WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetics policy conversation

  1. Community-based dialogue: engaging communities of color in the United states' genetics policy conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Vence L; Citrin, Toby; Modell, Stephen M; Franklin, Tené Hamilton; Bleicher, Esther W B; Fleck, Leonard M

    2009-06-01

    Engaging communities of color in the genetics public policy conversation is important for the translation of genetics research into strategies aimed at improving the health of all. Implementing model public participation and consultation processes can be informed by the Communities of Color Genetics Policy Project, which engaged individuals from African American and Latino communities of diverse socioeconomic levels in the process of "rational democratic deliberation" on ethical and policy issues stretching from genome research to privacy and discrimination concerns to public education. The results of the study included the development of a participatory framework based on a combination of the theory of democratic deliberation and the community-based public health model which we describe as "community-based dialogue."

  2. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  3. Starting the Conversation: University-Wide Research Data Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erway, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    This call for action addresses the high-level benefits of adopting a university-wide policy regarding research data management. It identifies the various university stakeholders and suggests that the library initiate a conversation among them in order to get buy-in for a proactive, rather than reactive, high-level policy for responsible data…

  4. Longitudinal stability in genetic effects on children's conversational language productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Harlaar, Nicole; Petrill, Stephen A; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-06-01

    The authors examined the longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental influences on children's productive language sample measures during the early school-age years. Twin study methodology with structural equation modeling was used to derive univariate estimates of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on language measures at each of 2 time points, based on 487 twins at the 1st-grade time point and 387 twins at the 2nd-grade time point. To address questions of stability over time, the authors used longitudinal latent factor analysis. Stability in the Conversational Language factor was accounted for almost entirely by shared genetic effects between 1st and 2nd grade, meaning no new genetic effects were observed at the 2nd time point. In contrast, nonshared environmental effects were entirely time point specific, meaning whatever nonshared environmental influences were operating at the first time point were not influencing individual variation in the language factor at the second time point. The discussion in this article centers on possible candidates for both genetic and nonshared environmental effects as well as implications for clinical practice and future research.

  5. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  6. Ethics, policy, and educational issues in genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K; Skirton, Heather; Masny, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Analyze ethics, public policy, and education issues that arise in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) when genomic information acquired as a result of genetic testing is introduced into healthcare services. Priorities in the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Research Program include privacy, integration of genetic services into clinical health care, and educational preparation of the nursing workforce. These constructs are used to examine health policies in the US and UK, and professional interactions of individuals and families with healthcare providers. Individual, family, and societal goals may conflict with current healthcare practices and policies when genetic testing is done. Current health policies do not fully address these concerns. Unresolved issues include protection of privacy of individuals while considering genetic information needs of family members, determination of appropriate monitoring of genetic tests, addressing genetic healthcare discrepancies, and assuring appropriate nursing workforce preparation. Introduction of genetic testing into health care requires that providers are knowledgeable regarding ethical, policy, and practice issues in order to minimize risk for harm, protect the rights of individuals and families, and consider societal context in the management of genetic test results. Understanding of these issues is a component of genetic nursing competency that must be addressed at all levels of nursing education.

  7. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  8. Public preferences and the challenge to genetic research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Modern genetic research requires scientists to collect, store, and study DNA samples and health information from thousands of people. Longstanding policy allows researchers to use samples and information without a person's informed consent as long as the person's identity is protected. Under existing policy, researchers must neither disclose study results to interested research participants nor compensate people who contribute to genetic research. Research and ethics experts developed these policy approaches without input from the people whose contributions are essential to the genetic research enterprise. A growing body of evidence shows that many research participants and would-be participants disagree with the current policy approaches. For ethical and practical reasons, participants should have a greater role in determining how genetic research is conducted.

  9. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo mo...

  10. Public opinion on policy issues in genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Rene; Gadarian, Shana Kushner

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine public opinion on major policy issues in genetics and genomics, including federal spending on genetic research, the perceived significance of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, and whether clinicians should be involved in direct-to-consumer genetic testing. This was a survey with a nationally representative sample of 2,100 American adults administered by the nonpartisan research firm YouGov in January 2011. The majority of the respondents (57%) believe that the federal government should spend more on genetic research, 82% rank the 2008 antidiscrimination law as "important," and 65% say that clinicians should be involved in explaining genetic test results (contra the practice of some direct-to-consumer companies). On all three policy issues, gender and political party affiliation were statistically significantly associated with respondents' views, whereas race/ethnicity and education were less consistently associated with policy opinions. Americans demonstrate widespread support for scientific research on genetics, laws protecting citizens against genetic discrimination, and the need to involve medical professionals in the process of genetic testing. These results are useful for scientists designing research projects, clinicians interacting with patients, professional organizations lobbying for resources, federal agencies setting budget priorities, and legislators designing regulation.

  11. Reassessment of NRC`s dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ``Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,`` NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995.

  12. Research in energy conversion technologies. Policy instruments and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straathof, B.; Van Zon, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of uncertainty and of various policy instruments on the length and attractiveness of private research projects are studied. Research expenditure can be regained from quasi-rents that are earned by exploiting patents on the fruits of research. The accumulation of knowledge is modeled as a Poisson process. Within the context of the model, we show that firms shorten the duration of research projects when uncertainty in knowledge accumulation increases or when, for example, the validity of patents is prolonged. The underlying mechanisms are due to Jensen's Inequality and a real-option effect. Furthermore, we develop a smooth pasting condition for a class of Poisson processes.

  13. DTC genetic testing: pendulum swings and policy paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T

    2012-01-01

    After decades of optimistic portrayals, there has been a shift in the way that the popular press represents genomic research. A skeptical view has become more common. The central reason for this pendulum swing away from popular support is the harsh truth that most genetic risk information just isn't that predictive. This reality has created a fascinating policy paradox. If, as many in the scientific community are now saying, genetic information is not the oracle of our future health as we were once led to believe, and if access does not, for most, cause harm, why regulate the area? Why worry about shoddy direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies? One primary justification, and one endorsed by the recent Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) Policy Statement on DTC Genetics Testing, is that information that is conveyed to the public about genetics via marketing and to those who access DTC tests should, at a minimum, be accurate.

  14. Longitudinal Stability in Genetic Effects on Children's Conversational Language Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Harlaar, Nicole; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental influences on children's productive language sample measures during the early school-age years. Method: Twin study methodology with structural equation modeling was used to derive univariate estimates of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and…

  15. Law and policy in the era of reproductive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Knowles, L; Meslin, E M

    2004-08-01

    The extent to which society utilises the law to enforce its moral judgments remains a dominant issue in this era of embryonic stem cell research, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and human reproductive cloning. Balancing the potential health benefits and diverse moral values of society can be a tremendous challenge. In this context, governments often adopt legislative bans and prohibitions and rely on the inflexible and often inappropriate tool of criminal law. Legal prohibitions in the field of reproductive genetics are not likely to reflect adequately the depth and diversity of competing stakeholder positions. Rather, a comprehensive and readily responsive regulatory policy is required. Such a policy must attend to the evolving scientific developments and ethical considerations. We outline a proposal for effective, responsive, and coherent oversight of new reproductive genetic technologies.

  16. The physical, economic and policy drivers of land conversion to forestry in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Vincent; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Ryan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is fundamentally a product of the interaction of physical land characteristics, economic considerations and agricultural and environmental policies. Researchers are increasingly combining physical and socio-economic spatial data to investigate the drivers of land-use change in relation to policy and economic developments. Focusing on Ireland, this study develops a panel data set of annual afforestation over 2811 small-area boundaries between 1993 and 2007 from vector and raster data sources. Soil type and other physical characteristics are combined with the net returns of converting agricultural land to forestry, based on the micro-simulation of individual farm incomes, to investigate land conversion. A spatial econometric approach is adopted to model the data and a range of physical, economic and policy factors are identified as having a significant effect on afforestation rates. In addition to the financial returns, the availability and quality of land and the implementation of environmental protection policies are identified as important factors in land conversion. The implications of these factors for the goal of forest expansion are discussed in relation to conflicting current and future land use policies.

  17. Factors Influencing the Conversion of Arable Land to Urban Use and Policy Implications in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban land expansion and the resulting arable land loss have put food security in China at risk. This paper investigates the characteristics and mechanism of arable land conversion in Beijing using a logistic model based on land-use data for 2001 and 2010. The results suggest that (1 arable land conversion tends to occur near built-up areas, city centers and major roads; (2 arable land that lies closer to irrigation canals and country roads is less likely to be converted to urban use; (3 arable land that is bigger in size and has a more regular shape has a lower probability of conversion to urban use; and (4 the Prime Farmland Protection policy and related land-use plan have played a positive role in preserving arable land, demonstrated by the probability for arable land conversion inside a prime farmland boundary is 63.9 percent less than for land outside the boundary. Based on these findings and on sustainable-development principles, we suggest that, rather than an exclusive focus on controlling the quantity of arable land, the location and characteristics of the arable land should be a primary consideration when designing urban policies and plans.

  18. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. METHODS: A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6 genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. RESULTS: Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  19. Direction of Policy Convergence in the EU: The Case of Genetically Modified Maize Labelling Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sadot Sosa-Núñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to the academic dialogue of policy convergence by examining the direction taken by the policy to label genetically modified maize in the European Union. Considering international harmonisation as the causal mechanism, this article provides a chronological account of policy outputs, understood as directives and regulations related to this policy area. Additionally, there is an analysis of the increase of the degree of policy convergence. Furthermore, different national perspectives on the issue are presented, offering an insight about policy direction in terms of the interaction that governments of member states have between them and with the European Commission. Concomitantly, the direction that policy convergence takes points at strengthening member states’ views of developing stricter rules through time. Subsequently, results demonstrate that policy convergence can appear only with member states’ consent, regardless of the position that regional institutions may have; although they may influence the process to some extent. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the current direction should be taken for granted.

  20. Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E. Richard; Carbone, Julia

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented genetic diagnostic tests. Myriad Genetics, Inc., along with its subsidiary, Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc., a small Utah-based biotechnology company, found itself unwittingly in the eye of this storm after a series of decisions it made regarding the commercialization of a hereditary breast cancer diagnostic test. This case study examine the background to Myriad's decisions, the context in which these decisions were made and the policy, research and business response to them. PMID:20393310

  1. Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard; Carbone, Julia

    2010-04-01

    From the late 1980s, a storm surrounding the wisdom, ethics, and economics of human gene patents has been brewing. The various winds of concern in this storm touched on the impact of gene patents on basic and clinical research, on health care delivery, and on the ability of public health care systems to provide equal access when faced with costly patented genetic diagnostic tests. Myriad Genetics, Inc., along with its subsidiary, Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc., a small Utah-based biotechnology company, found itself unwittingly in the eye of this storm after a series of decisions it made regarding the commercialization of a hereditary breast cancer diagnostic test. This case study examine the background to Myriad's decisions, the context in which these decisions were made and the policy, research and business response to them.

  2. Emergency Nursing, Ebola, and Public Policy: The Contributions of Nursing to the Public Policy Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lisa; Ulrich, Connie M; Grady, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Excellent patient care within the emergency department requires interdisciplinary training, teamwork, and communication to manage the chaos of the environment. Specifically, invasive procedures required to manage airway, breathing, and circulation via intubation, chest compressions, and establishing intravenous access can provide a direct benefit to save lives but also have the potential to harm both patients and health care clinicians alike; emergency health care clinicians can be exposed to significant amounts of blood and body fluids as well as other threats of physical and psychological harm. The ethical components of care in this environment are often under-recognized due to the need for rapid patient assessment and immediate action. Moreover, challenges to practice that can include lack of qualified personnel, equipment, and other resources to provide safe care to a large volume of patients can lead to moral distress in ED staff. Because the ED is a high-uncertainty, high-acuity environment, continuing interprofessional communication, collaboration, and planning is critical. Opportunities for multidisciplinary policy dialogue and the development of professional guidelines can make the ED a safer environment for both patients and providers.

  3. Strategic Action in Institutional Change: Layering, Conversion and Architectural Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pechmann, Philipp

    configured along two dimensions identified in the literature: the level of veto barriers in the political environment, and the level of institutional discretion in rule interpretation and enforcement. More specifically, it suggests a conceptual merging of modes of institutional change like layering...... by providing more well-grounded concepts of layering and conversion by underpinning them with policy design elements. Second, it highlights the analytical centrality of strategic action in institutional change processes that helps us to understand and explain better how institutional change unfolds. Third......This paper theorizes different types of strategic action in order to better understand and explain how institutional and policy change comes about and how single events in gradual change processes are causally connected. It conceptualizes situational change strategies which are favored in contexts...

  4. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    disease progression in colorectal cancer patients. 5 R01 CA182587-02 (PI: Solit) 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2018 0.60 calendar...patients with muscle invasive and metastatic bladder cancer the prevalence of PI3 kinase alterations, the pattern of co-mutational events, their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0223 TITLE: Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Subtype: Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Conversion

  6. Genetics on stage: public engagement in health policy development on preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Susan M; Kazubowski-Houston, Magdalena; Nisker, Jeff

    2009-04-01

    Arts-based approaches to public engagement offer unique advantages over traditional methods of consultation. Here we describe and assess our use of theatre as a method of public engagement in the development of health policy on preimplantation genetic diagnosis, a controversial method for selecting the genetic characteristics of embryos created through in vitro fertilization. Funding from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and Health Canada supported 16 performances of the play Orchids in Vancouver, Toronto, and Montréal and post-performance discussion in English and French (with Hubert Doucet) in 2005. A total of 741 individuals attended. The methods used to assess audience engagement and elicit policy-relevant dialogue included in-theatre observation of audience responses, moderated post-performance large audience discussion and focus groups, audience feedback forms and researcher fieldnotes. Emphasizing process and context over emerging outcomes, we reflect on the distinctive contributions of theatre in stimulating public engagement and the need to utilize multiple methods to adequately assess these contributions. We suggest continued dialogue about the possible uses of theatre in health policy development and conclude that greater clarity is needed with regard to citizens' (as well as specific stakeholders, policy makers' and sponsors') desired outcomes if there is to be a suitably nuanced and reflexive basis for assessing the effectiveness of various strategies for public engagement.

  7. Secretary's advisory committee on genetic testing: its emerging role in public policy deliberation on genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, S; Goodwin, S M

    1999-01-01

    The Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing (SACGT) was established by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna E. Shalala, to provide a public forum for the formulation of policy advice in the complex and growing area of genetic testing. After a careful nomination and selection process, the Secretary announced the appointment of thirteen advisors to the SACGT in June 1999. The first meeting of the SACGT was held June 30, 1999. This article describes the purpose, formation, and function of the SACGT. Before addressing these questions about the role of the SACGT, we first will explain what genetic testing is, how it is currently used, and what new uses it may be put to in the future.

