many organisms. In parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, selection is therefore expected to reduce the allocation of resources to male reproductive output. However, sustained production of pollen or sperm has been observed in numerous asexual hermaphrodites. We studied the widespread production of pollen by triploid asexual dandelions, Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia, comparing rare male sterile individuals with pollen producing asexuals. We found that individuals can show plasticity in the production of pollen, but that it is nevertheless possible to distinguish between (facultatively) male sterile asexuals and male fertile asexuals. Based on evidence from genetic markers and crosses, we conclude that the male sterility in asexual dandelions is caused by nuclear genes, in contrast to the cytoplasmically inherited male sterility previously found in sexual dandelions. Male sterile lineages did not produce more seeds per flower head, heavier seeds or seeds that were more viable. However, male sterile plants did produce more seed heads and hence more seeds than pollen producing ones, indicating that they were able to reallocate resources toward seed production. Considering the difference in seed production, it remains puzzling that not more asexual dandelions are male sterile.

  18. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  19. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  20. A dominant gene for male sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Shu

    Full Text Available A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006-2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms. The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm(2·24 h with row ratio (female:male 2:1 within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208 was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

  1. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  2. Complex nature of inheritance of thermosensitive genic male sterility(TGMS)in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Recently, a new TGMS source, UPRI 95_140TGMS, has been identified in our hybrid breeding program. The TGMS trait had displayed digenic inheritance. However, the detailed investigation of the line revealed much complicated inheritance. The salient findings were summarized below:

  3. Thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice line developed by population improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaojin; Yuan Longping; Wang Weiping

    2005-01-01

    In this study population improvement or random polycross plus mass selection was adopted with using N8S, Huaizao4, Xiang2B and Zaoyou1 as parents. To help comprehensively improve the important characters such as combining ability, grain quality, resistance, stigma exsertion rate, etc. The stigma exsertion rate of ZhunS, an elite TGMS line, is 78.6%, 72.4% higher than that of V20A. Hybrids produced by crossing ZhunS with R402, Minhui77 and Minhui63 increased the yield by 3.8%~5.8% and decreased grain chalkiness by 82.1%~84.4% compared with those from crossing V20A with the corresponding R lines.

  4. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Pachytene Spermatocytes of Sterile Hybrid Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Yueshuai; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Hefeng; Guo, Xuejiang; Sun, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Incompatibilities in interspecific hybrids, such as reduced hybrid fertility and lethality, are common features resulting from reproductive isolation that lead to speciation. Subspecies crosses of house mice produce offspring in which one sex is infertile or absent, yet the molecular mechanisms of hybrid sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in pachytene spermatocytes of sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male). We report the high-confidence identification of 4005 proteins in the pachytene spermatocytes of fertile F1 males (PWK/Ph male × C57BL/6J female) and sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male), of which 215 were upregulated and 381 were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteome led to the identification of 43 and 59 proteins known to be essential for male meiosis and spermatogenesis in mice, respectively. Characterization of the proteome of pachytene spermatocytes associated with hybrid male sterility provides an inventory of proteins that is useful for understanding meiosis and the mechanisms of hybrid male infertility.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  8. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  9. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  10. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-10-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16-60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species.

  11. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  12. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shannon R. McDermott; Mohamed A. F. Noor

    2010-01-01

    .... We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  13. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  14. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  15. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  17. pms3 is the locus causing the original photoperiod-sensitive male sterility mutation of‘Nongken 58S’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅明华; 陈亮; 章志宏; 李子银; 徐才国; 张启发

    1999-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice is a very useful germplasm for hybrid rice development. It was first found as a spontaneous mutant in a japonica cultivar ’Nongken 58’. pms3 on chromosome 12 was determined to be the locus where the original PSGMS mutation occurred, changing the normal cultivar Nongken 58 to PSGMS Nongken 58S. Large amounts of RAPD and AFLP analyses were also conducted for the fine mapping of the pms3 genomic region, which resulted in 4 molecular markers linked to pms3. Although these markers somewhat increased the marker density of this region, the pms3 locus is still located in a marker-sparse region.

  18. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  19. Development of SNP-based dCAPS markers for identifying male sterile gene tms5 in two-line hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, F S; Ni, J L; Qian, Y L; Li, L; Ni, D H; Yang, J B

    2016-08-29

    Molecular markers can increase both the efficiency and speed of breeding programs. Functional markers that detect the functional mutations causing phenotypic changes offer a precise method for genetic identification. In this study, we used newly derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to detect the functional mutations of tms5, which is a male sterile gene that is widely used in rice production in China. In addition, restriction cutting sites were designed to specifically digest amplicons of tms5 but not wild type (TMS5), in order to avoid the risk of false positive results. By optimizing the condition of the polymerase chain reaction amplifications and restriction enzyme digestions, the newly designed markers could accurately distinguish between tms5 and TMS5. These markers can be applied in marker-assisted selection for breeding novel thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines, as well as to rapidly identify the TGMS hybrid seed purity.

  20. Differences in Nuclear DNA Between Male-Sterile and Male-Fertile Lines of Sorghum bicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chang-fa; SUN Chun-yun; GUO Xiao-cai; NIU Tian-tang; ZHANG Fu-yao

    2003-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) is determined by nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Up tonow, most studies are focused on the comparison of cytoplasmic DNAs of male-sterile lines and male-fertilelines, and analysis of nuclear DNA has not been documented yet. In order to find out the possible difference innuclear genome of male-sterile line A1 Tx623 and corresponding male-fertile line Tx623 of sorghum, randomamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach was used to analyze their cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Total DNAs of them were amplified at first to screen primers, which were able to generate reproducible bandsspecific to male-sterile line or male-fertile line. Then the selected primers were used to amplify their mitochon-drial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). The origins of all the polymorphic fragments were ana-lyzed. After ruling out those amplified from cytoplasmic DNA, seventeen polymorphic fragments were deter-mined to be amplified from nuclear DNA. These fragments originated from nuclear DNA indicate that diffe-rences in sequence exist between the nuclear DNA of male-sterile line and male-fertile line of sorghum, whichdo not agree with the traditional standpoint that they have identical nucleus.

  1. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  2. Characterization and Use of Male Sterility in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoqing Li; Daichang Yang; Yingguo Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding that was initiated in China in the 1970s led to a great improvement in rice productivity. In general, it increases the grain yield by over 20% to the inbred rice varieties, and now hybrid rice has been widely introduced into Africa, Southern Asia and America. These hybrid varieties are generated through either three-line hybrid and two-line hybrid systems; the former is derived from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the latter derived from genie male sterility (GMS). There are three major types of CMS (HL, BT and WA) and two types of GMS (photoperiod-sensitive (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive (TGMS)). The BT- and HL-type CMS genes are characterized as orf79and orfH79, which are chimeric toxic genes derived from mitochondrial rearrangement, fffdfor CMS-WA is located on chromosome 1, while Rf1, Rf4, RfSand Rf6 correspond to CMS-BT, CMS-WA and CMS-HL, located on chromosome 10. The Rf1 gene for BT-CMS has been cloned recently, and encodes a mitochondria-targeted PPR protein. PGMS is thought to be controlled by two recessive loci on chromosomes 7 and 12, whereas nine recessive alleles have been identified for TGMS and mapped on different chromosomes. Attention is still urgently needed to resolve the molecular complexity of male sterility to assist rice breeding.

  3. FURTHERSTUDIES ON STERILITY PRODUCED IN MALE MICE BY DEUTERIUMOXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Ann M.; Bennett, Edward L.; Calvin, Melvin.

    1960-06-01

    The authors have previously reported that deuterium oxide in the drinking water of either male or female mice produces sterility. An investigation of some of the conditions--with particular reference to time--of deuterium oxide treatment to produce sterile C{sub 57} male mice indicated that the sensitive phase of sperm production centered around the late prophase of meiosis. In some experiments, although D{sub 2}O was almost completely absent during maturation of the sperm, and when the mice mated, these sperm exhibited the effects of their much earlier contact with D{sub 2}O. No viable offspring were obtained from these matings. They concluded that the presence of D{sub 2}O during the late prophase and meiotic divisions interfered with the normal construction or division (or both) of genetic material. It was suggested that changes in the forces, principally hydrogen bonds, in macromolecules affected their structural characteristics and resulted in abnormal division. The objective of the experiments reported here was to determine the phases of embryonic development of the mouse at which the lethal action of deuterium oxide on sperm is manifested. These investigations on embryonic growth initiated by sperm developed in D{sub 2}O have yielded additional evidence that D{sub 2}O severely damages the genetic material of developing sperm, with resulting sterility of the male mouse.

  4. Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata--a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Kai P; Möller, Ralf; Donaldson, Lloyd; Putterill, Joanna; Walter, Christian

    2006-05-01

    A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic pollen first developed abnormally, tobacco anthers from six different developmental stages were assayed microscopically. Following the release of pollen grains from tetrads, transgenic pollen displayed an increasingly flake-like structure, which gradually rounded up during the maturation process. We further investigated whether STS expression may have resulted in an impaired flavonol or sporopollenin formation. A specific flavonol aglycone stain was used to demonstrate that significant amounts of these substances were produced only in late stages of normal pollen development, therefore excluding a diminished flavonol aglycone production as a reason for pollen ablation. A detailed analysis of the exine layer by transmission electron microscopy revealed minor structural changes in the exine layer of ablated pollen, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the biochemistry of sporopollenin production was unaffected. The promoter-STS construct may be useful for the ablation of pollen formation in coniferous gymnosperms and male sterility may potentially be viewed as a prerequisite for the commercial use of transgenic conifers.

  5. Induction, maintenance and utilization of male sterility in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvertand, B.C.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes research work performed in leek in relation to efforts to obtain or exploit a male sterility system for hybrid leek breeding. Male sterile plants can be found in every leek cultivar. The male sterility trait can be explained by a nuclear monogenic inheritance or by a nucleo-cyt

  6. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  7. [Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production.

  8. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  9. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  10. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  11. Tropics accelerate the evolution of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate speciation and explain global patterns of species diversity has remained a challenge for decades. The most general pattern of species biodiversity is the latitudinal gradient, whereby species richness increases toward the tropics. Although such a global pattern probably has a multitude of causes, recent attention has focused on the hypothesis that speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation occur faster in the tropics. Here, I tested this prediction using a dataset on premating and postzygotic isolation between recently diverged Drosophila species. Results showed that while the evolution of premating isolation was not greater between tropical Drosophila relative to nontropical species, postzygotic isolation evolved faster in the tropics. In particular, hybrid male sterility was much greater among tropical Drosophila compared to nontropical species pairs of similar genetic age. Several testable explanations for the novel pattern are discussed, including greater role for sterility-inducing bacterial endosymbionts in the tropics and more intense sperm-sperm competition or sperm-egg sexual conflict in the tropics. The results imply that processes of speciation in the tropics may evolve at different rates or may even be somewhat different from those at higher latitudes.

  12. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Frank

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  13. The effects of inbreeding and heat stress on male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Bijlsma, Kuke

    2011-01-01

    in benign and stressful environments using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Male sterility was compared in 21 inbred lines and five non-inbred control lines at 25.0 and 29.0 °C. The effect of inbreeding on sterility was significant only at 29.0 °C. This stress-induced increase in sterility...

  14. 水稻体细胞无性系雄性不育突变%Male Sterile Mutants from Rice Somaclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范树国; 梁承邺; 刘鸿先

    2000-01-01

    对5个类型的水稻不育系进行了幼穗培养,在红源A、包源A和W6154s中,共获得了10例雄性不育变异株,水稻花粉败育可分为无花粉、典败、圆败和染败四种类型。发现了不育花粉败育类型之间可以相互转换现象。对雄性不育变异株用一批现有CMS不育系的保持系和恢复系进行测交和回交,有的变异株其恢保关系发生了变化,由包台型变成了野败型;有的变异株找不到恢复系;而有的变异株则找不到保持系,表现为核不育的性质。%Young panicles from fiva rice varieties,Zhenshan 97A(WA type cytoplasmic malesterile(CMS)line,indica),Hongyuan A(HL type CMS line,indica),Baoyuan A(BT type CMS line,indica),Nongken 58s(photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice(PGMR),japonica)and W6154s(thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile rice(TGMR),indica),were cultured on the other was coded S14-1, TAT) and Baoyuan A (one was coded 28-5, SpAT; the other wascoded 28-19, TAT), kept sterile continuously for five generations when they were backcrossedwith the ten parents stated above.The other five male-sterile variants, which derived from Hongyuan A (coded 24-5),Baoyuan A(coded 28-35) and W6154s(coded WP-l, WP-2 and WS) turned into fertility with alot of fertile pollens and very high self seed set rate (more than 80%) when they were crossed with the ten parents stated above.different media. After obtained regenerating plants,examined pollen fertility,madetestcrosses of male-sterile variants,did genetic analyses of male-sterile variants,discussedrestoring and maintaining relationship of male sterile variants,we found 10 cases of male-sterilevariants in three rice variedes,Hongyuan A,Baoyuan A and W6154s.Abortive pollen of ricecould be classified into four types:pollen free type(PFT),typical abortion type (TAT),pherical abortion type(SpAT)and stained abortion type(StAT).The phenomenon that type of polln abortion

  15. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; Pmale fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon.

  16. No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Christopher S

    2008-06-01

    Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids.

  17. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  18. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf) on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seed samples of Yuetai A,a Honglian (HL) type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province and Lingshui,Hainan Province during 2004-2006.The seed impurity of Yuotai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rt) after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability.All of the ten maintainer lines,five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants,directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating 'iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations'.Furthermore,high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination.After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A,the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  19. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  1. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...... genomes will enable to identify the causative polymorphism of CMS phenotype in perennial ryegrass....

  2. Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Herbert B

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence against the existence of a post-tubal ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities. Although women who have undergone tubal sterilization are more likely than other women to undergo hysterectomy subsequently, there is no known biologic basis for this relationship. Although sterilization is intended to be permanent, expressions of regret and requests for reversal are not uncommon and are much more likely to occur among women sterilized at young ages. Tubal sterilization has little or no effect on sexual function for most women. Vasectomy is less likely than tubal sterilization to result in serious complications. Minor complications, however, are not uncommon. Vasectomy does not increase the risk of heart disease, and available evidence argues against an increase in the risk of prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or overall mortality. Whether a postvasectomy pain syndrome exists remains controversial. Although the long-term effectiveness of vasectomy is less well-studied than that for tubal sterilization, it seems likely to be at least as effective. Intrauterine devices and progestin implants are long-acting, highly effective alternatives to sterilization.

  3. Development and Performance of the Cytoplasmic-nuclear Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A of Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Derong; Gai Junyi; Cui Zhanglin; Qiu Jiaxun

    2000-01-01

    The F1 of N8855×N2899, a cross between two G. max cultivars, was found to be male-sterile. After it was back-crossed with the recurrent parent N2899 for four successive generations, a cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterile line and its maintainer line, designated as NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B, respectively, were obtained. NJCMS1A performed stable in male sterility and normal in female fertility with 98. 29% plants are male-sterile and 0 pollen germination. The abnormal phenomenon of 2~3 styles surrounded by 20~30 stamens was found in some flowers of male sterile plants of BC1F1 and BC2F1.

  4. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  6. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-12-01

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM(+)SaF(+), whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM(-)SaF(-) that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM(-). This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF(+) with SaM(-), a truncated protein, but not with SaM(+) because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM(+) is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding.

  7. The genetics of inviability and male sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotman, M; Della Torre, A; Powell, J R

    2004-05-01

    Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found.

  8. The contribution of the Y chromosome to hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Tucker, Priscilla K; Nachman, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    Hybrid sterility in the heterogametic sex is a common feature of speciation in animals. In house mice, the contribution of the Mus musculus musculus X chromosome to hybrid male sterility is large. It is not known, however, whether F1 male sterility is caused by X-Y or X-autosome incompatibilities or a combination of both. We investigated the contribution of the M. musculus domesticus Y chromosome to hybrid male sterility in a cross between wild-derived strains in which males with a M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus Y chromosome are partially sterile, while males from the reciprocal cross are reproductively normal. We used eight X introgression lines to combine different X chromosome genotypes with different Y chromosomes on an F1 autosomal background, and we measured a suite of male reproductive traits. Reproductive deficits were observed in most F1 males, regardless of Y chromosome genotype. Nonetheless, we found evidence for a negative interaction between the M. m. domesticus Y and an interval on the M. m. musculus X that resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. Therefore, although F1 male sterility appears to be caused mainly by X-autosome incompatibilities, X-Y incompatibilities contribute to some aspects of sterility.

  9. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  10. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.

  11. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  12. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-03

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.

  13. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  14. Infection Mechanism of Neovossaia horrida in Male Sterile Lines of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jianqing(朱建清); Liu Zhu; Liao Jinhua; Tao Jiafeng; Yang Zhirong; Zhao Jian

    2004-01-01

    After male sterile rice plants are inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia horrida in the field, the process of infection is comparatively studied in four male sterile rice lines by scanning electronmicroscope. The infection process of Neovossia horrida is similar in these four male sterile lines. The results show, that the hyphae of fungus penetrates directly to the stigma, and then to the ovary after inoculation for 8h. The initial teliospore is formed between the aleurone layer and seed coat after 7d and matured in 9d. Although fungus penetrates through stigma without pollination, teliospore occurs only in the healthy developing endosperma.

  15. Early events in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2004-06-15

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage.

  16. Production of Male-Sterility Mouse by Resection of the Tail Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianju Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sterile males are bred with females to produce pseudopregnant recipients for oviduct and uterine transfers. Therefore, to make a sterile male mouse maybe the fist and fundamental procedure for embryo transfer. However, when people produce a sterile male mouse always abandon the sperm of the excellent male mouse. Approach: Here, the authrous present an efficient and simple procedure utilizing specific methods that make a sterile male mouse by resection of the caudal epididymis meanwhile collect sperm from the caudal epididymis for in vitro fertilization and then cauterize the vestigial epididymis to produce sterile male mouse. The experimental males and females are all normal mouse. Results: (1 The in vitro fertilization to cater to the demand of the mount of embryo for oviduct and uterine transfers and the sterile mouse are prepare for mate with female to produce pseudopregnant recipients for oviduct and uterine transfers; (2 Accessing the caudal epididymis through the scrotal sac has less invasive with mouse. Conclusion/Recommendations: Ablating the caudal epididymis of male mice has not reduced the achievement rate of copulation and reconversion. In vitro fertilization to harvester embryo can use for embryo and other preparing experiment.

  17. Studies on the Recross Heterosis Effect of Male-sterile Single-hybrids in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liang-yue; HU YAN-min; LI Yong-liang; HUANG Su-xiang; JI Hong-qiang; HUANG Xi-lin

    2002-01-01

    Re-cross was conducted between five ES cytoplasm male-sterile hybrids and four high-oil hybrids, and five normal hybrids, respectively. The oil content, yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size were estimated. Results were as follows: The average kernel oil content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was 1.6 % higher than that of the female parent. The xenia effect value of oil genes was 0.30. The yield and 1000-kernel weight of male-sterile hybrids were 10.1% and 5.8 % higher than that of corresponding fertile hybrids respectively, which showed significant cytoplasm effect. The yield of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was similar to that of the female parent, but its 1000-kernel weight was 7.3% lower than that of the female parent. Compared with the high-oil male parent, grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid were higher. Seed-filling rate, the days of seed-filling and IAA content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid showed average heterosis tending the female parent, which may be perhaps one of the reasons resulting in the average heterosis tending to the female parent on kernel oil content,yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size.

  18. Directional transduction of male sterile gene rfv1 of NIAN type in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na NIU; Gaisheng ZHANG; Yue CAO; Yu ZHANG; Fang WEI

    2008-01-01

    A new method for producing a NIAN type wheat maintenance line with the male sterile gene rfv1was described. That is the variety Xinong Fpl, a 1BL/1RS translocation line, as the acceptor and Triticum macha var. subletschchumicum, a non-1BL/1RS transloca-tion line, as the donor, a directional substitution back-cross was made and confirmed by chromosome of root tip preparations and SDS-PAGE analysis. The male ster-ile gene rfv1 of Triticum macha var. subletschchumicum was transferred to the genome of Xinong Fpl. A new NIAN type wheat maintenance line with the male sterile gene rfv1was bred. The method described was success-ful in breeding a new male sterile type for hybrid wheat production.

  19. Male sterile line in Rice Xu 29A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The line is an early Indica rice line of WA type and with early maturity. It is bred by CHHRRC and was released by HCVRC in January, 2000.Its maintaining line is bred with the backcrossing Progeny of V20A×the F3 of (Digu B×Jin 23B).The line is characterizied by its short growth duration,about two days earlier than Jin 23 A, Stable sterility which is proved by its sterile plant rate to 100%,aborted pollen rate to 99.99% and selfed seeds to zero under the tests by pollen microscopic inspection and bagged for selfing for multiple generations.

  20. The genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO JingXin; LIU YaoGuang

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited characteristic found in many (>150) plant species. CMS/restoration systems are useful tools for hybrid seed production, and are ideal models for study of the interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. CMS/restoration systems in rice have been widely used for hybrid seed production, greatly contributing to the food supply. This article reviews the progress of the studies on the genetic and molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  1. Cytological Observation of Microsporogenesis in Male-Sterile Lines of Chinese Pink (Dianthus chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-peng; HU Jin-yi; HU Hui-rong; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the differences in microsporogenesis between male sterile and fertile lines of Chinese pink. The microsporogenesis processes of male sterile and fertile lines were histologically examined in squashed pollen grains and in paraffin embedded sections. A stable male-sterile line (H-37B) was obtained following six generations of inbreeding in a self-fertile line, followed by two generations of backcrossing. In the corresponding fertile line, development of the mature pollen grains was followed through the initiation of the sporogenous cell, microsporocyte formation, and the tetrad developmental period. In the male-sterile line, abortion of the developing pollen grains was observed to take place at various stages, namely, sporogenous cell growth, mother cell meiosis, and tetrad transformation to the uninuclear state. The pollen grains of the fertile line were spheroid, turgid, and viable. By contrast, the male-sterile line produced pollen that was irregular in shape, empty, and nonviable. The abortion of the microspore in the male-sterile line appeared to relate to abnormal growth of the tapetum layer.

  2. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  3. Research Advances in Genetics of Rice Photoperiod-and Thermo-sensitive Male Sterile Gene and Its Breeding Application%水稻光温敏雄性不育基因的遗传及育种利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红萍; 邓伟; 付英; 王记林; 肖小勇

    2013-01-01

      详细综述了水稻光温敏雄性不育基因的遗传及育种利用研究进展,包括光温敏雄性不育基因的定位、育性转换模式、遗传作用的模式及分子机制,两用核不育系在育种中存在的问题及其解决策略。%The paper reviewed in detail the research advances in the genetics of rice photoperiod -and thermo-sensitive male sterile gene and its breeding application , including the location of photoperiod -and thermo-sensitive male sterile genes, mode of fertility transformation, and mode and molecular mechanism of genetic effects .The paper also discussed some existing problems of dual-purpose genic male sterile rice lines in breeding and their solution strategy .

  4. Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  5. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduc-stertion in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  6. Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Araripe, Luciana O; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-07-19

    Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest. Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9.2 kb in chromosome 3 of Drosophila mauritiana, which results in virtually complete hybrid male sterility when homozygous in the genetic background of sibling species Drosophila simulans. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins, agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range. This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

  7. Genome-wide misexpression of X-linked versus autosomal genes associated with hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuemei; Shapiro, Joshua A; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Yan; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Cheng, Ya-Jen; Greenberg, Anthony J; Li, Shou-Hsien; Wu, Mao-Lien; Shen, Yang; Wu, Chung-I

    2010-08-01

    Postmating reproductive isolation is often manifested as hybrid male sterility, for which X-linked genes are overrepresented (the so-called large X effect). In contrast, X-linked genes are significantly under-represented among testis-expressing genes. This seeming contradiction may be germane to the X:autosome imbalance hypothesis on hybrid sterility, in which the X-linked effect is mediated mainly through the misexpression of autosomal genes. In this study, we compared gene expression in fertile and sterile males in the hybrids between two Drosophila species. These hybrid males differ only in a small region of the X chromosome containing the Ods-site homeobox (OdsH) (also known as Odysseus) locus of hybrid sterility. Of genes expressed in the testis, autosomal genes were, indeed, more likely to be misexpressed than X-linked genes under the sterilizing action of OdsH. Since this mechanism of X:autosome interaction is only associated with spermatogenesis, a connection between X:autosome imbalance and the high rate of hybrid male sterility seems plausible.

  8. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  9. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in sterile hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

  10. Hybrid male sterility between Drosophila willistoni species is caused by male failure to transfer sperm during copulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Gaudreau, Chelsea

    2015-05-01

    The biological concept of species stresses the importance of understanding what mechanisms maintain species reproductively isolated from each other. Often such mechanisms are divided into premating and postmating, with the latest being the result of either prezygotic or postzygotic isolation barriers. Drosophila willistoni quechua and Drosophila willistoni willistoni are two subspecies that experience reproductive isolation. When a D. w. quechua female is crossed with a D. w. willistoni male, the hybrid males (F1QW) are unable to father progeny; however, the reciprocal cross produces fertile hybrids. Thus, the mechanism of isolation is unidirectional hybrid male sterility. However, the sterile F1QW males contain large amounts of motile sperm. Here we explore whether pre-copulatory or post-copulatory pre-zygotic mechanisms serve as major deterrents in the ability of F1QW males to father progeny. Comparisons of parental and hybrid males copulation durations showed no significant reduction in copulation duration of F1QW males. Interrupted copulations of the parental species confirmed that sperm transfer occurs before the minimum copulation duration registered for F1QW males. However, we found that when females mate with F1QW males, sperm is not present inside the female storage organs and that the lack of sperm in storage is due to failure to transfer sperm rather than spillage or active sperm dumping by females. Sterility of F1QW hybrid males is primarily driven by their inability to transfer sperm during copulation.

  11. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  12. Male sterility in chestnuts. A tentative plan for the seed propagation of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya (Fruit Tree Research Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards.

  13. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  14. Development of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility, its inheritance, and potential use in hybrid pigeonpea breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kul B; Ravikoti, V Kumar; Dalvi, Vijay A; Pandey, Lalji B; Gaddikeri, Guruprasad

    2010-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a unique food legume because of its partial (20-30%) outcrossing nature, which provides an opportunity to breed commercial hybrids. To achieve this, it is essential to have a stable male-sterility system. This paper reports the selection of a cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system derived from an interspecific cross between a wild relative of pigeonpea (Cajanus sericeus Benth. ex. Bak.) and a cultivar. This male-sterility source was used to breed agronomically superior CMS lines in early (ICPA 2068), medium (ICPA 2032), and late (ICPA 2030) maturity durations. Twenty-three fertility restorers and 30 male-sterility maintainers were selected to develop genetically diverse hybrid combinations. Histological studies revealed that vacuolation of growing tetrads and persistence of tetrad wall were primary causes of the manifestation of male sterility. Genetic studies showed that 2 dominant genes, of which one had inhibitory gene action, controlled fertility restoration in the hybrids. The experimental hybrids such as TK 030003 and TK 030009 in early, ICPH 2307 and TK 030625 in medium, and TK 030861 and TK 030851 in late maturity groups exhibited 30-88% standard heterosis in multilocation trials.

  15. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  17. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  18. Genetic architecture of male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F(1) hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially--but not completely--overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F(1) hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.

  19. Development of Transgenic Restorer of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-de; LI Yue-you

    2002-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase gene (gst) has been introduced into restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transviable pollens of hybrid (sterile line×restorer) F1. The hybrid gave 3.6 more bolls per plant, 10.1% less aborted seeds and 10.6% more lint yield when ‘Zheda strong restorer’ was used as male parent than when ‘DES-HAF277’ was. Southern and Northern bloting analysis showed that the foreign gst gene was detectable and highly expressed in ‘Zheda strong restorer’.

  20. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  1. Little qualitative RNA misexpression in sterile male F1 hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohamed AF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the genetics of hybrid sterility has been the subject of evolutionary studies for over sixty years, no one has shown the reason(s why alleles that operate normally within species fail to function in another genetic background. Several lines of evidence suggest that failures in normal gene transcription contribute to hybrid dysfunctions, but genome-wide studies of gene expression in pure-species and hybrids have not been undertaken. Here, we study genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura, D. persimilis, and their sterile F1 hybrid males using differential display. Results Over five thousand amplifications were analyzed, and 3312 were present in amplifications from both of the pure species. Of these, 28 (0.5% were not present in amplifications from adult F1 hybrid males. Using product-specific primers, we were able to confirm one of nine of the transcripts putatively misexpressed in hybrids. This transcript was shown to be male-specific, but without detectable homology to D. melanogaster sequence. Conclusion We tentatively conclude that hybrid sterility can evolve without widespread, qualitative misexpression of transcripts in species hybrids. We suggest that, if more misexpression exists in sterile hybrids, it is likely to be quantitative, tissue-specific, and/ or limited to earlier developmental stages. Although several caveats apply, this study was a first attempt to determine the mechanistic basis of hybrid sterility, and one potential candidate gene has been identified for further study.

  2. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  3. Regulatory divergence of X-linked genes and hybrid male sterility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Ayako; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation is the reduction of fertility or viability in hybrids between genetically diverged populations. One example of reproductive isolation, hybrid male sterility, may be caused by genetic incompatibility between diverged genetic factors in two distinct populations. Genetic factors involved in hybrid male sterility are disproportionately located on the X chromosome. Recent studies showing the evolutionary divergence in gene regulatory networks or epigenetic effects suggest that the genetic incompatibilities occur at much broader levels than had previously been thought (e.g., incompatibility of protein-protein interactions). The latest studies suggest that evolutionary divergence of transcriptional regulation causes genetic incompatibilities in hybrid animals, and that such incompatibilities preferentially involve X-linked genes. In this review, we focus on recent progress in understanding hybrid sterility in mice, including our studies, and we discuss the evolutionary significance of regulatory divergence for speciation.

  4. An evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial orf108 is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in different alloplasmic lines of Brassica juncea and induces male sterility in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Vasupalli, Naresh; Srinivasan, R; Bhat, Shripad R

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear-mitochondrial gene interactions governing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in angiosperms have been found to be unique to each system. Fertility restoration of three diverse alloplasmic CMS lines of Brassica juncea by a line carrying the fertility-restorer gene introgressed from Moricandia arvensis prompted this investigation to examine the molecular basis of CMS in these lines. Since previous studies had found altered atpA transcription associated with CMS in these lines, the atpA genes and transcripts of CMS, fertility-restored, and euplasmic lines were cloned and compared. atpA coding and downstream sequences were conserved among CMS and euplasmic lines but major differences were found in the 5' flanking sequences of atpA. A unique open reading frame (ORF), orf108, co-transcribed with atpA, was found in male sterile flowers of CMS lines carrying mitochondrial genomes of Diplotaxis berthautii, D. catholica, or D. erucoides. In presence of the restorer gene, the bicistronic orf108-atpA transcript was cleaved within orf108 to yield a monocistronic atpA transcript. Transgenic expression of orf108 with anther-specific Atprx18 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana gave 50% pollen sterility, indicating that Orf108 is lethal at the gametophytic stage. Further, lack of transmission of orf108 to the progeny showed for the first time that mitochondrial ORFs could also cause female sterility. orf108 was found to be widely distributed among wild relatives of Brassica, indicating its ancient origin. This is the first report that shows that CMS lines of different origin and morphology could share common molecular basis. The gametic lethality of Orf108 offers a novel opportunity for transgene containment.