  8. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  9. Utilizing high-fidelity crucial conversation simulation in genetic counseling training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R Lynn; Tofil, Nancy M; Hurst, Christina; Youngblood, Amber Q; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; Zinkan, J Lynn; White, Marjorie Lee; Clemons, Jason L; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2013-06-01

    Genetics professionals are often required to deliver difficult news to patients and families. This is a challenging task, but one that many genetics trainees have limited opportunity to master during training. This is true for several reasons, including relative scarcity of these events and an understandable hesitation of supervisors allowing a trainee to provide such high stakes information. Medical simulation is effective in other health care disciplines giving trainees opportunities of "hands on" education in similar high stakes situations. We hypothesized that crucial conversations simulation would be effective for genetics trainees to gain experience in communication and counseling skills in a realistic clinical scenario. To test this hypothesis, we designed a prenatal counseling scenario requiring disclosure of an abnormal amniocentesis result and discussion of pregnancy management options; we challenged participants to address common counseling questions. Three medical genetics resident physicians and five genetic counseling students participated. Genetics and simulation experts observed the session via live video feed from a different room. A behavioral checklist was completed in real time assessing trainee's performance and documenting medical information discussed. Debriefing immediately followed the session and included simulation and genetics experts and the actor parents. Participants completed open-ended post evaluations. There was a trend towards participants being more likely to discuss issues the child could have while an infant/toddler rather than issues that could emerge as the child with Down Syndrome transitions to adulthood and end of life (P=.069). All participants found the simulation helpful, notably that it was more realistic than role-playing with colleagues.

  10. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...

  11. Household-level effects of China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program under price and policy shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarek, A.M.; Shi Xiaoping,; Heerink, N.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how agricultural households involved in China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) could respond to expected changes in environmental and livestock policies and changing commodity prices. We calibrated a farm household model using 2009 survey data collected in northeast Gansu

  12. Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: A history of the genetically modified organisms debate

    OpenAIRE

    SHINEHA, Ryuma; Kato, Kazuto

    2009-01-01

    New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and international regulatory contexts into consideration. The turning point in Japanese policy-making occurred e...

  13. Bringing genetic diversity to the forefront of conservation policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoban, S.M.; Hauffe, H.C.; Pérez-Espona, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay we explore questions on how to increase the visibility and utility of genetic information for biodiversity managers and policy makers. This is discussed in the light of Aichi CBD Target 13, which for the first time impels signatories to minimise genetic erosion and safeguard genetic...

  14. The conservation genetics juggling act: integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Miller, Mark P; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M; Mercer, Dacey M; Mullins, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980s following the development of polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our laboratory has 'grown up' with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multidisciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal laboratory, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list, or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions.

  15. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  16. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  17. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  18. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: Are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Cronauer, C. Klockner; Ausems, M.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  19. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  20. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to coun

  1. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: Are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Cronauer, C. Klockner; Ausems, M.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to cou

  2. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  3. Finding Superman & Global Competitiveness: A Conversation with Arthur Levine & Watson Scott Swail. Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    On March 21 2013, the "Educational Policy Institute" held the first day of the EPI Forum on Education & the Economy in Orlando, Florida. The Forum was designed to discuss critical issues related to the nexus of education and the workforce. This document presents the transcribed session that featured two of the authors of the Teachers…

  4. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…

  5. Determining Optimal Replacement Policy with an Availability Constraint via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model and a genetic algorithm for determining an optimal replacement policy for power equipment subject to Poisson shocks. If the time interval of two consecutive shocks is less than a threshold value, the failed equipment can be repaired. We assume that the operating time after repair is stochastically nonincreasing and the repair time is exponentially distributed with a geometric increasing mean. Our objective is to minimize the expected average cost under an availability requirement. Based on this average cost function, we propose the genetic algorithm to locate the optimal replacement policy N to minimize the average cost rate. The results show that the GA is effective and efficient in finding the optimal solutions. The availability of equipment has significance effect on the optimal replacement policy. Many practical systems fit the model developed in this paper.

  6. Ethics policies and ethics work in cross-national genetic research and data sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.

    2016-01-01

    of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines......? We explore what we call the flows, the nonflows, and the overflows of material and information, and we document the work producing the flows of health data and biomaterial. We call this work “ethics work” and argue that it is crucial for data sharing though it is rarely articulated in ethics policies...

  7. [Genetic screening of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and insurability for life insurance policies and disability cover policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsma, S J; Lansberg, P J; Kastelein, J J

    2004-03-01

    In the Netherlands, people with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) have been actively screened since 1994 by means of DNA analysis. Recently, the Stichting Opsporing Erfelijke Hypercholesterolemie (Foundation for the Detection of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia) initiated a large scale-screening programme aimed at finding all 40,000 people. The Dutch ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport is providing the financial support. Genetic screening has social implications and raises questions on insurability. The Dutch Medical Examination Act prohibits insurers from posing questions about untreatable, serious inheritable conditions for insured sums under a certain value: for life-insurance policies policies insurers can request information for the purpose of an accurate risk classification. Insurance contracts can be accepted at normal rates if the target value of LDL-cholesterol < 4 mmol/l and additional risk factors such as smoking and an abnormal BMI are absent; the risk is determined by the phenotype and clinical factors and not by the genotype.

  8. Deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for automated manufacturing systems based on deadlock control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, KeYi; Han, LiBin; Zhou, MengChu; Wang, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Deadlock-free control and scheduling are vital for optimizing the performance of automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) with shared resources and route flexibility. Based on the Petri net models of AMSs, this paper embeds the optimal deadlock avoidance policy into the genetic algorithm and develops a novel deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for AMSs. A possible solution of the scheduling problem is coded as a chromosome representation that is a permutation with repetition of parts. By using the one-step look-ahead method in the optimal deadlock control policy, the feasibility of a chromosome is checked, and infeasible chromosomes are amended into feasible ones, which can be easily decoded into a feasible deadlock-free schedule. The chromosome representation and polynomial complexity of checking and amending procedures together support the cooperative aspect of genetic search for scheduling problems strongly.

  9. The role of genetics in fisheries management under the E.U. common fisheries policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J; Jardim, E; Martinsohn, J Th

    2016-12-01

    Exploitation of fish and shellfish stocks by the European Union fishing fleet is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which aims to ensure that fishing and aquaculture are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable and that they provide a source of healthy food for E.U. citizens. A notable feature of the CFP is its legally enshrined requirement for sound scientific advice to underpin its objectives. The CFP was first conceived in 1970 when it formed part of the Common Agricultural Policy. Its formal inception as a stand-alone regulation occurred in 1983 and since that time, the CFP has undergone reforms in 1992, 2002 and 2013, each time bringing additional challenges to the scientific advisory process as the scope of the advice increased in response to changing objectives arising from E.U. regulations and commitments to international agreements. This paper reviews the influence that genetics has had on fish stock assessments and the provision of management advice for European fisheries under successive reforms of the CFP. The developments in genetics since the inception of the CFP have given rise to a diverse and versatile set of genetic techniques that have the potential to provide significant added value to fisheries assessments and the scientific advisory process. While in some cases, notably Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., genetics appear to be very well integrated into existing management schemes, it seems that for marine fishes, discussions on the use of genetics and genomics for fisheries management are often driven by the remarkable technological progress in this field, rather than imminent needs emerging from policy frameworks. An example is the recent suggestion to use environmental (e)DNA for monitoring purposes. While there is no denying that state-of-the-art genetic and genomic approaches can and will be of value to address a number of issues relevant for the management and conservation of marine renewable natural resources, a

  10. Subjectivity Policies for Educational Equality Opportunities. A Conversation Between Juan Carlos Tedesco and Luis Porter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Porter Galetar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer a basic question: Is it possible to include the excluded? We understand the excluded as new social sectors, which are different from those we describe as marginal or exploited.  Rather, these sectors are formed by the large and growing groups of people that contemporary society seems able to ignore. The article starts by analyzing what this new social condition implies to decision makers, and raises new questions.  Do we want to live in a society that excludes 25 or 30% of its more needy population?  Are we capable of learning to live together, as Jacques Delors asks in his UNESCO report?  The ethical dilemma implied by these questions leads to a reflection on the technical-political dimension of inequality in regards to education.  Tedesco and Porter open a dialogue that departs from a macro vision (including the use of new technology and the opening of new fields in educational policies and goes into the micro dimension of specific contexts, from those where people have some educational autonomy and project capacity, to those where people find themselves in situations of anonymity and social dissolution.  Learning to live together implies taking on responsibility for the other, and of knowing the other. In order to break with the social determinism that can lead to fatalist scenarios, it is important to understand that educational success or failure is a systemic phenomenon that depends on a multiple of variables.  Governments have responded to the complexity of the problem with ‘objective’ measures that principally affect the material. In this article we support the idea that an attempt to bring about a greater recognition of the subjective dimension is missing in current educational policy.  To achieve this we identify certain characteristics that various studies have shown as basic requirements to confront the problem: project capacity, narrative capacity and enhanced self-confidence.

  11. Lack of recognition of genetic biodiversity: International policy and its implementation in Baltic Sea marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikre, Linda; Lundmark, Carina; Jansson, Eeva; Wennerström, Lovisa; Edman, Mari; Sandström, Annica

    2016-10-01

    Genetic diversity is needed for species' adaptation to changing selective pressures and is particularly important in regions with rapid environmental change such as the Baltic Sea. Conservation measures should consider maintaining large gene pools to maximize species' adaptive potential for long-term survival. In this study, we explored concerns regarding genetic variation in international and national policies that governs biodiversity and evaluated if and how such policy is put into practice in management plans governing Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Germany. We performed qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of 240 documents and found that agreed international and national policies on genetic biodiversity are not reflected in management plans for Baltic Sea MPAs. Management plans in all countries are largely void of goals and strategies for genetic biodiversity, which can partly be explained by a general lack of conservation genetics in policies directed toward aquatic environments.

  12. Ethical issues and policy analysis for genetic testing: Huntington's disease as a paradigm for diseases with a late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilani, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the main ethical issues that arise when testing for genetic diseases with a late adult onset, such as Huntington's disease, take place. It is imperative to study genetic testing for HD and similar diseases because of the potential to influence future medical advances and the growing number of individuals who are considered pre-symptomatic. The main ethical issues are consent and privacy, prenatal testing and its implications, in addition to insurance discrimination. These issues are viewed from the perspective of genetic counselors, patients, the families of patients, and insurance companies. Policies put forth by the United States National Society of Genetic Counselors ("NSGC"), the Task Force on Genetic Testing, and the President's Council for Bioethics are also analyzed. Finally, new recommendations are proposed in order to ameliorate the ethical dilemmas encountered in genetic testing. These recommendations are largely based on existing policies and therefore involve amending current policies rather than revamping them.

  13. Conversion of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Genetically Engineered Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalantari, Aida; Chen, Tao; Ji, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer...

  14. An optimal policy based on the genetic algorithm for the dynamic threshold of the optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Le, Zichun; Dong, Wen; Fu, Minglei

    2006-09-01

    The complete partitioning policy (CP) for the wavelength resource in optical networks is now widely focused on. The dynamic threshold is one of the ways to make CP policy more efficient. Furthermore, an optimized threshold will be better for reducing the blocking probability and improving the utilization of the wavelength resource. Hence, the genetic algorithm is selected as the optimal policy on virtue of its excellent global search performance for getting optimized value of the dynamic threshold. Moreover, a maximal threshold as the high limit for the dynamic threshold is needed to be decided for making wavelengths shared between different wavelength classes, because the class with higher priority can share its wavelengths with the lower one after its own call setups are satisfied. Therefore, a neural network predictor that can predict the number of the next call setup is designed on the basis of the genetic algorithm to solve this problem. The values of the dynamic threshold and the maximal threshold are calculated, and the simulation results show that they take good effect in reducing the blocking probability and improving the utilization of the wavelength resource.

  15. Rejecting Exclusion, Embracing Inclusion: Conversation as Policy-Making at a US Baptist Conference on Sexuality and Covenant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Garcia, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    While much of the work on language, policy, and religion has focused on how discourse is influenced by policy, this article presents a case study of how discourse is used to construct policy itself. These policy-making discourses tend to occur in institutional settings; however, non-institutional discourse may also be instrumental in the…

  16. Coalescent Times and Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Species with Facultative Sex: Effects of Gene Conversion, Population Structure, and Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Matthew; Wright, Stephen I; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2016-01-01

    Many diploid organisms undergo facultative sexual reproduction. However, little is currently known concerning the distribution of neutral genetic variation among facultative sexual organisms except in very simple cases. Understanding this distribution is important when making inferences about rates of sexual reproduction, effective population size, and demographic history. Here we extend coalescent theory in diploids with facultative sex to consider gene conversion, selfing, population subdivision, and temporal and spatial heterogeneity in rates of sex. In addition to analytical results for two-sample coalescent times, we outline a coalescent algorithm that accommodates the complexities arising from partial sex; this algorithm can be used to generate multisample coalescent distributions. A key result is that when sex is rare, gene conversion becomes a significant force in reducing diversity within individuals. This can reduce genomic signatures of infrequent sex (i.e., elevated within-individual allelic sequence divergence) or entirely reverse the predicted patterns. These models offer improved methods for assessing null patterns of molecular variation in facultative sexual organisms.

  17. TANTAMOUNT TO FRAUD?: EXPLORING NON-DISCLOSURE OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN LIFE INSURANCE APPLICATIONS AS GROUNDS FOR POLICY RESCISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Anya E R

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic counselors recommend that individuals secure desired insurance policies, such as life insurance, prior to undergoing predictive genetic testing. It has been argued, however, that this practice is "tantamount to fraud" and that failure to disclose genetic test results, or conspiring to secure a policy before testing, opens an individual up to legal recourse. This debate traps affected individuals in a Catch-22. If they apply for life insurance and disclose a genetic test result, they may be denied. If they apply without disclosing the information, they may have committed fraud. The consequences of life insurance fraud are significant: If fraud is found on an application, a life insurer can rescind the policy, in some cases even after the individual has passed away. Such a rescission could leave family members or beneficiaries without the benefits of the life insurance policy payment after the individual's death and place them in in economic difficulty. Although it is clear that lying in response to a direct question about genetic testing would be tantamount to fraud, few, if any, life insurance applications currently include broad questions about genetic testing. This paper investigates whether non-disclosure of unasked for genetic information constitutes fraud and explores varying types of insurance questions that could conceivably be interpreted as seeking genetic information. Life insurance applicants generally have no duty to disclose unasked for information, including genetic information, on an application. However, given the complexities of genetic information, individuals may be exposed to fraud and rescission of their life insurance policy despite honest attempts to truthfully and completely answer all application questions.

  18. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  19. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  20. Engaging Maori in Biobanking and Genetic Research: Legal, Ethical, and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Beaton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Publically funded biobanking initiatives and genetic research should contribute towards reducing inequalities in health by reducing the prevalence and burden of disease. It is essential that Maori and other Indigenous populations share in health gains derived from these activities. The Health Research Council of New Zealand has funded a research project (2012-2015 to identify Maori perspectives on biobanking and genetic research, and to develop cultural guidelines for ethical biobanking and genetic research involving biospecimens. This review describes relevant values and ethics embedded in Maori indigenous knowledge, and how they may be applied to culturally safe interactions between biobanks, researchers, individual participants, and communities. Key issues of ownership, privacy, and consent are also considered within the legal and policy context that guides biobanking and genetic research practices within New Zealand. Areas of concern are highlighted and recommendations of international relevance are provided. To develop a productive environment for "next-generation" biobanking and genomic research,"‘next-generation" regulatory solutions will be required.

  1. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  2. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences o

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-15

    the scope of parental authority encompasses the right to decide for or against testing. In the absence of increased risk of a childhood malignancy, ASCO recommends delaying genetic testing until an individual is of sufficient age to make an informed decision regarding such tests. As in other areas of pediatric care, the clinical cancer genetics professional should be an advocate for the best interests of the child. Counseling About Medical Management After Testing: ASCO recommends that oncologists include in pre- and post-test counseling the discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early-detection and prevention modalities, some of which have presumed but unproven efficacy for individuals at increased hereditary risk of cancer. Regulation of Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends strengthening regulatory oversight of laboratories that provide clinical cancer predisposition tests. These quality assurance mechanisms should include oversight of the reagents used in genetic testing, interlaboratory comparisons of reference samples, standardization of laboratory genetic test reports, and proficiency testing. Protection From Insurance and Employment Discrimination: ASCO supports establishing a federal law to prohibit discrimination by health insurance providers and employers on the basis of an individual's inherited susceptibility to cancer. Protections against genetic discrimination should apply to those with group coverage, those with individual health insurance policies, and the uninsured. Coverage of Services: ASCO supports efforts to ensure that all individuals at significantly increased risk of hereditary cancer have access to appropriate genetic counseling, testing, screening, surveillance, and all related medical and surgical interventions, which should be covered without penalty by public and private third-party payers. Confidentiality and Communication of Familial Risk: ASCO recommends that providers make concerted efforts to protect the confidentiality of

  4. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Henriëtta; Albada, Akke; Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to counselee satisfaction, needs fulfillment and anxiety. Breast cancer counselees (N=85) completed questionnaires measuring satisfaction, needs fulfillment and anxiety after the final consultation and anxiety before the initial visit. Consultations were videotaped. Counselor nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze were coded. Verbal dominance and interactivity were measured using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). More counselor nonverbal encouragements and higher counselor verbal dominance were both significantly related to higher post-visit anxiety. Furthermore, counselor verbal dominance was associated with lower perceived needs fulfillment. No significant associations with eye gaze and interactivity were found. More research is needed on the relationship between nonverbal encouragements and anxiety. Given the unfavorable association of counselor verbal dominance with anxiety and needs fulfillment, more effort could be devoted to involve counselees in the dialog and reduce the counselor's verbal contribution during the consultation. Interventions focused on increasing counselees' contribution in the consultation may be beneficial to counselees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in food production and processing technologies have considerably enhanced man's ability to provide larger quantities and a wider variety of products. However, the recent development biotechnologies has also significantly increased controversy and dispute over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The article reviews the regulatory measures and approaches taken by the government of Albania to assess and manage the risks associated with the development, release and use of genetically modified foods in the country. The review and analyzes is made in light of the processes for harmonization of Albanian’s food policies and its legal and regulatory framework with the EU legislation and Acquis Communautaires. It identifies several important legal and regulatory issues and proposes necessary measures and mechanisms to be put in place related to identification and protection of the public interest and increased ability of consumers to be informed about the foods they eat

  6. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  7. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Bayefsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  8. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M; Coles, D.; Fischer, A. R. H.; HOUDEBINE, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic...

  9. Role of oxygen tension and genetic background during the epigenetic conversion of mouse fibroblasts into insulin secreting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zenobi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic cell conversion overcomes the stability of a mature cell phenotype transforming a somatic cell in an unlimited source of autologous cells of a different type. It is based on the exposure to a demethylating agent followed by an induction protocol. In our work we exposed mouse dermal fibroblasts to the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. Cell differentiation was directed toward the endocrine pancreatic lineage with a sequential combination of Activin A, Retinoic Acid, B27 supplement, ITS and bFGF. The overall duration of the process was 10 days. Aim of this work was to evaluate the role of oxygen during differentiation of dermal fibroblasts derived from two different mouse strains, NOD and C57 BL/6J. During differentiation, both cell lines were cultured either in the standard in vitro culture 20% oxygen concentration or in the lower and more physiological 5% of oxygen. Our results show that C57 BL/6J cells are able to differentiate into insulin secreting cells in both oxygen tensions with a higher amount of insulin release in low oxygen conditions. On the other hand, cells of NOD mice, which are physiologically predisposed to the onset of diabetes, differentiate in 20% of oxygen but not in low oxygen and they died after three days of culture. However, if these cells are moved to 5% of oxygen after their differentiation in high oxygen they remain viable for up to four days. Furthermore, their capacity to release insulin remains unchanged for 24 hours. Results suggest that genetic background has a profound effect on the role of oxygen during the in vitro differentiation process, possibly reflecting the different susceptibility to the disease of the strains used in the experiment.Supported by EFSD and Carraresi Foundation

  10. From electricity to heat - a discourse analytic policy study of energy conversion at national, municipal and household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perman, Karin (Solar Energy Research Center (SERC), Dalarna Univ., Borlaenge (Sweden)). e-mail: kpm@du.se

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how space heating for single-family houses and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Results show that at all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility for energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. At the three levels, households are perceived as being dependant on economical subsidies when making the decision to convert from electrical heating. The discourse concerning the Swedish energy transition illustrates a shift away from a definition of ecological modernisation where environmental considerations influence economic development

  11. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  12. Key points for developing an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G; Rorty, M V

    2001-05-01

    Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and human rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health.

  13. Product liability and small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS): an analysis of selected issues and policy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R.J.

    1979-12-01

    An overview is presented of the various legal issues regarding SWECS performance and safety, according to when such issues may arise during the SWECS manufacturing and marketing processes. Next, the most significant issues are translated into a series of questions, followed by a legal analysis that addresses these questions within the framework of the present product litigation system. The special problems presented to SWECS by judicial treatment of design defect cases and the relevance of industry standards in product cases are emphasized. Finally, a number of policy alternatives for DOE and others to consider are examined concerning their relative advantages and disadvantages in dealing with selected issues.

  14. A narrative analysis of conversations with graduates who did not pursue teaching: Inputs to teacher education policies in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Luz Raymundo Abulon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversations with 74 Filipino pre-service teachers from 10 Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines were qualitatively analyzed to explore their experiences in college, their motivations as well as life events, which hindered them from pursuing the teaching as a career. The rich narrative data gathered in the study showed that financial and economic reasons, which include perceptions of insufficient salary levels, are driving the graduates away from teaching. Likewise, a mismatch between personal characteristics, including health issues related to the demands of the teaching profession, was crystallized. Although a number of the respondents admitted that they do not see themselves as teachers even if they were trained as such, yet, they expressed seeing themselves as part of the allied professions in teaching. The graduates reported that they applied for jobs related to teaching such as those involved in child-care, guidance counselors, librarians, teacher assistants, and other teaching-related professions. A myriad of possible reforms and initiatives were considered in the study to address these concerns. In the pre-service phase, reforms starting with the recruitment and selection of students, provision of scholarships for deserving students, institutionalization of career-oriented programs to sustain motivation to pursue teaching, and curricular reviews of the aspects of the practice teaching course, as well as the basic teacher competencies, are recommended. In the in-service phase, reforms in the hiring process, provision of in-service enticements for beginning teachers, and most of all, review of the starting salary of teachers are deemed necessary and timely.

  15. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  16. Ethics policies and ethics work in cross-national genetic research and data sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines......? We explore what we call the flows, the nonflows, and the overflows of material and information, and we document the work producing the flows of health data and biomaterial. We call this work “ethics work” and argue that it is crucial for data sharing though it is rarely articulated in ethics policies...

  17. Comparison of the Evolution of Genetically Modified Food Safety Policies between the United States and the European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina SHE; Yaqiong ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Yangying JIA; Wenting XU; Shiqing XIE; Qian LIANG

    2012-01-01

    With the research on and development of Genetically Modified Food (GMF), people's attitude toward GMF may fall into two divergent categories, typical- ly represented by the United States(US) and the European Union(EU), respectively. The former follows a "sound science principle" and firmly objects to the precautionary principle, namely a permissive policy of positive support of and voluntary labelling on GMF; while the latter adopts a cautiously precautionary principle, requiring mandatory labelling and traceability. From the standpoint of regulatory principles, together with corresponding supervisory measures and relevant provisions, this paper compared the execution of directives and provisions on GMF from the initial policies enacted by the US and EU to current situation combined with the track and analysis of latest polic ies issued.

  18. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  19. Narratives of silenced critiques and how they inform pedagogy and policy: Conversations with low-income urban parents about education, science, and science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Prix, Courtney Desmond

    This dissertation examines the concerns of fourteen, low-income, urban parents for their children's needs in education in general and science education in particular. A motivation behind this investigation is to resist the top-down dissemination of educational policy and value the perspectives of so-called "culturally deprived" parents. I contrast the parents' vision for science education with those expressed by AAAS and NRC. I collected data through interviews, conversation groups, and participant observation conducted at a homeless shelter in a major American city. Initially, I conducted individual interviews that were coded, and themes of social mobility and issues of pedagogy surfaced as major areas of concern for parents. I developed questions under each theme for discussion with parents in conversation groups comprised of five parents. Additional conversation groups were developed later under emergent themes of parent-school relations and science education reform. As an assistant in both the after-school program and the parent-teachers association, I obtained additional data through field-notes. I analyzed the data using critical theory as my lens. However, it was a critical theory that had been repositioned from a eurocentric viewpoint to encompass the critical elements that emerge through the struggles of people of color and women. The parents considered the educational system to be uncaring and inflexible. They expressed that science is not taught in an engaging manner that is relevant to the lives of poor students. There was a great deal of overlap between the parents' vision and that of the science education reform initiatives. However, while the reform initiatives focused on "what" and "how" science was being taught, the parents' recommendations focused on "who" was being taught. They called for a more flexible, caring educational system that pays attention to the needs of the whole child. Finally, I analyzed the parents' perspectives as reflecting

  20. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  1. Human genetics for non-scientists: Practical workshops for policy makers and opinion leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    These workshops form part of a series of workshops that the Banbury and the DNA Learning Centers of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have held for a number of years, introducing genetics, and the ways in which scientific research is done, to non-scientists. The purpose of the workshops as stated in the grant application was: {open_quotes}Our objective is to foster a better understanding of the societal impact of human genome research by providing basic information on genetics to non-scientists whose professions or special interests interface with genetic technology.... Participants will be chosen for their interest in human genetics and for their roles as opinion leaders in their own communities. Primary care physicians are of particular interest to us for this series of workshops.{close_quotes} Two workshops were held under this grant. The first was held in 21-24 April, 1994 and attended by 20 participants, and the second was held 16-19 November, 1995, and attended by 16 participants. In each case, there was a combination of concept lectures on the foundations of human molecular genetics; lectures by invited specialists; and laboratory experiments to introduce non-scientists to the techniques used in molecular genetics.

  2. Genetic Polymorphisms of Mc4R and IGF2 Gene Association with Feed Conversion Efficiency Traits in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-hua Du§, Cui Chen§, Zheng-rong Yuan, Li-min Zhang, Xiao-jie Chen, Yan-hui Wang, Xue Gao, Lu-pei Zhang, Hui-jiang Gao, Jun-ya Li and Shang-zhong Xu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R gene is part of the central melanocortin pathway located in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain in which appetite is regulated. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 gene plays a role in muscle growth, myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Thus, they are candidate genes for feed conversion efficiency (FCE. The study was to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MC4R and IGF2 gene on FCE traits including residual feed intake (RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR and average daily gain (ADG. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the two genes in 118 Simmental bulls by DNA-pool sequencing and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. C1069G locus of MC4R and four SNPs (C2209T, G18587C, A22950T and G26920T of IGF2 were identified in the population. The χ2 test showed that only MC4R-C1069G, IGF2-C2209T and IGF2-G18587C loci fitted with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. General linear model (GLM was used to analyze differences between genotypes. The results showed that only IGF2-G18587C locus has a significant effect on ADG (P0.05. CC and GG genotypes were the dominant genotypes; individual with CC or GG genotype had a larger ADG than GC (P<0.05.

  3. Tempest in a tea pot: How did the public conversation on genetically modified crops drift so far from the facts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    The debate over genetically modified (GM) crops has raged in Europe since 1996, but had barely risen above a whisper in the USA until recent labeling debates raised public attention. This article will explain GM crops and traits discuss safety assessment provide a view on safety from authoritative organizations discuss selected issues of current debate, and provide the author's perspective as to why the public debate has drifted so far from scientific reality. The economic and environmental benefits of GM crops are beyond scope, but references are provided. GM food and feed undergo comprehensive assessments using recognized approaches to assure they are as safe as the conventional congener. Issues of food safety and nutrition, unrelated to the GM process, may arise when GM foods display novel components or composition. Unanticipated genetic effects in GM crops appear to be limited in contrast to existing variations among conventional varieties resulting from breeding, mutation, and natural mobile genetic elements. Allergenic potential is assessed when selecting genes for introduction into GM crops and remains a theoretical risk to date. Emerging weed and insect resistance is not unique to GM technology and will require the use of integrated pest management/best practices for pest control. Gene flow from GM crops to wild relatives is limited by existing biological barriers but can at time be a relevant consideration in gene selection and planting practices. Insect-resistant GM crops have significantly reduced use of chemical insecticides and appear to have reduced the incidence of pesticide poisoning in areas where small scale farming and hand application are common. Changes in herbicide patterns are more complex and are evolving over time in response to weed resistance management needs. Recent public debate is driven by a combination of unfounded allegations about the technology and purveyors, pseudoscience, and attempts to apply a strict precautionary principle.

  4. Plant genetic resources conservation and use in light of recent policy developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Varaprasad and N. Sivaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources constitute our invaluable assets to meet the growing needs to increase crop production andproductivity. Plant genetic resources constitute a unique global heritage and their conservation and utilization is ofimmediate concern. Over six million accessions of crop germplasm are currently being conserved worldwide in gene banks.Despite its overall advantage and promotion by the international community, in-situ conservation is still inadequate.Various international conventions have addressed the topic of genetic erosion and declining use of agrobiodiversity inmodern agriculture. Concern about the future vulnerability of agricultural production, food security and environmentalstability has moved the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources to the top of the internationaldevelopment agenda. Implications and impact of global conventions/ treaties/ agreements such as Convention on BiologicalDiversity, Trade related intellectual property rights and Sanitary and phytosanitary agreements under WTO, Internationalplant protection convention, Global plan of action, International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agricultureConvention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora, Intergovernmental Committee onIntellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (ICGTK was set up in 2001, Internationalunion for protection of plant varieties, Global crop diversity trust and Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on plant geneticresource activities are discussed. The changing national scenario in light of the above global developments particularly theprovisions under Biological diversity Act and Protection of plant varieties and farmers’ rights act are discussed.The status of PGR conservation, documentation and utilization at global and national level is briefly discussed. Measures topromote PGR utilization including core development, prebreeding, gene

  5. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services.

  6. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovari, Arvis; Li, Dawei

    2014-07-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep

  7. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  8. Bringing policy relevance and scientific discipline to environmental risk assessment for genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Layton, Raymond; Raybould, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Although public opinion is important in deciding what is valued by society, governments have determined that scientific expertise is required to evaluate potential environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. We suggest how to evaluate rigorously the environmental effects of GM crops in the context of a scientific investigation. Following a disciplined scientific approach to environmental risk assessment (ERA) for GM crops should help resolve controversy in identifying and addressing risk.

  9. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.; Burnham, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that GMOs improved the quality or safety of food, and most knowledgeable about biotechnology were th...

  10. The current landscape for direct-to-consumer genetic testing: legal, ethical, and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Javitt, Gail; Melzer, David

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the developing market for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and examines the range of companies and tests available, the regulatory landscape, the concerns raised about DTC testing, and the calls for enhanced oversight. We provide a comparative overview of the situation, particularly in the United States and Europe, by exploring the regulatory frameworks for medical devices and clinical laboratories. We also discuss a variety of other mechanisms such as general controls on advertising and consumer law mechanisms.