  5. Genetic architecture of autosome-mediated hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors` interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. 48 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Hybrid Male Sterility in Rice Controlled by Interaction between Divergent Alleles of Two Adjacent Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunming Long; Lifeng Zhao; Baixiao Niu; Jing Su; Hao Wu; Yuanling Chen; Qunyu Zhang; Jingxin Guo; Chuxiong Zhuang; Mantong Mei; Jixing Xia; Lan Wang; Haibin Wu; Yao-Guang Liu

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively...

  7. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  8. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait

  9. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  10. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida. A structural and histochemical analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait makes hybrid seed production possi

  11. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  12. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia hybrida : a structural and histochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structural and histochemical aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) in Petuniahybrida . In petunia and in other crops, cms is the most commonly used tool for hybrid seed production. Application of the trait m

  13. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  14. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  15. The genetics of hybrid male sterility between the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: dominant sterility alleles in collinear autosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-05-01

    F(1) hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male sterility in the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana. Using these results, we tested predictions of reduced recombination models of speciation. Consistent with these models, three of the four QTL associated with hybrid male sterility occur in collinear (uninverted) regions of these genomes. Furthermore, these QTL do not contribute significantly to hybrid male sterility in crosses between the sympatric species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura pseudoobscura. The autosomal loci identified in this study provide the basis for introgression mapping and, ultimately, for molecular cloning of interacting genes that contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  17. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and c

  18. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration of Maxie cytoplasmic male sterility im rice (Oryza sativa L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiaoguo; ZHUYingguo; MEIQiming

    1996-01-01

    The genetic behavior of fertility restoration genes of the cytoplasmic male sterile line Maxie A was studied to facilitate the use of Maweizhan male sterile cytoplasm. The F1,F2, and F1 of Maxie A / Minhui 63 were grown in paddy field, 1993-1995.

  19. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  20. Genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila: analysis of intraspecies variation for interspecies isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F(1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping analyses directly on F(1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS in the F(1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation.

  1. Single-layer tungsten oxide as intelligent photo-responsive nanoagents for permanent male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xianjun; Ran, Xiang; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Permanent male sterilization has been recognized as useful tools for the development of neuter experimental animals and fattening livestock, as well as efficient control of pet overpopulation. Traditional routes such as surgical ways, chemical injections, and anti-fertility vaccines have addressed these crucial problems with idea outcomes. However, these routes usually bring out serious pain and infection towards animals, as well as induce long-term adverse reaction and immune suppression. Thus, a convenient, but non-surgical strategy for male sterilization under a mild manner is highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a novel platform for male sterilization by using single-layer WO2.72 nanosheets as smart photo-responsive sterilants. Upon a 980 nm irradiation, these nanoagents can possess intrinsic NIR-induced hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen due to the cooperation of photothermal and photodynamic effects. Mechanism of cellular injury can be attributed to the denaturation of protein and apoptosis-related death. Moreover, long-term toxicity and possible metabolism route after testicular injection are discussed, indicating the neglectable systemic toxicity and high bio-compatibility of our nanoagents. Overall, our strategy can extremely overcome the shortcomings in various routine routes and suggest the new biological application of nanomaterials.

  2. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  3. Ephemeral association between gene CG5762 and hybrid male sterility in Drosophila sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Daina; Michalak, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    Interspecies divergence in regulatory pathways may result in hybrid male sterility (HMS) when dominance and epistatic interactions between alleles that are functional within one genome are disrupted in hybrid genomes. The identification of genes contributing to HMS and other hybrid dysfunctions is essential for understanding the origin of new species (speciation). Previously, we identified a panel of male-specific loci misexpressed in sterile male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana relative to parental species. In the current work, we attempt to dissect the genetic associations between HMS and one of the genes, CG5762, a Drosophila-unique locus characterized by rapid sequence divergence within the genus, presumably driven by positive natural selection. CG5762 is underexpressed in sterile backcross males compared with their fertile brothers. In CG5762 heterozygotes, the D. mauritiana allele is consistently overexpressed on both the D. simulans and D. mauritiana backcross genomic background, suggesting a cis-acting regulation factor. There is a significant association between heterozygosity and HMS in hybrid males from early but not later backcross generations. Microsatellite markers spanning CG5762 fail to associate with HMS. These observations lead to a conclusion that CG5762 is not a causative factor of HMS. Although genetic linkage between CG5762 and a neighboring causative introgression cannot be ruled out, it seems that the pattern is most consistent with CG5762 participating in epistatic interactions that are disrupted in flies with HMS.

  4. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities.

  5. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S Chang

    Full Text Available The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  6. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-10-27

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  7. Asymmetry and polymorphism of hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F(1) hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence.

  8. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis.

  9. A male sterility-associated mitochondrial protein in wild beets causes pollen disruption in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki P; Shinada, Hiroshi; Onodera, Yasuyuki; Komaki, Chihiro; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2008-06-01

    In higher plants, male reproductive (pollen) development is known to be disrupted in a class of mitochondrial mutants termed cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) mutants. Despite the increase in knowledge regarding CMS-encoding genes and their expression, definitive evidence that CMS-associated proteins actually cause pollen disruption is not yet available in most cases. Here we compare the translation products of mitochondria between the normal fertile cytoplasm and the male-sterile I-12CMS(3) cytoplasm derived from wild beets. The results show a unique 12 kDa polypeptide that is present in the I-12CMS(3) mitochondria but is not detectable among the translation products of normal mitochondria. We also found that a mitochondrial open reading frame (named orf129) was uniquely transcribed in I-12CMS(3) and is large enough to encode the novel 12 kDa polypeptide. Antibodies against a GST-ORF129 fusion protein were raised to establish that this 12 kDa polypeptide is the product of orf129. ORF129 was shown to accumulate in flower mitochondria as well as in root and leaf mitochondria. As for the CMS-associated protein (PCF protein) in petunia, ORF129 is primarily present in the matrix and is loosely associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. The orf129 sequence was fused to a mitochondrial targeting pre-sequence, placed under the control of the Arabidopsis apetala3 promoter, and introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome. Transgenic expression of ORF129 resulted in male sterility, which provides clear supporting evidence that ORF129 is responsible for the male-sterile phenotype in sugar beet with wild beet cytoplasm.

  10. Aggression by a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male declines within 27 h following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1993-02-01

    Females that had become aggressive as a result of cohabiting with a sterile male were ovariectomized and implanted with empty Silastic tubes. Control groups were either sham ovariectomized or ovariectomized and implanted with Silastic tubes providing replacement levels of estradiol and testosterone. Twenty-seven hours following surgery, all animals were tested for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female rat. The aggression of ovariectomized females without hormone replacement declined to a minimal level postoperatively and was significantly lower than that of sham-ovariectomized females or ovariectomized females with estradiol and testosterone replacement. Both sham-ovariectomized females and ovariectomized females given hormone replacement displayed a level of aggression close to that observed preoperatively. The aggression of a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male appears to be highly sensitive to the removal of gonadal hormones. This corresponds with observations made on pregnant females and contrasts with those made on lactating females.

  11. Fine mapping of an Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huijuan; ZHANG Zaibao; LI Hui; GAO Jufang; YANG Zhongnan

    2006-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157 has been isolated using an EMS mutagenesis strategy.Genetic analysis indicated that it was controlled by a single recessive gene called ms157.No pollen grains have been observed in mutant anthers.ms157 Has been mapped to a region of 74 kb located in BAC clone T6K22 on chromosome Ⅳ using a map-based cloning strategy.As no male sterile genes have been reported in this region.ms157 could be a novel gene related to fertility.The further molecular cloning and functional analysis on this gene should facilitate our understanding of A.thaliana anther development.

  12. Genetic analysis of the complete maintainer for genetic-male-sterility in upland cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛正轩; 黄观武; 孙贞; 苟云高; 杨泽湖; 江卫; 毛素珍

    1995-01-01

    The inheritance of the complete maintainer for Dong A-type genetic-male-sterility (GMS) in cotton was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes for male-sterility and polygenic system for pollen-spreading character together. When a dominant major gene for fertility was present, the action of the polygenic system was concealed and GMS was inherited as a qualitative character conditioned by one pair of recessive genes. But when the major genes were homozygous recessive, the polygenic system manifested modificatory effects on GMS, making GMS plants spread some pollen or partially fertile Among the genie effects of polygenic system on pollen-spreading character, additive [d], dominance [h] and additive ×dominance epistasis [j] were all very significant, [d] and [j] were positive and [h] was negative. This type of genetic model is referred to as Major Gene-Polygene Interaction Model in Crops.

  13. [The discovery of a specific DNA fragment associated with maize cytoplasmic male sterility and its differential display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Zhu, Ying-Guo

    2005-09-01

    Three pairs of PCR primers were designed according to the mitochondrial DNA sequence. PCR amplification was applied to 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm materials and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear materials. Multiplex PCR and general PCR protocol were adopted with total genomic DNA. As for the primers having detected polymorphsim between male sterility and its maintainers, differential display was conducted with mRNA from different development stage of microspore. The results showed as follows: with total genomic DNA template, primer P1-P2 has amplified a specific fragment only in all the male sterile materials, primer P5-P6 has amplified a specific fragment only in maintainer Huangzaosi, primer P3-P4 has no amplification in all the experiment materials. So primer P1-P2 can be used to distinguish male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm. RT-PCR was conducted with primer P1-P2 in inbred line huangzaosi and 48-2 with male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm, mRNA was separately isolated from tetrad stage, uninucleate stage and binucleate stage of microspore development, cDNA was obtained with random hexanucleotide primers. With the cDNA template, specific amplified fragments were also detected by primer P1-P2 in the male sterile materials at different development stage of microspore, but there was no amplification by primer P1-P2 in the 2 maintainer lines. This result indicated that primer P1-P2 can be transcripted at 3 development stages of microspore in all male sterile materials, and same transcript was produced by primer P1-P2 among all male sterile materials include 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear. It was suggested from this experiment that the specific DNA sequence detected by primer P1-P2 in all male sterile material total genomic DNA might be related to the cytoplasmic male sterile character.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Associated Gene of Cotton (Gossypium harknessii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-yong; GONG Yang-chang; XING Chao-zhu; GUO Li-ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that results in the failure to produce functional pollen.It was identified in many plants,and it is widely used to exploit heterosis.Now,there are some genes associated with the CMS phenomena that have been identified in the mitochondrial genome.For example,specific genes implicated in CMS have been reported in maize,petunia,bean,Brassica,radish,sunflower,rice,carrot,sorghum,pepper,and many others.

  15. Effects of hachimijiohgan and ninjintoh on fertility in males with sterility

    OpenAIRE

    奥山, 明彦; 並木, 幹夫; 園田, 孝夫; 林, 知厚

    1984-01-01

    The effects of TSUMURA HACHIMIJIOHGAN (TJ-7) and TSUMURA NINJINTOH (TJ-32) on patients with the complaint of male sterility due to both or either oligozoospermia or asthenozoospermia were evaluated in comparison with the effects of clomiphene citrate. TJ-7 was administered in 7.5 g doses three times a day for 4 months to 23 patients with oligozoospermia and 20 patients with asthenozoospermia. Sperm count was improved in 5 of the patients (21%) with oligozoospermia and sperm motility was impro...

  16. Sterility and gene expression in hybrid males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Malone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly

  17. Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2000-01-01

    Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of ...

  18. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  19. Genetic variability of rice recurrent selection populations as affected by male sterility or manual recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia da Silveira Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of male sterility or manual recombination on genetic variability of rice recurrent selection populations. The populations CNA-IRAT 4, with a gene for male sterility, and CNA 12, which was manually recombined, were evaluated. Genetic variability among selection cycles was estimated using14 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. A total of 926 plants were analyzed, including ten genitors and 180 individuals from each of the evaluated cycles (1, 2 and 5 of the population CNA-IRAT 4, and 16 genitors and 180 individuals from each of the cycles (1 and 2 of CNA 12. The analysis allowed the identification of alleles not present among the genitors for both populations, in all cycles, especially for the CNA-IRAT 4 population. These alleles resulted from unwanted fertilization with genotypes that were not originally part of the populations. The parameters of Wright's F-statistic (F IS and F IT indicated that the manual recombination expands the genetic variability of the CNA 12 population, whereas male sterility reduces the one of CNA-IRAT 4.

  20. Selection of male-sterile and dwarfism genetically modified zoysia japonica through gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Tae Woong; Song, In Ja; Kang, Hong Gyu; Jeong, Ok Cheol; Sun, Hyeon Jin; Ko, Suk Min; Lim, Pyung Ok; Song, Pill Soon; Song, Sung Jun; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study is selection of the male-sterile plant for inhibiting transgene flow through gamma-irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the pollination and fertilization cycle of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). High frequencies of plant mutations were obtained about 18% from M{sub 1} generation at the doses (10 to 50 Gy). We also found that some M{sub 1} plants showed male-sterile plants using de-husked seeds and comparison of stainable pollen using KI-I{sub 2} solution. Besides the effects of irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle, various other mutation like dwarf, cold tolerance, increasing grains and mass were observed. Four of dwarfism plants were selected through comparison of morphological characteristic between control and mutants during 4 years. These results demonstrated that the gamma-irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle is very effective to induce the various mutations, and the male-sterile mutants are useful for controlling transgene flow and developing of high quality turfgasses.

  1. Hybrid male sterility in Mimulus (Phrymaceae) is associated with a geographically restricted mitochondrial rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Willis, John H

    2008-05-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear fertility restoration (Rf) involves intergenomic coevolution. Although male-sterile phenotypes are rarely expressed in natural populations of angiosperms, CMS genes are thought to be common. The evolutionary dynamics of CMS/Rf systems are poorly understood, leaving gaps in our understanding of mechanisms and consequences of cytonuclear interactions. We characterized the molecular basis and geographic distribution of a CMS gene in Mimulus guttatus. We used outcrossing M. guttatus (with CMS and Rf) to self-fertilizing M. nasutus (lacking CMS and Rf) to generate hybrids segregating for CMS. Mitochondrial transcripts containing an essential gene (nad6) were perfectly associated with male sterility. The CMS mitotype was completely absent in M. nasutus, present in all genotypes collected from the original collection site, but in only two individuals from 34 other M. guttatus populations. This pattern suggests that the CMS likely originated at a single locality, spread to fixation within the population, but has not spread to other populations, indicating possible ecological or genetic constraints on dispersal of this CMS mitotype between populations. Extreme localization may be characteristic of CMS in hermaphroditic species, in contrast to geographically widespread mitotypes commonly found in gynodioecious species, and could directly contribute to hybrid incompatibilities in nature.

  2. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  3. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  4. Molecular Control of Male Reproductive Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Anther development and male fertility are essential biological processes for flowering plants and are important for crop seed production.Genetic manipulation of male fertility/sterility is critical for crop hybrid breeding.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterility phenotypes,including genic male sterility,hybrid male sterility,and cytoplasmic male sterility,are generally caused by mutations of fertility-related genes,by incompatible interactions between divergent allelic or non-allelic genes,or by genetic incompatibilities between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Here,we review the recent advances in the molecular basis of anther development and male fertility-sterility conversion in specific genetic backgrounds,and the interactions with certain environmental factors.The highlighted findings in this review have significant implications in both basic studies and rice genetic improvement.

  5. Introduction, maintenance and utilization of male sterility in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) = [Inductie, handhaving en gebruik van mannelijke steriliteit in prei (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvertand, B.

    1996-01-01


    This thesis describes research work performed in leek in relation to efforts to obtain or exploit a male sterility system for hybrid leek breeding. Male sterile plants can be found in every leek cultivar. The male sterility trait can be explained by a nuclear monogenic inheritance or by a

  6. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  7. Ontogenetically-regulated male sterility in tissue culture - induced and spontaneous sorghum mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkonin L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of male fertility expression in the AS-1 line, a somaclonal variant obtained from tissue culture of CMS-plant, and in the progeny of revenant '124-1' obtained from fertile tiller, which developed on CMS-plant transferred from the field to the greenhouse, was investigated. Both revertants were characterized by similar expression of male fertility during plant ontogenesis: the panicle on the main tiller was almost completely sterile whereas formation of fertile pollen grains and seed set were observed on the panicles of the shoot tillers. A clear basipetal gradient of male fertility was manifested on all panicles: the base had significantly higher per cent of fertile pollen grains in comparison with the middle part, while in the top the anthers were either absent or had few sterile pollen grains. Such an ontogenetically-regulated restoration of male fertility was controlled by nuclear genes and could be transferred through the pollen in crosses with progenitor CMS-line. Growing of AS-1 plants in the growth chambers simultaneously under a long (16/8 and a short (12/12 daylength conditions demonstrated that differences of fertility level in different tillers was not caused by change of photoperiod during plant ontogenesis and functioning of photoperiod-sensitive fertility restoring gene. Whereas, the ontogenetically-regulated expression of male fertility in both revenants was temperature-dependent and was clearly manifested under relatively cool conditions during 2-week period before the beginning of anthesis of the first panicle (average daily temperature 21°C. The increase of the average daily temperature by 2-3 С resulted in sharp increase of male fertility level. Possibility of using AS-1 line in a new "two-line system" of hybrid seed production, which require only two lines (sterile mutant and fertility restorer, is discussed.

  8. Molecular characterization of a new type of cytoplasmic male sterile sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纬武; 康传红; 王继志; 王斌; 郭德栋

    1996-01-01

    A line (named Cl) of cytoplasmic sterility of sugar beet whose cytoplasm derived from Betacicla Turkey was obtained by interspecific hybrid. Its cytoplasm and a spontaneous male sterile cytoplasm from wild beet Beta maritima (named M) were compared with that of Owen’s sterile line (S-cms) and a common maintainer of them named N was used as control. RFLP and RAPD methods were mainly used in our experiments. The restriction fragment patterns of mtDNAs were found to be likely but for a few of specific low-lighted electrophoresis bands in Cl. The results of Southern hybridization of six heterogeneous mitochondrial genes as probes to digests of mtDNAs by six restriction enzymes showed to be analogous between S and M lines. But the Cl mtDNA was sorted out by hybridization of atpA probe. Difference of low-molecular-weight mitochondrial DNAs was found among the three sterile lines. Three RNA molecules weighing about 4.2kb stably existed in Cl mitochondria. Our results of RAPD also supported that the Cl cytoplas

  9. Simple Y-autosomal incompatibilities cause hybrid male sterility in reciprocal crosses between Drosophila virilis and D. americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L

    2010-03-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation evolves when hybrid incompatibilities accumulate between diverging populations. Here, I examine the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility between two species of Drosophila, Drosophila virilis and D. americana. From these analyses, I reach several conclusions. First, neither species carries any autosomal dominant hybrid male sterility alleles: reciprocal F(1) hybrid males are perfectly fertile. Second, later generation (backcross and F(2)) hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana is not polygenic. In fact, I identified only three genetically independent incompatibilities that cause hybrid male sterility. Remarkably, each of these incompatibilities involves the Y chromosome. In one direction of the cross, the D. americana Y is incompatible with recessive D. virilis alleles at loci on chromosomes 2 and 5. In the other direction, the D. virilis Y chromosome causes hybrid male sterility in combination with recessive D. americana alleles at a single QTL on chromosome 5. Finally, in contrast with findings from other Drosophila species pairs, the X chromosome has only a modest effect on hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana.

  10. Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Aegilops kotschyi Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Wheat Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-shen; SUN Qi-xin; GAO Qing-rong; SUN Lan-zhen; XIE Chao-jie; LI Chuan-you; NI Zhong-fu; DOU Bing-de

    2002-01-01

    LK783 was found to be a good fertility restorer for K-type male sterility of wheat. Microsatellite markers were employed to map the major restoring gene in LK783. Maintainer and restorer DNA pools were established using the extreme sterile and fertile plants among (KJ5418A//911289/LK783)F1 population,respectively. Seventy-nine sets of SSR primers were screened for polymorphism between the two pools, 6 of which were found polymorphic. Linkage analysis showed that Xgwm11, Xgwm18 , Xgwm264a and Xgwm273were linked to the restoring gene in LK783, while Xgwm11, Xgwm18 and Xgwm273 were co-segregated. The distance between the Rf gene in LK783 and the three co-segregated markers was 6.54±4.37 cM, the distance between Rf gene and Xgwm264a was 5.71±4.10 cM. The four SSR markers were located on chromosome 1BS by amplifying the DNA of nulli-tetrasomics and ditelosomics of CS with the 4 sets of primers, indicating that the major restoring gene in LK783 was located on 1BS, but the relative location of the gene was different from Rfv1, allelism of the two genes should be further investigated. The breeding for new fertility restorer lines of K-type cytoplasmic male sterility in wheat would be facilitated by using the four polymorphic markers.

  11. Selection and Characterization of a Novel Photoperiod-Sensitive Male Sterile Line in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Ma; Hengling Wei; Ji Liu; Meizhen Song; Chaoyou Pang; Long Wang; Wenxiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) shows strong heterosis.However,heterosis is not widely utilized owing to the high cost of hybrid seed production.Creation of a photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile line could substantially reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in upland cotton.Such a mutant with virescent marker was found by space mutation in near-earth orbit and its traits had been stable after 4 years of selection in Anyang and Sanya,China.This mutant was fertile with an 11-12.5 h photoperiod when the temperature was higher than 21.5 C and was sterile with a 13-14.5 h photoperiod.Genetic analysis indicated that both traits were controlled by a single recessive gene or two closely linked genes.Also,the cytological observations,and transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the degradation of pollen grain cytoplasm should be the primary reason why the mutant line were male sterile under long-day conditions.

  12. Development of photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility rice expressing transgene Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jiwen; Zhang, Cuicui; Wang, Liangchao; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Zengrong; Tu, Jumin

    2015-01-01

    Stem borers and leaffolders are the main pests that cause severe damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. We developed the first photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility (PTSMS) rice 208S with the cry1Ab/1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene, through sexual crossing with Huahui 1 (elite line with the cry1Ab/1Ac gene). The novel 208S and its hybrids presented high and stable resistance to stem borers and leaffolders, and the content of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in chlorophyllous tissues achieved the identical level as donor and showed little accumulation in non-chlorophyllous tissue. No dominant dosage effect in the Bt gene was observed in 208S and its derived hybrids. An analysis of fertility transition traits indicated that 208S was completely sterile under long day length/high temperature, but partially fertile under short day length/low temperature. With fine grain quality and favorable combining ability, 208S had no observed negative effects on fertility and agronomic traits from Bt (cry1Ab/1Ac). Additionally, 208S as a male sterile line showed no fertility decrease caused by Bt transgenic process, as it is the case in Huahui 1. Thus, 208S has great application value in two-line hybrid production for insect resistance, and can also be used as a bridge material in rice Bt transgenic breeding. PMID:26366116

  13. Screening and Identifying Two Specific Molecular Markers in Maintainer Line of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Wang; J.M. Gao; H. Li; Y. Gu; X.Q. Chen; W.Q. Song

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that prevents the production of function pollen, but maintains female fertility. It has been widely used in breeding programs to product F1 hybrid seed in some crops (Hanson, 1991).

  14. The acylphosphatase (Acyp) alleles associate with male hybrid sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Pawel; Ma, Daina

    2008-06-15

    Hybrid defects are believed to result from genetic incompatibilities between genes that have evolved in separate parental lineages. These genetic dysfunctions on the hybrid genomic background, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, can be an incipient signature of speciation, and as such - a subject of active research. Here we present evidence that Acyp locus (CG16870) that encodes acylphosphatase, a small enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylphosphates and participates in ion transport across biological membranes, is involved in genetic incompatibilities leading to male sterility in hybrids between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. There is a strong association between Acyp alleles (genotype) and the sterility/fertility pattern (phenotype), as well as between the phenotype, the genotype and its transcriptional activity. Allele-specific expression in hybrids heterozygous for Acyp suggests a cis-type regulation of this gene, where an allele from one of the parental species (D. simulans) is consistently overexpressed.

  15. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence.

  16. Characterization and mapping of a new male sterility mutant of anther advanced dehiscence (t) in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhang; Yunfeng Li; Jian Zhang; Fucheng Shen; Yuanxin Huang; Zhiwei Wu

    2008-01-01

    Anther dehiscence is very important for pollen maturation and release.The mutants of anther dehiscence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) arefew,and related research remains poor.A male sterility mutant of anther dehiscence in advance,add(t),has been found in Minghui 63 and its sterility is not sensitive to thermo-photo.To learn the character of sterilization and the function of the add(t) gene,the morphological and cytological studies on the anther and pollen,the ability of the pistil being fertilized,inheritance of the mutant,and mapping of add(t)gene have been conducted.The anther size is normal but the color is white in the mutant against the natural yellow in the wild-type.The pollen is malformed,unstained,and small in the KI-I2 solution.The anther dehiscence is in advance at the bicellular pollen stage.A crossing test indicated that the grain setting ratio of the add(t) is significantly lower than that of the CMS line 2085A.The ability of the pistil being fertilized is most probably decreased by the add(t) gene.The male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene of add(t).This gene is mapped between the markers of R02004 (InDel) and RM300 (SSR) on chromosome 2,and the genetic distance from the add(t) gene to these markers is 0.78 cM and 4.66 cM,respectively.

  17. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momar Talla Seck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness and livestock (nagana. An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group. To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding. Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group. The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  18. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. D-glufosinate as a male sterility agent for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Tim; Pline-Srnic, Wendy; Dale, Richard; Friend, Emma; Hollinshead, Tricia; Howe, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Viner, Russell; Greenland, Andy

    2011-04-01

    A chemical male sterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 1.4.3.3) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical male sterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F₁ hybrid seed production.

  20. Mapping of the nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility in rice using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of a BC1 population derived from Congguang 41A//Miyang 23/Congguang 41B was used to map the nuclear fertility restorer gene for Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility.One hundred and fifty-nine microsatellite primer pairs were screened for polymorphisms between the parents and between two bulks representing fertile and sterile plants.One microsatellite marker RM258 produced polymorphic products.The nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility was mapped on chromosome 10,7.8cM from RM258.The restorer gene may be clustered on chromosome.

  1. Genetic Analysis and Preliminary Mapping of a Highly Male-Sterile Gene in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; DIAO Xian-min; GUO Ping-yi; WANG Zhi-lan; YANG Hui-qing; YUAN Feng; GUO Er-hu; TIAN Gang; AN Yuan-huai; LI Hui-xia; WANG Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Breeding of male-sterile lines has become the mainstream for the heterosis utilization in foxtail millet, but the genetic basis of most male-sterile lines used for the hybrid is still an area to be elucidated. In this study, a highly male-sterile line Gao146A was investigated. Genetic analysis indicated that the highly male-sterile phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene a single recessive gene. Using F2 population derived from cross Gao146A/K103, one gene controlling the highly male-sterility, tentatively named asms1, which linked to SSR marker b234 with genetic distance of 16.7 cM, was mapped on the chromosome VI. These results not only laid the foundation for ifne mapping of this highly male-sterile gene, but also helped to accelerate the improvement of highly male-sterile lines by using molecular marker assisted breeding method.

  2. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order

  3. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  4. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  5. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  6. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  7. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-12-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10(35)) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10(35) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10(35) gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10(35) mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10(35) regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10(35) plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  9. A complex genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility between two species of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-08-01

    The X chromosome plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies have examined the genetic basis of X-linked incompatibilities during the early stages of speciation. We report the results of a large experiment focused on the reciprocal introgression of the X chromosome between two species of house mice, Mus musculus and M. domesticus. Introgression of the M. musculus X chromosome into a wild-derived M. domesticus genetic background produced male-limited sterility, qualitatively consistent with previous experiments using classic inbred strains to represent M. domesticus. The genetic basis of sterility involved a minimum of four X-linked factors. The phenotypic effects of major sterility QTL were largely additive and resulted in complete sterility when combined. No sterility factors were uncovered on the M. domesticus X chromosome. Overall, these results revealed a complex and asymmetric genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in mice. Combined with data from previous studies, we identify one relatively narrow interval on the M. musculus X chromosome involved in hybrid male sterility. Only a handful of spermatogenic genes are within this region, including one of the most rapidly evolving genes on the mouse X chromosome.

  10. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  11. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  12. Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Martina; Prazanová, Gabriela; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    The hybrid sterility-1 (Hst1) locus at Chr 17 causes male sterility in crosses between the house mouse subspecies Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). This locus has been defined by its polymorphic variants in two laboratory strains (Mmd genome) when mated to PWD/Ph mice (Mmm genome): C57BL/10 (carrying the sterile allele) and C3H (fertile allele). The occurrence of sterile and/or fertile (wild Mmm x C57BL)F1 males is evidence that polymorphism for this trait also exists in natural populations of Mmm; however, the nature of this polymorphism remains unclear. Therefore, we derived two wild-origin Mmm strains, STUS and STUF, that produce sterile and fertile males, respectively, in crosses with C57BL mice. To determine the genetic basis underlying male fertility, the (STUS x STUF)F1 females were mated to C57BL/10 J males. About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest. A further one-fifth of males (20.3%) also had anomalous reproductive traits but produced some spermatozoa. The remaining fertile males (45.9%) displayed no deviation from values found in parental individuals. QTL analysis of the progeny revealed strong associations of male fitness components with the proximal end of Chr 17, and a significant effect of the central section of Chr X on testes mass. The data suggest that genetic incompatibilities associated with male sterility have evolved independently at the proximal end of Chr 17 and are polymorphic within both Mmd and Mmm genomes.