  11. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  12. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  13. Asymmetry in scientific method and limits to cross-disciplinary dialogue: toward a shared language and science policy in pharmacogenomics and human disease genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Graham, Janice E; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Gripeos, Dimitrios; Glatt, Stephen J; Friis, Robert H; Reist, Christopher; Szabo, Sandor; Lohr, James B; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2007-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics is a hybrid field of experimental science at the intersection of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology sharing applications of the new genomic technologies. But this hybrid field is not yet stable or fully integrated, nor is science policy in pharmacogenomics fully equipped to resolve the challenges of this emerging hybrid field. The disciplines of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology contain significant differences in their scientific practices. Whereas clinical pharmacology originates as an experimental science, human disease genetics is primarily observational in nature. The result is a significant asymmetry in scientific method that can differentially impact the degree to which gene-environment interactions are discerned and, by extension, the study sample size required in each discipline. Because the number of subjects enrolled in observational genetic studies of diseases is characteristically viewed as an important criterion of scientific validity and reliability, failure to recognize discipline-specific requirements for sample size may lead to inappropriate dismissal or silencing of meritorious, although smaller-scale, craft-based pharmacogenomic investigations using an experimental study design. Importantly, the recognition that pharmacogenomics is an experimental science creates an avenue for systematic policy response to the ethical imperative to prospectively pursue genetically customized therapies before regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals. To this end, we discuss the critical role of interdisciplinary engagement between medical sciences, policy, and social science. We emphasize the need for development of shared standards across scientific, methodologic, and socioethical epistemologic divides in the hybrid field of pharmacogenomics to best serve the interests of public health.

  14. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  15. Costs of genetic testing: Supporting Brazilian Public Policies for the incorporating of molecular diagnostic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Paixão Schlatter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and describes the operating costs associated with the molecular diagnosis of diseases, such as hereditary cancer. To approximate the costs associated with these tests, data informed by Standard Operating Procedures for various techniques was collected from hospital software and a survey of market prices. Costs were established for four scenarios of capacity utilization to represent the possibility of suboptimal use in research laboratories. Cost description was based on a single site. The results show that only one technique was not impacted by rising costs due to underutilized capacity. Several common techniques were considerably more expensive at 30% capacity, including polymerase chain reaction (180%, microsatellite instability analysis (181%, gene rearrangement analysis by multiplex ligation probe amplification (412%, non-labeled sequencing (173%, and quantitation of nucleic acids (169%. These findings should be relevant for the definition of public policies and suggest that investment of public funds in the establishment of centralized diagnostic research centers would reduce costs to the Public Health System.

  16. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  17. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  18. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  19. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  20. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  1. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  2. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  3. Hydropower in the Amazon: renewability and non-renewability of energy policy. Since is desired the search for renewable energy conversion why not renew the energy policy as well?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Moral Hernandez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay intends to discuss, with the background of the recent hydroelectric plants under way in the Brazilian Amazon, aspects relating to processes of environmental licensing, conceptual problems that concern the characterization of hydropower conversion as clean and renewable energy. This work starts from the analysis of government plans and discussions on hydropower projects, identifying the need to implement institutional changes and strengthen environmental laws and the protection of the rights of traditional and indigenous populations. We propose a new way of formulating energy problems and energy supply planning, which takes into consideration sustainable aspects and the public discussion, beyond understanding and incorporating the effects on the major biogeochemical cycles that support energy conversions.

  4. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  5. Novel Techniques and Their Wide Applications to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology in Relation to Policy Making on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Lozano, P; Lin, H C

    2004-01-01

    Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated ...

  6. Ethics Policies and Ethics Work in Cross-national Genetic Research and Data Sharing: Flows, Nonflows, and Overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene Bøgehus

    2016-01-01

    scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policymaking, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open access, and to harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase......? We explore what we call the flows, the non-flows and the overflows of material and information, and we document the work producing the flows of health data and biomaterial. We call this work “ethics work” and argue that it is crucial for data sharing though it is rarely articulated in ethics policies...

  7. Ethics Policies and Ethics Work in Cross-National Genetic Research and Data Sharing: Flows, Nonflows, and Overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene Bøgehus

    2017-01-01

    scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policymaking, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open access, and to harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase......? We explore what we call the flows, the non-flows and the overflows of material and information, and we document the work producing the flows of health data and biomaterial. We call this work “ethics work” and argue that it is crucial for data sharing though it is rarely articulated in ethics policies...

  8. Conversational Telugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  9. Conversion Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Robert S; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Barry, John J

    2006-01-01

    ... to proceed after establishing a diagnosis of conversion disorder. Case Presentation "Ms. A," a 53-year-old left-handed woman, was admitted to our epilepsy monitoring unit for evaluation of a 4-month history of tremors, head bobbing, and episodic loss of awareness. The onset of these symptoms was 1 week after she had visited an emergency department...

  10. Grain Output and Cultivated Land Preservation: Assessment of the Rewarded Land Conversion Quotas Trading Policy in China’s Zhejiang Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult, many countries are attempting to balance economic development and cultivated land preservation for various reasons. China’s experience is a good illustration of such challenges during rapid economic development and urbanization. The central government of China emphasized the high self-sufficiency ratio of grain and therefore set a bottom-line for the area of cultivated land in order to ensure food security. The State Council of China requires that the area of cultivated land should not be less than 120,000,000 hectares until 2020 through strict land management measures. In view of such stringent regulations, various alternative practices, such as rewarded land conversion quota (RLCQ trading in Zhejiang Province, have been proposed to satisfy the construction demand while preserving cultivated land. This study empirically investigates the impact of RLCQ trading on cultivated land preservation in terms of grain output. Results showed that RLCQ trading leads to decreased grain production, measured in both total grain output and grain output per hectare, for both buyers and sellers. Furthermore, buyers of land quotas experience a more severe grain reduction than sellers. The findings suggest that RLCQ trading is unfavorable to cultivated land preservation in terms of grain output. Recognizing this dilemma, local governments should improve the land market mechanism to motivate intensive use of existing construction land and consolidation for improving quality of cultivated land.

  11. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels; Fraan el till vaerme: En diskursanalytisk policystudie av energiomstaellning paa statlig, kommunal och hushaallsnivaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse

  12. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing pub

  13. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing pub

  14. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  15. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  16. Expression profile of skin papillomas with high cancer risk displays a unique genetic signature that clusters with squamous cell carcinomas and predicts risk for malignant conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, N; Ryscavage, A; Perez-Lorenzo, R; Wright, L; Bae, D-S; Hennings, H; Yuspa, S H; Glick, A B

    2007-10-18

    Chemical induction of squamous tumors in the mouse skin induces multiple benign papillomas: high-frequency terminally benign low-risk papillomas and low-frequency high-risk papillomas, the putative precursor lesions to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We have compared the gene expression profile of twenty different early low- and high-risk papillomas with normal skin and SCC. Unsupervised clustering of 514 differentially expressed genes (Pclassifier algorithms generated a gene list that correctly classified unknown benign tumors as low- or high-risk concordant with promotion protocol and keratin profiling. Reduced expression of immune function genes characterized the high-risk papillomas and SCC. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced T-cell number in high-risk papillomas, suggesting that reduced adaptive immunity defines papillomas that progress to SCC. These results demonstrate that murine premalignant lesions can be segregated into subgroups by gene expression patterns that correlate with risk for malignant conversion, and suggest a paradigm for generating diagnostic biomarkers for human premalignant lesions with unknown individual risk for malignant conversion.

  17. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  18. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes...... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...

  19. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  20. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  1. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  2. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  3. Effect of Inspection Policies and Residual Value of Collected Used Products: A Mathematical Model and Genetic Algorithm for a Closed-Loop Green Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Duk Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the green manufacturing system that pursues the reuse of used products, the residual value of collected used products (CUP hugely affects a variety of managerial decisions to construct profitable and environmental remanufacturing plans. This paper deals with a closed-loop green manufacturing system for companies which perform both manufacturing with raw materials and remanufacturing with collected used products (CUP. The amount of CUP is assumed as a function of buy-back cost while the quality level of CUP, which means the residual value, follows a known distribution. In addition, the remanufacturing cost can differ according to the quality of the CUP. Moreover, nowadays companies are subject to existing environment-related laws such as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR. Therefore, a company should collect more used products than its obligatory take-back quota or face fines from the government for not meeting its quota. Through the development of mathematical models, two kinds of inspection policies are examined to validate the efficiency of two different operation processes. To find a managerial solution, a genetic algorithm is proposed and tested with numerical examples.

  4. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  5. Policy Choices of Safety Regulation on Genetically Modified Food in China%我国转基因食品安全管制的政策选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁思琪

    2015-01-01

    The safety of genetically-modified-food (GMF) is not only a pure scientific research, but rather a complicated social problem. Food safety regulation system, as a social governance method, was supposed to be responsible for supervising food safety , but now it has been pointed out several weaknesses: consumers’ cognition of the label of the GMF isn’t clear, the government officials, the media workers, experts, technologists and developers have no confidence in the safety of GMF. People are questioning the GMF’s safety, doubting government’s regulation ability and its policy effectiveness. This essay started from revealing consumers ’ awareness of such food and made an analysis of the imperfect food safety regulation system in order to build up a more sophisticated one which would help to optimize government policy of food safety regulation.%转基因食品安全问题不单单是一个纯碎的科学研究问题,更是一个复杂的社会问题。作为政府社会治理的一种手段,食品安全监管体系虽然被赋予了监管食品安全的重责,但在具体实践中也积累了不少问题:消费者对转基因标识认知不清,政府、媒体、专家、技术研发者对转基因食品的安全性口径不一等。这些问题引起了公众对食品安全问题和政府管制能力及其政策效力的质疑。文章从消费者对转基因食品的消费认知出发,分析当前政府管制体系中亟待完善的环节,以期构建一个更加全面且完善的政府食品安全监管体系,从而优化政府食品安全管制的政策选择。

  6. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hypochondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description Hypochondroplasia is a form of short-limbed dwarfism. This condition affects the conversion of cartilage into ... Resources MedlinePlus (2 links) Encyclopedia: Lordosis Health Topic: Dwarfism Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  8. [The zig-zagging legislative policies of the European Union in relation to transgenic products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyses the E.U. legislative policies related to transgenic products from the 80s until nowadays, she stops in Directive 2001/18/Ce and its conversion into national law. She explains how the regulatory frame is after the recent approval of the newest rules about tracking and labelling genetically modified organisms (OMG). She also studies communitary jurisprudence about this subject according to the legislation, concretely sentence 9 September 2003 in the affair C-236/01 about commercialisation of two lines of transgenic corn. Finally she points out how legislative policies have influenced the creation and development of biotechnological enterprises.

  9. Genetics and Public Policy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    コンテンツへスキップ 極上のバスタイム! 極上のバスタイムを過ごすには… バスタイムを上質なものに! Tweet  1日の疲れを癒すバスタイム。ただ単に汚れを洗い流すというだけでなく、一日の中で唯一、リラックスできる時間かもしれませんね。 そんなバスタイムを楽しみにされている方も多いようですが、ワンランク上の楽しみ方をされる方は、 ...

  10. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  11. A Conversation about Professionalism and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Patricia A.; Crowson, Robert L.; Goldring, Ellen B.; Mawhinney, Hanne B.; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Driscoll, Mary Erina

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interactive electronic conversation among a group of scholars. Participants examined the nature of relationships between professionals and school communities and debated the degree to which conflict was either inevitable or useful in sustaining this connection. They tried to imagine the organizational structures and policies needed to…

  12. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  13. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  14. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  15. NGL data conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  16. Implications of the Changing Conversation about Causality for Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Emily; Dyson, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Making causal claims is central to evaluation practice because we want to know the effects of a program, project, or policy. In the past decade, the conversation about establishing causal claims has become prominent (and problematic). In response to this changing conversation about causality, we argue that evaluators need to take up some new ways…

  17. Conversion of large heterologies in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, F; Lefèvre, J C; Guillot, E; Sicard, A M

    1991-04-01

    In genetic transformation, long deletions dramatically increase the frequency of wild-type recombinants in 2-point crosses. In 3-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between 2 point mutations we demonstrated that this hyper-recombination was the result of genetic conversion extending over several scores of bases outside the deletion. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene, it was proposed that the mechanism of conversion involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. A similar hyper-recombination was observed when donor DNA carried an insertion. These results suggest that long heterologies participated in recombination so that surrounding homologous regions are almost completely paired and that these long heterologies are converted. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long deletions and which are not eliminated by other systems.

  18. Genetics and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene: a spiral of DNA that superintends its construction out of amino acids. In recent decades, genetic ... inbox. Subscribe Now Privacy Policy × × --> © 2017 The Dana Foundation. All Rights Reserved. 505 Fifth Avenue, 6th floor ...

  19. Uranium conversion; Conversion de l`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the activities of the Comurhex company, created in 1971 and which became a 100% Cogema`s daughter company in 1992. The Comurhex company is in charge of the conversion of natural uranium into gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The two steps of the conversion operation are performed in the Malvesi and Pierrelatte (France) industrial sites and represent 31% (14000 t/year) of the uranium conversion capacity of western countries. The refining and UF{sub 4} production (Malvesi) and the UF{sub 6} fabrication (Pierrelatte) processes are described. Comurhex is also one of the few companies in the world which produces UF{sub 6} from the uranium of spent fuels. (J.S.)

  20. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  1. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower......By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  2. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  3. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policyEuropean Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C.; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogent...

  4. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  5. Content for Conversation Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  6. Canning Canned Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P.; Daigaku, Sanyo

    Ways to improve the role-playing conversations found in most second language textbooks are outlined. It is argued that the conversations are often restrictive, dull, and repetitive, and students respond to them in kind. The teacher can make the target language used more interesting by creating new characters, situations, settings, or objectives.…

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  8. Predictability of conversation partners

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  9. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  10. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  11. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  12. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  13. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  14. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  15. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  16. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  17. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic modification: a tool for enhancing cellulase secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusuiya Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic (LC biomass is abundantly available as a low-cost resource on the Earth. LC conversion into energy carriers is the most accepted alternative energy production policy because it is non-competitor to food or feed. LC ethanol has brought cellulases to the forefront which was otherwise lost in oblivion during last decades. LC biomass can be converted into value added products or into sugars by various routes, e.g., thermo-chemical, chemical, or biological methods. Biological route via enzymes is one of the most eco-friendly and feasible method. Both fungi and bacteria are known to degrade biomass. Fungi have been greatly exploited for cellulase production due to their inherent properties of secreting extracellular cellulase. These microorganisms are known as cellulase producers for many decades, however, to bring the enzymatic biomass conversion to an economically feasible status, extensive research efforts have been made in last decade to enhance cellulase titers. Mutations and genetic interventions along with bioprocess development have played a very important role for enhancing cellulase production. This review will present a critical overview of the on-going research towards improving cellulase production for biofuel industry via genetic modification, which will include mutation and genetic engineering employed to exert changes at genetic level in microorganisms.

  19. Genetically modified food safety problems and the European Union policy on it%浅谈转基因食品安全问题及欧盟对其政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱青

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms technology is a important technology of life in the 20th century. Up to now, the human has made remarkable achievements in the field of transgenic biotechnology, genetically modified organisms also gradually show the trend of the development of commercialization, industrialization. Especially in the field of agricultural production, genetically modified organisms technology combined with agricultural production technology, is considered to be the best way to agricultural sustainable development. However, transgenic technology of security problems, especially food safety problems, led to a worldwide attention. Various countries using the laws and policies to the safety of genetically modified food for the prevention and control risk.%转基因生物技术是20世纪人类所掌握的最重要的生命技术之一。到目前为之,人类在转基因生物技术领域已经取得显著成就,转基因生物也逐渐呈现出商品化、产业化的发展趋势。尤其是在农业生产领域,转基因生物技术与农业生产技术进行结合,被认为是农业可持续发展的最好途径。然而转基因技术引发的安全问题,尤其是食品安全问题,引发了世界各国的高度关注。各个国家纷纷运用法律和政策对转基因食品的安全风险进行预防和控制。

  20. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  1. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  2. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  3. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  4. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  5. Extending raw materials ordering policy with genetic algorithm%用遗传算法拓展原材料的采购策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉刚; 梁樑; 王志强

    2004-01-01

    A fractional-integral multiple ordering method was proposed to improve the integral multiple ordering method in material procurements. To illustrate the improvement effect, a new model considering a fractional-integral multiple ordering method was presented to extend the model proposed by Woo, Hsu, and Wu (2001), and a genetic algorithm was developed to resolve the modified model. Finally a numerical study based on the example used by Woo, Hsu, and Wu was presented to illustrate that the proposed model provided a lower or equal joint total relevant cost compared with Woo, Hsu, and Wu's model.

  6. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  7. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  8. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    on - and support “positive deviants” (Pascal, Sternin and Sternin) – courageous individuals and groups (inmates as well as staff) who transform conversations into new actions and behavioral traits that become beckons of an improved future. In the following we explore concrete examples of efforts at improving......Some would say this article is an impossibility - the authors being a project manager from the Department of Prisons an (ex) inmate and a Designer doing an industrial PhD in the prisons. We hope that others may see this article as an embodiment of how taking part in new conversations...... and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...

  9. Conflicts and Harmonization in the International Regime for Proprietorship of Biological and Genetic Resources and Policy Options in China%生物遗传资源权属国际制度安排的冲突、协调及中国的应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽军; 宋敏

    2011-01-01

    在现有知识产权制度安排下,曾经作为全球性公共物品的生物遗传资源正不断被发达国家利用植物新品种权、基因专利等工具竞相圈占为其私有物品,生物多样性丰富的发展中国家对此非常不满,要求在国际间建立公正的遗传资源惠益分享制度。本文主要从揭示遗传资源圈占与利益矛盾的问题根源出发,通过总结近20年来生物遗传资源权属国际规则的制定和演进过程,剖析《生物多样性公约》、《粮食和农业植物遗传资源国际条约》、《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》和《植物新品种保护国际公约》等相关国际制度在遗传资源获取、惠益分享与知识产权等问题的矛盾与冲突之处,最后提出现有国际体制的协调措施,以及我国为满足国际遵约要求的应对策略。更多还原%Within the context of the current intellectual property right system,developed countries are now increasingly making use of plant variety rights and gene patents to claim biological and genetic resources and then dominate these former global public goods as their private goods.Ironically,as the primary upstream providers of resources,developing countries could not gain any returns from the downstream utilization although they contribute substantially to the conversation and proliferation of plant genetic resources for a long time.So in international negotiations over the past two decades,developing countries have always been criticizing developed countries’ bio-piracy actions and advocated establishing a fair benefit-sharing mechanism.This study firstly explored the origin of problem and summarized the progress of international arrangements over the proprietorship of biological and genetic resources.In particular,conflicts in the subject of access and benefit-sharing and intellectual property in different regimes,such as Convention on Biological diversity(CBD),International Treaty on Plant Genetic

  10. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  11. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  12. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  13. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  14. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  15. Gender Differences in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  16. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  17. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  18. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  19. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  20. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  1. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  2. Paralympics and conversion disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Anthony S

    ...' for whose disorders are the most stigmatised. Psychiatry has a strong claim on this with mental illness generally regarded as among the most feared and least understood. 1 And within psychiatry there is a similar hierarchy such that patients with 'hysteria' or conversion disorder (CD) are those found to be least satisfying to treat and are least like...

  3. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  4. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  5. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  6. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  7. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  8. 意大利转基因生物技术概况及其启示%Research on the Policies of Genetically Modiifed Organism in Italy andIts Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖红波; 尹军

    2014-01-01

    意大利对转基因技术基本持否定态度,许多非政府组织强烈反对或不支持转基因技术。关于转基因作物与传统作物还没有共存的立法规则,对传统土地上偶然出现的转基因种子持“零容忍”态度。然而,意大利已赞成允许:在动物饲料中出现少量的转基因作物,谨慎释放转基因技术,实施可追溯性和标签法规。意大利人认为转基因作物对环境、人类健康存在潜在安全隐患,这种谨慎态度值得我国借鉴和思考。%This paper gives an overview of the GMO policies in Italy, including GMO ’s coexistence with traditional crops, seeds for planting, low level presence and deliberate release of GMO, ifeld testing, traceability and labeling, and also the products market acceptance of GMO. Italian believes that the genetically modiifed crops have potential dangers to environment and human health. This cautious attitude is worthwhile to be learned by Chinese counterparts for the decision-making of GMO policies.

  9. Democracy in Education through Community-Based Policy Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, People for Education, an Ontario-based parent-led organization, hosted eight policy dialogues with citizens about possibilities for the province's public schools. Policy dialogues are conversations about policy issues, ideas, processes, and outcomes where participants share their knowledge, perspectives, and experiences. In small groups…

  10. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and relationships may allow us to transcend the barriers of our formal positions. To us it is a testimony of the struggles and the good times we have shared while attempting to improve life in prisons. Also, this is an occasion for reflection on what we have learned from the process. The User Driven Innovation (in...... for guards. It has turned the focus of the organization towards the importance of relationship-building. In 2011 the Director General and the Prison Governors stated that building positive relations is the most important future task for Danish prisons both in regards to improving prison environments...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  11. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  12. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  13. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  14. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  15. Conversion of deletions during recombination in pneumococcal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Mostachfi, P; Gasc, A M; Guillot, E; Pasta, F; Sicard, M

    1989-11-01

    Genetic analysis of 16 deletions obtained in the amiA locus of pneumococcus is described. When present on donor DNA, all deletions increased drastically the frequency of wild-type recombinants in two-point crosses. This effect was maximal for deletions longer than 200 bases. It was reduced for heterologies shorter than 76 bases and did not exist for very short deletions. In three-point crosses in which the deletion was localized between two point mutations, we demonstrated that this excess of wild-type recombinants was the result of a genetic conversion. This conversion extended over several scores of bases outside the deletion. Conversion takes place during the heteroduplex stage of recombination. Therefore, in pneumococcal transformation, long heterologies participated in this heteroduplex configuration. As this conversion did not require an active DNA polymerase A gene it is proposed that the mechanism of conversion is not a DNA repair synthesis but involves breakage and ligation between DNA molecules. Conversion of deletions did not require the Hex system of correction of mismatched bases. It differs also from localized conversion. It appears that it is a process that evolved to correct errors of replication which lead to long heterologies and which are not eliminated by other systems.

  16. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  17. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our...... results show that the SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention to increase rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the implementation of the SLCP has had heterogeneous effects on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...... income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification....

  18. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  19. Rotulagem de alimentos que contém Organismos Geneticamente Modificados: políticas internacionais e Legislação no Brasil Labeling of food containing Genetically Modified Organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da área de superfície plantada com as culturas geneticamente modificadas, com a consequente liberação dessas lavouras para o ambiente e para a comercialização, levantou questionamentos sobre a segurança destes produtos. A entrada em vigor do Protocolo de Cartagena sobre Biossegurança , fez com que houvesse a necessidade de aquisição de informações e capacitação nesta área para a implementação de políticas de biossegurança e para tomadas de decisões por partes dos governos em níveis nacionais, regionais e internacionais. O presente artigo apresenta as duas principais vertentes políticas sobre rotulagem de produtos geneticamente modificados (uma adotada pelos Estados Unidos da América e outra pela União Europeia, assim como a posição adotada pelo Brasil e sua atual legislação acerca de rotulagem e liberação comercial de produtos geneticamente modificados (GM.The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union, as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM products.

  20. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  1. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  2. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This chapter presents an overview of ocean energy conversion in respect of its significance as the renewable energy resources. It deals with the thermodynamic principles relating to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Besides, it provides an in...

  3. Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Sarah S; Adelman, Kathy; Bale, Sherri J; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Christine; Evans, James P; Herman, Gail E; Hufnagel, Sophia B; Klein, Teri E; Korf, Bruce R; McKelvey, Kent D; Ormond, Kelly E; Richards, C Sue; Vlangos, Christopher N; Watson, Michael; Martin, Christa L; Miller, David T

    2017-02-01

    the process was implemented. Applying the new process while upholding the core principles of the original policy statement resulted in the addition of four genes and removal of one gene; one gene did not meet criteria for inclusion. The updated secondary findings minimum list includes 59 medically actionable genes recommended for return in clinical genomic sequencing. We discuss future areas of focus, encourage continued input from the medical community, and call for research on the impact of returning genomic secondary findings.Genet Med 19 2, 249-255.

  4. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  5. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  6. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  7. The Application of Conversational Implicature in Doctor-Patient Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-patient conversation is the major way of communication between doctors and patients. A good conversa-tion helps to construct a harmonious doctor-patient relationship. This paper attempts to analyze the doctor-patient conversation by applying the Theory of Conversational Implicature. The theory is accepted as the cooperative principle consisting of four max-ims:quantity, quality, relation, manner. This paper will analyse how the four maxims work and the violating of the maxims in the doctor-patient conversation. Through linguistic study of the conversation, we try to find out the problems in the doctor-patient conversation and to provide some directive linguistic suggestions to doctors and patients.

  8. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  9. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  10. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  11. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  12. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  13. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin;

    that ensures phase matching over a broad spectral range in the BBO crystal. Since the tuning mechanism relies on all-passive components with extremely short response times the proposed method is well suited for short pulse, broad bandwidth laser sources like mode-locked lasers or super-continuum sources......We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    . The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  15. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  16. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  17. 12 CFR 701.1 - Federal credit union chartering, field of membership modifications, and conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal credit union chartering, field of... Federal credit union chartering, field of membership modifications, and conversions. National Credit Union Administration policies concerning chartering, field of membership modifications, and conversions are set forth...

  18. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  19. 烟草中烟碱向降烟碱转化研究进展%Advance in Nicotine to Nornicotine Conversion in Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史宏志

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine to nornicotine conversion in cultivated tobacco was reviewed in four aspects, including the effecton TSNAs formation and flavor quality, genetic control and biochemical process, conversion frequency and time,and the methods for early identification of nicotine converter plant.

  20. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  1. 转基因低水平混杂问题——政策与内涵%Low Level Presence of Genetically Modified Crops: Policies and Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪涛; 杨军; 董婉璐; 王晓兵

    2013-01-01

    Biotech crops, also known as genetically modified (GM) crops have been in rapid development worldwide in recent years. However, a problem of low level presence ( LLP) of GM products is emerging because of asynchronous approvals among importing and exporting countries, and low tolerance level for adventitious presence of GM products unapproved by importing countries. Major concerns have been raised about LLP leading to trade conflict and even trade disruption. The insights into the definition of low level presence, emphasizing its specificity and inevitability from a technical perspective are provided. It also enumerates LLP policies of several important countries, illustrating the potential adverse effects of strict LLP policies on agricultural trade. According to the findings, it points out that mutual trust and information exchange mechanisms should be built up among importing and exporting countries. Meanwhile, it is very critical to shorten the time to get the import safety approval and set up the science-based LLP threshold.%转基因技术近年来在世界范围内快速发展,但由于不同国家在转基因审批上的不同步,以及各国设立严格的转基因低水平混杂阈值,导致正常的农产品贸易由于无意混入少量转基因成分而发生贸易摩擦,甚至导致贸易中断.从转基因低水平混杂(LLP)的含义出发分析其特殊性,分析了世界主要国家的LLP政策以及严格的LLP政策对贸易产生的负面影响.根据研究结果指出:在当前转基因作物采用率不断提高,以及转基因新品种研发加速背景下,转基因低水平混杂在技术上是不可避免的.因此,有必要在全球范围内建立转基因安全互信机制,各国需要尽量减少审批不同步时滞,设置合理的转基因低水平阈值,降低对正常贸易的负面影响.研究结果对中国转基因LLP政策和有关标准制定有一定借鉴意义.

  2. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  3. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  4. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  5. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  6. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference.Conversation with Meir Sternberg.Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  7. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  8. 印度转基因生物发展现状及政策研究%On the Development Status and Policy of Genetically Modified Organisms in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭籽实; 张雷; 邓宗豪

    2016-01-01

    India is a populous country with great majority of rural population and has a large number of rural poor population .The Government of India pays much attention to the role of biological technology on agricultural production and food security .The development of transgenic technolo-gy and its application in agriculture is of great significance to the development of agriculture in India .The extension of genetically modified ( GM) cotton makes India become one of the biggest cotton producer and the exporter in the world .But the planting of GM crops in India also encoun-tered many problems,and there are also differences on GM crops from all walks of life in India .Referring to two regulatory systems of genetically modified organisms(GMOs) from Europe and the United States,India’s regulatory system tries to find the best choice for their own interests.The development and regulatory policy of GMOs in India also has the reference significance for developing countries .%印度作为人口大国,农村人口占绝大多数并且大量处于贫困状态。因此,印度政府非常重视生物技术对农业生产和粮食安全的作用,转基因生物技术的发展及其在农业中的运用对印度农业发展具有重要意义,转基因抗虫棉的推广使印度成为世界棉花生产和出口大国。但印度在转基因作物推广种植中也遇到了不少问题,国内各界对此也存在分歧。基于此,印度对转基因生物的监管参考欧美两大监管体系,并寻找适合本国利益的最佳选择。研究印度转基因生物的发展现状及其监管政策对发展中国家具有借鉴意义。

  9. Genetic manipulation in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1981-04-04

    The role of genetic manipulation in opening up new possibilities in biotechnology is discussed and the basic steps in a recombinant DNA experiment are summarized. Some current and future applications of this technology in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture are presented, including, conversion of wastes to SCP, chemicals and alcohols, plant improvement and the introduction of nitrogen fixation genes into plants as an alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

  10. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  11. Review on Telephone Conversations Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Telephone conversation, one of the most common uses of human communication, has been a hot topic in linguistic field in modern times. This essay aims at reviewing the main theories and findings in telephone conversation analysis and provid-ing some insights of this aspect which can often be overlooked in our daily life. It is also hoped that this essay can help to pave a foundation for further in-depth study in telephone conversations.