  13. 几种类型甘蓝雄性不育的研究 与显性不育系的利用%Investigation of Different Types of Male Sterility and Application of Dominant Male Sterility in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方智远; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 王晓武; 庄木

    2001-01-01

    Several types of male sterility (MS) in cabbage were investigated. The results indicated that using male sterility in 81132 controlled by a recessive gene only 50% male sterile plants can be achieved. Nigra cytoplasmic male sterility in CMSn78091 is associated with small nectar glands and un-fully opened flowers. Radish cytoplasmic male sterility in R1cc409 has problems of poor seed setting and chlorosis at low temperature. It is difficult to apply these three materials in cabbage breeding. Male sterile material CMSR29551 with improved radish male sterile cytoplasm has very stable male sterility and no problem of chlorosis at low temperatures. Several MS lines were developed after backcrossing it with different inbred lines. However,it was found that after several generations of backcrossing,hybrid vigor of the male sterile lines decreased,which limited its application in practical breeding. Male sterile line CMSR3625 with another improved radish cytoplasm has not only promising plant growth,flowering and seed setting characteristics,but also high combining ability. It showed good prospect in cabbage breeding. Male sterility controlled by dominant male sterile gene has perfect economic characteristics and male sterility. Two hybrids,which have passed the test of Committee of National Agricultural Variety Examination and Approving, were developed.%隐性不育材料83121ms,不育株率仅50%。黑芥胞质不育材料CMSN78091不育花不能完全开放,蜜腺小。萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR1409等及其转育后代开花结实性状不良,且低温下叶色黄化,以上3类不育材料在甘蓝实际育种中应用困难。改良的萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR29551等及其转育后代低温下叶色不黄化,在其转育后代中筛选出几份开花结实性状较好的不育系,但多代回交后不育系配制的F1杂种优势弱,应用有局限性。改良的萝卜胞质不育系CMSR3625等,植株性状、开花结实特性

  14. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong CHEN; Dong-fa SUN; De-fu RONG; Jun-hua PENG; Cheng-dao LI

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature.Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis.All F1's were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature.It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene,temporarily designated as wptms3.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population.The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM,respectively.The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

  15. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  16. Identiifcation of a novel male sterile wheat mutant dms conferring dwarf status and multi-pistils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zong-biao; SHEN Chun-cai; LI Qiao-yun; L Gui-zhen; NI Yong-jing; YU Dong-yan; NIU Ji-shan

    2015-01-01

    Plant height and fertility are two important traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), whose mutants are ideal materials for studies on molecular mechanisms of stem and lforal organ development. In this study, we identiifed a dwarf, multi-pistil and male sterile (dms hereafter) wheat mutant from Zhoumai 18. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker assay with 181 primer pairs showed that only one locus of GWM148-2B was divergent between Zhoumai 18 and dms. There were three typical phenotypes in the progeny of dms, tal (T;ca. 0.8 m), semi-dwarf (M;ca. 0.6 m) and dwarf (D;under 0.3 m) plants. Morphological investigation indicated that the internode length of M was shortened by about 20–50 mm each;the internode number of D was 2 less than that of T and Zhoumai 18, and its internode length was shorter also. The pol en vigor and hybridization test demonstrated that dms mutant was male sterility. Segregated phenotypes in progeny of M suggested that the multi-pistils and sterility were control ed by one recessive gene locus which was designated as dms temporarily, and the plant height was control ed by a semi-dominant gene locus Dms. Therefore, progeny individuals of the dms had three genotypes, DmsDms for tal plants, Dmsdms for semi-dwarf plants and dmsdms for dwarf plants. The mutant progenies were individual y selected and propagated for more than 6 generations, thus a set of near isogenic lines of T, M and D for dms were developed. This study provides a set germplasms for studies on molecular mechanisms of wheat stem and spike development.

  17. Identification of a novel male sterile wheat mutant dms conferring dwarf status and multi-pistils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zong-biao[1; SHEN Chun-cai[1; LI Qiao-yun[1; LU Gui-zhen[1; NI Yong-jing[2; YU Dong-yan[1; NIU Ji-shan[1

    2015-01-01

    Plant height and fertility are two important traits of wheat (Triticum aesfivum L.), whose mutants are ideal materials for studies on molecular mechanisms of stem and floral organ development. In this study, we identified a dwarf, multi-pistil and male sterile (dms hereafter) wheat mutant from Zhoumai 18. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker assay with 181 primer pairs showed that only one locus of GWM148-2B was divergent between Zhoumai 18 and dins. There were three typical phenotypes in the progeny of dms, tall (T; ca. 0.8 m), semi-dwarf (M; ca. 0.6 m) and dwarf (D; under 0.3 m) plants. Morphological investigation indicated that the intemode length of M was shortened by about 20-50 mm each; the intemode number of D was 2 less than that ofT and Zhoumai 18, and its internode length was shorter also. The pollen vigor and hybridization test demonstrated that dms mutant was male sterility. Segregated phenotypes in progeny of M suggested that the multi-pistils and sterility were controlled by one recessive gene locus which was designated as dms temporarily, and the plant height was controlled by a semi-dominant gene locus Dms. Therefore, progeny individuals of the dms had three genotypes, DmsDms for tall plants, Dmsdms for semi-dwarf plants and dmsdms for dwarf plants. The mutant progenies were individually selected and propagated for more than 6 generations, thus a set of near isogenic lines of T, M and D for dms were developed. This study provides a set germplasms for studies on molecular mechanisms of wheat stem and spike development.

  18. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. R Region of S Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize Mitochondrial DNA is Transcribed in Both Directions and May Be Associated with Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSai-Qun; ZHANGFang-Dong; XIAOHai-Lin; ZHENGYong-Lian

    2004-01-01

    It is well accepted that S type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in maize (Zea mays L.) isassociated with R region in mitochondrial genome. R region includes two open reading frames——orf355and orf77and it is speculated that orf77is an important candidate gene of CMS. RT-PCR showed that bothDNA strands of R region are transcribed. Nuclear background or developing stages of plant do not influencethe transcription of R region in the strand which also acts as template strand of cox Ⅰ/coxⅡ locating justupstream of R region, but they do influence the transcription of R region in the other strand (templatestrand of orf355-orf77). In tassel with nuclear background of rf3rf3, transcription of the template strand oforf355-orf77 is different from that in etiolated shoots with nuclear background of Rf3- or rf3rf3and tasselwith nuclear background of Rf3-. Compared to the same other three, it is truncated at about 238 base fromthe 5' end of R region. Rabbit antiserum against putative ORF77 expressed in Escherichia coliwas preparedbut Western blot did not detect ORF77 in plant materials. It seems that double-strand transcription of Rregion inhibits the translation of orf77and the transcribing mode of R region may be associated with malesterility.

  20. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Progress report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  1. A dominant, recombination-defective allele of Dmc1 causing male-specific sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Bannister

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available DMC1 is a meiosis-specific homolog of bacterial RecA and eukaryotic RAD51 that can catalyze homologous DNA strand invasion and D-loop formation in vitro. DMC1-deficient mice and yeast are sterile due to defective meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis. The authors identified a male dominant sterile allele of Dmc1, Dmc1(Mei11, encoding a missense mutation in the L2 DNA binding domain that abolishes strand invasion activity. Meiosis in male heterozygotes arrests in pachynema, characterized by incomplete chromosome synapsis and no crossing-over. Young heterozygous females have normal litter sizes despite having a decreased oocyte pool, a high incidence of meiosis I abnormalities, and susceptibility to premature ovarian failure. Dmc1(Mei11 exposes a sex difference in recombination in that a significant portion of female oocytes can compensate for DMC1 deficiency to undergo crossing-over and complete gametogenesis. Importantly, these data demonstrate that dominant alleles of meiosis genes can arise and propagate in populations, causing infertility and other reproductive consequences due to meiotic prophase I defects.

  2. Wild Nicotiana Species as a Source of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Nicotianatabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikova V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of our experiments executed to obtain tobacco male sterile lines through interspecific hybridization are summarized. Ten wild species from the genus Nicotiana: N. excelsior (exc, N. amplexicaulis (amp, N. rustica (rus, Nicotianaglauca (gla, N. velutina (vel, N. benthamiana (ben, N. maritima (mar, N. paniculata (pan, N. longiflora (lon and N. africana (afr were used as cytoplasmic donors and N. tabacum, cv. HarmanliiskaBasma (HB as a donor of the nucleus. Genetic effects of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction of the studied species are discussed. Our results suggested that cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS was expressed when the cytoplasms of the above mentioned wild Nicotiana species were combined with the nucleus of N. tabacum. The 10 sources of CMS obtained in tobacco were characterized by altered flower phenotypes. Flowers are classified into types according the stamen, pistil and corolla modification. All these CMS sources were backcrossed to Oriental tobaccos, cvs. Tekne, Nevrokop B-12, Kroumovgrad 90 and Djebel 576, to develop corresponding CMS lines. The investigated cytoplasms produced compete male sterility in all those cultivars. The CMS lines preserved flower types, specific for every “sterile” cytoplasm. The extent of male organ modifications varied from apparently normal (but pollenless stamens in CMS (pan, (afr, some plants of (vel (mar through different degrees of malformations (shriveled anther on shortened filaments (lon, pinnate-like anthers on filaments of normal length (amp, petal - (ben, pistil- or stigma-like structures (rus, (gla to lack of male reproductive organs in (exc and in some plants of (vel, (mar, (rus and (gla. Most of the above mentioned cytoplasms had normal female gametophyte and good seed productivity. Alterations of the pistils were observed in CMS (rus, (exc and (ben causing reduction of the seed set. Electrophoresis of seed proteins of the tobacco cultivars and their CMS lines also suggested that

  3. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  4. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  5. Studies on Breeding and Application of Thermo- sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line 402S in Brassica napus Ⅱ. Evaluation of Heterosis and Combining Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Augmented randomized complete block test was conducted to evaaltuate the he terosis of 80hybrid combinations from TGMS line 402S and its original parent Xiangyou 91S, and thecombining ability of 40 testcrossing lines. The results of identification test showed that anong 47 combinationsyielding over the control Xiangyou 15, 17 ones with 402S and 3 ,ones with Xiangyou 91S overyielded more than 20 %, reaching the significant level of 1%; and among 51 combination s yielding overt heir corresponding higher yield parents, 18 ones with 402S and 9 ones with Xianyou 91S oveeryelded at 5 % or 1% significan: level The test for the GCA effect of all parents indicated t hat 402S possessed a stronger combining ability than Xiangyou 91S on yield, siliquae of main inflorescerce, total siliquae per plant, seed yield of single plant and 1000 - seed weight. 10 testcrosing lines with high GC A wer picked out for next testcrosses. Among 8 agronomic traits, total siliquae per plant and seed yield of single plant were regiarded as the key selecting indexes according to the correlation analsis between yield and the agronomic traits on heterosis and on the GCA effect of all parents

  6. Functional Marker Assisted Improvement of Stable Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Rice for Bacterial Blight Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegadeesan Ramalingam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight (BB, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is one among the major diseases in rice, which in severe condition cause losses up to 60% in total yield. Marker assisted pyramiding of three broad spectrum BB resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in prominent rice varieties is the most economical and effective strategy for the management of the BB disease. We report here the pyramiding of three genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in maintainer lines (CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B of three promising wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CO 2A, CO 23A, and CO 24A through functional markers assisted back cross breeding. IRBB60 with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes is used as a donor parent. BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations from a cross of CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B with IRBB60 were evaluated for bacterial blight and non-fertility restoration. In BC2F1, plants with all three resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 and high parent genome recovery was identified. In BC2F2, plants with all resistance genes and without fertility restorer (Rf3 and Rf4 were selected. Based on agronomic traits, BB resistance and maintenance of sterility, two plants each in CO 2B × IRBB60, CO 24B × IRBB60 and one plant in CO 23B × IRBB60 combinations were identified. The identified lines were crossed with respective male sterile lines for conversion of improved B line into CMS line through back-crossing, in addition to selfing. The plants with high recurrent genome and phenotypically similar to parental lines and sterile are being used for the hybrid rice development program. Currently, using these lines (improved CMS line, test crosses were made to develop new rice hybrids. Hybrids combinations viz., CO 23A × AD08009R and CO 24A × IET20898R were found to be stable at different locations with high yield. The R line used in this study has been introgressed with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes in a separate breeding program. These new hybrids with resistance against bacterial blight

  7. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed.

  8. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  9. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidi Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility.

  10. A long noncoding RNA regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, an essential component of hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jihua; Lu, Qing; Ouyang, Yidan; Mao, Hailiang; Zhang, Pingbo; Yao, Jialing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-02-14

    Hybrid rice has greatly contributed to the global increase of rice productivity. A major component that facilitated the development of hybrids was a mutant showing photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) with its fertility regulated by day length. Transcriptome studies have shown that large portions of the eukaryotic genomic sequences are transcribed to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the potential roles for only a few lncRNAs have been brought to light at present. Thus, great efforts have to be invested to understand the biological functions of lncRNAs. Here we show that a lncRNA of 1,236 bases in length, referred to as long-day-specific male-fertility-associated RNA (LDMAR), regulates PSMS in rice. We found that sufficient amount of the LDMAR transcript is required for normal pollen development of plants grown under long-day conditions. A spontaneous mutation causing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the wild-type and mutant altered the secondary structure of LDMAR. This change brought about increased methylation in the putative promoter region of LDMAR, which reduced the transcription of LDMAR specifically under long-day conditions, resulting in premature programmed cell death (PCD) in developing anthers, thus causing PSMS. Thus, a lncRNA could directly exert a major effect on a trait like a structure gene, and a SNP could alter the function of a lncRNA similar to amino acid substitution in structural genes. Molecular elucidating of PSMS has important implications for understanding molecular mechanisms of photoperiod regulation of many biological processes and also for developing male sterile germplasms for hybrid crop breeding.

  11. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observa...

  13. A detrimental mitochondrial-nuclear interaction causes cytoplasmic male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dangping; Xu, Hong; Liu, Zhenlan; Guo, Jingxin; Li, Heying; Chen, Letian; Fang, Ce; Zhang, Qunyu; Bai, Mei; Yao, Nan; Wu, Hong; Wu, Hao; Ji, Chonghui; Zheng, Huiqi; Chen, Yuanling; Ye, Shan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiucai; Li, Riqing; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibilities between the organellar and nuclear genomes and prevents self pollination, enabling hybrid crop breeding to increase yields. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA) has been exploited in the majority of 'three-line' hybrid rice production since the 1970s, but the molecular basis of this trait remains unknown. Here we report that a new mitochondrial gene, WA352, which originated recently in wild rice, confers CMS-WA because the protein it encodes interacts with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein COX11. In CMS-WA lines, WA352 accumulates preferentially in the anther tapetum, thereby inhibiting COX11 function in peroxide metabolism and triggering premature tapetal programmed cell death and consequent pollen abortion. WA352-induced sterility can be suppressed by two restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, suggesting the existence of different mechanisms to counteract deleterious cytoplasmic factors. Thus, CMS-related cytoplasmic-nuclear incompatibility is driven by a detrimental interaction between a newly evolved mitochondrial gene and a conserved, essential nuclear gene.

  14. Genotyping the Heading Date of Male-Sterile Rice Line Ⅱ-32A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ⅱ-32A, an elite male-sterile line of rice (Oryza sativa L.), has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice seed in China. Heading date in most combinations using Ⅱ-32A shows transgressive inheritance or similarity to the latter parent, but the genotype of Ⅱ-32A with respect to major genes for heading time is unknown. This limits the further exploitation of this sterile line in breeding and hybrid seed production. Using a number of major gene heading date isogenic lines and heading date QTL near-isogenic lines, we genetically analyzed Ⅱ-32B under both long- and short-day conditions. We show that Ⅱ-32B carries two photoperiod-sensitive genes, E1 and E3, a recessive late-heading gene, ef-1, and a photoperiod-sensitive allele, Se-1u. In addition we identified in Ⅱ-32B a recessive inhibitor for E1 or Se-1n and other modified photoperiod-sensitive genes. The heading-date constitution of Ⅱ-32A was determined to be E1e2E3Se-1Uef-1i-Se-1.

  15. Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of male-sterile and hermaphrodite sex types of Plantago lanceolata grown under conditions of contrasting nitrogen and light availabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, P.; Pilon, J.; Pens, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata is it gynodioecious species: In natural populations male steriles (MS) coexist with hermaphrodites (H). Since male steriles have a reproductive disadvantage, without any compensation for their loss in male function by an increase in female function, they are expected to disappear

  16. Comparisons on Genetic Diversity among the Isonuclear-Alloplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainer Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four sets of rice isonuclear-alloplasmic lines including 16 male sterile lines and their maintainer lines were analyzed by using 91 pairs of SSR primers to study the genetic diversity of nuclear genome and their relative relationships. A total of 169 alleles were detected in the 16 lines, with a frequency of polymorphic loci of 53.85% and an average number of alleles per locus of 1.8, and the average gene diversity was 0.228. Four sets of the isonuclear-alloplasmic male sterile lines shared 146 identical alleles, corresponding to 86.39% of the total alleles; meanwhile, there are 23 different alleles among the tested materials, being 13.61% of the total alleles. On average, 78.70% identical alleles and 21.30% different alleles of the total alleles were detected between the isonuclear-alloplasmic male sterile lines and their maintainer lines. There were 53.85% identioal alleles and 46.15% different alleles of the total alleles among the homozygous allonucleus male sterile lines.The fingerprints were established for some male sterile lines and maintainer lines. All the materials tested were divided into three groups at the 0.2 genetic distance based on the cluster analysis. Eight lines of Huanong A and Huayu A (including Huanong B and Huayu B) were in the first group, four lines of Kezhen A (including Kezhen B) in the second group, and four lines of Zhenshan 97A (including Zhenshan 97B) in the third group. For the isonuclear-alloplasmic male sterile lines, the similarity coefficient between Y (Yegong) type and WA (wild abortive) type or between CW (Raoping wild rice) and WA type reached 87-98 %.

  17. Engineered selective plant male sterility through pollen-specific expression of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwood, Reginald J; Moon, Hong S; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Rice, John Hollis; Abercrombie, Jason M; Abercrombie, Laura L; Green, William Derek; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-05-01

    Unintended gene flow from transgenic plants via pollen, seed and vegetative propagation is a regulatory concern because of potential admixture in food and crop systems, as well as hybridization and introgression to wild and weedy relatives. Bioconfinement of transgenic pollen would help address some of these concerns and enable transgenic plant production for several crops where gene flow is an issue. Here, we demonstrate the expression of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under the control of the tomato pollen-specific LAT52 promoter is an effective method for generating selective male sterility in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Of nine transgenic events recovered, four events had very high bioconfinement with tightly controlled EcoRI expression in pollen and negligible-to-no expression other plant tissues. Transgenic plants had normal morphology wherein vegetative growth and reproductivity were similar to nontransgenic controls. In glasshouse experiments, transgenic lines were hand-crossed to both male-sterile and emasculated nontransgenic tobacco varieties. Progeny analysis of 16 000-40 000 seeds per transgenic line demonstrated five lines approached (>99.7%) or attained 100% bioconfinement for one or more generations. Bioconfinement was again demonstrated at or near 100% under field conditions where four transgenic lines were grown in close proximity to male-sterile tobacco, and 900-2100 seeds per male-sterile line were analysed for transgenes. Based upon these results, we conclude EcoRI-driven selective male sterility holds practical potential as a safe and reliable transgene bioconfinement strategy. Given the mechanism of male sterility, this method could be applicable to any plant species.

  18. Cytoplasmic male sterile systems in pigeonpea with special reference to A7 CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mallikarjuna, Deepak R Jadhav, Kulbushan B. Saxena and Rakesh K. Srivastava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the cereals and vegetable crops, cytoplasmic male sterility is comparatively a new system available topigeonpea breeders to exploit heterosis/hybrid vigor. It has been possible to develop a CMS system for pigeonpea as crosspollination is possible in this crop. Various CMS systems have been developed for pigeonpea utilizing different wildrelatives from different gene pools. CMS based hybrids developed from A4 system have recorded superiority in yieldscompared to the checks on farmer’s fields. This has opened up a new window for yield improvement in pigeonpea. Thepaper discusses different CMS systems available for pigeonpea in general and the A7 system which was developed utilizingCajanus platycarpus, in particular.

  19. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  20. Open field release of genetically engineered sterile male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia.

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    Renaud Lacroix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered 'genetically sterile' (OX513A and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m, but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m. Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days. Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.

  1. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  2. Effects of surgical and chemical sterilization on the behavior of free-roaming male dogs in Puerto Natales, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, E; Pérez, G E; Vanderstichel, R; Dalla Villa, P F; Serpell, J A

    2016-01-01

    Population management of free-roaming domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) is of interest due to the threat these animals pose to people, other animals and the environment. Current sterilization procedures for male dogs include surgical and chemical methods. However, little is known about how these procedures affect their behavior. The primary objective of this study was to investigate changes in selected behaviors following chemical and surgical sterilization in a male free-roaming dog (FRD) population in southern Chile. We also examined the association between serum testosterone levels and behaviors thought to be influenced by circulating androgens. A total of 174 dogs were randomly assigned to either a surgical or chemical sterilization group, or a control group. At the onset of the intervention period, 119 dogs remained and 102 dogs successfully completed the study. Each dog was monitored pre- and post-intervention using video recordings, GPS collars, and blood samples for the measurement of testosterone. Analysis of behavior revealed that surgically castrated dogs showed no reduction of sexual activity or aggression when compared to their pre-intervention behavior. Chemically sterilized dogs showed a statistically significant increase in dog-directed aggression, but no change in sexual activity. There was no change in home range size in any groups between the pre- and post-intervention measurement. We found no consistent association between levels of serum testosterone concentration and behavioral changes in any of the groups. This study presents the first detailed behavioral observations following surgical and chemical sterilization in male FRDs. The information generated is highly relevant to communities struggling with the control of FRDs. Complementary studies to further our understanding of the effects of male sterilization on the behavioral and reproductive dynamics of FRD populations are needed.

  3. Desbalance redox en la infertilidad masculina Lack of Redox balance in male sterility

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    Akel Mallok

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La infertilidad masculina es considerada como uno de los factores que más contribuyen a la infertilidad de la pareja. En conjunción a los factores convencionales que la originan se ha identificado una causa de extraordinaria repercusión: el estrés oxidativo, el cual es el resultado del desequilibrio entre la generación de especies reactivas del oxígeno y los antioxidantes, que puede originar daños o deformidades a los espermatozoides y eventualmente infertilidad masculina. Las especies reactivas del oxígeno se producen por diversos mecanismos en el semen, por espermatozoides inmóviles o con problemas de movilidad, leucocitos y por espermatozoides normales morfológicamente pero funcionalmente anormales. Entre estos daños, se registran la peroxidación lipídica a la membrana espermática y la fragmentación del ADN tanto nuclear como mitocondrial. Los daños que causa el estrés oxidativo sobre el ADN pueden originar trastornos en la descendencia que incluyen cáncer y acondroplastia. La peroxidación lipídica, origina la alteración de la membrana que afecta su estructura y función. La membrana del espermatozoide humano contiene una elevada proporción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, por lo tanto su susceptibilidad a la peroxidación lipídica es muy elevada. Las especies reactivas del oxígeno tienen diversos efectos sobre las células espermáticas, constituyendo un tema muy controvertido, por lo que este artículo tuvo como propósito actualizar al lector sobre algunos de los aspectos bioquímicos relacionados con la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno y los métodos de diagnóstico que se emplean para detectarlo en la infertilidad humana.The male sterility is considered as one of the factors more contributing to couple sterility. Join to conventional factors originate it condition it was possible to identify a cause with a high level of repercussion: the oxidative stress, which is the result of the imbalance

  4. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  5. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  6. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  7. Studies on Breeding and Application of Thermo- sensitive Genie Male Sterile Line 402S in Brassica napus . The Breeding Procedure and Character of 402S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new rapeseed TGMS line 402S has been bred through six years with seven generations by hybridization and systematic breeding. 402S possesses the similar thermo - sensitive male sterility to its female parent Xiangyou 91S which performed fertile, partially sterile and sterile throughout the flowering stage, and resembles its male parent Zhongshuang 4 on agronomic traits. And 402S has the double-low (low erucic acid and low glucosinolate) quality like its o nginal parents.

  8. Differential Response of Floret Opening in Male-Sterile and Male-Fertile Rices to Methyl Jasmonate%雄性不育和可育水稻开颖对茉莉酸甲酯响应的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平; 夏凯; 吴传万; 包冬萍; 陈丽莉; 周燮; 曹显祖

    2001-01-01

    以水稻(Oryza sativa subsp.indica)雄性不育系和可育系为材料,在室内用溶液浸已开过一天花的水稻离体穗2min,发现4mmol/L茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)能显著诱导水稻开颖,且MeJA诱导水稻雄性不育材料开颖的效应明显强于可育材料(如保持系和常规品种),MeJA使雄性不育系珍汕97A、温敏雄性核不育系培矮64S的当天最后开颖率达到40%以上,保持系珍汕97B、常规品种“培矮64”的当天最后开颖率仅有(21±1.5)%、(25±2.1)%,对照穗在当天始终不开颖或开颖极少(<5%);不育系开颖对MeJA响应的滞后期比可育系短10min左右。在田间,2mmol/LMeJA溶液浸或喷雾水稻连体穗,也同样能明显提高培矮64S的开颖率;辅以人工授粉,MeJA能大幅度提高珍汕97A、龙特浦A的结实率(提高24%以上)。1mmol/L水杨酸(SA)能抑制MeJA诱导水稻开颖,而MeJA的再次处理能解除SA对MeJA诱导雄性不育系开颖的抑制效应,SA抑制MeJA诱导保持系开颖的效应不能被再次使用MeJA所解除。24-表油菜素内酯(24-epiBL)预先处理能显著增强MeJA诱导不育系开颖,而对于保持系,此效应不明显。%Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on floret opening wereinvestigated in male-s terile and male-fertile rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica ). Excised or intact panicles with several top florets flowered one day before the experiments were soaked in MeJA, salicylic acid (SA), 24-epibrassinolide (24- epiBL) or control solution for 2 min. MeJA at the concentration of 4 mmol/L significantly promoted rice floret opening; the response of floret opening of male-s terile rice to MeJA was more sensitive than that of male-fertile rice (such as maintenance line and conventional variety). The percentage of finally opened-floret per panicle of Zhenshan 97A (cytoplasmic male sterile line) or Pei'ai 64S (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line) treated with MeJA was over 40% in the

  9. Cohabitation with a sterile male facilitates the development of retrieval behavior in nulliparous female rats exposed to pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Tanco, S A; Walsh, M L

    1992-10-01

    Female rats were housed with a sterile male or another female. After 3 weeks, half of the females that had been housed with a female were rehoused with an intact male. At the end of 6 weeks female or sterile male cagemates were removed. Intact male cagemates and pups were removed 3 to 12 h following parturition. All females were tested for retrieval of three unfamiliar pups placed in their cage on the day following removal of their cagemate. Three unfamiliar pups were placed with each female and the female's behavior observed for 10 min. Observations were made in this way for 13 days or until the female retrieved all three pups within the 10-min interval. Pups were left with the female on days they were not retrieved. Females housed with a sterile male reached criterion for pup retrieval in 2.9 days, significantly fewer days than were required for females housed with another female (6.6 days) but significantly more than were required for a postpartum female (0.8 days). By demonstrating that cohabitation with a male fosters the development of retrieval, these results support evidence from the study of aggressive behavior that pseudopregnancy facilitates the development of behaviors associated with pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Assessment of knowledge and perception regarding male sterilization (Non-Scalpel Vasectomy among community health workers in Jharkhand, India

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    Swati Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.

  11. 定向转育卵圆生态型大白菜雄性不育系的研究%Directional Breeding of An Oval-ecotype Male Sterile Line of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭翀; 郭瑛琪; 岳艳玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究大白菜定向转育卵圆生态型雄性不育系的方法。[方法]以大白菜核不育"复等位基因遗传假说"为理论依据,以甲型两用系‘AB12’为不育供体品系,以卵圆生态型可育品系‘06048’为待转育品系,采用杂交、回交、兄妹交和测交的方法,按照定向转育方案将核不育基因定向转育。[结果]各世代育性分离比率与理论相一致,成功育成了一种不育株率100%的具有‘06048’园艺性状的新核不育系,实现了核不育基因和园艺特性的同时转育。[结论]该研究成果验证此定向转育方案是可行的,进一步为基因型为 msms的其他园艺性状的大白菜定向转育提供理论基础,也可以推广应用到整个芸薹属其它经济作物中,极大的拓宽了优良核不育基因的实际应用范围。%Objective] The study aimed to explore the method for directional breeding of a male-sterile line in oval-ecotype Chinese cabbage. [Method] Based on "Multiple Al ele Hypothesis of Genic Male Sterile Chinese Cabbage", an inbred line ‘06048’ of oval ecotype was used as the receptor, and male fertile plant of ‘AB12’ was used as the donor line. Crossing, backcross, selfing, testcross and sibling were ap-plied to transfer the multiple al eles under the directional genetic model. [Result] Segregation ratio of every generation was consistent with theoretical value. A new male sterile line with 100% male sterility and ‘06048’ horticultural traits was ob-tained successful y, which accomplished the transfer of male sterile multiple al ele and horticultural characters of receptor line at the same time. [Conclusion] The re-search verifies that the model of directional transfer is feasible, provides a theoreti-cal basis for the directional transfer of Chinese cabbage with other horticultural traits whose genotype is msms. The model can also be applied to other Brassica crops, to generate genetic male sterile lines

  12. Assessing the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2007-07-01

    Interspecific F1 hybrid males of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex are sterile, while females are fertile, following Haldane's rule. A backcross scheme involving a single recessive visible marker on the X chromosome has been used to assess the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid male sterility in the D. bipectinata species complex. The results suggest that X-Y interactions are playing the major role in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. bipectinata x D. parabipectinata and D. bipectinata x D. pseudoananassae, while X-autosome interactions are largely involved in hybrid male sterility in the crosses D. malerkotliana x D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana x D. parabipectinata. However, by using this single marker it is not possible to rule out the involvement of autosome-autosome interactions in hybrid male sterility. These findings also lend further support to the phylogenetic relationships among 4 species of the D. bipectinata complex.

  13. Breeding for Male-Sterility Line with G. barbadense Nuclear Background and Cytological Observation of Its Microsporogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-quan; WANG Xue-de; ZHU Yun-guo; ZHU Wei; JIANG Pei-dong

    2007-01-01

    To study the feasibility of utilizing the heterosis of interspecific (Gossypium barbadense × G. hirsutum) hybrid cotton based on cytoplasmic male-sterility system, a G. barbadense male-sterility line HaiA with G. harknessii cytoplasm and its maintainer HaiB were developed by replacing nuclear genome from G. hirsutum to G. barbadense in a backcross breeding program. Its male cell abortion was observed using a light microscope through a paraffin slice for H.E staining technique.The results showed that the abortion characteristics in HaiA were not significantly changed at the cytological level,although G. hirsutum nuclear genome of sterile line was replaced by G. barbadense nuclear genome, and its abortion mainly took place at the stage of the microspore mother cell meiosis. HaiA sterility was very stable because of its early abortion and no-pollens in anthers. Hybrids between HaiA and G. hirsutum restorers were high in pollen viability, boll setting rate, boll weight and lint percentage which contributed to high yield heterosis. It is suggested that HaiA is of great value in the application of cotton interspecific hybrid seed production.