  12. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  13. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  14. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  15. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  16. American Telemedicine Association: Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit, Washington DC - Hyatt Regency on Capitol Hill June 27, 2013 at 1:00 pm and June 28, 2013 at 12:00 pm The ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit is an opportunity to hear and interact with leaders from Congress, key federal agencies and influential policy thinkers about the latest developments affecting telemedicine. The Summit will include participation of key stakeholders including healthcare providers, business interests, medical societies, consumer groups and more. Join the conversation and hear the latest, inside information about the swift changes underway in healthcare delivery, public policy and the opportunities these provide for those involved in telemedicine. The Summit has an exciting line-up of speakers, representing the nation’s top policy leaders in healthcare. For information: http://www.americantelemed.org/ata-federal-telemedicine-policy-summit/summit-overview

  17. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  18. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  19. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  20. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  1. Civil Conversations Using Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel; Pereira, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Primary source documents can be a key element in conversation and deliberation. They lend authenticity to student consideration of issues facing people's democracy and stimulate student interest. In addition, conversation about a primary document leads to a much deeper understanding of that document and can raise authentic questions for further…

  2. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  3. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  4. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  5. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  6. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  7. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  8. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  9. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  10. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  11. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  12. Policy implications for familial searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Joyce

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  13. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  14. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  15. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  16. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  17. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  18. Polarity of localised conversion in Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostachfi, P; Sicard, A M

    1987-06-01

    Localised conversion in pneumococcal transformation is a process that spans a few nucleotides when the 5'-ATTAAT/3'-TAAGTA configuration occurs at the pairing step. It was first observed in two-point crosses between an amiA mutation (amiA36) carrying this sequence and other closely linked mutants of the locus. The yield of the amiA resistance allele conversion to wild type is 20%. In order to characterize this process, which differs from long-patch conversion by the length of DNA repair, gene requirements and sequence specificity, we devised experiments to detect the reciprocal conversion, AmiA+ to AmiAr. For this purpose we examined the suppressibility by a pneumococcal informational suppressor of several nonsense mutations at the locus. Amber (UAG) and ochre (UAA) mutations are suppressed whereas UGA is not suppressed. In this genetic background, where amiA36 is partly suppressed, it was possible to select for double mutants in a cross between amiA36 and a closely linked non-suppressible marker. Direct isolation of such double mutants was also performed without any screening in crosses between amiA36 and the same linked marker in cloned DNA. The frequency of double mutants was very low (1/175) suggesting that there is no conversion of wild-type to mutant alleles. Thus conversion is a polarized process changing specifically A to C.

  19. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-01-01

    In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974) examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the author...

  20. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  1. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  2. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  3. Conversations with...Hannah Jones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinterberger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Jones has conducted research on multiculture and multiculturalism, local government policy-making, community cohesion policy, migration policy, voluntary and community sector organising, regeneration and urban studies, and diversity and inequality. She is currently leading one of the first research projects funded by the ESRC Urgency Grants Mechanism, entitled '"Go Home": Mapping the unfolding controversy of Home Office Immigration Campaigns', working with colleagues at six other universities across the UK.

  4. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  5. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  6. Feature conversion for concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Feature conversion for concurrent engineering integrates two modern product development paradigms. Concurrent engineering is a product development paradigm in which multiple engineering disciplines participate. It optimizes a product with respect to available resources and product quality, for which

  7. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  8. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  9. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  10. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  11. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  12. Conversational implicature in business negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云

    2008-01-01

    Conversational implicature is a feature of language in use. This paper is trying to explore the conversational implicature phenomenonin business negotiation. From pragmatics view, it analyses the potential meaning of break off the Negotiation and carry on the negotiation in business negotiation. Through carefully selected examples, it manages to show how to behave politely in business negotiation. It's hoped that this paper can help those who are in such field to achieve successful negotiation.

  13. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  14. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  15. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  16. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  17. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  18. Policy implications for familial searching

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Joyce; Mammo Danny; Siegel Marni B; Katsanis Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  19. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  1. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  2. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  3. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    , upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social......The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting...

  4. Advertisement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  5. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  6. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  7. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  8. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  9. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  10. Frequency conversion of structured light

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent frequency conversion of structured light, optical beams in which the phase varies in each point of the transverse plane, from the near infrared (803nm) to the visible (527nm). The frequency conversion process makes use of sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (ppLN) crystal with the help of a 1540-nm Gaussian pump beam. We perform far-field intensity measurements of the frequency-converted field, and verify the sought-after transformation of the characteristic intensity and phase profiles for various input modes. The coherence of the frequency-conversion process is confirmed using a mode-projection technique with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. The presented results could be of great relevance to novel applications in high-resolution microscopy and quantum information processing.

  11. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  12. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  13. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are currently subject to an immense interest because of the extra capacity and flexibility they provide together with the possibilities for graceful system upgrades. For full network flexibility it is very attractive to be able to translate the chann...... wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  14. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    OpenAIRE

    Vorhaus Daniel B; Resnik David B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound....

  15. International Monetary Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Carlberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the international coordination of monetary policies in the world economy. It carefully discusses the process of policy competition and the structure of policy cooperation. As to policy competition, the focus is on monetary competition between Europe and America. Similarly, as to policy cooperation, the focus is on monetary cooperation between Europe and America. The spillover effects of monetary policy are negative. The policy targets are price stability and full employment.

  16. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  18. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    here-between in contact with Tecnica Ital.26:65-71, Jan/Feb.1961. said second electrode. (U.S. Patent Off. Off. Gaz. 773:260, Dec.5,1961). In Italian...DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT. Mikrochim. Acta p.457-466, 3168 S 1951. Huber, H. and Bensimon, J. SUR LA CONVERSION DIRECTE DE CHALEUR EN (In English

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  20. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  1. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  2. Teachers' Conversation with Partial Autobiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    Reports a teachers' conversation group that was part of a course in a Japanese as a second language teacher education program. Explains the rationale for using this format and quotes part of a story one student wrote and two stories told by other students on a theme in the written story. Relates these two stories to histories of students'…

  3. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  4. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  5. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  6. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up a turn at a transition relevance place the turn holder will normally continue. In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up

  7. A composite multivariate polygenic and neuroimaging score for prediction of conversion to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovych, Roman; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are characterized by widespread pathological changes in the brain. At the same time, Alzheimer's disease is heritable with complex genetic underpinnings that may influence the timing of the related pathological changes in the brain and can affect the progression from MCI to AD. In this paper, we present a multivariate imaging genetics approach for prediction of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. We employ multivariate pattern recognition approaches to obtain neuroimaging and polygenic discriminators between the healthy individuals and AD patients. We then design, in a linear manner, a composite imaging-genetic score for prediction of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. We apply our approach within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and show that the integration of polygenic and neuroimaging information improves prediction of conversion to AD.

  8. The state of social media policies in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the current state of development of social media policies at institution of higher education. Content analysis of social media policies for all institutions listed in the Carnegie Classification Data File revealed that less than one-quarter of institutions had an accessible social media policy. Analysis was done by institution and campus unit, finding that social media policies were most likely to appear at doctorate-granting institutions and health, athletics, and library units. Policies required that those affiliated with the institution post appropriate content, represent the unit appropriately, and moderate conversations with coworkers and external agencies. This analysis may inform the development and revision of social media policies across the field of higher education, taking into consideration the rapidly changing landscape of social media, issues of academic freedom, and notions of interoperability with policies at the unit and campus levels.

  9. The State of Social Media Policies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the current state of development of social media policies at institution of higher education. Content analysis of social media policies for all institutions listed in the Carnegie Classification Data File revealed that less than one-quarter of institutions had an accessible social media policy. Analysis was done by institution and campus unit, finding that social media policies were most likely to appear at doctorate-granting institutions and health, athletics, and library units. Policies required that those affiliated with the institution post appropriate content, represent the unit appropriately, and moderate conversations with coworkers and external agencies. This analysis may inform the development and revision of social media policies across the field of higher education, taking into consideration the rapidly changing landscape of social media, issues of academic freedom, and notions of interoperability with policies at the unit and campus levels. PMID:26017549

  10. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  11. Genetic counseling services and development of training programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliana Mei-Har; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling service is urgently required in developing countries. In Malaysia, the first medical genetic service was introduced in 1994 at one of the main teaching hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Two decades later, the medical genetic services have improved with the availability of genetic counseling, genetic testing and diagnosis, for both paediatric conditions and adult-onset inherited conditions, at four main centers of medical genetic services in Malaysia. Prenatal diagnosis services and assisted reproductive technologies are available at tertiary centres and private medical facilities. Positive developments include governmental recognition of Clinical Genetics as a subspecialty, increased funding for genetics services, development of medical ethics guidelines, and establishment of support groups. However, the country lacked qualified genetic counselors. Proposals were presented to policy-makers to develop genetic counseling courses. Challenges encountered included limited resources and public awareness, ethical dilemmas such as religious and social issues and inadequate genetic health professionals especially genetic counselors.

  12. Genetic evaluation of ex situ conservation breeding projects of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) and Western Tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Garg, Shipra; Javed, Ruheena; Sood, Shudhanta; Singh, Harvinder

    2016-05-01

    When setting-up a captive population, genetic assessment of founders is essential to formulate effective breeding strategies that minimize the negative effects of inbreeding in the successive generations caused by mating between genetically related individuals. We carried out molecular genetic analysis of Cheer Pheasant and Western Tragopan populations of Chail and Sarahan Pheasantries in the State of Himachal Pradesh. The results revealed that the captive stock of Cheer Pheasant is sustaining well and does not exhibit signatures of inbreeding. Conversely, inbreeding is strongly evident in Western Tragopan population. Our study adds new dimensions to the captive management of Cheer Pheasant and Western Tragopan populations and contradicts with a previous study conducted on the same Western Tragopan population of Sarahan Pheasantry using studbook data. This study demonstrates strong evidence for retaining genetic assessment as an integral part to formulate policies/strategies for conservation breeding projects and proposes refining existing studbook records by incorporating microsatellites data and genetic analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:269-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Genetic barcodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  14. Policy Dilemmas in India - The Impact of Changes in Agricultural Prices on Rural and Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma : a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices i...

  15. Policy dilemmas in India: The Impact of changes in agricultural prices on rural and urban poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma: a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices in...

  16. Counseling customers: emerging roles for genetic counselors in the direct-to-consumer genetic testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E; Wyatt, Sally

    2013-04-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing companies offer genetic counseling. There has been no examination to date of this service provision, whether it meets critics' concerns and implications it may have for the genetic counseling profession. Considering the increasing relevance of genetics in healthcare, the complexity of genetic information provided by DTC GT, the mediating role of the internet in counseling, and potential conflicts of interest, this is a topic which deserves further attention. In this paper we offer a discourse analysis of ways in which genetic counseling is represented on DTC GT websites, blogs and other online material. This analysis identified four types of genetic counseling represented on the websites: the integrated counseling product; discretionary counseling; independent counseling; and product advice. Genetic counselors are represented as having the following roles: genetics educator; mediator; lifestyle advisor; risk interpreter; and entrepreneur. We conclude that genetic counseling as represented on DTC GT websites demonstrates shifting professional roles and forms of expertise in genetic counseling. Genetic counselors are also playing an important part in how the genetic testing market is taking shape. Our analysis offers important and timely insights into recent developments in the genetic counseling profession, which have relevance for practitioners, researchers and policy makers concerned with the evolving field of personal genomics.

  17. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  18. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  19. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  20. Catalytic conversions of methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezdin, S.Yu.; Dokuchaeva, T.G.; Sibarov, D.A.; Panfilova, N.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1987-07-10

    Catalysts with various amounts (from 2.0 to 6.0 mass %) of the active component were tested for estimation of the hydrogenating and dehydrogenating properties of palladium on alumina. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 5.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MPA. The yield of 4-MPA under the optical conditions found is 60-61% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 3.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MHHPA. Under the optimal conditions found the yield of 4-MHHPA is 75-80% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion.

  1. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  2. Caring, conversing, and realizing values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Bert; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Martin, James E.

    2012-01-01

    of this issue, though, is the role of conversations in humans caring for each other and the ecosystems of which they are a part. Emergency medical care, parents and children playing, and students learning a second language, are among the contexts of caring considered. Also considered are ways in which symbol......Language serves many functions for humans, but three of the most important are coordination, learning, and friendship. All of those functions were well served by the conversations from which this special issue emerged, a conference, ‘‘Grounding language in perception and (inter) action’’, held...... at Gordon College in June 2009. The conference brought together researchers primarily from three research traditions, dynamical systems theory, distributed language, and ecological psychology, and each of these perspectives is reviewed and illustrated in this special issue. The particular focus...

  3. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  4. The effect of familiarity of conversation partners on conversation turns contributed by augmented and typical speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this current research was to determine the effect of familiarity of conversation partners on contributed conversation turns to dyadic conversation between individuals who use AAC and typically speaking conversation partners. Three groups (G1-G3) participated in this study. Each group contained seven participants, including an individual who used a speech-generating device (SGD) and familiar and unfamiliar conversation partners. Each 20-min dyadic conversation was video-recorded for analysis of contributed conversation turns. The findings of the current study showed that the asymmetries of contributed conversation turns exist in both familiar and unfamiliar dyadic conversation between AAC users and typically speaking conversation partners. In addition, the asymmetry in the familiar dyadic conversation did not differ from that in the unfamiliar dyadic conversation.

  5. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A.; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. ...

  6. Explicit Polymorphism and CPS Conversion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    programming language design , the concepts of polymorphism [14, 28, 39] and continuation-passing [38, 41, 43] are of particular interest. The use of...Principles of Programming Languages, January 1991. [9] Matthias Felleisen . The Calculi of X.-CS Conversion: A Syntactic Theory of Control and State in...Imperative Higher-Order Programming Languages. PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1987. 18 [10] Matthias Felleisen and Daniel Friedman

  7. Religious Conversion, Models and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Boz, Tuba

    2012-01-01

    This papers examines the experiences of converts to Islam among Australian women in the milieu of polemic views and debates such as ‘Islam versus the west', which is most visible in the image of the ‘eastern' ‘oppressed' Muslim woman. Employing the experiences of Australian Muslim women converts in Melbourne, issues concerning identity politics, and the individuals and social dimensions of conversion are investigated. While there is an array of literature about Muslim women from various disci...

  8. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  9. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... of which support the policy intention of central government according to our own understanding, whereas the effects differ depending on the group, region and period. This research provides a detailed understanding of the treatment effects of the SLCP and thus, contributes to the on-going political debate...

  10. Developing a policy for paediatric biobanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hens, Kristien; Van El, Carla E; Borry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    practice for policy makers of biobanks, researchers and anyone involved in dealing with stored tissue samples from children. Actual implementation of the principles will vary according to different jurisdictions.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg...

  11. MARKETING POLICY FORMULATION IN MULTIPLE STRATEGIC CONTEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    LIVIU N EAMŢU; ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMŢU

    2014-01-01

    Business Strategy, as part adaptation of company’s actions in a particular business area to specific demand and competition or conversely opening new market positions, is the main strategic move that ensures competitiveness in the market and ensuring appreciable profitability of the business. Marketing policies adopted by one firm are fundamental decisions concerning the product and its conditioning elements. Marketing decisions are manifold; the most important for a company is se...

  12. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...

  13. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  14. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  15. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for certain types of genetic conditions (such as Down syndrome) in the baby if mother-to-be is 35 years of age or more, or is concerned at any age about her chances of having a child with a genetic condition To learn about the ...

  16. The Dynamics Of Rice Field Conversion Into Settlement In The District Of Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chofyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bandung District as one of the rice-producing areas in West Java has a strong interest in maintaining rice field. However, the land conversion of rice field in the Bandung District continues to occur with various factors. This study aims to identify the elements that make up the structure of the phenomenon and the linkages between these elements which lead to the conversion of rice fields and recommend some policy alternatives that are useful for efforts to control the conversion of rice field. In order to achieve the stated goals, this study uses system dynamics which is one method of thinking system that could see the various aspects of integral and structurally enable to explain the phenomenon of land conversion happens. On this study determines 4 scenarios consists of a basic scenario, rice field cropping intensity scenarios (RFCI, necessity standard of land settlement scenarios (NSLS, and food diversification scenarios (FD. The final result of this study states that the necessity standard of land settlement scenarios result in a decrease in the rate of land conversion is smaller and the rice stock inventory is more stable compared to other scenarios. Under these conditions, policies that support the above scenario should be established, namely the policy of land-saving settlement development and establishment of sustainable rice field.