  14. Association of nad7a Gene with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been exploited in the commercial pigeonpea [ (L. Millsp.] hybrid breeding system; however, the molecular mechanism behind this system is unknown. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in A CMS system derived from (Haines Maesen, 34 mitochondrial genes were analyzed for expression profiling and structural variation analysis between CMS line (ICRISAT Pigeonpea A line, ICPA 2039 and its cognate maintainer (ICPB 2039. Expression profiling of 34 mitochondrial genes revealed nine genes with significant fold differential gene expression at ≤ 0.01, including one gene, , with 1366-fold higher expression in CMS line as compared with the maintainer. Structural variation analysis of these mitochondrial genes identified length variation between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 for (subunit of gene. Sanger sequencing of and genes in the CMS and the maintainer lines identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in upstream region of and a deletion of 10 bp in in the CMS line. Protein structure evaluation showed conformational changes in predicted protein structures for between ICPA 2039 and ICPB 2039 lines. All above analyses indicate association of gene with the CMS for A cytoplasm in pigeonpea. Additionally, one polymerase chain reaction (PCR based Indel marker ( has been developed and validated for testing genetic purity of A derived CMS lines to strengthen the commercial hybrid breeding program in pigeonpea.

  15. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  16. ms17: a meiotic mutation causing partial male sterility in a corn silage hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, M S; Souza, V F; Silva, N; Scapim, C A; Rodovalho, M; Faria, M V

    2011-09-09

    Cytological analysis under light microscopy of the single hybrid P30R50 of silage corn revealed an abnormal pattern of microsporogenesis that affected the meiotic products. Meiosis progressed normally until diakinesis, but before migration to the metaphase plate, bivalents underwent total desynapsis and 20 univalent chromosomes were scattered in the cytoplasm. At this stage, meiocytes also exhibited a number of chromatin-like fragments scattered throughout the cell. Metaphase I was completely abnormal in the affected cells, and univalent chromosomes and fragments were distributed among several curved spindles. Anaphase I did not occur, and each chromosome or group of chromosomes originated a micronucleus. After this phase, an irregular cytokinesis occurred, and secondary meiocytes with several micronuclei were observed. Metaphase II and anaphase II also did not occur, and after the second cytokinesis, the genomes were fractionated into polyads, generating several unbalanced microspores, with various-sized nuclei. About 35% of the tetrads were abnormal in the hybrid. This spontaneous mutation had been previously reported in a USA maize line called ms17 and was found to cause male sterility.

  17. Increased vulnerability of hippocampal CA1 neurons to hypoperfusion in ataxia and male sterility (AMS) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xueyun; Nagai, Atsushi; Sheikh, Abdullah Md; Wang, Hui; Mitaki, Shingo; Araki, Asuka; Maruyama, Riruke; Harada, Takayuki

    2013-02-04

    The nna1 gene mutation is associated with spontaneous degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells and germ cells in Ataxia and Male Sterility (AMS) mouse. Since nna1 is also expressed in hippocampal neurons, we investigated their vulnerability to hypoperfusion in AMS mouse. Eight-week-old male wild type (WT) and AMS mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 10 min and sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after BCCAO. Nissl staining revealed the neuronal cell loss and pyknotic change in the CA1 of AMS mice. TUNEL(+) apoptotic cells were found in the area at 7 days in AMS mice. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein in WT hippocampus were increased, while they were not increased in AMS. Bax mRNA was increased in AMS. Moreover, Bax activation was immunohistochemically demonstrated only in AMS at 3 and 7 days after BCCAO. An oxidative DNA damage marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive cells were increased in both strains at 1 day; decreased in WT at 3 days but remained high in AMS. BCCAO increased glutathione, an antioxidant, in WT, but not in AMS at 3 days. The mRNA level of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2, a regulator of oxidative stress, was increased only in WT at 1 day. Nna1 mRNA was similarly expressed in WT and AMS, but the protein was undetectable in AMS. Thus, our results indicate the increased vulnerability of hippocampal CA1 neurons of AMS mice to cerebral hypoperfusion could be due to an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system.

  18. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  19. Discovery of mitochondrial chimeric-gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility of HL-rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome libraries of HL-type sterile line(A) and maintainer line(B) have been constructed.Mitochondrial gene, atp6, was used to screen libraries, due to the different Southern and Northern blot results between sterile and maintainer line. Sequencing analysis of positive clones proved that there were two copies of atp6 gene in sterile line and only one in maintainer line. One copy of atpt6 in sterile line was same to that in maintainer line; the other showed different flanking sequence from the 49th nucleotide downstream of the termination codon of atp6 gene. A new chimeric gene, orfH79, was found in the region. OrfH79 had homology to mitochondrial gene coxⅡ and orfl07, and was special to HL-sterile cytoplasm.``

  20. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  1. Restoring pollen fertility in transgenic male-sterile eggplant by Cre/loxp-mediated site-specific recombination system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihao Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/loxP system, for heterosis breeding, producing hybrid seed of eggplant. The Barnase-coding region was flanked by loxP recognition sites for Cre-recombinase. The eggplant inbred/pure line ('E-38' was transformed with Cre gene and the inbred/pure line ('E-8' was transformed with the Barnase gene situated between loxp. The experiments were done separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Four T0-plants with the Barnase gene were obtained, all proved to be male-sterile and incapable of producing viable pollen. Flowers stamens were shorter, but the vegetative phenotype was similar to wild-type. Five T0-plants with the Cre gene developed well, blossomed out and set fruit normally. The crossing of male-sterile Barnase-plants with Cre expression transgenic eggplants resulted in site-specific excision with the male-sterile plants producing normal fruits. With the Barnase was excised, pollen fertility was fully restored in the hybrids. The phenotype of these restored plants was the same as that of the wild-type. Thus, the Barnase and Cre genes were capable of stable inheritance and expression in progenies of transgenic plants.

  2. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efifcacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenHong Lu; XiaoWei Liang; YiQun Gu; WeiXiong Wu; LiWei Bo; TianGui Zheng; ZhenWen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efifcacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types:IVD-B has a tail used for ifxing to the vas deferens (ifxed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n= 487), IVD-B (n= 485) or NSV (n=487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd-6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no signiifcant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P>0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9%and 1.7%in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

  3. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hong Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV. IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487, IVD-B (n = 485 or NSV (n = 487 groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV among the three groups (P > 0.05. The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

  4. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (castrated dogs. Most chemically sterilized dogs, however, showed no long-term changes in blood testosterone concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility

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    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of meiotic behavior in some species. Some of these abnormalities have been frequently described in the literature, while others have not been previously reported. The most frequent abnormalities found in the species analyzed were irregular chromosome segregation, cytomixis, chromosome stickiness, mixoploidy, chromosome fragmentation, syncyte formation, abnormal spindles, and failure of cytokinesis. Uncommon abnormalities, such as chromosome elimination during microsporogenesis, were found in one species. Original meiotic mutations affecting different steps of meiosis were also observed in these species, especially in maize, Paspalum and soybean. Some mutants present characteristics that may be exploited successfully in breeding programs because they cause total male sterility.A meiose é um evento de alta estabilidade evolucionária que culmina na redução do número de cromossomos. O curso normal e harmonioso da meiose garante a viabilidade gamética. Os eventos citológicos da gametogênese são controlados por um grande número de genes que atuam desde as mitoses pré-meióticas até as pós-meióticas. Mutações nestes genes causam anomalias que podem afetar a fertilidade. Durante a avaliação do comportamento meiótico em algumas espécies de plantas, muitas anormalidades que afetaram a fertilidade ou causaram total macho-esterilidade foram detectadas. Algumas das anormalidades encontradas já eram descritas na literatura, enquanto outras eram

  6. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS acc...

  7. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

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    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  8. Marker-Assisted Backcrossing to Develop an Elite Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Rice

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    Asadollah Ahmadikhah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is a cornerstone of hybrid production in many crops. In three-line hybrid systems, use of CMS, maintainer, and fertility restorer lines is necessary for production of hybrid seeds. Limited resources of CMS and low variation of CMS lines cause genetic vulnerability to pathogens. Therefore, diversifying the CMS sources is indispensible for a sustainable production system of hybrid seed. In this study, we attempted for the first time to transfer CMS into maintainer line Yosen B in restricted generations using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method. The resultant F hybrid of IR68897 A/Yosen B cross was backcrossed to Yosen B, and CMS plants in each backcross generation (from BCF to BCF were selected based on phenotyping test and MABC. Molecular assessment of backcross progenies was conducted using a mitochondrial CMS-specific marker and 34 polymorphic nuclear simple-sequence repeat (SSR markers in early generations (from BCF to BCF and was continued using 9 additional SSRs and 82 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers in BCF. A MABC strategy could successfully recover the recurrent parent genome (RPG in BCF generation, and decreased heterozygosity of final CMS plants. Restorability test with known wild-abortive restorer lines (viz. IR36 and IR24 showed that combination of Yosen A × IR24 could produce highly fertile F hybrid. Evaluation of some important agronomic traits of the final CMS line (BCF at field condition showed that it was comparable to the original maintainer fertile counterpart. Phenotypic and marker-assisted selections could considerably decrease the time needed for full recovery of RPG so that final CMS line could show a high similarity to original fertile counterpart.

  9. Cytoplasmic male sterility-associated chimeric open reading frames identified by mitochondrial genome sequencing of four Cajanus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K B; Alverson, Andrew J; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2013-10-01

    The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea.

  10. Analysis of Male Sterility-Related Proteins of Young Panicle in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yao-jun; WEI Lei; LIU Shu-nan; YU Jin-hong; DING Yi

    2005-01-01

    For searching out male sterility-related proteins (polypeptides) in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we examined the difference of panicle protein (polypeptides) between hybrid rice (Wujin2A/R168, Wujin5A/R988) and their parents (male-sterile line Wujin2A, Wujin5A, and restorer line R168, R988) at the formation stage of pollen mother cell by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The results revealed that the 2-DE polypeptide maps were similar among these experimental materials. A small group of polypeptides were disappeared in 2-DE polypeptide maps of male-sterile line (Wujin2A, Wujin5A) by comparing to restorer line (R168, R988) and the first filial (F1) generation (Wujin2A/R168, Wujin5A/R988). The isoelectric points of these polypeptides were pI 5.8-6.5, molecular weight 42.7×103-66.2×103.

  11. The genetic basis of postzygotic reproductive isolation between Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba due to hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Amanda J; Llopart, Ana; Elwyn, Susannah; Coyne, Jerry A; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2006-05-01

    A major unresolved challenge of evolutionary biology is to determine the nature of the allelic variants of "speciation genes": those alleles whose interaction produces inviable or infertile interspecific hybrids but does not reduce fitness in pure species. Here we map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fertility of male hybrids between D. yakuba and its recently discovered sibling species, D. santomea. We mapped three to four X chromosome QTL and two autosomal QTL with large effects on the reduced fertility of D. yakuba and D. santomea backcross males. We observed epistasis between the X-linked QTL and also between the X and autosomal QTL. The X chromosome had a disproportionately large effect on hybrid sterility in both reciprocal backcross hybrids. However, the genetics of hybrid sterility differ between D. yakuba and D. santomea backcross males, both in terms of the magnitude of main effects and in the epistatic interactions. The QTL affecting hybrid fertility did not colocalize with QTL affecting sexual isolation in this species pair, but did colocalize with QTL affecting the marked difference in pigmentation between D. yakuba and D. santomea. These results provide the basis for future high-resolution mapping and ultimately, molecular cloning, of the interacting genes that contribute to hybrid sterility.

  12. [Can anesthesia be employed for male or female sterilization with impunity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffiri, O

    1985-01-01

    There are many questions regarding the legality or illegality of permanent sterilization in the Italian legal system. Many conflicting laws and articles in the Italian constitution lead to unclear conclusions which cause problems. Law number 194 states that it is no longer a crime to practice voluntary sterilization. However, the legislature did not take into accout that some jurists believe that loss of the capacity to procreate is a permanent affliction prohibited by article 5 of the Civil Code. Therefore, the patient's authorization of the sterilization will not hold up in court. These jurists conclude that even though voluntary sterilization is no longer a crime, it still remains punishable because it does great bodily harm. However, many such sterilizations take place in Italy. Rarely do the judicial authorities attempt to prosecute the subjects (actively or passively) except in a few cases where the law is carried out to its fullest extent and someone is jailed for a long period. The fact is that this is no longer a crime according to law 194 and a few innocent people are having to suffer for a crime which they did not really commit. Legal clarifications must be made so this does not continue to happen. For the time being, voluntary sterilizations should not be performed.

  13. Aggression by a female rat cohabitating with a sterile male: termination of pseudopregnancy does not abolish aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Watson, N V; Moe, I V; Walsh, M L

    1991-09-01

    At the end of that time, each female was assessed for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female intruder once each week for 3 weeks. Those females displaying a high level of aggression had their male cagemate changed. For half of the females, the new male cagemate was a castrated male with a testosterone implant. For the other half, the new cagemate was a castrated male without a testosterone implant. Replacement males had been subjected to surgery 9 weeks previously. There were no differences in the aggressiveness of females of the two groups on any of 3 subsequent weekly tests of aggression. In a 3-h evaluation of male sexual behavior, none of the 9 castrated males without testosterone replacement displayed sexual activity with an estrogen/progesterone primed ovariectomized female, but 6 of 9 males with testosterone replacement did. Reanalysis of the aggression data comparing the females whose males had no testosterone replacement and females housed with the 6 males that were sexually active also revealed no differences in aggression over the 21-day test period. Since pseudopregnancy is known to last 13 days, these results indicate that the continuous presence of pseudopregnancy is not required for maintenance of aggression by a female cohabiting with a sterile male.

  14. Hybrid male sterility between the fresh- and brackish-water types of ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius (Pisces, Gasterosteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Terumi; Goto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Two ecologically distinct forms, fresh- and brackish-water types, of ninespine stickleback co-exist in several freshwater systems on the coast of eastern Hokkaido. Recent genetic analyses of 13 allozyme loci revealed genetic separation between the two types even though their spawning grounds were in close proximity. On the other hand, there is only a small difference in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence between the two types suggesting that they diverged quite recently or that mtDNA introgression occurred between them. To test for postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms and hybrid mediated gene flow, we examined the viability and reproductive performance of reciprocal F1 hybrids. The hybrids grew to the adult size normally and both sexes expressed secondary sexual characters in the reciprocal crosses. The female hybrids were reciprocally fertile, while the male hybrids were reciprocally sterile. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of the hybrid testis revealed that the sterility pattern was classified as 'gametic sterility,' with gonads of normal size but abnormal spermatogenesis. To our knowledge, the present finding is a novel example of one sex hybrid sterility in the stickleback family (Gasterosteidae).

  15. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  16. Evaluation of the courtship and of the hybrid male sterility among Drosophila buzzatii cluster species (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    MACHADO L. P. de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila repleta group the establishment of subgroups and complexes made on the basis of morphological and cytological evidences is supported by tests of reproductive isolation. Among species in the repleta group, the buzzatii cluster, due to its polymorphism and polytipism, is an excellent material for ecological and speciation studies. Some interspecific crosses involving Drosophila seriema, Drosophila sp. B, D. koepferae and D. buzzatii strains were completely sterile while others involving strains from these species produced F1 hybrids that did not yield F2. In the present work, data on courtship duration and copula occurrence obtained in the analysis of flies from parental sterile crosses and on spermatozoon mobility observed in F1 hybrids that did not yield F2 are presented. Copula did not occur during one hour of observation and the spermatozoon also did not show mobility at any of the analyzed stages (3, 7, 9 and 10 days old. There was a high variation in courtship average duration and in the percentage of males that courted the females. The reproductive isolation mechanisms indicated by these observations were pre and post-zygotic, as supported by the absence of copula and male sterility. Data obtained also showed the occurrence of different degrees of reproductive compatibility among the strains classified as the same species but from distinct geographic localities.

  17. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3-5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice.

  18. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  19. Induction of male sterility through manipulation of genetic mechanisms present in vector species of Triatominae. II. Partial restoration of male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of integrated measures which involve sterile mate release to supplement the conventional insecticidal techniques used in controlagainst insects of medical importance, raised the question, whether the vectors of Chagas'disease possess the natural mechanisms by manipulation of which they may be controlled. Results of earlier expenments, that had been published previously, were restricted to fragmentary information that raised various questions, the answer to which became available in the study herein described. Interspecific hybrids were produced from reciprocal crosses between T. pseudomaculata and T. sórdida and from unilateral crosses between female T. pseudomaculata and male. T. infestans. These females mated with males, laid less than the normal complement of eggs, but offspring was relatively abundant. When T. pseudomaculata females were paired with T. brasiliensis males, hybridization was more difficult because few of the females mated and those that did had a strongly reduced fertility. Adults emerged from ali crosses but exhibited sex disproportion, females predominating in all populations but one. The two Rhodnius species tested were also found to cross, but only when female R. prolixus were paired with male R. neglectus. These females laid a relatively high complement o f eggs, had a strongly reduced fertility, but 50% of the fertile eggs developed into vigorous adults, males predominating females. Neither type of hybrid male elicited fertilized eggs from either parental type of female, through their vesicula seminal is were found to be packed with spermatozoa, some normal looking and moving, others underdeveloped and motionless. Although, no artificial insemination was performed, the sperm in itself did not appear to be the prime inducer of sterility. Females paired with these hybrids did mate, sperm was transfered, as evidenced by the discharged spermatophores smeared with sperm, but did notcontain spermatozoa in

  20. Long-day photoperiod induced unhealthy development of chloroplasts in the photoperiod-sensitive genie male-sterile rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By measurement of photochemical activities of chloroplasts and observation on supramolecular archi tecture of thylakoids in chloroplasts, it was found that compared with the effects of short-day photoperiod, long-day pho toperiod could induce normal development of chloroplasts in seedlings of NK58S (photoperiod-sensitive genie male-sterile rice) and NK58 (original line) which do not enter the photoperiod sensitive phase and in seedlings of NK58 just enter the photoperiod-sensitive phase. However, it could induce unhealthy development of chloroplasts in seedlings of NK58S which also just enter the photoperiod sensitive phase. This special effect of long-day photoperiod on the development of chloroplasts in NK58S is probably one of main reasons why long-day photoperiod induces rale-sterility in NK58S and normal fertility in NK58.

  1. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  2. Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)%Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ze-su; Laosuwan Paisan; Machikowa Thitipom; Chen Ze-hui; Dai Wen-dong; Tang Rong; Li De-zhen

    2012-01-01

    The male sterile line is very important in the hybrid breeding program of rapeseed. This study was conducted to evaluate the combining ability of many characters of male sterile lines in Brassica napus L. Ten recessive genetic male sterile (RGMS) lines were used as parents to produce 45 single cross hybrids by using a half diallel cross method. These 45 crosses and their 10 parents were evaluated at Guiyang during 2007-2008. The results showed that both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combiing ability (SCA) effects were important for all characters, but additive gene effects were more predominant than non-additive gene effects. Qianyou 8AB and You 2894AB gave respective highly significant GCA effects of 230.94 and 127.65 kg-hm-2 for seed yield. Lines You 2894AB, QH303-4AB, You 157AB and You 2341AB gave highly significant GCA effects for oil content of 0.99, 1.62, 1.20 and 1.53%, respectively. The crosses among lines Qianyou 3AxQianyou 8B, Qianyou 8AxYou 2894B, You 2894AxQianyou 6B, Qianyou 8AxQH303-4B and Qianyou 8Ax Qianyou 6B gave high SCA effects of 616.29, 398.71,356.48, 394.24 and 303.79 kg hm-2 for seed yield, respectively. All these crosses also gave high seed yield indicating that these crosses could be used in the breeding program.

  3. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS and male fertile (MF two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Weining; Zhang, Chunling; Cao, Zhe; Bao, Manzhu; He, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS) and male fertile (MF) two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter). Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176) were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database) and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  6. 利用花药相关基因及启动子创制雄性不育种质研究进展%Research Progress on Production of Male Sterile Germplasm by Genetic Engineering with Anther Developmental Genes or Specific Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 房卫平; 谢德意; 周小玲; 赵元明; 赵付安; 唐中杰; 李付广

    2011-01-01

    Heterosis is the effective way of increasing crop yield and improving quality,and diverse germplasm of crop male sterility and fertility restoration is one of the key factors in heterosis utilization. This paper reviews the recent research results of the cloning and fuctional verification of anther development genes,and the progress of creating crop male sterile and their corresponding fertility restorer germplasm by genetic transformation engeering with the key genes associated with anther development. It also discusses the technical strategy and reseach priorities of creating plant male sterile lines,and corresponding fertility restore and maintain lines by the plant trans-genic technology,as well as the current status and perspective of creating "three lines" in heterosis utilization in practice by plant genetic engineering.%杂种优势利用是大幅度提高作物产量、改良作物品质的有效途径,而作物雄性不育及优良的育性恢复种质是利用杂种优势的关键因素.为此,综述了近年来有关花药发育重要基因克隆和功能验证研究方面的重要成果,以及运用植物遗传转化工程创制植物雄性不育种质的进展.同时讨论了利用转基因技术创制作物雄性不育系、恢复系和保持系的技术策略,并对利用植物遗传转化技术创制植物杂种优势利用中“三系”种质的现状进行了分析和展望.

  7. Polyadenylation accelerates the degradation of the mitochondrial mRNA associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, D; Leaver, C J

    1999-07-01

    In sunflower, PET1-cytoplasmic male sterility is correlated with the presence of a novel mitochondrial gene (orf522) located 3' to the atpA gene. The dicistronic atpA-orf522 transcripts are preferentially destabilized in male florets of 'restored to fertility' plants as compared with sterile plants. In this report, we show that atpA-orf522 transcripts may be polyadenylated in vivo at their 3' termini and that a tissue-specific increase in the level of polyadenylated atpA-orf522 transcripts correlates with the tissue-specific instability of atpA-orf522 mRNAs in male florets of the restored hybrid plants. In addition, we have identified two distinct ribonuclease activities in sunflower mitochondria, one of which preferentially degrades polyadenylated as compared with non-polyadenylated RNA substrates corresponding to the 3' UTR of atpA-orf522 transcripts. These in vivo and in vitro results show that polyadenylation is involved in the degradation pathway of the mitochondrial atpA-orf522 transcripts and that polyadenylation can be developmentally regulated by a nuclear gene(s) upon restoration of fertility.

  8. Cytological characterization of a thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat line having K-type cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liying; Liu, Zihan; Zhang, Lingli; Hu, Gan; Song, Xiyue

    2016-12-01

    Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages. TCMS line KTM3315A exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility in Zadoks growth stages 41-49 and 58-59. Morphologically, the line exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility at 3-9 days before heading and at 3-6 days before flowering, and it was partially restored in three locations during spring and summer. TCMS line KTM3315A plants exhibited premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) from the early uninucleate stage of microspore development until the tapetal cells degraded completely. Microspore development was then blocked and the pollen abortion type was stainable abortion. Thus, male fertility in the line KTM3315A is sensitive to temperature and premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion, where it determines the starting period and affects male fertility conversion in K-type TCMS lines at certain temperatures.

  9. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vančetović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  10. Characterization of radish mitochondrial atpA: influence of nuclear background on transcription of atpA-associated sequences and relationship with male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroff, C A; Apel, I J; Palmer, J D

    1990-11-01

    We have previously shown that the mitochondrial gene atpA, encoding the alpha subunit of F1 ATP synthase, is associated with DNA rearrangements and nuclear-specific transcript patterns in the male-sterile cytoplasm of Ogura radish. Here we present a detailed characterization of this gene from both the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) cytoplasms of radish to determine if it is involved in Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility. The normal and Ogura radish atpA loci are virtually identical for 3.8 kb, including a 507 codon open reading frame whose product is approximately 92% identical to other plant ATPA polypeptides. Rearrangement breakpoints have been identified 613 bp 5' and 1663 bp 3' to the atpA coding region. The 5' rearrangement breakpoint is located within a repeated sequence that has been associated with other rearrangement events in radish mitochondria. The previously identified transcript difference results from transcription originating upstream of this rearrangement site. Although the presence of this transcript is affected by nuclear background, analyses in several different sterile and fertile nuclear backgrounds indicate that the presence of this transcript is not strictly correlated with male sterility. In addition, normal levels of ATPA polypeptide are present in sterile plants containing the Ogura cytoplasm.

  11. Impact of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection on the mating success of male Glossina pallidipes: consequences for the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratian N Mutika

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH. Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen with SGH symptoms (SGH+ have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83% compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%. Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80% of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme.

  12. A chimeric and truncated mitochondrial atpA gene is transcribed in alloplasmic cytoplasmic male-sterile tobacco with Nicotiana bigelovii mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, P; Kofer, W; Håkansson, G; Glimelius, K

    1995-09-01

    Protoplast fusions were performed between two sexually produced alloplasmic male-sterile tobacco cultivars, with cytoplasms from Nicotiana bigelovii [Nta (big)S] and N. undulata[Nta(und)S], both of which exhibit homeotic-like phenotypes affecting the petal and stamen whorls. Among the fusion products obtained, both novel male-sterile and pollen-producing cybrid plants were identified. Of the pollen-producing cybrid plants, all of which were indehiscent, some had flowers with stamens that appeared normal when compared to male-fertile tobacco plants. Other hybrid plants were incompletely restored as they exhibited petaloid structures on the anther-bearing pollen-producing stamens. In this study, gel-blot analyses with mitochondrial geneprobes were conducted comparing the mitochondrial DNA of cybrids and male-sterile parents. It was found that the flower morphology typical of the Nta(big)S parental plants, as well as of the novel male-sterile cybrids, coincided with the presence of a chimeric atpA gene copy where an open reading frame of unknown origin was found to be linked in-frame to the 3'-end of a truncated atpA gene. RNA gel-blot hybridizations revealed the presence of atpA transcripts in the malesterile parent Nta(big)S and novel male-sterile cybrids, but which were absent in cybrids capable of pollen production.

  13. Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence.

  14. The application of protein markers in conversion of maize inbred lines to the cytoplasmic male sterility basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven maize inbred lines of different origin and maturity group were used in the trial set up according to the split-plot randomized complete block design in five environments. Each inbred was observed in five variants: original inbred (N; cytoplasmic male sterile C-type (CMS-C; restorer for CMS-C (RfC; cytoplasmic male sterile S-type (CMS-S and restorer for CMS-S (RfS. The objective was to compare grain yield of original inbreds and their CMS and Rf variants and to apply Isoelectric focusing (IEF to determine whether the conversion of original inbreds to their CMS and Rf counterparts have been done completely. Protein markers have shown that conversion of almost all inbreds was done good and completely. Only original inbreds ZPL2 and ZPL5 did not concur on banding patterns with their RfC variants. The type of cytoplasm had a very significant impact on grain yield. Namely, CMS-C counterparts significantly out yielded their CMS-S versions, while the inbreds with C and S cytoplasm over yielded inbreds with N cytoplasm, as well as their RfC and RfS versions.

  15. Spermatocyte apoptosis, which involves both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, explains the sterility of Graomys griseoflavus x Graomys centralis male hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Valeria; Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Ponce, Ruben; Merico, Valeria; Garagna, Silvia; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenic impairment and the apoptotic pathways involved in establishing sterility of male hybrids obtained from crossing Graomys griseoflavus females with Graomys centralis males were studied. Testes from G. centralis, G. griseoflavus and hybrids were compared at different ages. Terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assay (TUNEL), Fas, Bax and cytochrome c labelling were used for apoptosis evaluation, and calbindin D(28k) staining as an anti-apoptotic molecule. In 1-month-old animals, spermatocytes were positive for all apoptotic markers, but moderate TUNEL (+) spermatocyte frequency was only found in G. centralis. At subsequent ages, the apoptotic markers were downregulated in testes from parental cytotypes, but not in hybrid testes. TUNEL (+) spermatocytes were present at 78% and 44% per tubule cross-section in 2- and 3-month-old hybrid animals, respectively. Pachytene spermatocyte death in adult hybrids occurs via apoptosis, as revealed by high caspase-3 expression. Calbindin was highly expressed in spermatocytes of adult hybrids, in which massive cell death occurs via apoptosis. Calbindin co-localisation with TUNEL or Fas, Bax and cytochrome c was very limited, suggesting an inverse regulation of calbindin and apoptotic markers. Hybrid sterility is due to breakdown of spermatogenesis at the pachytene spermatocyte stage. Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are involved in apoptosis of spermatocytes, which are the most sensitive cell type to apoptotic stimuli.

  16. A novel orf108 co-transcribed with the atpA gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica juncea carrying Moricandia arvensis cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashutosh; Kumar, Pankaj; Dinesh Kumar, V; Sharma, Prakash C; Prakash, Shyam; Bhat, Shripad R

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondrial atpA transcripts were examined in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertility restorer lines of CMS (Moricandia arvensis) Brassica juncea. Male sterile flowers had longer atpA transcripts than male fertiles. The mitochondrial atpA region of the CMS line was cloned and sequenced. The 5' and 3' ends of the atpA transcripts of the CMS and the fertility restorer lines were mapped and full-length transcripts were cloned and sequenced. A novel orf108 (open reading frame 108) co-transcribed with the atpA gene was found in the male sterile flowers. In the fertility restorer line, the transcript was cleaved within orf108 to yield monocistronic atpA transcripts.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  18. 金盏花雄性不育两用系的选育%Marigold Breeding of Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王致和; 张肖凌; 张秀华; 赵继荣; 赵永平; 韩钟英

    2011-01-01

    To plant suitable breeding of new hybrid varieties of marigold in Gansu province, completely reverse the province depending on the introduced production of species and ensure the sustainable development of marigold industry, since 2002, the male sterile line with dual-use system have been chosen by using sterile plants found in the field, from which the marigolds GM-1 and GM-2 progeny segregating populations have been tested through cross combination in a large number of maintainers by breeding ring method.By comparison of fertility of the obtained lines, two excellent male LYX-1 (Double) and LYX-2 (single lobe),Sterile ABline have been selected according to the features of fertile plants under the dual system flower petals or ill.The infertility rate is of 50% sterility controlled by a recessive gene, and biological characteristics are stable, which can be used in hybrid combination.%为了选育适宜于甘肃省种植金盏花杂交新品种,彻底扭转甘肃省金盏花生产用种依赖引进的局面,确保金盏花产业的可持续发展.从2002年开始,利用田问发现的不育株,对金盏花GM-1和GM-2后代分离群体采用二环系选育法进行了大量的保持系及其测交组合的配制,选择出了符合雄性核不育两用系.根据两用系可育株花朵的重辩或单辩特性,对获得的株系进行育性比较,从中选出了LYX-1(重辩)和LYX-2(单瓣)2个优良的雄性不育两用系,不育率达到50%,不育性由一对隐性基因控制,并且生物学性状也基本稳定,可用于杂交组合的配制.

  19. Cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower is correlated with the co-transcription of a new open reading frame with the atpA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, R H; Horn, R; Lössl, A; Zetsche, K

    1991-07-01

    The organization and expression of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of fertile, male-sterile and restored lines of Helianthus annuus and of H. petiolaris were compared to identify alterations which might lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). The mtDNAs of fertile and male-sterile lines differ by an 11 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion. The rearrangements seem to be the result of recombination events within an inverted repeat of 261 bp. Detectable alterations in the transcript pattern of the rearranged mtDNA regions are restricted to the atpA locus. The male-sterile line CMSBaso shows three additional transcripts of the atpA locus of about 2500, 1200 and 250 nucleotides which are not detectable in Baso. However, the coding sequences of the atpA gene are entirely identical in the fertile line Baso and the male-sterile line CMSBaso. But a new open reading frame (orfH522) of 522 nucleotides is co-transcribed with the atpA gene as an additional larger transcript of about 2500 nucleotides in CMSBaso. orfH522 is also included in a second additional transcript of about 1200 nucleotides. The predicted translation product of orfH522 might play a role in CMS in sunflower.

  20. Abnormal Programmed Cell Death and Male Sterility of Plant%细胞异常程序性死亡与植物雄性不育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振星; 蔡雄

    2011-01-01

    Male sterility has been widely used in hybrid breeding, it also provides important materials for the study of pollen development, nuclear genetics, cytoplasmic genetics and interaction between karyon and cytoplasm in life science research. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a natural cell death process controlled by "death program" which is coded by certain genes, it occurs at certain stages of development, and commonly presents in the process of plant development. In this paper, we briefly describe the relationship between tapetum, meiosis and the progress of male sterility, also summarize the relationship between PCD and male sterility from the point of view of cytology and molecular biology, explore the tactics of using gene engineering to induce male sterility in plants, and discuss the prospects of PCD and male sterility application in future.%针对绒毡层、减数分裂与雄性不育发生过程的关系作了简要的综述,并从细胞学与分子生物学水平阐述了细胞程序性死亡与雄性不育之间的关系,探讨了利用基因工程创造雄性不育的策略,并对今后的应用前景进行了展望.

  1. Mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes irradiated with a partially or fully sterilizing dose in small and large laboratory cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2008-07-01

    Male mating competitiveness is a crucial parameter in many genetic control programs including the sterile insect technique (SIT). We evaluated competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton as a function of three experimental variables: (1) small or large cages for mating, (2) the effects of either a partially sterilizing (70 Gy) or fully sterilizing (120 Gy) dose, and (3) pupal or adult irradiation. Irradiated males competed for females with an equal number of unirradiated males. Competitiveness was determined by measuring hatch rates of individually laid egg batches. In small cages, pupal irradiation with the high dose resulted in the lowest competitiveness, whereas adult irradiation with the low dose gave the highest, with the latter males being equal in competitiveness to unirradiated males. In the large cage, reduced competitiveness of males irradiated in the pupal stage was more pronounced compared with the small cage; the males irradiated as adults at both doses performed similarly to unirradiated males. Unexpectedly, males irradiated with the high dose performed better in a large cage than in a small one. A high proportion of intermediate hatch rates was observed for eggs collected in the large cage experiments with males irradiated at the pupal stage. It is concluded that irradiation of adult An. arabiensis with the partially sterilizing dose results in the highest competitiveness for both cage designs. Cage size affected competitiveness for some treatments; therefore, competitiveness determined in laboratory experiments must be confirmed by releases into simulated field conditions. The protocols described are readily transferable to evaluate male competitiveness for other genetic control techniques.

  2. Temperature-sensitive splicing is an important molecular regulation mechanism of thermosensitive genie male sterility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN RongZhi; PAN YuFang; WANG Yang; ZHU LiLi; HE GuangCun

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genetic male sterility (PGMS and TGMS) plants have a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid production. Two-line hybrids developed using the PGMS/TGMS system now account for a large proportion of rice production in China. In this paper, we summarize recent advances on molecular regulation mechanisms and genetics of PGMS/TGMS in rice. We suggest that temperature-sensitive splicing, an important posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in modulating gene expression and eventually development and differentiation, is also an important molecular regulation mechanism of TGMS in rice. We review those factors involved in temperature-sensitive splicing like cis splice site, snRNA, trans pre-mRNA splicing protein and SR proteins, and delineate that splicing could be regulated by a complex cell signaling pathway. These might shed light on other unknown molecular PGMS/TGMS mechanisms.

  3. Cytomorphology and Cytochemical Localization of K-type and T-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pollens in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-qin; ZHANG Gai-sheng; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Jun-wei

    2003-01-01

    By using the technology of microscopy,electron microscopy and enzyme cytochemical localization, comparison was made of the cytomorphology, ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity in pollens during microspore formation and pollen development, for K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, T-type CMS lines and their maintainer lines on wheat. The results indicated that pollen abortion of the T-type CMS lines mainly occurred at the later mononucleate pollen stage, and cytomorphological changes of the abortive pollen began with a vacuolar membrane, and pollen aborting was related to a lack of ATPase activity in the nucleus and nucleolus during the mononucleate pollen stage. Pollen abortion of the K-type CMS lines took place mainly during the later binucleate and trinucleate stages, and cytomorphological changes of the abortion first began with mitochondria. The abortion was related to intine disruption.

  4. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-17

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers.

  5. Study on Quality Improvement Effect and Separate Character of Soybean Male Sterile (MS1) Recurrent Selection Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shuang-jin; ZHANG Meng-chen; JIANG Chun-zhi; YANG Chun-yan; LIU Bing-qiang; CUI Jue

    2007-01-01

    To solve the problem that soybean has narrow genetic base, we constructed a series of male sterile recurrent selection populations, and studied the effects of quality improvement and practical value. An LD-base population, which fits to our ecology type was constructed by 6 years' gene enrichment through the introduction of new genes from 23 local varieties and recurrent selection. The LD-base populations were then improved by making crosses with high protein and high oil genotypes. As a result we obtained a high protein sub-population (db) and a high oil sub-population (gy). For the db sub-population, the protein content is 1.18% higher than the base population, 22.38% of the individuals contain 45% or more of protein, which is 10.99% higher than the base population. For the gy sub-population, oil content is 0.24% higher than the base population. Individuals with oil content of 20% or more are 11.05% higher than the base population. The quantitative characters such as flowering date, mature date, pod habit, and hilum color, etc., all showed wide range of separation, and the segregation ratio approached balance. The c.v. of branch number of ms1 recurrent population (72.8%) is higher than general cross-population (57.3%), and the c.v. of 100 seed weight of ms1 (18.1%) is higher than general cross population (16.5%), the coefficient of variation of plant height, pods per plant, and seeds per pod were not significantly different. It was demonstrated in this paper that the quality character of ms1 male sterile recurrent selection population was improved by adding new genes. And the segregation of other characters widened, making the populations suitable for the objective of soybean breeding. In this paper, we also discussed the breeding method, key technology, and selection effect of soybean ms1 population.

  6. Genetic analysis of fertility restoring genes for AL-type male sterility in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaofang; Tian Xiaoming; Nie Yingbin; Mu Peiyuan; Han Xinnian; Sang Wei; Cui Fengjuan; Xu Hongjun; Xiang Jishan

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen molecular markers linked to fertility restoring genes and further improve the breeding efficiency of restorer lines,in this study,wheat varieties 18A,18B and 99AR144-1 were used as experimental materials to establish F2 fertility-segregating population. Plant quantitative trait“major gene+polygene mixed mo-del”separation analysis method and simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers were adopted for genetic analysis of four generations,including the parents (P1 and P2),and hybrid (Fl and F2) populations. The results show that AL-type fertility restoring gene is controlled by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic genes and addi-tive-dominant polygene;two primers linked to fertility restoring genes were selected by SSR molecular markers, including Xgwm95 on chromosome 2A and Barc61 on chromosome 1B,with the linkage distance of 15.0 cM and 18.0 cM,respectively. Based on verification,these two markers are reliable for distinguishing AL-type wheat ste-rile lines and restorer lines.

  7. Cytogenetics of Triatominae: III - A study on male sterility induced through hybridization of Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schreiber

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Males from bilateral crosses between Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata were unable to give offspring, as shown by subsequent backcrosses (BC between hybrid males and parental females. This kind of sterility indueed through interspecific hybridization seems to be due to lack of sperm migration from the bursa copulatrix to the spermateca, thus suggesting primarily failure on the part of hybrid males to produce and/or to incorporate male accessory secretions into the spermatophore bulb. Addicional proof that sterility induced in hybrid males is at the sperm level has been afforded by the spermatogenesis herein studied. The anomalous processes like; 1 prophases of spermatogonia with the chromosomes scattered in the cytoplasm, 2 first metaphases with unpaired tetrades, 3 spermatids differing in size and 4 spermatozoa of abnormal shape and generdlly of giant size, can be taken as an indicator of the degree of departure from the normal course of spermatogenesis.

  8. 蕾用菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding for the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 冯辉; 王昊

    2011-01-01

    依据大白菜核基因雄性不育"复等位基因遗传"假说,以奶白菜核不育系06sx110为不育源,采用常规有性杂交、回交和自交方法,向"蕾用菜"Y01中转育核不育复等位基因,成功获得"蕾用菜"BC4的甲型两用系、临时保持系和雄性不育系.%According to the multiple-allele hypothesis of male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage, the material of multiple allele inheritance Milk Chinese cabbage (Msms) was used as the source of male sterility, and methods of crossing, backcrossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line of Brassica parachinensis ‘Y01' (MsfMsf). The new male sterile line ‘GMS4', the AB Line and the temporary maintainer line were obtained successfully.

  9. Specific down-regulation of spermatogenesis genes targeted by 22G RNAs in hybrid sterile males associated with an X-Chromosome introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Young, Amanda; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long; Sarkies, Peter; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) prevents gene flow between species, thus lying at the heart of speciation genetics. One of the most common HIs is male sterility. Two superficially contradictory observations exist for hybrid male sterility. First, an introgression on the X Chromosome is more likely to produce male sterility than on autosome (so-called large-X theory); second, spermatogenesis genes are enriched on the autosomes but depleted on the X Chromosome (demasculinization of X Chromosome). Analysis of gene expression in Drosophila hybrids suggests a genetic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes that is essential for male fertility. However, the prevalence of such an interaction and its underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we examine the interaction in nematode species by contrasting the expression of both coding genes and transposable elements (TEs) between hybrid sterile males and its parental nematode males. We use two lines of hybrid sterile males, each carrying an independent introgression fragment from Caenorhabditis briggsae X Chromosome in an otherwise Caenorhabditis nigoni background, which demonstrate similar defects in spermatogenesis. We observe a similar pattern of down-regulated genes that are specific for spermatogenesis between the two hybrids. Importantly, the down-regulated genes caused by the X Chromosome introgressions show a significant enrichment on the autosomes, supporting an epistatic interaction between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We investigate the underlying mechanism of the interaction by measuring small RNAs and find that a subset of 22G RNAs specifically targeting the down-regulated spermatogenesis genes is significantly up-regulated in hybrids, suggesting that perturbation of small RNA-mediated regulation may contribute to the X-autosome interaction.

  10. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  11. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-07

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function.

  12. Differential expression of proteins in the wild type and 7B-1 male-sterile mutant anthers of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): a proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Inder S; Ross, Andrew R S; Olson, Douglas J H; Sawhney, Vipen K

    2009-01-30

    In the 7B-1 male-sterile mutant of tomato, pollen development breaks down prior to meiosis in microspore mother cells (MMCs). We have used the proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the wild type (WT) and mutant anthers with the objective of analyzing their roles in normal pollen development and in male sterility. By using 2-DE and DIGE technologies, over 1800 spots were detected and of these 215 spots showed 1.5-fold or higher volume ratio in either WT or 7B-1 anthers. Seventy spots, either up-regulated in WT, or in 7B-1, were subjected to mass spectrometry and 59 spots representing 48 distinct proteins were identified. The proteins up-regulated in WT anthers included proteases, e.g., subtilase, proteasome subunits, and 5B-protein with potential roles in tapetum degeneration, FtsZ protein, leucine-rich repeat proteins, translational and transcription factors. In 7B-1 anthers, aspartic protease, superoxide dismutase, ACP reductase, ribonucleoprotein and diphosphate kinase were up-regulated. Also, cystatin inhibitory activity was high in the mutant and correlated with the expression of male sterility. Other proteins including calreticulin, Heat shock protein 70, glucoside hydrolase, and ATPase, were present in both genotypes. The function of identified proteins in tapetum and normal pollen development, and in male sterility is discussed.

  13. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS and microsporocyte stage (MS (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8% DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6% DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  14. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  15. Regulation of cell divisions and differentiation by MALE STERILITY32 is required for anther development in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihyun; Skibbe, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Kelliher, Timothy; Kremling, Karl; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

    2013-11-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants relies on proper division and differentiation of cells in the anther, a process that gives rise to four somatic layers surrounding central germinal cells. The maize gene male sterility32 (ms32) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, which functions as an important regulator of both division and differentiation during anther development. After the four somatic cell layers are generated properly through successive periclinal divisions, in the ms32 mutant, tapetal precursor cells fail to differentiate, and, instead, undergo additional periclinal divisions to form extra layers of cells. These cells become vacuolated and expand, and lead to failure in pollen mother cell development. ms32 expression is specific to the pre-meiotic anthers and is distributed initially broadly in the four lobes, but as the anther develops, its expression becomes restricted to the innermost somatic layer, the tapetum. The ms32-ref mac1-1 double mutant is unable to form tapetal precursors and also exhibits excessive somatic proliferation leading to numerous, disorganized cell layers, suggesting a synergistic interaction between ms32 and mac1. Altogether, our results show that MS32 is a major regulator in maize anther development that promotes tapetum differentiation and inhibits periclinal division once a tapetal cell is specified. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究和应用进展%Progress in Studying and Applying Cabbage Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季家磊; 杨丽梅; 方智远; 庄木; 张扬勇; 吕红豪; 刘玉梅; 李占省

    2016-01-01

    Strong heterosis on yield,quality,disease resistance and stress tolerance is displayed in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L.).It is an important approach for heterosis utilization to use male sterile line to produce hybrid seed.In recent years,great progress has been made in studying cabbage male sterility. This paper reviews the types of cabbage male sterility line,its genetic characteristics,and achievements gained in studying its cytology,physiology,biochemistry and molecular biology.The paper also introduces the selective breeding of cabbage male sterile line,and its application.At the same time,the paper analyzes the existing problems and prospects the future for cabbage male sterility line application.%结球甘蓝在产量、品质、抗病性、抗逆性等性状上具有明显的杂种优势。利用雄性不育系配制杂交种是杂种优势利用的重要途径。近年来,结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究取得了很大进展。本文综述了结球甘蓝雄性不育的类型、遗传特性及其在细胞学、生理生化和分子生物学等方面取得的研究成果,介绍了结球甘蓝雄性不育系的选育和应用,同时分析了目前存在的问题,并对结球甘蓝雄性不育的应用前景做了展望。

  17. Produção de sementes macho-estéreis em arroz Male-sterile rice seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bragantini

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril é uma das limitações para viabilizar a produção de híbridos de arroz (Oryza sativa L.. Este trabalho buscou estudar três proporções entre a linhagem macho-estéril (linhagem A e a mantenedora (linhagem B. As proporções estudadas foram 8:4, 10:2 e 14:4. As características avaliadas para determinar qual das proporções apresenta maior potencial foram: número e porcentagem de grãos cheios por panículas, e número de grãos de pólen por unidade de área. A proporção 8:4 produziu maior porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula que as outras duas, mas, proporcionalmente, ocupa maior área física com a linhagem B no campo. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas na porcentagem de grãos cheios entre as amostras coletadas nas várias fileiras da linhagem A (diferentes distâncias da fonte polinizadora, e observou-se uma influência marcante com relação à direção predominante dos ventos. O número de grãos de pólen foi igual para todas as relações e distâncias da fonte de pólen; por isso, não foi o fator determinante das diferenças observadas em porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a proporção 10:2 é a de maior potencial para a produção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril.Commercial male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. seed production is one of the limitations to allow large scale hybrid seed production. This work studied three ratios between male-sterile line (A line and maintainer (B line. The A:B ratios used in the study were: 8:4, 10:2 and 14:4. The evaluated traits to determine which ratio is more suitable were: number and percentage of filled grains per panicle and number of pollen grains per unit area. The 8:4 ratio produced statistically significant higher percentage of filled grains per panicle than the other two, but proportionally it requires more field area for the B line. Statistical

  18. The pachytene checkpoint and its relationship to evolutionary patterns of polyploidization and hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Barringer, B C; Barbash, D A

    2009-01-01

    Sterility is a commonly observed phenotype in interspecific hybrids. Sterility may result from chromosomal or genic incompatibilities, and much progress has been made toward understanding the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in various taxa. The underlying mechanisms causing hybrid sterility, however, are less well known. The pachytene checkpoint is a meiotic surveillance system that many organisms use to detect aberrant meiotic products, in order to prevent the production of defective gametes. We suggest that activation of the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism contributing to two types of hybrid sterility. First, the pachytene checkpoint may form the mechanistic basis of some gene-based hybrid sterility phenotypes. Second, the pachytene checkpoint may be an important mechanism that mediates chromosomal-based hybrid sterility phenotypes involving gametes with non-haploid (either non-reduced or aneuploid) chromosome sets. Studies in several species suggest that the strength of the pachytene checkpoint is sexually dimorphic, observations that warrant future investigation into whether such variation may contribute to differences in patterns of sterility between male and female interspecific hybrids. In addition, plants seem to lack the pachytene checkpoint, which correlates with increased production of unreduced gametes and a higher incidence of polyploid species in plants versus animals. Although the pachytene checkpoint occurs in many animals and in fungi, at least some of the genes that execute the pachytene checkpoint are different among organisms. This finding suggests that the penetrance of the pachytene checkpoint, and even its presence or absence can evolve rapidly. The surprising degree of evolutionary flexibility in this meiotic surveillance system may contribute to the observed variation in patterns of hybrid sterility and in rates of polyploidization.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  1. [Male sterility and its association with genital disease and environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Ruiz, M C; De León Cervantes, M G; García Flores, R F

    1995-10-01

    Semen quality may be affected by many factors, as there is evidence that conditions as varicocele, criptorquidia, orchitis and bacterian infections; as well as to exposure to physical agents as heat, or chemical substances, or ingestion of alcohol and drugs, may affect semen quality. The objective of this study is to investigate the risk implied in the exposure to these factors on the semen quality. The study was carried out in a prospective way in a group of males at Clínica de Infertilidad, Unidad de Biología de la Reproducción del Hospital Universitario Dr. J.E. González. Ninety nine males were studied, they received an intentioned questionnaire about antecedents of exposure to environmental factors, and urologic resolved pathology. Espermatobioscopy was done and it was classified according to OMS. Two groups were formed, one with the individuals with normal espermatobioscopy (n = 25); and the abnormal ones (n = 74). The statistical Incidences Reason, square Xi and Atributable Risk, were applied in order to determine the impact that different factors may have on semen quality. The found alterations in semen were astenozoospermia (n = 58); hypospermia (n = 22); oligozoospermia (n = 18); teratozoospermia (n = 7); polizoospermia (n = 7); and azoospermia (n = 6). The results of the mentioned statistical tests, show that in these alterations there is an associated risk factor to the use of tobacco, exposure to chemical substances, to physical aggresors; and anatomic anomalies previously corrected. It is considered that obtention of this information is a great help because once the unfavorable factors are eliminated, the environment is improved in order to obtain an espermatogenesis in optimal conditions.

  2. High-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis reveal altered expression of miRNAs and their targets in a male-sterile cybrid pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan-Ni; Zheng, Bei-Bei; Wang, Lun; Yang, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-08-09

    G1 + HBP is a male sterile cybrid line with nuclear genome from Hirado Buntan pummelo (C. grandis Osbeck) (HBP) and mitochondrial genome from "Guoqing No.1" (G1, Satsuma mandarin), which provides a good opportunity to study male sterility and nuclear-cytoplasmic cross talk in citrus. High-throughput sRNA and degradome sequencing were applied to identify miRNAs and their targets in G1 + HBP and its fertile type HBP during reproductive development. A total of 184 known miRNAs, 22 novel miRNAs and 86 target genes were identified. Some of the targets are transcription factors involved in floral development, such as auxin response factors (ARFs), SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein box (SBP-box), MYB, basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP), APETALA2 (AP2) and transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1). Eight target genes were confirmed to be sliced by corresponding miRNAs using 5' RACE technology. Based on the sequencing abundance, 42 differentially expressed miRNAs between sterile line G1 + HBP and fertile line HBP were identified. Differential expression of miRNAs and their target genes between two lines was validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and reciprocal expression patterns between some miRNAs and their targets were demonstrated. The regulatory mechanism of miR167a was investigated by yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assays that one dehydrate responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factor binds to miR167a promoter and transcriptionally repress miR167 expression. Our study reveals the altered expression of miRNAs and their target genes in a male sterile line of pummelo and highlights that miRNA regulatory network may be involved in floral bud development and cytoplasmic male sterility in citrus.

  3. Breeding of Nuclear Male Sterile Line in Qingmaye Type of Chinese cabbage%青麻叶结球白菜雄性不育系的转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻凤英; 宋连玖; 王玉龙; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 丘玉秀

    2001-01-01

    The male sterile line 3A was being used as a source o f male sterility,the fertile line Qingmaye Hei227 as goal parent,the gene of m ale sterility was transferred to the Qingmaye type of Chinese cabbage by crossi ng,self,sibling and test crossing.The male sterile line of Qingmaye type S10 w as obtained,its sterility percent and degree were all 100%,its nectary and see d were all normal.Its horticultural characters were same as Qingmaye type.The co mbining ability of S10 and its combinations was tested.The transferring me thod of genetic male sterile line was discussed.%利用核型雄性不育系3A作为不育源,以青麻叶材料黑227为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、兄妹交、测交等转育手段,将雄性不育基因转育到青麻叶结球白菜上,获得了青麻叶类型雄性不育系S10,其不育株率和不育度均为100%,蜜腺正常,结籽正常,农艺性状与青麻叶类型结球白菜基本相同。对育成的雄性不育系S10进行了配合力测定,并对所配组合做了品比试验。

  4. Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY1 encodes a PHD-type transcription factor and regulates pollen and tapetum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuya; Nagata, Noriko; Yoshiba, Yoshu; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Ma, Hong; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana MALE STERILITY1 (MS1) gene encodes a nuclear protein with Leu zipper-like and PHD-finger motifs and is important for postmeiotic pollen development. Here, we examined MS1 function using both cell biological and molecular biological approaches. We introduced a fusion construct of MS1 and a transcriptional repression domain (MS1-SRDX) into wild-type Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants showed a semisterile phenotype similar to that of ms1. Since the repression domain can convert various kinds of transcriptional activators to dominant repressors, this suggested that MS1 functioned as a transcriptional activator. The Leu zipper-like region and the PHD motif were required for the MS1 function. Phenotypic analysis of the ms1 mutant and the MS1-SRDX transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that MS1 was involved in formation of pollen exine and pollen cytosolic components as well as tapetum development. Next, we searched for MS1 downstream genes by analyzing publicly available microarray data and identified 95 genes affected by MS1. Using a transgenic ms1 plant showing dexamethasone-inducible recovery of fertility, we further examined whether these genes were immediately downstream of MS1. From these results, we discuss a role of MS1 in pollen and tapetum development and the conservation of MS1 function in flowering plants.

  5. An evaluation of stress responses, simplicity and cost of pinhole castration as an alternative technique for male dog sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Okwee-Acai,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinhole castration is a novel minimally invasive procedure for calf or kid castration. We evaluated stress, simplicity and costs of the technique in mongrel puppies (N=15. The puppies were divided into three groups: control i.e. not treated; second surgical castration and third pinhole castration. Stress was monitored by daily recording of rectal temperatures and assay of plasma cortisol concentration. Testicular histopathology was used to evaluate effectiveness of the method. Material requirements, costs and length of pinhole or surgical castration cases were compared. Surgery provoked higher febrile and cortisol responses than pinhole castration, however, the responses took longer to resolve in the pinhole treated animals. Each pinhole procedure required: xylazine 2% (0.2ml, syringe, needle and suture (10cm. Surgery meanwhile, required: xylazine 2% (0.2ml, 2 syringes, suture (15cm, razor, surgical blade, antibiotics, antiseptics, cotton and 1 ml ketamine (50mg/ml. Material cost for a surgery case was about thrice a pinhole case. Average time for pinhole was 14 minutes while surgery took about 35 minutes. We concluded that, compared to standard surgical castration, the pinhole technique is, less stressful, quicker, simpler and is a cheaper alternative for male dog sterilization. The technique should, therefore, be popularized in veterinary schools and practices for wider application.

  6. Organization of ATPA coding and 3' flanking sequences associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C D; Ortega, V M

    1992-08-01

    A region of the mitochondrial genome associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Phaseolus vulgaris was flanked by two different repeated sequences designated x and y. The DNA sequence of the CMS-unique region and a portion of each flanking repeat was determined. Repeat x contained a complete coding copy of the F1 ATPase subunit A (atpA) gene, as well as an open reading frame (orf) predicting a protein of 209 amino acids. The TGA termination codon of the atpA gene and the ATG initiation codon of orf209 were overlapping. These reading frames were oriented with their 3' ends proximal to the CMS-unique region. The CMS-unique region of 3736 nucleotides contained numerous orfs. The longest of these predicted proteins being of 239, 98 and 97 amino acids. The 3' coding and 3' flanking regions of orf98 were derived from an internal region of the higher plant chloroplast tRNA alanine intron. The region of repeat y immediately adjacent to the CMS-unique region contained the 111 carboxy-terminal coding residues of the apocytochrome b (cob) gene. This segment was oriented with its 5' end proximal to the CMS-unique region, but cob gene sequences were not fused to an initiation codon within the unique region.

  7. [Social representations of male sterilization. Vasectomy as viewed by professional counselors at the Men's Clinic in Bogotá,Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros; Gomez; Otero

    1998-03-30

    Vasectomy service providers at the Clínica del Hombre (Men's Clinic) in Bogotá, Colombia, construct their representations concerning male sterilization on the basis of biomedical discourse, their interaction with clinic users, and their own life experiences. During provision of such services, the counselors are the health professionals who have the closest contact with these clients of the clinic. Counselors are in charge of exploring their motivations in requesting the service, in addition to providing information allowing them to take a calm, sound decision. They also directly filter demand based on their experience, knowledge, and skills, in permanent negotiation between institutional criteria (number of children and gap between them, client's age, steadiness of couple's relationship, and conviction concerning the decision), and their perception and assessment of the client. An analysis of the counselors' representations of decision-making as pertaining to vasectomy indicates that it is a relatively simple and harmless procedure as well as a liberating option in terms of family planning.

  8. Plastidic phosphoglucomutase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase mutants impair starch synthesis in rice pollen grains and cause male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Eom, Joon-Seob; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Shin, Dongjin; An, Gynheung; Okita, Thomas W; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the starch synthesis pathway and the role of this reserve in rice pollen, we characterized mutations in the plastidic phosphoglucomutase, OspPGM, and the plastidic large subunit of ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc) pyrophosphorylase, OsAGPL4 Both genes were up-regulated in maturing pollen, a stage when starch begins to accumulate. Progeny analysis of self-pollinated heterozygous lines carrying the OspPGM mutant alleles, osppgm-1 and osppgm-2, or the OsAGPL4 mutant allele, osagpl4-1, as well as reciprocal crosses between the wild type (WT) and heterozygotes revealed that loss of OspPGM or OsAGPL4 caused male sterility, with the former condition rescued by the introduction of the WT OspPGM gene. While iodine staining and transmission electron microscopy analyses of pollen grains from homozygous osppgm-1 lines produced by anther culture confirmed the starch null phenotype, pollen from homozygous osagpl4 mutant lines, osagpl4-2 and osagpl4-3, generated by the CRISPR/Cas system, accumulated small amounts of starch which were sufficient to produce viable seed. Such osagpl4 mutant pollen, however, was unable to compete against WT pollen successfully, validating the important role of this reserve in fertilization. Our results demonstrate that starch is mainly polymerized from ADP-Glc synthesized from plastidic hexose phosphates in rice pollen and that starch is an essential requirement for successful fertilization in rice.

  9. Structural and Expressional Variations of the Mitochondrial Genome Conferring the Wild Abortive Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Lan Liu; Hong Xu; Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2007-01-01

    The so-called "wild abortive" (WA) type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) derived from a wild rice species Oryza rufipogon has been extensively used for hybrid rice breeding. However, extensive analysis of the structure of the related mitochondrial genome has not been reported, and the CMS-associated gene(s) remain unknown. In this study, we exploited a mitochondrial genome-wide strategy to examine the structural and expressional variations in the mitochondrial genome conferring the CMS. The entire mitochondrial genomes of a CMS-WA line and two normal fertile rice lines were amplified by Long-polymerase chain reaction into tilling fragments of up to 15.2 kb. Restriction and DNA blotting analyses of these fragments revealed that structural variations occurred in several regions in the WA mitochondrial genome, as compared to those of the fertile lines. All of the amplified fragments covering the entire mitochondrial genome were used as RNA blot probes to examine the mitochondrial expression profile among the CMS-WA and fertile lines. As a result, only two mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the CMS-WA and the fertile lines, which were detected by a probe containing the nadS and orf153 genes and the other having the ribosomal protein gene rp15, respectively. These mRNAs are proposed to be the candidates for further identification and functional studies of the CMS gene.

  10. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  11. 大白菜雄性不育系MS200712的研究简报%Brief Report on Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Line MS200712

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 苏同兵; 卢桂香

    2014-01-01

    Creation and abortive mechanism of new male sterile lines are hot-topics on Chinese cabbage breeding.F1 hybrid crossing Brassica allohexaploid(AABBCC,n=27),which owns A,B and C chromosomes simultaneously,with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Jinchun’was obtained.Then the F1 as a male parent was crossed with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Yihe No. 5’.Thus male sterile MS200712 was founded due to multi-parents crossing.MS200712 owned yellow petal and light-yellow anther.The anthers were regressive,which were 100% male sterility.Stigma of MS200712 was normal and nectaries were vigor. Meanwhile 832172,male parent of‘Beijingnew No. 3’was crossed with MS200712,and male sterile MS20071208-916 was obtained.%以芸薹属异源六倍体AABBCC为母本,以大白菜品种金春为父本进行杂交,获得F1(AABBCC×AA);再以大白菜品种义和5号为母本,与F1进行杂交,在多亲本杂交后代中获得大白菜雄性不育系MS200712。该不育系花瓣为黄色,花药浅黄色、退化、败育彻底,柱头正常,蜜腺发达。同时,利用北京新3号的父本832172与雄性不育系MS200712进行回交,获得了转育的MS20071208-916不育系。

  12. Agronomic Performance of Flue-Cured Tobacco F1 Hybrids Obtained with Different Sources of Male Sterile Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG, the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.