  17. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    . This article compares and contrasts the work of two doctors in Finland, Elias Lönnrot and Reijo Norio, working over a century and a half apart, to examine the ways in which they have contributed to the formation of national identity and unity. The notion of genetic romanticism is introduced as a term...... to complement the notion of national romanticism that has been used to describe the ways in which nineteenth-century scholars sought to create and deploy common traditions for national-romantic purposes. Unlike national romanticism, however, strategies of genetic romanticism rely on the study of genetic...... inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  18. Starting a Conversation about Critical Frame Analysis: Reflections on Dealing with Methodology in Feminist Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, M. van der; Verloo, M.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    With this article we are contributing to a conversation about Critical Frame Analysis (CFA) as a feminist research method. CFA was developed within the context of two collaborative and comparative research studies of gender equality policies in the European context, MAGEEQ (www.mageeq.net) and QUING

  19. A Spatial Index for Identifying Opportunity Zones for Woody Cellulosic Conversion Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia Huang; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young

    2012-01-01

    A challenge in the development of renewable energy is the ability to spatially assess the risk of feedstock supply to conversion facilities. Policy makers and investors need improved methods to identify the interactions associated with landscape features, socioeconomic conditions, and ownership patterns, and the influence these variables have on the geographic location...

  20. Genetic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our combination of accessible, culturally competent print and web resources, multimedia, and health information technologies empower people ... site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Home Privacy Policy Health Disclaimer

  1. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  2. Frequency Conversion Activation on the Mercury Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Beach, R J; Bibeau, C; Campbell, R; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Kent, R; Van Lue, D; Liao, Z; Landron, T; Payne, S A; Schaffers, K I; Sutton, S; Fei, Y; Chai, B

    2004-09-24

    High efficiency frequency conversion while operating at average power is critical for the Mercury laser. We will demonstrate average power frequency conversion of face-cooled DKDP and YCOB crystals using a sapphire heat spreader approach.

  3. Special Issue: Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Innan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion, which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion. The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved.

  4. A composite multivariate polygenic and neuroimaging score for prediction of conversion to Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovych, Roman; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are characterized by widespread pathological changes in the brain. At the same time, Alzheimer's disease is heritable with complex genetic underpinnings that may influence the timing of the related pathological changes in the brain and can affect the progression from MCI to AD. In this paper, we present a multivariate imaging genetics approach for prediction of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impair...

  5. Obesity Genes, Personalized Medicine, and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The personalized medicine movement-also known as precision medicine and personalized genomics-has embraced the belief that genetic risk information can be used to motivate healthier choices and meaningful behaviour change. While a genuinely exciting area of research, there are numerous policy issues associated with a focus on the use of genetic risk information to personalize approaches to obesity prevention.

  6. 31 CFR 800.205 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversion. 800.205 Section 800.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.205 Conversion. The term conversion means the exercise of a right...

  7. Alkaline Hydrolysis Conversion of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The conversion of 1,125,000 pounds of bone-dry nitrocellulose fines into a liquid fertilizer was documented. Alkaline hydrolysis was the conversion... fertilizer . Fertilizer nutrient value was 1.3% nitrogen (N), 8.0% potassium (K2O) and 0.9% phosphorus (P2O5). Conversion met all applicable federal and state safety and environmental regulations.

  8. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    . The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  9. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Messina; Anna Maria Fogliani

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  10. Conversational Knowledge Process for Social Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Toyoaki

    The conversational knowledge process is a collective activity for knowledge creation, management, and application where conversational communications are used as a primary means of interaction among participating actors. In this article, I survey a suite of communication tools that augment the conversational knowledge process in order to accelerate social problem solving.

  11. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  12. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  13. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  14. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available to the label of any given instance, it can choose to act through a process of policy reuse from a library in contrast to policy learning. In policy reuse, the agent has prior experience from the class of tasks in the form of a library of policies that were...

  15. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  16. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  17. Translating Policy and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Global influences and demographic changes are leading policy makers in less developed countries to look to more developed regions for policy and service ideas. Policy and services ideas may then be `borrowed' via processes such as policy transfer (Dolowitz and Marsh, 1996). This article explores the establishment of day care for people with dementia in Kerala, India. During the development of this ...

  18. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  19. An online agricultural genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-03

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development.

  20. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  1. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  2. Deep genome-wide measurement of meiotic gene conversion using tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Sun

    Full Text Available Gene conversion, the non-reciprocal exchange of genetic information, is one of the potential products of meiotic recombination. It can shape genome structure by acting on repetitive DNA elements, influence allele frequencies at the population level, and is known to be implicated in human disease. But gene conversion is hard to detect directly except in organisms, like fungi, that group their gametes following meiosis. We have developed a novel visual assay that enables us to detect gene conversion events directly in the gametes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this assay we measured gene conversion events across the genome of more than one million meioses and determined that the genome-wide average frequency is 3.5×10(-4 conversions per locus per meiosis. We also detected significant locus-to-locus variation in conversion frequency but no intra-locus variation. Significantly, we found one locus on the short arm of chromosome 4 that experienced 3-fold to 6-fold more gene conversions than the other loci tested. Finally, we demonstrated that we could modulate conversion frequency by varying experimental conditions.

  3. Genetic Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new calf breeding technique shows promise for treating malignant tumors Chinese scientists have successfully bred a genetically altered cow capable of producing cancer-curing proteins for human beings.

  4. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  6. Mitochondrial genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was con...

  7. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  8. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  9. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  10. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  11. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  12. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  13. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  14. Chromatin structure regulates gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jason Cummings

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vlambda pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205, expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vlambda donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vlambda array, and altered the outcome of Vlambda diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences.

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  16. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  17. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  18. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  20. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  1. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: características do atendimento e propostas para formulação de políticas públicas em genética clínica Birth defects in Brazil and health care: proposals for public policies in clinical genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Apesar da íntima ligação da genética clínica com a atenção aos defeitos congênitos, menos de 30% da demanda vem sendo absorvida pelos serviços do país. São problemas na atenção aos defeitos congênitos: dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de genética com concentração destes no Sul/Sudeste e suporte laboratorial insuficiente. Para melhor abordagem aos defeitos congênitos, ações para o estabelecimento de política em genética clínica deveriam ser deflagradas, preferencialmente sob coordenação de grupo técnico vinculado ao Ministério da Saúde, tendo como objetivo organizar rede clínico-laboratorial na especialidade. Ações visando à otimização de recursos e ao aumento da cobertura deverão ser consideradas. Para suporte laboratorial são prementes arranjos visando o fluxo de exames e criação de mecanismos de financiamento. Ações complementares de prevenção e registro epidemiológico dos defeitos congênitos, educação médica e do usuário são recomendadas. Com tais propostas contempladas, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional, além de mais justa e mais democrática, voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.The impact of birth defects in Brazil has increased steadily, indicating the need for specific health policy strategies. Despite the close relationship between clinical genetics and management of birth defects, less than 30% of the total demand is currently met by existing genetic services. The main problems are: difficult access to genetic services, services highly concentrated in the South and Southeast regions of the country, and insufficient laboratory support. With the aim of improving management of birth defects, a specific national policy coordinated by the Ministry of Health needs to be

  2. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  3. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...

  4. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  5. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  6. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  7. Video Format Conversion Chip Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of an IC, which is capable of cross-converting between various DTV standards, up to the HDTV resolution. A multi-phase FIR-based filtering algorithm is developed to perform the video scaling tasks. A dedicated fast SDRAM interface is designed in the system, providing an economical high-density storage for frame buffer. Meanwhile, film material pre-processing and frame/field rate up-conversion are also implemented in the memory control block. Finally, all the programmable parameters, such as the filter properties, can be set dynamically at run-time through an I2C interface, making the IC a very flexible system.This design has been verified through an FPGA emulation system. Subjective test of the output images indicates that the IC is a suitable and high quality solution to consumer applications.

  8. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    for identity work was introduced. The empirical starting point was progressive performativity and constructionistic process consultation with the intention to engage with a practical context, a company. The empirical study was based on a) individual interviews with three middle managers in a project......-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...... project work and professional development, and the role of Department Heads. Theoretically, the study contributes to discussions on the need for legitimizing different mixtures of bureaucratic and post bureaucratic ideals. Methodological reflections are made in the discussion as well....

  9. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  10. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  11. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  12. Nouvelles conversations avec Jacques Fontanille

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cette interview réalisée de février à mai 2014 aborde les développements les plus récents de l’œuvre de Jacques Fontanille, sémioticien français qui est une des figures phares de la sémiotique européenne. Ici le sémioticien fait le point sur la sémiotique des pratiques et sur le concept de formes de vie, sujet de son dernier ouvrage encore inédit. Au cours de ces conversations, qui prolongent celles réalisées en 2006 (PORTELA, 2006), Fontanille parle de la situation actuelle de la ...

  13. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  14. Genetics knowledge for nurses: necessity or luxury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, Michael; Luo, Chi-Meih

    Senior nurses within frontline NHS Trusts in East Anglia were consulted about their perceptions of the genetics-related knowledge and education required by nurses working in their Trusts. They disagreed with policy decision makers, i.e. the Government and genetics specialists, on the currently necessary knowledge levels. They also did not recognize genetics as an important issue in current everyday nursing activities. The difference in perception also related to the speed with which its presence and importance will increase. Nurses already working under considerable pressure while not perceiving the importance of genetics in everyday practice cannot be expected to willingly absorb new genetics-related knowledge. The National Genetics Education and Development Centre in Birmingham will have to reach out to practitioners and managers throughout the UK and establish a shared platform from which to develop this issue in the future.

  15. Data release for persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California’s San Joaquin Desert

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The recency of large-scale land conversion in California’s San Joaquin Desert raises the probability that the region’s numerous endemic species still retain genetic...

  16. 29 CFR 825.700 - Interaction with employer's policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bargaining Agreements on Employee Rights Under FMLA § 825.700 Interaction with employer's policies. (a) An... rights to employees than the rights established by the FMLA. Conversely, the rights established by the...., provides lesser pay) is superseded by FMLA. If an employer provides greater unpaid family leave rights...

  17. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  18. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Martí-Oliet, N.; Palomino, M.

    2012-01-01

    {\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among frameworks f

  19. Non-viral approaches for direct conversion into mesenchymal cell types: Potential application in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Seo; Kim, Seung Hyun L; Lee, Hwajin; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2016-05-01

    Acquiring adequate number of cells is one of the crucial factors to apply tissue engineering strategies in order to recover critical-sized defects. While the reprogramming technology used for inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened up a direct path for generating pluripotent stem cells, a direct conversion strategy may provide another possibility to obtain desired cells for tissue engineering. In order to convert a somatic cell into any other cell type, diverse approaches have been investigated. Conspicuously, in contrast to traditional viral transduction method, non-viral delivery of conversion factors has the merit of lowering immune responses and provides safer genetic manipulation, thus revolutionizing the generation of directly converted cells and its application in therapeutics. In addition, applying various microenvironmental modulations have potential to ameliorate the conversion of somatic cells into different lineages. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in direct conversion technologies, specifically focusing on generating mesenchymal cell types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Science policy for the '80s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Science policy (if it ever was a policy) usually was to support ill-defined or ‘basic’ research in science; the ‘policy’ was embodied in the hope that supported research would someday pay off in the form of improved technology. One of the fathers of this policy during the post-WW-II period was Simon Ramo, a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering, chief scientist of United States ICBM defense operation, founder of the TRW Corporation, and now a member of President Reagan's science and technology task force. Simon Ramo represents an influential group dedicated to a ‘systems analysis’ approach to forecasting technological progress, and as such the ‘systems’ approach emerges as a central theme for science policy in the 1980s.The new shift in national policy introduced by the Reagan administration includes revisions in science policy that have recently been termed as ‘searching examination’ (Chemical & Engineering News, Feb. 23, 1981, p. 22), ‘Unkind cuts’ (New Scientist, Feb. 12, 1981), and ‘The Spectrum from Truth to Power’ (Science, Technology, and National Policy, edited by T. Kuehn and A. Porter, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1981). The idea now is to speed the conversion of scientific discovery into technology in an orderly way. As never before, there are growing debates over the roles of science in society, its lines of support, its applications. More than ever, social scientists, economists, and philosophical types are trying their hand at influencing science policy in very different ways than scientists themselves, as Vannevar Bush did 30 years ago.

  1. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  2. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  3. Monetary conversion factors for economic evaluations of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; Sayed, Bisma; French, Michael T; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-10-01

    Estimating the economic consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) is important for evaluating existing programs and new interventions. Policy makers in particular must weigh program effectiveness with scalability and sustainability considerations in deciding which programs to fund with limited resources. This study provides a comprehensive list of monetary conversion factors for a broad range of consequences, services, and outcomes, which can be used in economic evaluations of SUD interventions (primarily in the United States), including common co-occurring conditions such as HCV and HIV. Economic measures were selected from standardized clinical assessment instruments that are used in randomized clinical trials and other research studies (e.g., quasi-experimental community-based projects) to evaluate the impact of SUD interventions. National datasets were also reviewed for additional SUD-related consequences, services, and outcomes. Monetary conversion factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review of published articles as well as targeted searches of other sources such as government reports. Eight service/consequence/outcome domains were identified containing more than sixty monetizable measures of medical and behavioral health services, laboratory services, SUD treatment, social services, productivity outcomes, disability outcomes, criminal activity and criminal justice services, and infectious diseases consequences. Unit-specific monetary conversion factors are reported, along with upper and lower bound estimates, whenever possible. Having an updated and standardized source of monetary conversion factors will facilitate and improve future economic evaluations of interventions targeting SUDs and other risky behaviors. This exercise should be repeated periodically as new sources of data become available to maintain the timeliness, comprehensiveness, and quality of these estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  5. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  6. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  7. Reproduction, genetics and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan L

    2005-06-01

    Both reproductive medicine and genetics are seeing rapid, and in some instances revolutionary, medical and scientific advances. Courts have been called upon to resolve a variety of novel disputes arising from these areas, and more can be anticipated as these technologies continue to develop and their use becomes more widespread. This article discusses some of the most relevant areas of the law and litigation that currently bear on reproduction and genetics or that may be anticipated to do so in the future. Specific developments and judicial decisions addressing them include: legal theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life and their application to children born with genetic impairments; a physician's duty to warn family members about a relative's genetic disease; disputes over reproductive materials and non-reproductive cells and tissues; unauthorized genetic testing in the workplace; and genetic discrimination. It is hoped that this discussion will be of value to medical and legal professionals and policy makers who work with these concepts in the increasingly inter-related fields of law and medicine.

  8. Study for engine conversion from gasoline to natural gas by using the two-zone combustion predictive model; Estudio de la conversion del motor de gasolina a gas natural mediante modelo de combustion predictivo de dos zonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Espinoza; Moreno, Jesus; Perez, Andres [Universidad de Oriente, Puerto la Cruz (Venezuela). Dept. de Mecanica; Baduy, Franklin [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Termoenergetica

    1995-07-01

    Great scale conversion of automation engines is a policy used by many countries as a strategy to save gasoline. Previous studies on the effects that this transformation can have over the engine performance are required for the implantation of this type of conversion. also, modifications in components and tuning for each engine have to be analyzed. This paper studies the effect of the conversion from gasoline to natural gas over the engine output, indicate mean pressure, combustion rate etc. It also analyze how to find the starting angle and the best air/fuel ratio for a specific engine, using a two-zone combustion model. (author)

  9. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  10. The chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    What's in store: The sustainable development of our society requires the conversion and storage of renewable energy, and these should be scaled up to serve the global primary energy consumption. This special issue on "The Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage", assembled by guest editor Dangsheng Su, contains papers dealing with these aspects, and highlights important developments in the chemistry of energy conversion and storage during the last two years.