  13. Breeding and Utilization of Cabbage Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines%甘蓝胞质雄性不育系的选育及其利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵荣; 陈文辉; 方淑桂; 郑学立; 林翮飞

    2012-01-01

    Through field investigation, seven broccoli cytoplasmic male sterile materials were selected out of 19 crossbreed materials of Japanese broccoli. Six cabbage cytoplasmic male sterile lines were obtained by crossing the male sterile materials with cabbage inbred lines as recurrent parents) the sterile lines showed excellent general characteristics with high combining ability, both of sterile plant rates and sterility reached 100%. Five excellent hybridized combinations were obtained by crossing with the male sterile lines. Xiahua No. 2 is a variety that developed through the field screening.%从日本引进青花菜杂种19份,通过秋季田间经济性状和翌年春季开花习性鉴定,筛选出7份青花菜不育材料.用甘蓝类蔬菜自交系分别与其杂交,后代鉴定结果表明该7份青花菜不育材料为优良的胞质雄性不育材料.2000年以青花菜胞质不育材料为不育源,用甘蓝高代自交系为轮回亲本进行转育,连续回交5代,育成6个综合性状优良、配合力强、雄性不育株率和不育度均达100%的甘蓝胞质雄性不育系及相应的保持系.不育系植株生长健壮,苗期低温无叶片黄化现象,花瓣完全开放,雌蕊发育较正常,蜜腺较发达,雄蕊完全退化,杂交结实正常.利用该不育系配制一代杂种,经田间试验鉴定,筛选出5个优良杂交组合,通过进一步试验、示范,育成甘蓝新品种夏华2号在生产上推广应用.

  14. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  16. A novel epistatic interaction at two loci causing hybrid male sterility in an inter-subspecific cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Eguchi, Maki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2008-12-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) often arises in inter-subspecific crosses as well as inter-specific crosses of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To further understand the genetic architecture of the postzygotic RI, we analyzed genes causing hybrid sterility and hybrid breakdown in a rice inter-subspecific cross. Here we report hybrid male sterility caused by epistatic interaction between two novel genes, S24 and S35, which were identified on rice chromosomes 5 and 1, respectively. Genetic analysis using near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying IR24 (ssp. indica) segments with Asominori (ssp. japonica) genetic background revealed a complicated aspect of the epistasis. Allelic interaction at the S24 locus in the heterozygous plants caused abortion of male gametes carrying the Asominori allele (S24-as) independent of the S35 genotype. On the other hand, male gametes carrying the Asominori allele at the S35 locus (S35-as) showed abortion only when the IR24 allele at the S24 locus (S24-ir) was concurrently introgressed into the S35 heterozygous plants, indicating that the sterility phenotype due to S35 was dependent on the S24 genotype through negative epistasis between S24-ir and S35-as alleles. Due to the interaction between S24 and S35, self-pollination of the double heterozygous plants produced pollen-sterile progeny carrying the S24-ir/S24-ir S35-as/S35-ir genotype in addition to the S24 heterozygous plants. This result suggests that the S35 gene might function as a modifier of S24. This study presents strong evidence for the importance of epistatic interaction as a part of the genetic architecture of hybrid sterility in rice. In addition, it suggests that diverse systems have been developed as postzygotic RI mechanisms within the rice.

  17. Identification of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP Markers Tightly Associated with Drought Stress Gene in Male Sterile and Fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006–2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246 was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357 was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10−93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5.

  18. Identification of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Markers Tightly Associated with Drought Stress Gene in Male Sterile and Fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejin; Guo, Lijun; Shu, Zhiming; Sun, Yiyue; Chen, Yuanyuan; Liang, Zongsuo; Guo, Hongbo

    2013-03-22

    Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs) of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006-2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246) was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357) was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10-93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5.

  19. Comparative transcript profiling of a male sterile cybrid pummelo and its fertile type revealed altered gene expression related to flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zheng

    Full Text Available Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel. To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3 coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo.

  20. Development of a novel recessive genetic male sterility system for hybrid seed production in maize and other cross-pollinating crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongzhong; Fox, Tim W; Trimnell, Mary R; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Rui-Ji; Cigan, A Mark; Huffman, Gary A; Garnaat, Carl W; Hershey, Howard; Albertsen, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool.

  1. Surgery, sterilization and sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, V W

    1993-03-01

    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  2. Induction of male sterility through manipulation of genetic mechanisms present in vector species of Triatominae. II. Partial restoration of male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of integrated measures which involve sterile mate release to supplement the conventional insecticidal techniques used in controlagainst insects of medical importance, raised the question, whether the vectors of Chagas'disease possess the natural mechanisms by manipulation of which they may be controlled. Results of earlier expenments, that had been published previously, were restricted to fragmentary information that raised various questions, the answer to which became available in the study herein described. Interspecific hybrids were produced from reciprocal crosses between T. pseudomaculata and T. sórdida and from unilateral crosses between female T. pseudomaculata and male. T. infestans. These females mated with males, laid less than the normal complement of eggs, but offspring was relatively abundant. When T. pseudomaculata females were paired with T. brasiliensis males, hybridization was more difficult because few of the females mated and those that did had a strongly reduced fertility. Adults emerged from ali crosses but exhibited sex disproportion, females predominating in all populations but one. The two Rhodnius species tested were also found to cross, but only when female R. prolixus were paired with male R. neglectus. These females laid a relatively high complement o f eggs, had a strongly reduced fertility, but 50% of the fertile eggs developed into vigorous adults, males predominating females. Neither type of hybrid male elicited fertilized eggs from either parental type of female, through their vesicula seminal is were found to be packed with spermatozoa, some normal looking and moving, others underdeveloped and motionless. Although, no artificial insemination was performed, the sperm in itself did not appear to be the prime inducer of sterility. Females paired with these hybrids did mate, sperm was transfered, as evidenced by the discharged spermatophores smeared with sperm, but did notcontain spermatozoa in

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  4. Detection of the Diversity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea var. Italica) Using Mitochondrial Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an important commercial vegetable crop. As part of an efficient pollination system, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for broccoli hybrid production. Identifying the original sources of CMS in broccoli accessions has become an important part of broccoli breeding. In this study, the diversity of the CMS sources of 39 broccoli accessions, including 19 CMS lines and 20 hybrids, were analyzed using mitochondrial markers. All CMS accessions contained the ogu orf138-related DNA fragment and the key genes of nap CMS, pol CMS, and tour CMS were not detected. The 39 CMS accessions were divided into five groups using six orf138-related and two simple sequence repeat markers. We observed that ogu CMS R3 constituted 79.49% of the CMS sources. CMS6 and CMS26 were differentiated from the other accessions using a specific primer. CMS32 was distinguished from the other accessions based on a 78-nucleotide deletion at the same locus as the orf138-related sequence. When the coefficient was about 0.90, five CMS accessions (13CMS6, 13CMS23, 13CMS24, 13CMS37, and 13CMS39) exhibiting abnormal floral organs with poor seed setting were grouped together. The polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles for these five accessions differed from those of the other accessions. We identified eight useful molecular markers that can be used to detect CMS types during broccoli breeding. Our data also provide important information relevant to future studies on the possible origins and molecular mechanisms of CMS in broccoli.

  5. Effects of pesticides used on citrus grown in Spain on the mortality of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Vienna-8 strain sterile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, María; Sabatier-Muñoz, Beatriz; Argilés, Rafael; Jacas, Josep A; Ortego, Félix; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Vienna-8 sterile males are currently released in Spain to reduce wild populations of the medfly. Because pesticides are required to maintain populations of some citrus key pests below economic thresholds, there is a need to evaluate the effects of pesticides commonly used in citrus on Vienna-8 males. Males were exposed to differently aged residues of eight pesticides. Abamectin, etofenprox, etoxazole, petroleum spray oil, pymetrozine, and pyriproxyfen resulted harmless to Vienna-8 males. However, fresh residues of chlorpyrifos and spinosad caused high mortalities and had residual effects until 21 and 28 d after treatment, respectively. Following the same method, the lethal effects of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) wild-type (wt) males were determined. Surprisingly, these pesticides resulted more toxic for wt than for Vienna-8 males. To determine whether these results could be attributed to intrinsic characteristics of the pesticides or to behavioral differences among Vienna-8 and wt males, a topical application trial was conducted. Vienna-8 males were twice as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as wt males, whereas their susceptibility to spinosad was slightly lower. These results in intrinsic toxicity did not directly explain the differences observed in the extended-laboratory tests with these pesticides. We hypothesize that the lower flight activity ofVienna-8 males relative to wt conspecifics can explain the lower risk observed for Vienna-8 males in the residual tests. Our results should be taken into account when planning area-wide Sterile Insect Technique programs against C. capitata especially in those areas where treatments with chlorpyrifos are approved.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  7. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; BIAN Po; WU Yuejin; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations, tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility, a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis, b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later), c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  8. A duplicated coxI gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in an alloplasmic Brassica juncea line derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aruna Pathania; Rajesh Kumar; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; K. K. Dwivedi; P. B. Kirti; P. Prakash; V. L. Chopra; S. R. Bhat

    2007-08-01

    A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5′ region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Near-Isogenic Restorer Line in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yong; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. Results We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. Conclusions Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations. PMID:23750245

  10. 核雄性不育基因向卵圆生态型大白菜中的成功转育%Successfully Transferring Genic Male Sterile Line to Ovate Ecotype Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳艳玲; 冯辉

    2005-01-01

    本研究根据"复等位基因遗传假说",以甲型"两用系"AB21为不育源(直筒生态型),采用杂交、自交、兄妹交的方法,将核不育基因向卵圆生态型大白菜可育品系Lu6-11中转育,获得了不育株率100%的卵圆生态型大白菜核基因雄性不育系.扩大了原有不育系的遗传基础,拓宽了该优良雄性不育基因的应用范围.

  11. Introgression of Genic Male Sterile Gene of Chinese Cabbage into Flowering Chinese Cabbage%白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向菜心品种早-49的转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 魏毓棠

    2006-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,利用现有白菜雄性不育系(99029-2)作为不育源,以早-49菜心品种为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、测交、兄妹交等转育方法,将核不育基因向菜心品种转育,得到了含有早-49遗传基因的新甲型两用系、临时保持系和雄性不育系.

  12. 食荚豌豆细胞核雄性不育两用系93002AB的选育%Development of Edible Podded Pea Genic Male Sterile Line 93002AB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王郁铨; 纪玉忠; 李召虎

    2005-01-01

    利用食荚豌豆核不育突变体选育出育性稳定的细胞核雄性不育两用系93002AB,该两用系生育期92 d,株高98.3 cm,12~13节位现蕾,1~3个有效分枝,白花,圆荚,无限生长习性,种子绿色皱粒,百粒重30.49g.

  13. Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding $hsr\\omega$ gene in cyst cells of testis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. K. Rajendra; K. V. Prasanth; S. C. Lakhotia

    2001-08-01

    Of the several noncoding transcripts produced by the $hsr\\omega$ gene of Drosophila melanogaster, the nucleus-limited > 10-kb hsr-n transcript colocalizes with heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding proteins (hnRNPs) to form fine nucleoplasmic omega speckles. Our earlier studies suggested that the noncoding hsr-n transcripts dynamically regulate the distribution of hnRNPs in active (chromatin bound) and inactive (in omega speckles) compartments. Here we show that a P transposon insertion in this gene’s promoter (at – 130 bp) in the $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ enhancer-trap line had no effect on viability or phenotype of males or females, but the insertion-homozygous males were sterile. Testes of $hsr\\omega^{05241}$ homozygous flies contained nonmotile sperms while their seminal vesicles were empty. RNA : RNA in situ hybridization showed that the somatic cyst cells in testes of the mutant male flies contained significantly higher amounts of hsr-n transcripts, and unlike the characteristic fine omega speckles in other cell types they displayed large clusters of omega speckles as typically seen after heat shock. Two of the hnRNPs, viz. HRB87F and Hrp57A, which are expressed in cyst cells, also formed large clusters in these cells in parallel with the hsr-n transcripts. A complete excision of the P transposon insertion restored male fertility as well as the fine-speckled pattern of omega speckles in the cyst cells. The in situ distribution patterns of these two hnRNPs and several other RNA-binding proteins (Hrp40, Hrb57A, S5, Sxl, SRp55 and Rb97D) were not affected by $hsr\\omega$ mutation in any of the meiotic stages in adult testes. The present studies, however, revealed an unexpected presence (in wild-type as well as mutant) of the functional form of Sxl in primary spermatocytes and an unusual distribution of HRB87F along the retracting spindle during anaphase-telophase of the first meiotic division. It appears that the P transposon insertion in the promoter region causes

  14. 白肋烟雄性不育性的细胞形态学研究%CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALE STERILITY IN BURLEY TOBACCO(NICOTIANA TOBACUM )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓斌; 曹有龙; 贾勇炯; 郭宏玲

    2000-01-01

    The male sterility resource of burley tobacco(Nicotina tabacum) was obtained from the male sterile offsprings of the distant hybridization in tobacco between “zhongyan 86”(flue-cured tobacco) and KY9(burley tobacco). The system studies on cytomorphology of male sterility in hurley tobacco were done. The results and conclusions are as the following: 1. In male sterile line of hurley tobacco, the male sexual organ was obviously abnormal: 1. stamens was completely absent in some flowers, resulted from stamen primordium deforming, or having formed stamen primordium, but thoroughly regressing during flower development; 2. stamens existed, but seriously distorted. They looked likefine thread, short stick, petal or stigma-like stucture, and were often much shorter than stigma. 2. Compared with cytomorphological study on anther development and microsporogensis in maintenance line, the stage and type of male abortion were identified in male sterile line. Since their anthers were either rudimentary and lacked microsporogensis issue or were absent, the male abortion happened at the stage of microspore mother cell forming, so the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. 3. The vascular bundle in stamen was clearly abnormal: some stamens had no structure of vascular bundle at all, in other cases, vascular bundle in stamens were very regressive. There was little nutrition substance such as starch grains in aberrant stamens, suggesting that the abnormality of vascular bundle was the direct reason of stamen regression and failure of microsporogensis.%作者以白肋烟雄性不育系及其保持系为材料,从细胞形态学角度对雄性不育性作了较系统的研究,得出如下结果和结论:1.白肋烟雄性不育系雄性器官显著异常,表现为:①雄蕊原基根本不发生或发生后随着花器的发育完全退化消失,结果表现为完全无雄蕊;②有雄蕊原基发生,能形成雄蕊类似物,但都表现出显著

  15. 橘小实蝇不育雄虫田间释放效果%Effect of releasing sterile male of oriental fruit fly in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建峰; 杨建全; 陈家骅; 黄居昌; 季清娥; 何榕宾

    2011-01-01

    Effect of releasing sterile male of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis ( Hendel) in the field was discussed. The result showed that the sterile male of oriental fruit fly could fly 250.00 m away from the releasing point 6 days later and the longest longevity was 15 days in the field; sterile rate was 91.15% ±1.44%.%观察研究了橘小实蝇不育雄虫经辐射后田间释放的效果.结果表明,橘小实蝇雄虫经辐射后释放,第6天最远扩散距离可达207.89 m,田间最长存活期为15 d,与田间野生雌性橘小实蝇交配后,其卵不育率为91.15%,而对照区卵不育率仅为21.02%,达到了较好的释放效果.

  16. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes between a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS line and its maintainer line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongcheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondria, semiautonomous organelles that function as manufacturers of cellular ATP, have their own genome that has a slow rate of evolution and rapid rearrangement. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, a common phenotype in higher plants, is closely associated with rearrangements in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, and is widely used to produce F1 hybrid seeds in a variety of valuable crop species. Novel chimeric genes deduced from mtDNA rearrangements causing CMS have been identified in several plants, such as rice, sunflower, pepper, and rapeseed, but there are very few reports about mtDNA rearrangements in wheat. In the present work, we describe the mitochondrial genome of a wheat K-type CMS line and compare it with its maintainer line. Results The complete mtDNA sequence of a wheat K-type (with cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi CMS line, Ks3, was assembled into a master circle (MC molecule of 647,559 bp and found to harbor 34 known protein-coding genes, three rRNAs (18 S, 26 S, and 5 S rRNAs, and 16 different tRNAs. Compared to our previously published sequence of a K-type maintainer line, Km3, we detected Ks3-specific mtDNA (> 100 bp, 11.38% and repeats (> 100 bp, 29 units as well as genes that are unique to each line: rpl5 was missing in Ks3 and trnH was absent from Km3. We also defined 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 13 protein-coding, albeit functionally irrelevant, genes, and predicted 22 unique ORFs in Ks3, representing potential candidates for K-type CMS. All these sequence variations are candidates for involvement in CMS. A comparative analysis of the mtDNA of several angiosperms, including those from Ks3, Km3, rice, maize, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rapeseed, showed that non-coding sequences of higher plants had mostly divergent multiple reorganizations during the mtDNA evolution of higher plants. Conclusion The complete mitochondrial genome of the wheat K-type CMS line Ks3 is very different from that of

  17. DNA methylation and transcriptomic changes in response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Vahid; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Rutgers), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (B) signaling leading to B-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assay, a number of genes were identified, which were differentially methylated between 7B-1 and its wild type (WT) seedlings in white (W), blue (B), red (R) lights and dark (D) or in response to exogenous ABA and mannitol-induced stresses. The genomic methylation level was almost similar in different lights between 7B-1 and WT seedlings, while significant differences were observed in response to stresses in D, but not B. Using a cDNA-AFLP assay, several transcripts were identified, which were differentially regulated between 7B-1 and WT by B or D or in response to stresses. Blue light receptors cryptochrome 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) and phototropin 1 and 2 (PHOT1 and PHOT2) were not affected by the 7B-1 mutation at the transcriptional level, instead the mutation had likely affected downstream components of the light signaling pathway. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) induced DNA hypomethylation, inhibited stem elongation and differentially regulated the expression of a number of genes in 7B-1. In addition, it was shown that mir167 and mir390 were tightly linked to auxin signaling pathway in 5-azaC-treated 7B-1 seedlings via the regulation of auxin-response factor (ARF) transcripts. Our data showed that DNA methylation remodeling is an active epigenetic response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 and WT, and highlighted the differences in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of light and stress responses between 7B-1 and WT. Furthermore, it shed lights on the crosstalk between DNA hypomethylation and miRNA regulation of ARFs expression. This information could also be used as a benchmark for future studies of male-sterility in other crops.

  18. Development and Application of SCAR Markers for Discriminating Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines from Their Cognate Maintainer Lines in Indica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chao; LIU Jian; JIANG Jian-hua; Caleb Manamik BRERIA; TAN He-lin; Masahiko ICHII; HONG De-lin

    2013-01-01

    The DNA fragments about 1 600 bp were amplified using random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) primer OPA12 with the templates of mitochondrial DNA of Zhenshan 97A and Zhenshan 97B,and were sequenced.The nucleotide sequences and lengths of the fragments from Zhenshan 97A and Zhenshan 97B showed no difference.The precise length of the fragment was 1 588 bp.Sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) primers were then developed to discriminate the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines.A specific 1 588 bp fragment could be amplified with SCAR primers,CHI19F2/CHI19R2 and CHI20F3/CHI23R3,in the mitochondrial DNA of Zhenshan 97A,but not Zhenshan 97B.Furthermore,the specific fragment could be also amplified from the total DNA from green leaf tissues of Zhenshan 97A with SCAR primers,but not Zhenshan 97B.With the corresponding primers,the specific fragment could also be amplified from the total DNA of green leaves of other two CMS lines with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA),namely Zhenpin A and Tianfeng A,but not in their maintainer lines.Moreover,using total DNA as template,each of the four pairs of SCAR primers could also be used to amplify the 1 588 bp fragment in CMS-ID (Indonesia paddy type) line Ⅱ-32A,but not in Ⅱ-32B,and the specific fragment was amplified from the DNA of both F1 and F2 seedlings of Shanyou 63.The results of detecting the genetic purity of a man-made mixture of the seeds of Zhenshan 97A using CHI20F3/CHI23R3 were completely consistent with the phenotypes.Taken together,these results indicated that the specific 1 588 bp-fragment amplified by CHI20F3/CHI23R3 was the unique amplification products of CMS mitochondrial DNA,and could be used to distinguish CMS-WA and CMS-ID lines from their corresponding maintainer lines at the seedling stage.

  19. DNA methylation and transcriptomic changes in response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Omidvar

    Full Text Available We reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Rutgers, an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (B signaling leading to B-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP assay, a number of genes were identified, which were differentially methylated between 7B-1 and its wild type (WT seedlings in white (W, blue (B, red (R lights and dark (D or in response to exogenous ABA and mannitol-induced stresses. The genomic methylation level was almost similar in different lights between 7B-1 and WT seedlings, while significant differences were observed in response to stresses in D, but not B. Using a cDNA-AFLP assay, several transcripts were identified, which were differentially regulated between 7B-1 and WT by B or D or in response to stresses. Blue light receptors cryptochrome 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2 and phototropin 1 and 2 (PHOT1 and PHOT2 were not affected by the 7B-1 mutation at the transcriptional level, instead the mutation had likely affected downstream components of the light signaling pathway. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC induced DNA hypomethylation, inhibited stem elongation and differentially regulated the expression of a number of genes in 7B-1. In addition, it was shown that mir167 and mir390 were tightly linked to auxin signaling pathway in 5-azaC-treated 7B-1 seedlings via the regulation of auxin-response factor (ARF transcripts. Our data showed that DNA methylation remodeling is an active epigenetic response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 and WT, and highlighted the differences in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of light and stress responses between 7B-1 and WT. Furthermore, it shed lights on the crosstalk between DNA hypomethylation and miRNA regulation of ARFs expression. This information could also be used as a benchmark for future studies of male-sterility in other crops.

  20. A Summarized Opinion on Application of Crop Male Sterility in Plant Breeding%作物雄性不育性在育种中的应用概评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦太辰

    2011-01-01

    概述总结了作物雄性不育性的类别与遗传特点。雄性不育性的遗传机理涉及细胞质遗传的现象,目前已初步探明玉米C群不育系的胞质基因可能是atp6-c,芝麻不育胞质基因拟为atpA。雄性不育化杂交种在实践中主要应用于玉米、水稻和蔬菜中。尽管现有近交理论、DNA甲基化效用、水稻胞质与核不育系遗传等理论提出,雄性不育化育种的基本理论尚需进一步探讨。在雄性不育化育种技术上,要逐步解决难点作物,如小麦、荞麦、菜豆等的不育化育种问题。%This paper summarized the type and genetic characteristics of male sterility. The mechanism of male sterility is involved in cytoplasmic heredity. It has been initially proved that atp6 c and aptA are the cytoplasmic genes of maize sterile line C group and namie male sterile line, respectively. Male sterility hybrids are extensively applied in corp production, shuch as maize, rice and vegetables. Despite some theories were proposed, such as inbreeding theory, DNA methlation and genetics of rice cytoplasm male sterile line, the basic theories of male sterile breeding requests further study. This paper suggested to gradually resolve the difficulties of crop male sterile hybridization breeding in wheat, buckwheat and navy beans.

  1. Directional Transfer of a Genetic Male Sterile Line Derived from Flowering Chinese Cabbage ' Ever-Green'%‘四季油青’菜心核基因雄性不育系定向转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 周鹏; 王玉刚; 冯辉

    2012-01-01

    为选育菜心雄性不育系解决其杂种优势利用中的制种手段问题,以复等位基因遗传的小白菜核基因雄性不育系‘00S107’为不育源,采用连续回交转育园艺学性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向‘四季油青’菜心中转育核不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%的菜心核基因雄性不育系‘GMS203’.用菜心不育系试配的杂交组合,经品种比较试验筛选出2个综合性状优良的强优势组合.利用本项研究设计的核不育系定向转育方案,实现了不育性和园艺学性状的同时转育.%In order to create a procedure for utilization of heterosis in flowering Chinese cabbage, a breeding method for genetic male sterile line was carried out in the experiment. A multiple allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage '00S107' was used as a source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing method was employed to transfer horticultural characters while the genotype was identified through test cross to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line ' Ever-Green' of flowering Chinese cabbage. A new genetic male sterile line of flowering Chinese cabbage with 100% of male sterile plants and 100% of male sterility ' GMS203' was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations. Two excellent combinations were selected through variety compare test. Based on the directional transfer program designed by the research according to the genetic characteristics of the male sterility, the male sterility and horticultural characters could be transferred simultaneously.

  2. High-density genetic maps for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Lucy; Blassiau, Christelle; Mörchen, Monika; Cadalen, Thierry; Poiret, Matthieu; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    High-density genetic maps were constructed for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1-locus) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The mapping population consisted of 389 F1' individuals derived from a cross between two plants, K28 (male-sterile) and K59 (pollen-fertile), both heterozygous at the S-locus. This F1' mapping population segregated for both male sterility (MS) and strong self-incompatibility (SI) phenotypes. Phenotyping F1' individuals for MS allowed us to map the NMS1-locus to linkage group (LG) 5, while controlled diallel and factorial crosses to identify compatible/incompatible phenotypes mapped the S-locus to LG2. To increase the density of markers around these loci, bulked segregant analysis was used. Bulks and parental plants K28 and K59 were screened using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, with a complete set of 256 primer combinations of EcoRI-ANN and MseI-CNN. A total of 31,000 fragments were generated, of which 2,350 showed polymorphism between K59 and K28. Thirteen AFLP markers were identified close to the NMS1-locus and six in the vicinity of the S-locus. From these AFLP markers, eight were transformed into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers and of these five showed co-dominant polymorphism. The chromosomal regions containing the NMS1-locus and the S-locus were each confined to a region of 0.8 cM. In addition, we mapped genes encoding proteins similar to S-receptor kinase, the female determinant of sporophytic SI in the Brasicaceae, and also markers in the vicinity of the putative S-locus of sunflower, but none of these genes or markers mapped close to the chicory S-locus.

  3. Mitochondrial nad2 gene is co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Fang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional patterns of mitochondrial respiratory related genes were investigated in cytoplasmic male-sterile and fertile maintainer lines of stem mustard, Brassica juncea. There were numerous differences in nad2 (subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase) between stem mustard CMS and its maintainer line. One novel open reading frame, hereafter named orfB gene, was located at the downstream of mitochondrial nad2 gene in the CMS. The novel orfB gene had high similarity with YMF19 family protein, orfB in Raphanus sativus, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum and Beta vulgaris, orfB-CMS in Daucus carota, atp8 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, 5' flanking of orf224 in B. napus (nap CMS) and 5' flanking of orf220 gene in CMS Brassica juncea. Three copies probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS) were found in the CMS line following Southern blotting digested with HindIII, but only a single copy in its maintainer line. Meanwhile, two transcripts were shown in the CMS line following Northern blotting while only one transcript was detected in the maintainer line, which were probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS). Meanwhile, the expression of nad2 gene was reduced in CMS bud compared to that in its maintainer line. We thus suggested that nad2 gene may be co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in the CMS. In addition, the specific fragment that was amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R just spanned partial sequences of nad2 gene and orfB gene. Such alterations in the nad2 gene would impact the activity of NADH dehydrogenase, and subsequently signaling, inducing the expression of nuclear genes involved in male sterility in this type of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  4. Cloning and Functional Analysis of MADS-box Genes, TaAG-A and TaAG-B, from a Wheat K-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line

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    Wenlong Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a major crop worldwide. The utilization of heterosis is a promising approach to improve the yield and quality of wheat. Although there have been many studies on wheat cytoplasmic male sterility, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identified two MADS-box genes from a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line using homology-based cloning. These genes were localized on wheat chromosomes 3A and 3B and named TaAG-A and TaAG-B, respectively. Analysis of TaAG-A and TaAG-B expression patterns in leaves, spikes, roots, and stems of Chinese Spring wheat determined using quantitative RT-PCR revealed different expression levels in different tissues. TaAG-A had relatively high expression levels in leaves and spikes, but low levels in roots, while TaAG-B had relatively high expression levels in spikes and lower expression in roots, stems, and leaves. Both genes showed downregulation during the mononucleate to trinucleate stages of pollen development in the maintainer line. In contrast, upregulation of TaAG-B was observed in the CMS line. The transcript levels of the two genes were clearly higher in the CMS line compared to the maintainer line at the trinucleate stage. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B in Arabidopsis resulted in phenotypes with earlier reproductive development, premature mortality, and abnormal buds, stamens, and stigmas. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B gives rise to mutants with many deformities. Silencing TaAG-A and TaAG-B in a fertile wheat line using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method resulted in plants with green and yellow striped leaves, emaciated spikes, and decreased selfing seed set rates. These results demonstrate that TaAG-A and TaAG-B may play a role in male sterility in the wheat CMS line.

  5. 花心大白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding of Genetic Male Sterile Line in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.Pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 王昊; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    以白菜核基因雄性不育系(Msms)为不育源,以花心大白菜宫古花蕊Y02(MsfMsf)为轮回亲本,采用连续回交,杂交和自交的转育方法,成功地将不育基因转入到可育品系YO2中,育成了不育度和不育株率均为100%,植物学性状与Y02相近的新核不育系GMS4.%A multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage was used as the source of male sterility, backcrossing, crossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line Y02. The new male sterile line GMS4, which contained similar botanical characters with Y02 and the sterility frequency and sterility degree were all 100%, was obtained successfully.

  6. Mapping QTLs for Fertility Restoration of Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Types in Rice Using Two Oryza sativa ×O. rufipogon Backcross Inbred Line Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Biao-lin Hu; Jian-kun Xie; Yong Wan; Jin-wei Zhang; Fan-tao Zhang; Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL) populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB)//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR) (XXD) or XB//DWR/XB (XDX) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-), Indonesia Paddy- (ID-), and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed wi...

  7. Research Development of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Classification on Maize%玉米胞质雄性不育分类研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万立; 夏秀红

    2011-01-01

    Development of cytoplasmic male sterility on maize was summarized.Characteristics of different classification methods were analyzed,and suggestions were given that classification methods be selected synthetically according to research conditions and purposes.Prospects were listed for classification methods.%综述了玉米胞质雄性不育分类研究进展,分析了各种分类方法的特点,提出了根据研究条件、目的,灵活、综合运用胞质分类方法的建议,并对胞质分类进行了展望.

  8. Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Milk Chinese Cabbage%奶白菜核基因雄性不育系的选育与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐巍; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem that cross breeding and production of hybrid in milk Chinese cabbage. According to the hypothesis of multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile, A genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with green stipe 00S107 was used as a source of male sterility,and methods of continuous backcross-ing and identifying of the genotypes were applied to transfer the male sterile line of milk Chinese cabbage. Hybridized combinations were obtained by the male sterile line as female parent cross with excellent self-line and we analysed the hybrid vigor. A new genetic male sterile line GMS3 with 100% male sterile plants and 100% male sterility was obtained. Two excellent hybridized combinations GMS3 × B1 ,GMS3×B2 were selected, whieh is uniform and superior to CK in yield. Directional transfer model which transfer sterile gene and horticultural characters at the same time resolved the puzzle that breeding and utilization of the genetic male sterile line in milk Chinese cabbage.%为解决奶白菜杂交种生产中的杂交制种手段问题,配制优良杂交种.以核不育“复等位基因遗传”假说为指导,以青梗白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107作不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交鉴定基因型的方法,定向转育奶白菜核基因雄性不育系.并利用转育成的不育系与奶白菜优良自交系配制杂交组合,进行了杂种优势分析.选育出园艺学性状与目标品系相似,具有100%不育株率和不育度的奶白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS3,筛选出2个产量高、整齐度高的优异杂交组合GMS3×B1、GMS3×B2.定向转育模式兼顾了不育基因和园艺学性状的转育,解决了奶白菜核不育系转育和利用的难题.

  9. 甘蓝细胞质雄性不育材料的分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇娇; 王超; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    We used the two male sterile lines PM and QM of cabbage as materials, and designed specific primers according to the conserved regions of orf224 and orf138 gene sequence in Genebank, then amplified their mtDNA by PCR. The results showed that, the specific primers of orf138 had amplified a distinct band with the size about 350 bp on both two materials, and the homologous degree was 92.55% between the two specific fragments and the Ogu orf138 gene of radish Ogu CMS, and the size of homologous fragments were both 297 bp. Therefore, we concluded that these two sterile materials were Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility type.%根据Genebank中orf224和orf138基因序列的保守区设计特异引物,对2个甘蓝不育材料PM、QM的mtDNA进行PCR扩增。试验结果表明,orf138特异引物对2个不育材料的mtDNA扩增出350 bp大小的清晰条带;不育材料的特异片段与萝卜Ogu CMS所具有的Ogu orf138基因同源度达92.55%,长度均为297 bp,因此,初步推断2个不育材料是Ogura胞质雄性不育类型。

  10. Mitochondrial atpA gene is altered in a new orf220-type cytoplasmic male-sterile line of stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Huai, Yan; Zhang, Ming-Fang

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the probable mitochondrial factor associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) by comparative analysis of cms and its isogenic maintainer lines in stem mustards. Dramatic variations in the morphology of floral organs were observed in cms stem mustard. Mitochondrial atpA gene was shown to be altered in cms compared with that in its maintainer line, of which mitochondrial atpA gene from its maintainer line was sequenced to encode 507 amino acids. It was indicative of high homology with mitochondrial atpA genes from other species, even as high as 94% in similarity with Oryza sativa in terms of amino acid constituents. However, only 429 amino acids were deduced in cms showing 83% similarity with atpA gene from its maintainer line. Two copies were observed in its maintainer line, but only one was found in cms. Such numerous differences of mitochondrial atpA gene between cms and its maintainer lines may not be the results of evolutionary divergence but the rearrangements of mitochondria. Expression of mitochondrial atpA gene was shown to be down-regulated in cms by using Northern blot. Consequently, mitochondrial ATP synthesis was severely decreased more than one fold in cms stem mustard indicating deficiency in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in this type of cms. Therefore, we deduced that mitochondrial atpA gene altered in cms could be associated with male-sterility in this type of cms.

  11. Perturbation in protein expression of the sterile salmonid hybrids between female brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Senda, Yoshie; Abe, Syuiti

    2013-05-01

    Most males and females of intergeneric hybrid (BM) between female brook trout (Bt) Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon (Ms) Oncorhynchus masou had undeveloped gonads, with abnormal germ cell development shown by histological examination. To understand the cause of this hybrid sterility, expression profiles of testicular proteins in the BM and parental species were examined with 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Compared with the parental species, more than 60% of differentially expressed protein spots were down-regulated in BM. A total of 16 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated proteins were identified in BM. Up-regulated were transferrin and other somatic cell-predominant proteins, whereas down-regulated were some germ cell-specific proteins such as DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa. Other pronouncedly down-regulated proteins included tubulins and heat shock proteins that are supposed to have roles in spermatogenesis. The present findings suggest direct association of the observed perturbation in protein expression with the failure of spermatogenesis and the sterility in the examined salmonid hybrids.

  12. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  13. Identification of a male meiosis-specific gene, Tcte2, which is differentially spliced in species that form sterile hybrids with laboratory mice and deleted in t chromosomes showing meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, G; Barlow, D P

    1997-06-01

    Tcte2 (t complex testes expressed 2) is a male meiosis-specific gene that maps to band 3.3 of mouse chromosome 17. Two distinct male fertility defects, hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion, have previously been mapped to this region. Hybrid sterility arises in crosses between different mouse species and the F1 generation males have defects in the first meiotic division and are sterile. Transmission ratio distortion is shown by males heterozygous for the t haplotype form of chromosome 17 and is a type of meiotic drive in which male gametes function unequally at fertilization. The Tcte2 gene expresses a coding mRNA and a number of putative non-ORF transcripts in meiosis I. A deletion of the 5' part of the locus abolishes Tcte2 expression on the t haplotype form of chromosome 17. Additionally, the series of putative non-ORF RNAs at the Tcte2 locus are differentially spliced in species that show hybrid sterility when crossed to laboratory mice. The identification of polymorphisms in t haplotypes and in different mouse species allows alleles of Tcte2 to be proposed as candidates for loci which contribute to both meiotic drive and hybrid sterility phenotypes. While theoretical considerations have previously been used to propose that speciation and meiotic drive involve alleles of the same genes, Tcte2 is the first cloned candidate gene to support this link at a molecular level.

  14. 紫菜薹核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用%Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Purple Stalk Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 娄广学

    2011-01-01

    以复等位基因遗传的白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107为不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交筛选基因型的方法,向紫菜薹自交系XA500中转育核不育基因,育成了园艺学性状与XA500相近,不育株率和不育度均达到100%的紫菜薹雄性不育系GMS500.用该不育系配成的杂交组合整齐一致,园艺学性状优异,单位面积产量显著高于对照品种'紫婷11号'.%In order to solve the problems in the transfer and utilization of genie male sterile line in purple stalk Chinese cabbage, '00S107' which is a multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line was used as a source of male sterility in Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis var. Purpurca Hort. Methods of crossing and backcrossing were applied to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line' XA500' - A new genetic male sterile line 'GMS500' with 100% of male sterile plants was obtained, which was similar to 'XA500' in horticultural characteristics. An excellent hybridized combination was developed, which is uniform and superior to 'Ziting 11' in yield.

  15. Evaluating effect of a new sterile gauze containing Bentonite and Halloysite minerals on blood coagulation and wound healing in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrosadat Alavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a wide variety of researches are performed in the field of novel technologies to stop severe bleeding. Finally, an effective combination of a mineral called Zeolite has been introduced. Bentonite and Halloysite ores are very common in Iran. Likewise, coagulation properties of these minerals have been proven in several studies. In this study, the effect of new recombinant gauze, containing Bentonite and Halloysite minerals was studied on blood coagulation and wound healing time in male rats. Materials and methods: In this exprimental study, new sterile gauze was prepared from mixture of Bentonite and Halloysite minerals and Vaseline. Then the effect of gauze was studied on the wound healing process in the Wistar rat. Finally, SPSS software was used for data analysis (T-test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney. Differences with P <0.05 were considered as significant. Results: In the first phase, the study was carried out on 40 blood samples of mice tails. The coagulation time of 81.31 ± 19.12 sec in control group and 33.2 ± 2.18 sec in study group (Bentonite-Halloysite treated were reported. In the second phase, the time of complete wound healing was considered. This figure was observed between 9 and 13 days in the control group and 5 to 6 days in study group which is treated with recombinant sterile gauze. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, topical application of the new sterile gauze, combined with Bentonite and Halloysite minerals decrease clotting and wound healing time significantly

  16. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-04-13

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage.

  17. Development of New InDel Marker to Detect Genotypes of Rf-1a Conferring Fertility Restoration of BT-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tao; ZHANG Ya-dong; ZHU Zhen; ZHAO Ling; ZHAO Qing-yong; ZHOU Li-hui; YAO Shu; YU Xin; WANG Cai-lin

    2014-01-01

    Restorer line breeding is an important approach to enhance the heterosis and improve the yields of japonica hybrid rice. To improve the selection efficiency of restorer lines for BT-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in japonica rice, a functional marker InDel-Rf-1a based on the difference of nucleotide sequence in Rf-1a locus between BT-type CMS lines and restorer lines was developed to detect the genotypes of different rice materials. Conventional indica rice varieties, restorer and maintainer lines without 574 bp deletion could restore the fertility for BT-type CMS in japonica rice. By contrast, most conventional japonica rice varieties except Aichi 106 and Yijing 12, with genotype of rf-1arf-1a showed the 574 bp deletion maintained sterility for BT-type CMS lines. To further verify the effect of genotyping detection in Rf-1a locus, this marker was also used to amplify the genomic DNA in different japonica rice restorer lines, CMS lines, hybrids and F2 segregation population, and three genotypes in Rf-1a locus could be distinguished distinctly. Therefore, the marker InDel-Rf-1a could be widely used for genetic identification and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding japonica restorer lines.

  18. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gargi Meur; K. Gaikwad; S. R. Bhat; S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti

    2006-08-01

    We have previously reported correction of severe leaf chlorosis in the cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura (also called Ogu) Brassica juncea line carrying Ogura cytoplasm by plastid substitution via protoplast fusion. Two cybrids obtained from the fusion experiment, Og1 and Og2, were green and carried the plastid genome of B. juncea cv. RLM198. While Og1 displayed normal flower morphology comparable to that of its euplasmic B. juncea counterpart except for sterile anthers, Og2 retained homeotic-like floral modification of stamens to petal-like structures and several other floral deformities observed in the chlorotic (Ogu) B. juncea cv. RLM198 (or OgRLM). With respect to the mitochondrial genome, Og1 showed 81% genetic similarity to the fertile cultivar RLM while Og2 showed 93% similarity to OgRLM. In spite of recombination and rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes in the cybrids, expression patterns of 10 out of 11 mitochondrial genes were similar in all the three CMS lines; the only exception was atp6, whose expression was altered. While Og1 showed normal atp6 transcript similar to that in RLM, in Og2 and OgRLM weak expression of a longer transcript was detected. These results suggest that the homeotic-like changes in floral patterning leading to petaloid stamens in Og2 and OgRLM may be associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression.

  19. Discussion Opinion about Speedup Application of Male Sterile Hybrid Maize%玉米雄性不育化杂交种加速应用的商榷意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦泰辰

    2009-01-01

    The male sterile hybrid maize failed to achieve large area extension, due to its yield reduction resulted from seed intermix and mismanagement. This paper introduced the research on the male sterile hybrid maize in China, discussed its applying value in male sterile hybridization, defined fertility stability, technological reliability and high yielding characteristics of male sterile hybrid maize, expounded that male sterile could produce pure and unified seed, and highlighted the importance of management. Therefore, the application of male sterile hybridization can not only have the potential of increasing yield, but also enhance economic efficiency and reduce production cost.%玉米雄性不育化杂交种由于出现种子混杂以及管理失误造成产量的减低与失收,未能实现大面积的推广.介绍了我国利用雄性不育化杂交育种的情况,探讨了雄性不育化杂交种实践应用价值,明确了雄性不育化杂交种育性稳定、技术匹配可靠及高产特性,阐明雄性不育化制种可以取得纯净、整齐一致的种子,而管理具有突出的重要性.因此,应用雄性不育化杂交种,不但有增产的趋势,而且可以降低生产成本增加经济效益.

  20. Cytogenetics of Triatominae: III - A study on male sterility induced through hybridization of Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schreiber

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Males from bilateral crosses between Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata were unable to give offspring, as shown by subsequent backcrosses (BC between hybrid males and parental females. This kind of sterility indueed through interspecific hybridization seems to be due to lack of sperm migration from the bursa copulatrix to the spermateca, thus suggesting primarily failure on the part of hybrid males to produce and/or to incorporate male accessory secretions into the spermatophore bulb. Addicional proof that sterility induced in hybrid males is at the sperm level has been afforded by the spermatogenesis herein studied. The anomalous processes like; 1 prophases of spermatogonia with the chromosomes scattered in the cytoplasm, 2 first metaphases with unpaired tetrades, 3 spermatids differing in size and 4 spermatozoa of abnormal shape and generdlly of giant size, can be taken as an indicator of the degree of departure from the normal course of spermatogenesis.Os machos provenientes de cruzamentos bilaterais entre Triatoma sórdida e Triatoma pseudomaculata revelaram a incapacidade de produzir progênie, como se demonstra nos retrocruzamentos de machos híbridos com fêmeas das espécies paternas. Esta modalidade de esterilidade induzida através da hibridação interespecífica, parece ser devida à ausência de migração do esperma, determinada pela incapacidade dos híbridos machos produzirem a secreção opaca em suas glândulas acessórias e/ou incorporá-la à luz do espermatóforo. A prova adicional de que a incompatibilidade induzida em triatomíneos, através da hibridação inter específica, está no nível do esperma é fornecida pelo tipo anômalo de espermatogênese em híbridos aqui descrito, mostrando deste modo que: as prófases espermatogoniais têm os núcleos disruptos e os cromossomos espelhados no citoplasma. As primeiras metáfases meióticas têm as tétrades desemparelhadas. Os grupos de cromatídes assim obtidos

  1. Development of SCAR Marker Identifying the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Gene in Bunching Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)%大葱细胞质雄性不育基因的SCAR标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉敏; 董飞; 霍雨猛; 刘冰江; 缪军; 陈运起

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic genetic male-sterility (CMS) is used to produce hybrid bunching onion (Alliumfistulosum L.)seeds worldwide.In this paper,we developed one SCAR marker using male sterile line (980238A) and maintainer line (980238B) as sterile and fertile gene pool for the target band screening.This marker was 607 bp in size and designated as S607 which was specifically amplified in the male sterile line,and it could distinguish two cytoplasm types CMS-S (Sterile type) and CMS-N (Normal type).The SCAR marker was verified in five male sterile lines,five maintainer lines,and four cross combinations,all of these valuations were in accord with their cytoplasmic type (S or N).The result of this study indicates that the SCAR markers of S607 will greatly contribute to establish a molecular marker assisted breeding program in bunching onion.%以大葱(Allium fistulosum L.)雄性不育系和保持系为试材,开发了一个能够鉴别细胞质雄性不育类型的SCAR标记.此标记在大葱雄性不育系(S型细胞质)中扩增出1条607 bp片段,而在保持系(N型细胞质)中没有扩增出此片段,将此片段命名为S607.对5组不同遗传背景的不育系和相应保持系,以及4份杂交组合进行验证,SCAR标记S607鉴定结果与实际细胞质类型完全相符.

  2. BASICS OF STERILE COMPOUNDING: Sterilization Methods in Sterile Product Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization methods to produce sterile preparations include heat, gas, radiation, and filtration. This article focuses on heat, gas, and radiation sterilization, plus a brief introduction to bright-light sterilization. Microbiology basics and microbial death kinetics, key to understanding why these sterilization methods work, will also be briefly discussed. Filtration sterilization will be covered in a separate article.

  3. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  4. 大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现与利用%Discovery and Utilization of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 刘志勇; 李承彧; 王玉刚; 冀瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    The discovery and its verification of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage were reviewed. The utilization models for the multiple allele male sterile line was put forward. Progresses in the developments of the male sterile lines in the varieties and sub-varieties of Chinese cabbage, and mapping of the male sterile gene were presented.%介绍了大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现过程,以及"大白菜核基因雄性不育复等位基因遗传假说"的验证试验结果.提出了不育系的应用模式,介绍了品种、变种和亚种间复等位基因型雄性不育系转育研究结果,以及不育基因分子标记、定位及表达的研究进展.

  5. Fine Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cotton (Gossypium spp. ) Using RAPD and SSR%棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的SSR及RAPD标记与定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-wang LIU; Wang-zhen GUO; Xie-fei ZHU; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ The heterosis in cotton is much significant,especially in increasing yield andfiber quality.Comparing with hand-emasculation and pollination, and genetic male sterile lines,utilization of CMS lines is much more effective and economical in producing commercial hybrid seeds. Since 1965 in the world, several CMS lines have been developed, such as CMS lines with G.

  6. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  7. The Application of ISSR Markers to Identify the Fertility Restorer Gene Rf6 in T.timopheevii Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Wheat(Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Rong-xia; GUO Xiao-li; LIU Dong-cheng; CAO Shuang-he; ZHANG Ai-min

    2002-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was carried out on a F2 population of 147 plants derived from a cross between a wheat male fertility restorer line 2114 and a male sterile line ND44A. Out of 43 primers examined, 18 primers produced distinguishable, polymorphic bands between the two parents. Linkage analysis in the mapping population showed that two markers UBC-808 and UBC-848 were closely linked with the restorer gene R f6 of the Triticum timopheevii CMS system. The distance between the two markers and the restorer gene was 7.9 cM and 4.9 cM, respectively. Also two parents were screened with 181 pairs of SSR primers, of which, 34.3% showed polymorphisms. But no locus was found linked with the restorer gene.Compared with the SSR technique, the ISSR approach used in the experiment provided more information and proved to be a valuable method to identify alien fragments.

  8. The addition of the Eckhardts method of the conversion of maize hybrid on the male sterility background regarding the possibility of the late break of sterility of the mother component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vančetović Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is given a scheme of the conversion of the mother and father of a maize hybrid with three checking of the possibility of the late break of sterility of the mother component. Only hybrids with stable sterility are recommended for the practical use. The scheme is needed a 6 years, so researchers should be careful in choosing hybrids for conversion and the starting point for it.

  9. Sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, J. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Machado, P. A. N., E-mail: pedro.machado@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maltoni, M. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Schwetz, T. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  10. Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua Yang; Ming-Fang Zhang; Jing-Quan Yu

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic malesterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change.As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position.Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the CMS line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrisl gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.

  11. Analysis of the light-sensitivity of the photoreceptor cells of the ataxia and male sterility (AMS) mouse, an Nna1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Asuka; Maruyama, Riruke; Harada, Yuji; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Harada, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    We confirmed retinal degeneration in the ataxia and male sterility (AMS) mouse, a mutant of the Nna1 gene, and examined the photosensitivity of the photoreceptors to determine how closely related the intrinsic and extrinsic factors were in triggering photoreceptor cell death. The AMS mice reared in a dark environment did not show atrophy of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) before 4 weeks of age, but in the older mice, retinal atrophy progressed in the same manner as in the AMS mice housed under normal light conditions. Examining the sensitivity to intentional light stimulation revealed the atrophy of the AMS retina to be exacerbated by a weak light. After administering strong light irradiation, equally severe ONL atrophy occurred in both the wild-type and AMS mice. These results indicate that in addition to functional loss of Nna1, another injurious stimulation is necessary to trigger death signals in photoreceptor cells during the postnatal period, but the cells die gradually and autonomously in older age, and that the mutation makes the cells vulnerable to a weak light, but does not increase the number of cells sensitive to strong light stimulation. Thus, these two factors are mutually independent death triggers in AMS photoreceptor cells.

  12. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  13. Mapping QTLs for Fertility Restoration of Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Types in Rice Using Two Oryza sativa ×O. rufipogon Backcross Inbred Line Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao-lin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR (XXD or XB//DWR/XB (XDX were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-, Indonesia Paddy- (ID-, and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed with both the XXD- and XDX-BILs, while the line with DWR-type CMS was testcrossed with the XDX-BILs only. A total of 16 QTLs for fertility restoration of CMS systems were identified, including three for DWR-type CMS, six for DA-type CMS, and seven for ID-type CMS. All of the additive alleles in the QTLs were derived from Oryza rufipogon. Eleven QTLs were clustered in five chromosomal regions, indicating that common Rf loci restored different CMS systems, and the favorable O. rufipogon alleles could be used to develop restorer lines for various CMS types by marker-assisted selection.

  14. Physical and gene organization of mitochondrial DNA in fertile and male sterile sunflower. CMS-associated alterations in structure and transcription of the atpA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siculella, L; Palmer, J D

    1988-05-11

    To study the molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), we compared the physical organization and transcriptional properties of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from isonuclear fertile and CMS lines. Mapping studies revealed much greater similarity between the two mtDNAs than in previous comparisons of fertile and CMS lines from other plant species. The two sunflower mtDNAs 1) are nearly identical in size (300 kb and 305 kb); 2) contain the same 12 kb recombination repeat and associated tripartite structure; 3) have the same dispersed distribution of mitochondrial genes and chloroplast DNA-homologous sequences; 4) are greater than 99.9% identical in primary sequence; and 5) are colinear over a contiguous region encompassing 94% of the genome. Detectable alterations are limited to a 17 kb region of the genome and reflect as few as two mutations--a 12 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion/deletion. One endpoint of both rearrangements is located within or near atpA, which is also the only mitochondrial gene whose transcripts differ between the fertile and CMS lines. Furthermore, a nuclear gene that restores fertility to CMS plants specifically influences the pattern of atpA transcripts. Rearrangements at the atpA locus may, therefore, be responsible for CMS in sunflower.

  15. Active oxygen metabolism in the floral buds and leaves of the new cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jianyu; HOU Xilin; ZHANG Changwei; YE Fan

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of the newly-bred non-heading Chinese cabbage were taken as experimental materials.The production rate of superoxide anion radical(O2-),contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT)as well as ascorbate peroxidase(APX)were determined in buds of different developmental stages and leaves during vegetative and florescence stages.As showed by the results,there were higher levels of MDA and H2O2 contents,higher 02- production rate and higher activities of SOD,POD,and CAT in the buds of the CMS lines than that in the buds of the fertile lines,while the APX activity was different from the other three enzymes above.There were differences in activities of protective enzymes in leaves but no significant differences in MDA contents and O2- production rate,which showed that the differences in metabolism of active oxygen between CMS and its maintainer were mainly apparent in reproductive organs.

  16. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  17. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing and transcriptional analysis to uncover an RT102-type cytoplasmic male sterility-associated candidate Gene Derived from Oryza rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masayuki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Murata, Hayato; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-09-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait in which plants fail to produce functional pollen and is associated with the expression of a novel open reading frame (orf) gene encoded by the mitochondrial genome. An RT102A CMS line and an RT102C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1125 and O. sativa Taichung 65. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we determined whole-genome sequences of the mitochondria in RT102-CMS cytoplasm. To identify candidates for the CMS-associated gene in RT102 mitochondria, we screened the mitochondrial genome for the presence of specific orf genes that were chimeric or whose products carried predicted transmembrane domains. One of these orf genes, orf352, which showed different transcript sizes depending on whether the restorer of fertility (Rf) gene was present or not, was identified. The orf352 gene was co-transcribed with the ribosomal protein gene rpl5, and the 2.8 kb rpl5-orf352 transcripts were processed into 2.6 kb transcripts with a cleavage at the inside of the orf352 coding region in the presence of the Rf gene. The orf352 gene is an excellent candidate for the CMS-associated gene for RT102-CMS.

  18. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition.

  19. Interspecific Y chromosome variation is sufficient to rescue hybrid male sterility and is influenced by the grandparental origin of the chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araripe, L O; Tao, Y; Lemos, B

    2016-06-01

    Y chromosomes display population variation within and between species. Co-evolution within populations is expected to produce adaptive interactions between Y chromosomes and the rest of the genome. One consequence is that Y chromosomes from disparate populations could disrupt harmonious interactions between co-evolved genetic elements and result in reduced male fertility, sterility or inviability. Here we address the contribution of 'heterospecific Y chromosomes' to fertility in hybrid males carrying a homozygous region of Drosophila mauritiana introgressed in the Drosophila simulans background. In order to detect Y chromosome-autosome interactions, which may go unnoticed in a single-species background of autosomes, we constructed hybrid genotypes involving three sister species: Drosophila simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia. These engineered strains varied due to: (i) species origin of the Y chromosome (D. simulans or D. sechellia); (ii) location of the introgressed D. mauritiana segment on the D. simulans third chromosome, and (iii) grandparental genomic background (three genotypes of D. simulans). We find complex interactions between the species origin of the Y chromosome, the identity of the D. mauritiana segment and the grandparental genetic background donating the chromosomes. Unexpectedly, the interaction of the Y chromosome and one segment of D. mauritiana drastically reduced fertility in the presence of Ysim, whereas the fertility is partially rescued by the Y chromosome of D. sechellia when it descends from a specific grandparental genotype. The restoration of fertility occurs in spite of an autosomal and X-linked genome that is mostly of D. simulans origin. These results illustrate the multifactorial basis of genetic interactions involving the Y chromosome. Our study supports the hypothesis that the Y chromosome can contribute significantly to the evolution of reproductive isolation and highlights the conditional manifestation of infertility in

  20. Mouse autosomal homolog of DAZ, a candidate male sterility gene in humans, is expressed in male germ cells before and after puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijo, R.; Seligman, J.; Jaffe, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    Deletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) region of the human Y chromosome results in spermatogenic failure. While the identity of the critical missing gene has yet to be established, a strong candidate is the putative RNA-binding protein DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia). Here we describe the mouse homolog of DAZ. Unlike human DAZ, which is Y-linked, in mouse the Dazh (DAZ homolog) gene maps to chromosome 17. Nonetheless, the predicted amino acid sequences of the gene products are quite similar, especially in their RNP/RRM (putative RNA-binding) domains, and both genes are transcribed predominantly in testes; the mouse gene is transcribed at a lower level in ovaries. Dazh transcripts were not detected in testes of mice that lack germ cells. In testes of wildtype mice, Dazh transcription is detectable 1 day after birth (when the only germ cells are prospermatogonia), increases steadily as spermatogonial stem cells appear, plateaus as the first wave of spermatogenic cells enters meiosis (10 days after birth), and is sustained at this level thereafter. This unique pattern of expression suggests the Dazh participates in differentiation, proliferation, or maintenance of germ cell founder populations before, during, and after the pubertal onset of spermatogenesis. Such functions could readily account for the diverse spermatogenic defects observed in human males with AZF deletion. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Study on breeding and utilization of genetic male sterile line in dwarf Chinese cabbage%矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 杨宁; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    A directional transfer program was designed by using multiple allele inherited genetic male-sterile line AB01 and its temporary maintainer line B01 as source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer botanical traits, while the genotype was identified through test cross. Following the procedure, the male sterile gene was successfully transferred to the target parent "Y", the inbred line of Jinguan in dwarf Chinese cabbage. A new male sterile line GMS401, which is similar to Y on botanical traits with 100% male sterility and 100% male sterile plants, was bred. The results showed that GMS401 as the female parent, the hybridized combinations GMS401×D1 and GMS401× D2 were finally obtained and they were excellent in horticultural characters and uniformity. In addition, the yield of the combinations was apparently higher than that of CK.%以复等位基因遗传的早熟大白菜雄性不育“两用系”AB01和“临时保持系”B01为试材,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交转育性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向源自金冠的矮脚黄白菜自交系Y中转育雄性不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%、园艺学性状与自交系Y相近的矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS401.结果表明,用GMS401试配的杂交组合(GMS401×D1)和(GMS401×D2)整齐度高,园艺学性状优异,产量显著高于对照品种南京矮脚黄和抗病矮脚黄.

  2. Molecular Study on Male Sterile Link Gene of ‘ Lu18S ’%水稻‘陆18S’核不育基因连锁的分子标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 肖层林

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study the linkage and genetic mechanisms of nuclear male sterile in rice. In this study, pollen fertility and seed setting observation were used to investigate in exploring crossing with three male varieties by bulk segreganting analysis of F2 population between the parents and two bulks population representing fertile and sterile plants. The results indicated that male-sterile gene of 'Lul8S' belonged to one recessive nucleus gene inheritance by one RAPD primer S490 amplified a length of 850 bp fragments. It showed close linkage with sterile gene. The length of the fragment was coincided with Kotb' s result. The RAPD linkage markers were obtained. It provided the basis for the study of sterile gene clone and location.%为了研究水稻不育基因的遗传机理和连锁情况.利用‘陆18S’与3个父本杂交,并对F2进行花粉育性和结实率观察和遗传分析,同时对F2后代进行RAPD分子标记.通过遗传分析得知,‘陆18S’不育系由1对隐性核基因控制.通过分子标记的筛选,找到了与‘陆18S’雄性不育紧密连锁的RAPD标记S490,片段大小为850 bp.获得与不育基因紧密连锁的RAPD标记.为不育基因克隆、定位奠定了坚实的基础.

  3. Study on Fertility Alteration of Wheat Male Sterile Line BNS in Shijiazhuang%小麦不育系BNS在石家庄地区育性转换规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 茹振刚; 陈希勇; 李辉; 李亚军; 赵爱菊; 宿振起

    2011-01-01

    2006~2010年在河北省石家庄地区自然条件下,对小麦温敏不育系BNS进行分期播种试验,研究了其在石家庄自然生态条件下的开花习性和育性转换规律。结果表明:播期对BNS育性影响较大,随着播种期的推迟,BNS雄性育性表现为完全败育或高度不育→半不育→完全可育的育性转换规律。BNS在石家庄地区10月9日以前播种,具有稳定的不育期,在此时期制种安全可靠;在11月10日以后播种,具有稳定的可育期,并且自交结实率高,繁殖系数高。%From 2006 to 2010, flowering characteristics and fertility alteration of wheat male sterile line BNS were studied by sowing date test under the natural ecological conditions in Shijiazhuang of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the fertility alteration of BNS was affected by the sowing date. With the delay of sowing date, line BNS showed the characteristics from complete or high sterility, to semi-sterility, then normal fertility. In Shijiazhuang, when BNS was sowed before September 9th, it would be complete male sterile and could be used to produce hybrid. When it was sowed after November lOth, it would have complete normal fertility and could be used to produce seeds of male sterile line,

  4. Differential screening of mitochondrial cDNA libraries from male-fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile sugar-beet reveals genome rearrangements at atp6 and atpA loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Collin, S; Davies, D R; Thomas, C M

    1994-04-01

    As part of a strategy to define differences in genome organization and expression between cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and male-fertile (MF) sugar-beet mitochondria, cDNA libraries from both mitochondrial genotypes were constructed. Preliminary screening with ribosomal RNA gene probes identified candidate cDNA clones corresponding to structural genes. In addition, reciprocal hybridization experiments were performed using labelled first-strand cDNA to identify uniquely transcribed sequences. One cDNA clone (pYC700) is unique to CMS mitochondria and is located upstream of the F0F1-ATPase subunit 6 gene (atp6). Another cDNA clone (pYC130), when used as a probe in northern hybridization analysis, revealed novel transcript profiles in CMS sugar-beet mitochondria. Sequence analysis of this cDNA showed strong homology with the F0F1-ATPase subunit alpha (atpA) coding sequences from several higher plants. The atp6 and atpA loci from each genotype were cloned and the genomic organization, DNA sequence and transcription of each locus was studied. Differences in the transcript profiles of each gene are a consequence of genomic rearrangements 5' to the coding sequence.