  11. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  12. Schisming: The Collaborative Transformation from a Single Conversation to Multiple Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    1997-01-01

    This article examines schisming, a phenomenon that relates to how the number of members in a group is related to the interaction of the group. More specifically, schisming is the observation that in a conversation with at least four participants, the conversation may systematically split into two...... or more smaller conversations. In the data examined here, schisming is induced when, during a conversation, one person introduces a turn oriented to a subset of coparticipants who break away from the ongoing conversation and establish a new conversation while the rest of the group continues the original...

  13. Do Policies Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Beth; Sanlo, Ronni L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of nondiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity and addresses how such policies might be used to improve campus climates for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  15. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  16. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  17. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  18. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  19. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  20. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  1. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.

  2. RNA genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: RNA-directed virus replication Volume 1. Topics covered include: Replication of the poliovirus genome; Influenza viral RNA transcription and replication; and Relication of the reoviridal: Information derived from gene cloning and expression.

  3. Genetic counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 30. Review Date 1/25/2016 Updated by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Fullerton Genetics Center, Asheville, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  4. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  5. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  6. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  7. Open Access policy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  8. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  9. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  10. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  11. STEGANALYSIS USING COLOUR MODEL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  12. Steganalysis Using Colour Model Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  13. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  14. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  15. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  16. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  17. Statement of the ESHG on direct-to-consumer genetic testing for health-related purposes European Society of Human Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Borry, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Many private companies offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services. Some tests may detect severe and highly penetrant monogenic disorders, while other tests are for genetic variants found associated with increased susceptibility for common and complex diseases in large-scale population studies. Through its Public and Professional Policy committee followed by member and expert consultation, the European Society of Human Genetics has developed the following policy on advertising and...

  18. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  19. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  20. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  1. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  2. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  3. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...... policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  4. Genetic screening and democracy: lessons from debating genetic screening criteria in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van El, Carla Geertruida; Pieters, Toine; Cornel, Martina

    2012-04-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing possibilities for genetic testing and screening. In clinical genetics, the doctor's office defined a secluded space for discussion of sensitive reproductive options in cases of elevated risk for genetic disorders in individuals or their offspring. When prenatal screening for all pregnant women became conceivable, the potential increase in scale made social and ethical concerns relevant for the whole of society. Whereas genetic testing in clinical genetic practice was widely accepted, prenatal screening at a population level met with unease. Concerns were raised regarding social pressure to screen: the sum of individual choice might result in a 'collective eugenics'. The government's involvement also raised suspicion: actively offering screening evoked associations with eugenic population policies from the first half of the 20th century. By reconstructing elements of policy and public debate on prenatal screening in the Netherlands from the past 30 years, this article discusses how the government has gradually changed its role in balancing the interest of the individual and the collective on genetic reproductive issues. Against a background of increasing knowledge about and demand for prenatal screening among the population, governmental policy changed from focusing on protection by banning screening toward facilitating screening in a careful and ethically sound way by providing adequate information, decision aids and quality assessment instruments. In the meanwhile, invigorating democracy in public debate may entail discussing concepts of 'the good life' in relation to living with or without impairments and dealing with genetic information about oneself or one's offspring.

  5. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  6. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  7. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  8. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  9. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  10. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506...

  11. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605... Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after December 11, 2001, agencies must convert the rate of basic pay of an...

  12. Optical angular momentum conversion in a nanoslit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimento, P.F.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; T Hooft, G.W.; Eliel, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate partial conversion of circularly polarized light into orbital angular momentum-carrying vortex light with opposite-handed circular polarization. This conversion is accomplished in a novel manner using the birefringent properties of a circular subwavelength slit in a thin metal film. O

  13. On conversational agents with mental states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Provoost, S.

    2015-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been put forward as a promising means for the training of social skills. The traditional approach to drive the behaviour of ECAs during human-agent dialogues is to use conversation trees. Although this approach is easy to use and very transparent, an import

  14. Metric Conversion and the School Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Arthur A.

    1976-01-01

    Cost of metric conversion in school shops is examined, and the author categories all the shops in the school and gives useful information on which shops are the easiest to convert, which are most complicated, where resistance is most likely to be met, and where conversion is most urgent. The math department is seen as catalyst. (Editor/HD)

  15. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  16. Toward More Effective Conversations with Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    The classroom teachers' style of conversing with deaf children is as important as the communication mode in the students' development of linguistic competence in English. Emphasis on a conversational style with low repair and low control should lead to increased student initiative and fewer misunderstandings of teachers' comments. (VW)

  17. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  18. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  19. Conversion Disorder in Stroke: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Chou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is caused by previous severe stress, emotional conflict, or an associated psychiatric disorder, and usually presents with one or more neurologic symptoms. Clinically, it is challenging to diagnose diseases such as transient ischemia attack, stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord injury, and neuropathy. In this case report, we present a male stroke patient who had a typical conversion disorder.

  20. Effective Techniques for English Conversation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Julia M.

    This book gathers ideas and practices in teaching English as a second language to serve as a reference for the leader of a conversation group. A variety of tested techniques is included for stimulating conversation among students with a basic command of English. The book begins with a discussion of what is involved in directed conversation…

  1. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  2. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  3. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  4. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  5. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... of heritable melanoma risk genes is an important component of disease occurrence. Susceptibility for some families is due to mutation in one of the known high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP and TERT. However, despite such mutations being implicated...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...

  6. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  7. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  8. Cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the recently discovered cooperative internal conversion process is investigated theoretically. In the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange investigated the coupling of bound-free electron and proton transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to proton exchange and an electron emission. General expression of the cross section of the process obtained in the one particle spherical nuclear shell model is presented. As a numerical example the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange in $Al$ is dealt with. As a further generalization, cooperative internal conversion process by heavy charged particle exchange and as an example of it the cooperative internal conversion process by triton exchange is discussed. The process is also connected to the field of nuclear waste disposal.

  9. Quantum Frequency Conversion between Infrared and Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütz, Helge; Luo, Kai-Hong; Suche, Hubertus; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-02-01

    We report on the implementation of quantum frequency conversion between infrared and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths by using single-stage up-conversion in a periodically poled potassium-titanyl-phosphate waveguide. Because of the monolithic waveguide design, we manage to transfer a telecommunication-band input photon to the wavelength of the ionic dipole transition of Yb+ at 369.5 nm. The external (internal) conversion efficiency is around 5% (10%). The high-energy pump used in this converter introduces a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, which is a cause for noise in the UV mode. Using this process, we show that the converter preserves nonclassical correlations in the up-conversion process, rendering this miniaturized interface a source for quantum states of light in the UV.

  10. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  11. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  12. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  13. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  14. Nouvelles conversations avec Jacques Fontanille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Cristtus PORTELA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette interview réalisée de février à mai 2014 aborde les développements les plus récents de l’œuvre de Jacques Fontanille, sémioticien français qui est une des figures phares de la sémiotique européenne. Ici le sémioticien fait le point sur la sémiotique des pratiques et sur le concept de formes de vie, sujet de son dernier ouvrage encore inédit. Au cours de ces conversations, qui prolongent celles réalisées en 2006 (PORTELA, 2006, Fontanille parle de la situation actuelle de la sémiotique en France, du rapport entre sémiotique et sciences humaines et du rôle de l’intellectuel dans la société. Selon J. Fontanille, la sémiotique doit faire face aux problématiques théoriques transversales et répondre aux questions sociétales, sans se focaliser seulement sur les apories et les questions internes aux courants sémiotiques en tant que regroupements institutionnels. Ainsi, le plus grand défi de la sémiotique à l’heure actuelle serait de chercher de nouvelles voies pour se réinventer en tant que discipline à vocation prédictive et stratégique.

  15. Predictivity, genetic tests and insurance law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos Maria

    2009-01-01

    An increasing discussion today consists of whether emerging genetic tests will provide a powerful tool for individual risk assessments for the life, health, disability and accident policies underwritten by private insurance companies and what could be the consequences of this for the insurance contract system built throughout the last decades. Thus, access to such risk information will facilitate more precise actuarial premium assessments.

  16. Private and public eugenics: genetic and screening in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper

  17. A 14-year-old girl with an unusual combination of incontinentia pigmenti and conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Qiaoshu; Wang, Guodong; Guo, Chunni; Wang, Feng; Deng, Xiaolei; Wang, Weizhen

    2013-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare X-linked neurological-skin genetic disease. Some studies have shown that about 30~40% of patients with IP have varying symptoms of eye/central nervous system which are the major causes of disability. Conversion disorder is one of the most common mental diseases in children and may exhibit the single or multiple neurological symptoms. In this paper, we will report a child with new and rare incontinentia pigmenti accompanied by conversion disorder and explore the relationship of this rare combination.

  18. Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Celeste M

    2010-01-01

    The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

  19. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic Counselor ... in your area, please visit www.nsgc.org . Genetic Testing Genetic testing can help determine the cause of ...

  20. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouse Party on Learn.Genetics.utah.edu Students doing the Tree of Genetic Traits activity Learn.Genetics is one of the most widely used science education websites in the world The Community Genetics ...

  1. Engaging nurses in genetics: the strategic approach of the NHS National Genetics Education and Development Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maggie; Tonkin, Emma; Burke, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    The UK government announced the establishment of an NHS National Genetics Education and Development Centre in its Genetics White Paper. The Centre aims to lead and coordinate developments to enhance genetics literacy of health professionals. The nursing program takes a strategic approach based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior, using the UK nursing genetics competences as the platform for development. The program team uses innovative approaches to raise awareness of the relevance of genetics, working collaboratively with policy stakeholders, as key agents of change in promoting competence. Providing practical help in preparing learning and teaching resources lends further encouragement. Evaluation of the program is dependent on gathering baseline data, and the program has been informed by an education needs analysis. The challenges faced are substantial and necessitate international collaboration where expertise and resources can be shared to produce a global system of influence to facilitate the engagement of non-genetic nurses.

  2. A conversation with John Sulston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulston, John

    2002-01-01

    Sir John Sulston was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2002. He won the prize for his discoveries concerning "genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death," along with his colleagues sydney Brenner and H. Robert Horvitz. Dr. Sulston was founding director of the Sanger Centre, Cambridge, England, which he headed from 1992 to 2000. From 1993 to 2000, he led the British arm of the international team selected to work on the Human Genome Project. He is co-author of the book The Common Thread: A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics, and the Human Genome, published by Joseph Henry Press in 2002.This interview was conducted on December 20, 2002, shortly after Dr. Sulston was awarded his Nobel Prize and was originally broadcast on that date on radio station WPKN-FM in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The interview was conducted by Valerie Richardson, the Managing Editor of The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine.Dr. Sulston has been an outspoken advocate against letting the data from the Human Genome Project become property of commercial interests that would charge the world's scientific community for its use. Since leaving the Sanger Institute, he has worked with OxFam, the Oxford Campaign for Famine Relief.

  3. Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karli, Bahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Miran, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods. People are more prone to implement compulsory policy on G...

  4. An installation for vapor conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Tabata, K.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for converting a mixture of hydrocarbon gases with steam in the presence of nickel, platinum, lead and cobalt catalysts (Kt) on a carrier of Si0/sub 2/, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, Ti0/sub 2/ and so on. The reaction tower (RK1) for conversion is made of an inorganic, heat resistant ceramic material (for instance, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ ceramic), heaters are located inside the walls of the reaction tower, while on the outside the reaction conversion tower is equipped with an external tubular housing made of heat resistant materials or of inorganic heat resistant ceramic material. Here, there is a space between the external walls of the reaction conversion tower and the walls of the housing along the entire circumference of the reaction conversion tower which serves for preheating of the hydrocarbon gas and the steam before their input into the reaction conversion tower. The installation is designed for conversion of natural gas, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/ and other hydrocarbon gases and of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into synthesis gas. The design provides for even heating of the catalyst during reforming. The use of ceramic materials for the reaction conversion tower prevents sedimentation of coke on the walls of the reaction tower.

  5. Research of Mechanism on the Impact of Local Governmental Competition on Farmland Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of local governmental competition, the impact of local governmental competition on farmland conversion is analyzed in terms of political competition, factors competition and products competition, and the empirical analysis is conducted according to the provincial data from 2002 to 2007. The results show that the endowment of land resources correlates negatively with the scale of farmland conversion, and the population, the tendency of exceeding capital investment and the competition of research and development input correlate positively with the scale of farmland conversion. According to these research results, corresponding policies and countermeasures are put forward: we should overhaul the system of performance evaluation of local governmental officials; we should normalize the local governmental competitive behavior.

  6. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...

  7. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  8. Conversion “V” Profiles in Torticollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahanshahi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that spasmodic torticollis represents a conversion reaction was examined by evaluating profiles of 61 patients on the hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Thirty-six per cent of the sample had normal profiles. A conversion “V” profile with scores above 70 was found in a minority (9% of the patients. The profile of the majority of the group was characterized by the presence of mild depression. It was concluded that a personality profile suggestive of conversion reaction is not typical of patients with spasmodic torticollis.

  9. Efficient microwave-induced optical frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kosachiov, D V

    1999-01-01

    Frequency conversion process is studied in a medium of atoms with a $\\Lambda$ configuration of levels, where transition between two lower states is driven by a microwave field. In this system, conversion efficiency can be very high by virtue of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Depending on intensity of the microwave field, two regimes of EIT are realized: ''dark-state'' EIT for the weak field, and Autler-Townes-type EIT for the strong one. We study both cases via analytical and numerical solution and find optimum conditions for the conversion.

  10. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  11. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  12. Fostering multiculturalism: the English Conversation Pairs Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B E; Elander, E

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to and personal interactions with people of diverse cultures foster an acceptance of multiculturalism. To this end, the English Conversation Pairs Program provides weekly conversation sessions between students who are native speakers of English (NSE) and students who speak English as a second language (ESL). Attitudes of twenty-two NSE students are surveyed before and after participation in the Conversation Pairs Program. This paper discusses (a) NSE students' perceptions of the program, (b) perceived changes in cultural sensitivity of NSE students, (c) activities which enhance and/or hamper program effectiveness, and (d) variables which influence program effectiveness.

  13. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  14. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, L. E-mail: weissman@nscl.msu.edu; Ames, F.; Aeysto, J.; Forstner, O.; Reisinger, K.; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-10-21

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  15. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Äystö, J; Forstner, O; Reisinger, K; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-01-01

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line and tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  16. Macroeconomic Policies Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This concise study analyses the symmetry of financial markets’ responses to macroeconomic policy interaction in the United Kingdom. Employing the Vector Auto-regression (VAR model on monthly data of the British financial sector and macroeconomic policies from January 1985 to August 2008, this study found that the equity and sovereign debt markets showed identical symmetry in response to macroeconomic policy interaction.

  17. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  18. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  19. Regulating genetic privacy in the online health information era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2002-01-01

    As the clinical implications of the genetic components of disease come to be better understood, there is likely to be a significant increase in the volume of genetic information held within clinical records. As patient health care records, in turn, come on-line as part of broader health information networks, there is likely to be considerable pressure in favour of special laws protecting genetic privacy. This paper reviews some of the privacy challenges posed by electronic health records, some government initiatives in this area, and notes the impact that developments in genetic testing will have upon the 'genetic content' of e-health records. Despite the sensitivity of genetic information, the paper argues against a policy of 'genetic exceptionalism', and its implications for genetic privacy laws.

  20. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.