  5. Study on Male-Sterility in Zea mays Ⅷ. RFLP Analysis of mtDNA of YⅡ-1 Type Maize Male-Sterile Cytoplasm%玉米雄性不育性研究Ⅷ. 对玉米YⅡ-1不育胞质线粒体DNA RFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦泰辰; 徐明良; 邓德祥; 陈若雷; 卞云龙

    2001-01-01

    One set of male-sterile lines with the same nuclear backgrounds in maize Cms-T U8112、 Cms-s U8112、 Cms-C U8112 and Cms-YⅡ-1 U8112 were used in our experiment, mtDNA was prepared according to Kemble, R. J.; Hybridization had been described by Sambrook, J., Long length agrose gel electropherosis can bring out high resolution for EcoRⅠ, HindⅢ, BamHⅠ and PastⅠ restricted fragments of mtDNA of corn T、 S、 C group and new YⅡ-1 type male-sterile cytoplasms. Hybridization of 5 mtDNA specific probes to restricted mt DNA shown that many different hybridized bands were existed among T、 S and C groups, YⅡ-1 type was difference from T and S group, but there was tiny difference with C group in hybridized bands. We would apply the technique of sequence analysis to the division of masle-sterile YⅡ-1 type.%以玉米T、 S、 C群及新选育的YⅡ-1不育系为材料,用这4类群不育胞质线粒体DNA,经4种限制性内切酶酶切,长距凝胶分离酶切片段获得高分辨率的清晰谱带。再以5种线粒体特异的基因片段作为探针与酶切条带杂交,结果表明: T、 S、 C群表现较多差异的杂交带型,持有明显的多态性, YⅡ-1型杂交带与T、 S群区别明显,与C群有少量差异。这为从遗传组成上区分不育胞质类群和YⅡ-1型不育系的归群提供试验依据。

  6. 甜椒细胞质雄性不育基因的SRAP标记%SRAP marker linked to cytoplasmic male sterility in sweet pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国平; 袁稳; 刘金兵; 刁卫平; 王述彬; 潘宝贵; 戈伟; 侯喜林

    2012-01-01

    To get SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) marker linked to cytoplasmic male sterility in sweet pepper, SRAP was analyzed in cytoplasmic male sterile ( CMS) line T6A and its maintainer line T6B. The specific SRAP fragment was reclaimed, cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence of the specific fragment was analyzed with Blastn and Blastx in GenBank of NCBI. Total 128 pairs of SRAP primers were used. Three thousand eight hundred and forty four bands were amplified in two lines and 31 bands were amplified for an average primer combination. There were three polymorphic loci in two lines, but only one stable polymorphic fragment (named CMS T6A201 ) was found in CMS line. The results of Blastn and Blastx online showed that the fragment shared high homology with part of Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon sequence and had high similarities with partial protein sequence of Oryza saliva japonica group putative Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon protein, Medicago truncatula reverse tran&criptase, Oryza sativa indica group gag-pol polyprotein and Solarium demissum putative gag-pol polyprotein, respectively. The function of this specific fragment CMS T6A201, is likely to be closely related to retrotransposon.%为了筛选出甜椒细胞质雄性不育基因的连锁相关序列扩增多态性(SRAP)标记,以甜椒细胞质雄性不育系(CMS) T6A和相应的保持系T6B为材料,利用SRAP分子标记技术,筛选与甜椒不育基因相关的特异片段.对该特异片段进行回收、克隆和测序,并用Blastn和Blastx程序在NCBI数据库中进行同源性检索和相似性比对.128对SRAP引物扩增共获得了3844条100~1000bp的条带,平均每对引物组合可扩增出31条清晰的条带.检测到3个多态性位点,其中仅在不育系中扩出1条稳定的特异条带CMS T6A201.用Blastn程序进行核苷酸同源序列比较,特异片段CMS T6A201的序列与Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子的部分序列高度同源;用Blastx程序与蛋白质数据库进行同源性比

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  8. Development of Insect-Resistant Hybrid Rice by Introgressing the Bt Gene from Bt Rice Huahui 1 into II-32A/B, a Widely Used Cytogenic Male Sterile System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yun-song; HUANG Hai-qing; XU Meng-yun; WANG Liang-chao; ZHANG Xiao-bo; ZHANG Ji-wen; TU Ju-min

    2014-01-01

    Huahui 1 is an elite transgenic male sterile restorer line of wild rice abortive-type that expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)δ-endotoxin and provides effective and economic control of lepidopteran insects. To exploit Huahui 1 to develop a new Bt rice, the insertion site of the Bt gene was determined by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Bt was located in the promoter region of LOC.Os10g10360, approximately 5.35 Mb from the telomere of the short arm of chromosome 10. For the ifrst time, a Bt cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) system was developed by introgressing Bt from Huahui 1. The recipient CMS system used consisted of Indonesia paddy rice-type II-32B (maintainer line) and II-32A (male sterile line). Marker-assisted selection was used to increase selection efifciency in the backcrossing program. In BC5F1, the Bt plant 85015-8 was selected for further analyses, as it had the highest SSR marker homozygosity. In addition, the linkage drag of the foreign Bt gene in 85015-8 was minimized to 8.01-11.46 Mb. The foreign Bt gene was then delivered from 85015-8 into II-32A. The resultant Bt II-32A and Bt II-32B lines were both resistant to lepidopteran in ifeld trials, and agronomic traits were not disturbed. The maintainability of II-32B, and the male sterility and general combining ability of II-32A, were not affected by the Bt introgression. This study demonstrates a simple and fast approach to develop Bt hybrid rice.

  9. Investigating Pollen and Gene Flow of WYMV-Resistant Transgenic Wheat N12-1 Using a Dwarf Male-Sterile Line as the Pollen Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Dong

    Full Text Available Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF is the main mode of transgene flow in flowering plants. The study of pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat can help to establish the corresponding strategy for preventing transgene escape and contamination between compatible genotypes in wheat. To investigate the pollen dispersal and gene flow frequency in various directions and distances around the pollen source and detect the association between frequency of transgene flow and pollen density from transgenic wheat, a concentric circle design was adopted to conduct a field experiment using transgenic wheat with resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV as the pollen donor and dwarf male-sterile wheat as the pollen receptor. The results showed that the pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat varied significantly among the different compass sectors. A higher pollen density and gene flow frequency was observed in the downwind SW and W sectors, with average frequencies of transgene flow of 26.37 and 23.69% respectively. The pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat declined dramatically with increasing distance from its source. Most of the pollen grains concentrated within 5 m and only a few pollen grains were detected beyond 30 m. The percentage of transgene flow was the highest where adjacent to the pollen source, with an average of 48.24% for all eight compass directions at 0 m distance. Transgene flow was reduced to 50% and 95% between 1.61 to 3.15 m, and 10.71 to 20.93 m, respectively. Our results suggest that climate conditions, especially wind direction, may significantly affect pollen dispersal and gene flow of wheat. The isolation-by-distance model is one of the most effective methods for achieving stringent transgene confinement in wheat. The frequency of transgene flow is directly correlated with the relative density of GM pollen grains in air currents, and pollen competition may be a major factor influencing transgene flow.

  10. Tubal Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at any time. Postpartum sterilization can take place right after a woman gives birth, if it was a cesarean delivery (C-section). It can also be performed within hours or days of a vaginal ... occur. Contact your doctor right away if you:develop a feverbleed from an ...

  11. An unedited 1.1 kb mitochondrial orfB gene transcript in the Wild Abortive Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (WA-CMS system of Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiti Mrinal K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of hybrid rice technology has significantly increased global rice production during the last three decades. Approximately 90% of the commercially cultivated rice hybrids have been derived through three-line breeding involving the use of WA-CMS lines. It is believed that during the 21st century, hybrid rice technology will make significant contributions to ensure global food security. This study examined the poorly understood molecular basis of the WA-CMS system in rice. Results RFLPs were detected for atp6 and orfB genes in sterile and fertile rice lines, with one copy of each in the mt-genome. The RNA profile was identical in both lines for atp6, but an additional longer orfB transcript was identified in sterile lines. 5' RACE analysis of the long orfB transcript revealed it was 370 bp longer than the normal transcript, with no indication it was chimeric when compared to the genomic DNA sequence. cDNA clones of the longer orfB transcript in sterile lines were sequenced and the transcript was determined unedited. Sterile lines were crossed with the restorer and maintainer lines, and fertile and sterile F1 hybrids were respectively generated. Both hybrids contained two types of orfB transcripts. However, the long transcript underwent editing in the fertile F1 hybrids and remained unedited in the sterile lines. Additionally, the editing of the 1.1 kb orfB transcript co-segregated with fertility restoring alleles in a segregating population of F2 progeny; and the presence of unedited long orfB transcripts was detected in the sterile plants from the F2 segregating population. Conclusion This study helped to assign plausible operative factors responsible for male-sterility in the WA cytoplasm of rice. A new point of departure to dissect the mechanisms governing the CMS-WA system in rice has been identified, which can be applied to further harness the opportunities afforded by hybrid vigor in rice.

  12. Morphological Structure and Transcriptome Comparison of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Brassica napus (SaNa-1A) Derived from Somatic Hybridization and Its Maintainer Line SaNa-1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kun; Liu, Qier; Wu, Xinyue; Jiang, Jinjin; Wu, Jian; Fang, Yujie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Youping

    2016-01-01

    SaNa-1A is a novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line in Brassica napus derived from progenies of somatic hybrids between B.napus and Sinapis alba, and SaNa-1B is the corresponding maintainer line. In this study, phenotypic differences of floral organs between CMS and the maintainer lines were observed. By microscope observation in different anther developmental stages of two lines, we found the anther development in SaNa-1A was abnormal since the tetrad stage, and microspore development was ceased during the uninucleate stage. Transcriptomic sequencing for floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were conducted to elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from S. alba. Clean tags obtained were assembled into 195,568 unigenes, and 7811 unigenes distributed in the metabolic and protein synthesis pathways were identified with significant expression differences between two libraries. We also observed that genes participating in carbon metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation–reduction system, pentatricopeptide repeat, and anther development were downregulated in the sterile line. Some of them are candidates for researches on the sterility mechanism in the CMS material, fertility restoration, and improvement of economic traits in the maintainer line. Further research on the tags with expressional specificity in the fertile line would be helpful to explore desirable agronomic traits from wild species of rapeseed. PMID:27656189

  13. Main Characters of 6 Male Sterile Lines of Oil Sunflower in Lanzhou%6个油葵雄性不育系在兰州的主要性状表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卯旭辉; 陈炳东; 葛玉彬; 贾秀苹

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究6个油葵雄性不育系在兰州的主要性状表现.[方法]在田间将恢复系、不育系与保持系依次相邻播种,生育期记载物候期、植物学特征及农艺性状表现,开花后观察育性,统计不育株率.通过不育系自交.人工杂交和异交,测定不育系结实率、亲和指数和主要经济性状.[结果]6个不育系生育期为112~122d,不育株率均为100%,自交结实率为0,与恢复系杂交结实率为77.55%~91.76%.异交结实率为84.24%~92.12%,亲和指数为0.783 0~0.905 0,子实含油率39.58%~50.22%.[结论]6个不育系育性遗传稳定,综合农艺性状表现较好;6个不育系的杂交亲和力差异显著,同一不育系与不同恢复系的杂交亲和力也存在差异.其中F15-2A综合农艺性状表现最突出.%[Objective] The aim was to study main characters of 6 male-restorer lines of oil-sunflower in Lanzhou. [Method] In the field restorer lines, male-sterile lines and maintainer lines were planted in turn. Agronomic characteristics, botanical characteristics, phonological period were recorded in the growth period and sterile rate was counted after blossoming. With self-crossing, artificial crossing and out crossingMethods, seeding rate, compatibility index and economic characters were measured. [Result] Growth period of 6 malesterile lines were 112 -122 d, sterile rate, self-fruitful rate, seed setting rate of hybridization and outcrossing rate were 100% ,0, 77.55% -91.076% ,84.24% -92.12% respectively, compatibility index was 0.783 0 -0. 905 0 ,and oil content of seed was 39. 58% -50.22%. [Conclusion] 6 male sterile lines had stable fertility, and integrated agronomic characters were good. Notable distinctions lied in the different male sterile lines, and hybridization compatibility of the same male sterile lines and different restorer lines was different. Agronomic characters of F15-2A was outstanding in 6 male sterile lines.

  14. Progress in the study of producing reversible male sterile line by genetic engineering%基因工程培育可恢复的植物雄性不育系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉锋; 黄霁月; 杨金水

    2011-01-01

    植物雄性不育是植物杂种优势利用的资源,具有重要的生产利用价值.植物雄性不育可从自然突变,人工诱变和远缘杂交中发现,现在可通过细胞工程和基因工程等方法来创造.文章综述了利用基因工程方法制备雄性不育品系及其相应的育性恢复策略,分为"单组分策略"和"双组分策略".其中利用"单组分策略"制备的不育植株是条件型雄性不育(可逆转的雄性不育),它能在特定的条件下实现雄性可育与不育的转换,实践中可直接作为两用系(不育系和保持系)用于两系法杂交制种;"双组分策略"是利用基因互作和亲本杂交直接培育雄性不育系,或利用基因互作原理分别研制不育系和恢复系,用于三系法生产杂交种.文章分析了"单组分策略"和"双组分策略"的基因工程方法培育雄性不育系及其相应育性恢复策略优缺点,对以上两种技术路线在实际应用中的现状作了分析和展望.%Plant male sterility is a kind of resource of heterosis, which has important value in production.It may be derived from natural mutations, artificial mutations, distant hybridizations.and now through cell engineering and genetic engineering.This paper reviews the progress of strategies in production of plant male sterile lines and their corresponding fertile lines via genetic engineering approach.All strategies can be grouped into "single component strategy" and"two-component strategy"."Single component strategy" produces conditional (reversible) male sterile line, whose fercility can be switched under given condition.Conditional male sterile line has two roles, which are CMS and maintainer line for breeding in practice; "two-component strategy" takes advantage of gene interaction and parental hybridization to generate male sterile line.Otherwise, it develops sterile line and restorer line respectively for three-line hybrid system for seed production through gene interaction.This paper

  15. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters

  16. Histological Observation of Microsporogenesis in Cytoplasm Male Sterile (CMS) Line of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)%萝卜胞质雄性不育系小孢子母细胞发育的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一卉; 谭婷婷; 刘立锋; 林超; 李化银; 李利斌; 王淑芬; 程斐; 高建伟

    2012-01-01

    The paraffin method was used for histological observation of microsporogenesis of the male sterile line RS - CMS2. The male sterile line began to abort when microspores at tetrad stage. The tapetal cells enlarged abnormally at meiotic phase and presented many large vacuoles. Then with the degeneration of the tapetal cells, microspores conglutinated each other and fused to form a big conglomeration. Finally, the pollen grains aborted completely. This result would be helpful to understand the mechanism of cytoplasm male sterile (CMS) and to increase the breeding efficiency in the future.%利用石蜡切片的方法对萝卜雄性不育系RS - CMS2的小孢子母细胞发育过程进行了组织学观察.结果表明:萝卜雄性不育株在四分体时期开始出现败育现象;绒毡层细胞膨大,出现大的液泡;随后绒毡层细胞破裂,侵入药室,细胞彼此之间难以分清界限;小孢子粘连在一起,胞质进一步收缩,并开始出现降解.该研究为进一步揭示萝卜细胞质雄性不育的作用机制、提高育种效率有重要的参考价值.

  17. Breeding and Application of a Japonic Rice Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line, E-Jing A%三系杂交粳稻新不育系鄂粳A的选育与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆四; 徐得泽; 刘良军; 陈雄; 游艾青; 祝师元; 万丙良; 戚华雄; 殷德所; 程航; 李珍连; 吴建平

    2015-01-01

    介绍了茶野型粳稻雄性不育系鄂粳A 的选育过程、特征特性及恢保关系。鄂粳 A不育性稳定,不育株率100%,不育度99.8%,花粉败育以典败为主,占98%以上,柱头外露率48.2%,异交结实率30%~50%,在武汉5月上旬至6月中旬播种,播始历期为78~90 d,属感温性粳稻类型,配合力较好,品质优良。%The Chaling wild abortive type (CL-type) cytoplasmic male sterile line, E-Jing A, was characterized by stable sterility with a sterile plant percentage of 100%, a pol en sterile degree of 98% with dominated typical abortive pol ens, and showed the characteristics of good outcrossing with a stigma exsertion rate of 48.2% and an outcrossing rate varied from 30% to 50%, good combining ability, and fine grain quality. E-Jing A was sensitive to temperature. Its duration from sowing to heading was 78-90 d when it was sown from mid May to early June at Wuhan. The breeding procedure of E-Jing A and its characteristics, relationship of restoring and maintaining were introduced.

  18. 水稻雄性不育系珍汕97A小孢子发育过程中的微管骨架%Microtubule Structure and Male Sterility in a Gene-Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line of Rice, Zhen Shan 97A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶秀麟; 杨子德; 徐是雄; 梁承邺

    2003-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)雄性不育系珍汕97A、保持系珍汕97B和恢复系测64三系小孢子发生过程的研究表明:恢复系测64小孢子母细胞细胞质浓,有明显的微管荧光围绕着细胞核.小孢子母细胞经两次减数分裂形成四分体.四分体和小孢子的微管从细胞核表面向胞质周缘延伸,形成放射性排列格局,花粉发育正常.细胞质中有少量点状微管荧光.保持系珍汕97B小孢子发生过程的细胞形态和微管结构与恢复系测64相似,但细胞质中的点状微管荧光多一些.雄性不育系珍汕97A小孢子发生早期,小孢子母细胞内出现液泡,核中染色质凝集,微管荧光很弱,没有清晰的微管丝结构,细胞质中有许多点状微管荧光等不正常现象.小孢子母细胞经过减数分裂形成的四分体也没有清晰的丝状微管结构.随后,所有的小孢子迅速败育.雄性不育系珍汕97A在小孢子母细胞发生的很早时期,微管结构就明显不正常.%Histological changes that occur during microsporogenesis are documented in a gene-cytoplasmic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) line, Zhen Shan 97A, its maintainer line, Zhen Shan 97B, and the restorer line, Ce64 of a 3-line hybrid rice production system. In the restorer line, Ce64, the developing microsporocytes have dense cytoplasm and a distinct set of circumferential microtubules around the nucleus. Successive cytokinesis results in the formation of tetrads. The microtubules within the cells of tetrads and microspores radiate from the surface of the nucleus towards the outer edge of the cytoplasm. Subsequent pollen development is normal. During the course of microspore formation tubulin speckles can be found in the cytoplasm. The general pattern of development and microtubule organization in the maintainer line, Zhen Shan 97B, is similar to Ce64, except that a few more tubulin speckles appear during microspore formation. In the case of the male sterile line, Zhen Shan 97A

  19. 水稻雄性不育突变体012S-3的遗传分析和基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Male Sterile Mutant 012S-3 in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 王楚桃; 朱子超; 何永歆; 蒋刚; 黄乾龙; 管玉圣; 熊英; 李贤勇

    2015-01-01

    Male sterility is an important resource for utilization of Heterosis in rice. Research on male sterility has important theoretical significance and practical value. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and pollen fertility of the rice natural male-sterile mutant 012S-3. The genetic populations were constructed for preliminary positioning of the target gene, and genome sequencing technology were used for fine positioning of the, target gene. The results showed that 012S-3 was a typical non-pollen type mutant of male sterility and its sterility was controlled by a pairs of recessive nuclear genes. Preliminary mapping analysis indicated the objective gene and SSR marker RM6081 linkage, and their genetic distance was about 34.4 cM. By further fine mapping analysis, three candidate genes were found: LOC_Os07g35880, LOC_Os07g35920 and LOC_Os07g35940. In which, LOC_Os07g35880 and LOC_Os07g35940 encoding two putative β-amylases, belong to the new pollen lethal genes in rice. The successful positioning of the sterile gene laid a foundation for its further isolation, cloning and its application in rice molecular design breeding.%雄性不育是水稻杂种优势利用的重要资源,对雄性不育现象的研究具有重要理论意义和实践价值。本研究以自然突变的水稻雄性不育突变体012S-3为试验材料,对其表型特征和花粉育性等进行调查,并构建遗传群体,利用分子标记对目的基因进行初步定位,然后应用基因组重测序技术对其进行精细定位。结果表明,012S-3是一个典型的无花粉普通型雄性不育材料,其不育性状受1对隐性核基因控制。初步定位分析目的基因与SSR标记RM6081存在连锁关系,其遗传距离约为34.4 cM;进一步的精细定位分析,找到3个候选基因:LOC_Os07g35880、LOC_Os07g35920和LOC_Os07g35940,其中LOC_Os07g35880和LOC_Os07g35940编码β-淀粉酶,属于水稻中新发现的花粉致死基因

  20. 蜜腺发达Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜雄性不育系的鉴定%Evaluation of Late - bolting Ogura Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Lines with Developed Nectar Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    By comparing of bumble bee visiting and staying time on flowers of Ogura non - heading Chinese cabbage male sterile lines, two plants were identified and selected as they attracted more bumble bee visiting. Nectar gland size, flowering, and pod set of these two plants were further determined. The results showed that the two selected plants all had developed nectar glands, flowered and set pod normally. This finding set a well foundation for breeding out elite late -bolting Ogura male sterile lines in non -heading Chinese cabbage.%本试验以Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜薹ms等为材料,通过观察和比较熊蜂对不同白菜品种访花次数和访花滞留时间的差异,选择出能吸引熊蜂访花且访花滞留时间长的Ogura薹ms植株.对选择出植株的蜜腺大小和开花结实特性进行了进一步鉴定,结果表明选出的薹ms株蜜腺发达,开花结实正常,为选育优良晚抽薹胞质不结球白菜雄性不育系奠定了基础.

  1. The VviMYB80 Gene is Abnormally Expressed in Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' and its Expression in Tobacco Driven by the 35S Promoter Causes Male Sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan; Yu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Meng; Ji, Chenfei; Liu, Qian; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-03-01

    Anther development is a very precise and complicated process. In Arabidopsis, the AtMYB80 transcription factor regulates genes involved in pollen development and controls the timing of tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA for VviMYB80 expressed in flower buds of male-sterile Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong', a late-maturing cultivar derived from self-progeny of cv. 'Wink'. VviMYB80 belongs to the MYB80 subfamily and clusters with AtMYB35/TDF1 in a distinct clade. We found that in flower buds, expression of the VviMYB80 gene in cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' sharply increased at the tetrad stage, resulting in a higher and earlier transcript level than that found in cv. 'Wink'. Expression of the VviMYB80 gene, driven by the 35S promoter, caused pleiotropic effects on the stamens, including smaller and shriveled anthers, delayed dehiscence, fewer seeds, shorter anther filaments, distorted pollen shape and a lack of cytoplasm, with the tapetum exhibiting hypertrophy in transformed tobacco. These results suggest that VviMYB80 may play an important role in stamen development and that expression of VviMYB80 driven by the 35S promoter in tobacco induces male sterility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  3. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  4. The Fertility Restoration Performance,Heterosis and Cytoplasm Effect of Nian-type Male Sterile Wheat Lines%粘类小麦细胞质雄性不育系恢复性能及其杂种优势和细胞质效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建超; 张改生; 孙瑞; 牛娜; 马守才; 李红霞

    2012-01-01

    In orde to reveal the fertility restoration performance,heterosis and cytoplasm effect of Nian-type male sterile wheat lines,and to promote the application of three-line hybrid wheat in production,nineteen male sterile wheat lines of four kinds of Nian-type alloplasms were used as female parents,248 hybrid F1 were obtained through crossing with series of restorer lines(r-line),which were either isonuclear-alloplasmic or isocytoplasmic-heteronuclear.The restoration,heterosis performance,as well as the cytoplasm effect of Nian-type wheat male sterile lines were investigated.The result indicated that,(1) the primary factors influencing the restoring degree of Nian-type male sterile wheat line were restorer line,karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm type of male-sterile line,in order.Among the restorer lines used,Abo,5166,xiaoyan22,xiaoyan6 and 518,the qinlong126 were the good r-lines for Nian-type male-sterile wheat lines.The karyotype of 90-110 had a higher restoring degree than the others.(2)Nian-type male-sterile wheat line was good breeding material with widespread and obvious heterosis in F1 with series r-line.Strong heterosis were observed in ear length,average tillering number of F1,which were 1.129 times and 1.273 times higher than the restorer line,respectively.(3) The haploid of Nian-type sterile wheat line by cytoplasm effect was the result of comprehensive interactions among the karyotype of male-sterile line,the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line and the r-line.Among which,the effect in order was karyotype of male-sterile line cytoplasm types of male-sterile line r-line.The degree of haploid were related with the karyotype of male-sterile line and the cytoplasm types of male-sterile line,but the frequency of haploid only directly related with the karyotype of male-sterile line.There was no correlation between the serious degree of haploid and the the frequency of haploid.The Ven cytoplasm type of male-sterile line had the

  5. 水稻不育系的广亲和基因检测及籼粳型分析%Identification of S5-n gene and subspecies classification of indica and japonica in rice male sterile line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏士健; 张启军; 杨杰; 吕川根

    2011-01-01

    为鉴定部分水稻不育系的广亲和性和籼粳型,根据籼粳亚种间广亲和基因S5-n在第6染色体存在136 bp片段缺失的特征,设计InDel标记S5136,对培矮64S、广占63S等不育系进行广亲和基因鉴定.利用与栽培稻籼、粳遗传分化密切相关的34个InDel标记,对这些不育系PCR产物的电泳结果进行判读和分析,计算其籼型或粳型基因频率(InDel分子指数法).结果表明:①三系不育系粤泰A具有广亲和基因S5-n.②两系不育系培矮64S、N111S、C815S等11个不育系具有广亲和基因S5-n.③目前广泛应用于生产的不育系培矮64S、广占63S、Y58S等的籼型基因频率均为0.76~0.91,据此认为具有10%~25%左右粳稻血缘的籼型不育系可能更有利于亚种间杂种优势利用.%According to the 136 bp deletion of wide compatibility gene (S5-n) in comparison with alleles in indica and japonica varieties at 55 locus, SSI36, an InDel marker was designed to identify S5-n gene in rice male sterile lines, Peiai64S, Cuangzhan63S, etc. With 34 InDel markers which related closely to genetic differentiation of rice indica or japonica variety, male sterile lines were analyzed for their indica or japonica gene frequency (InDel molecular method) by gel electrophoresis of PCR product. The results showed that:① A cytoplasm male sterility line, YuetaiA, possessed wide compatibility gene,S5-n.②Ten dual-purpose genie male sterile lines, such as Peiai64S, N111S, and C815S etc. Possessed S5-n gene.③Peiai64S, Cuangzhan63S, Y58S, etc. Which were widely used in the present rice production, displayed their indica gene frequency in a range of 0.76-0.91, from which it could be suggested that rice male sterile lines holding genes with 10% -25% of indica type might be more favorable for the utilization of heterosis of hybrid rice.

  6. Identification of Soybean Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Maintainer Line with Mitochondrial ISSR and SCAR Markers%线粒体ISSR与SCAR标记鉴定大豆细胞质雄性不育系与保持系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春宝; 李玉秋; 彭宝; 王鹏年; 董英山; 赵丽梅

    2013-01-01

    By extracting the mitochondrial DNA of cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer line, screening with 100 ISSR primers, and it was found that the amplification product of primer ISSR829 had differences in sterile line and its maintainer. Then sequenced the different fragments and found that the sequence was only exist in the maintainer mitochondrial genome, and upstream of mitochondrial gene Atp6 by 2 000 bp. It was suggested that the sequence has a relationship with infertility. Designed primers according to the sequence and detected female parent and its maintainer line of five soybean hybrids, and found that sterile line did not appear specific fragment,but a target fragment corresponding maintainer lines. It was confirmed that the specific fragments was converted to a SCAR marker, which could be used for testing the seed purity of cytoplasmic male sterile line.%通过提取细胞质雄性不育系和同型保持系的线粒体基因组DNA,用100条ISSR引物进行筛选,发现引物ISSR829的扩增片段在不育系和保持系间存在差异.对差异片段进行测序发现,该序列仅存在于保持系线粒体基因组中,且位于基因Atp6上游2000 bp处,推断其可能与不育有关.利用测序获得片段设计引物,用目前已育成的5个大豆杂交种的不育系母本和同型保持系的基因组DNA为模版,进行PCR扩增,发现不育系母本未出现特异片段,而对应保持系出现目的片段,表明该特异片段转化为SCAR标记,可用于不育系的筛选和不育系种子纯度鉴定.

  7. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  8. Comparison of Methods for Transferring Genetic Male Sterile Lines of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage with Anti-clubroot%桔红心大白菜抗根肿病不育系转育方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 李林; 李茜; 陈永浩

    2012-01-01

    以普通心抗根肿病甲型“两用系”和桔红心自交系LH为试材,通过杂交、回交和系内交等方法研究了桔红心与普通心的遗传关系、桔红心自交系抗性和育性的基因型.试验结果表明:桔红心对普通心表现为一对隐性基因控制的简单遗传,桔红心自交系的抗性和育性基因型分别为rr和msms;提出了桔红心大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系的两种转育模式,其中系内交模式比回交模式提前一代得到新的不育系;在第二代筛选桔红心性状时,对子叶法、球心色法和花色法三种方法进行了比较,子叶法不但在幼苗期就可以筛选到桔红心性状,而且抗性调查和育性鉴定的群体最小,是三种方法中最理想的.%Taking the genetic male sterile AB lines (type 1) of yellow head Chinese cabbage with anti -clubroot and orange head Chinese cabbage lines (LH) as the test materials, the genetic relations between the head colors of orange and yellow and the genotypes of clubroot - resistance and fertility of orange head lines were studied through cross, backcross and sibling mate. The experimental results indecated clearly that orange to yellow was controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and rr and msms were the anti-cluhroot genotype and fertile genotype of LH. In the light of these, this study proposed two models of transferring genetic male sterile lines of orange head Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot, among which model ( 2) could get genetic male sterile lines in the fourth generation, but model ( 1) in the fifth generation. Although orange plants will be sifled out in the second generation using cotyledon method, head color method or flower color method, cotyledon method will be the best one, for in this way orange plants can be screened in the seedling stage, and survey groups of resistance and fertility will be smaller than other methods.

  9. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  10. Development of a Molecular Marker Identifying Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Gene in Onion(Allium cepa L.)%洋葱细胞质雄性不育基因分子标记的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永博; 刘冰江; 霍雨猛; 缪军; 杨建平; 吴雄; 杨妍妍

    2015-01-01

    The specific primers of orfA501 in chives and cytoplasmic male sterile line of onion were used to PCR amplification.The amplified fragment was extracted and sequenced.The primers were designed ac-cording to the obtained sequence for genome walking,and partial flanking sequence was obtained.Then a SCAR marker was developed and named as OC2175.With this marker,a special fragment of 2 175 bp could be obtained from the male sterile lines and a 1 053 bp fragment was amplified from both (s)-cytoplasm and (N)-cytoplasm.Seventeen pairs of male sterile lines and their corresponding maintainer lines with different genetic backgrounds were used to verify this SCAR marker.The results indicated that the SCAR marker was perfectly suitable for distinguishing the cytoplasm types S or N in onion.%根据细香葱 orfA501开发的特异引物,以洋葱细胞质雄性不育系为试材进行 PCR 扩增,对获得的片段进行回收测序,根据测序结果设计引物进行染色体步移,获得部分侧翼序列,开发了鉴定洋葱细胞质基因型的 SCAR 标记,命名为 OC2175。该标记在洋葱不育系中扩增出一条2175 bp 的特异条带和1053 bp 的条带,而保持系中仅扩增出1053 bp 的条带。对17组不同遗传背景的不育系及其相应的保持系进行验证,该SCAR 标记的鉴定结果与田间表型判断结果完全吻合。

  11. 影响不育男性手淫法取精液行常规检查的相关因