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Sample records for genetically similar mates

  1. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

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    Mulard, Hervé; Danchin, E.; Talbot, S.L.; Ramey, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.; White, J.F.; Helfenstein, F.; Wagner, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results. Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i) genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii) offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion. These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure. ?? 2009 Mulard et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

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    Ramey Andrew M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.

  3. Mate choice and friendship in twins: evidence for genetic similarity.

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    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental contribution to people's preference for spouses and friends to be similar to themselves. In their responses to 130 personality, attitude, and demographic questions, 174 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins resembled each other (r= .53) more than did 148 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins (r= .32), 322 pairs of spouses (r= .32), and 563 pairs of best friends (r= .20). It was not previously recognized that spouses and friends are as similar as DZ twins. MZ twins also chose spouses and best friends more similar to their co-twins' friends and spouses than did DZ twins (mean rs = .22 vs. .14). The twins' preference for spouses and friends similar to themselves was about 34% due to the twins' genes, 12% due to the twins' common environment, and 54% due to the twins' unique (nonshared) environment. Similarity to partners was more pronounced on the more heritable items than the less heritable items. It is concluded that people are genetically inclined to choose as social partners those who resemble themselves at a genetic level.

  4. Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) Prefer Genetically Similar Mates despite Inbreeding Depression.

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    Jacob, Gwenaël; Prévot, Anne-Caroline; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.

  5. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

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    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  6. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

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    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  7. A novel mating approach for genetic algorithms.

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    Galán, Severino F; Mengshoel, Ole J; Pinter, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithms typically use crossover, which relies on mating a set of selected parents. As part of crossover, random mating is often carried out. A novel approach to parent mating is presented in this work. Our novel approach can be applied in combination with a traditional similarity-based criterion to measure distance between individuals or with a fitness-based criterion. We introduce a parameter called the mating index that allows different mating strategies to be developed within a uniform framework: an exploitative strategy called best-first, an explorative strategy called best-last, and an adaptive strategy called self-adaptive. Self-adaptive mating is defined in the context of the novel algorithm, and aims to achieve a balance between exploitation and exploration in a domain-independent manner. The present work formally defines the novel mating approach, analyzes its behavior, and conducts an extensive experimental study to quantitatively determine its benefits. In the domain of real function optimization, the experiments show that, as the degree of multimodality of the function at hand grows, increasing the mating index improves performance. In the case of the self-adaptive mating strategy, the experiments give strong results for several case studies.

  8. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

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    Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C.; de Boer, Jetske G.; Hoffmeister, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex deter

  9. How to design a genetic mating scheme: a basic training package for Drosophila genetics.

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    Roote, John; Prokop, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for biological research. The essential and common instrument of fly research is genetics, the art of applying Mendelian rules in the specific context of Drosophila with its unique classical genetic tools and the breadth of modern genetic tools and strategies brought in by molecular biology, transgenic technologies and the use of recombinases. Training newcomers to fly genetics is a complex and time-consuming task but too important to be left to chance. Surprisingly, suitable training resources for beginners currently are not available. Here we provide a training package for basic Drosophila genetics, designed to ensure that basic knowledge on all key areas is covered while reducing the time invested by trainers. First, a manual introduces to fly history, rationale for mating schemes, fly handling, Mendelian rules in fly, markers and balancers, mating scheme design, and transgenic technologies. Its self-study is followed by a practical training session on gender and marker selection, introducing real flies under the dissecting microscope. Next, through self-study of a PowerPoint presentation, trainees are guided step-by-step through a mating scheme. Finally, to consolidate knowledge, trainees are asked to design similar mating schemes reflecting routine tasks in a fly laboratory. This exercise requires individual feedback but also provides unique opportunities for trainers to spot weaknesses and strengths of each trainee and take remedial action. This training package is being successfully applied at the Manchester fly facility and may serve as a model for further training resources covering other aspects of fly research.

  10. Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.

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    Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.

  11. The evolution of phenotypes and genetic parameters under preferential mating

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    Roff, Derek A; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2014-01-01

    This article extends and adds more realism to Lande's analytical model for evolution under mate choice by using individual-based simulations in which females sample a finite number of males and the genetic architecture of the preference and preferred trait evolves. The simulations show that the equilibrium heritabilities of the preference and preferred trait and the genetic correlation between them (rG), depend critically on aspects of the mating system (the preference function, mode of mate choice, choosiness, and number of potential mates sampled), the presence or absence of natural selection on the preferred trait, and the initial genetic parameters. Under some parameter combinations, preferential mating increased the heritability of the preferred trait, providing a possible resolution for the lek paradox. The Kirkpatrick–Barton approximation for rG proved to be biased downward, but the realized genetic correlations were also low, generally <0.2. Such low values of rG indicate that coevolution of the preference and preferred trait is likely to be very slow and subject to significant stochastic variation. Lande's model accurately predicted the incidence of runaway selection in the simulations, except where preferences were relative and the preferred trait was subject to natural selection. In these cases, runaways were over- or underestimated, depending on the number of males sampled. We conclude that rapid coevolution of preferences and preferred traits is unlikely in natural populations, but that the parameter combinations most conducive to it are most likely to occur in lekking species. PMID:25077025

  12. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J; Samsonoff, William A; Wickes, Brian L; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-09-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the alpha mating type (MAT(alpha)). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF(alpha) 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF(alpha) 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MF(alpha) 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MAT(alpha) strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MF(alpha) 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MF(alpha) 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MF(alpha) 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C

  13. Genetic basis for MHC-dependent mate choice.

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    Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), best known for their role in immune recognition and transplantation success, are also involved in modulating mate choice in mice. Early studies with inbred, congenic mouse lines showed that mate choice tended to favor nonself MHC types. A similar phenomenon was demonstrated with semi-wild mice as well. Subsequent studies showed that, rather than nonself choices, it was more accurate to say that mice chose nonparental MHC types for mates since preferences for nonself could be reversed if mice were fostered from birth on parents with nonself MHC types. Other studies have demonstrated that parent-offspring recognition is also regulated by MHC-determined signals suggesting that this system is one of general importance for mouse behavior. Many studies have now demonstrated that volatile mouse body odors are regulated by MHC genes and it is presumably these odor differences that underlie mate choice and familial recognition. Recent studies have shown that many odorants are controlled by the MHC but the mechanism by which MHC genes exert their influence has not been identified. Surprisingly, not only are volatile body odors influenced by MHC genes but so too are nonvolatile signals. Peptides bound to the MHC protein may also function in individual recognition. The extent to which this system is involved in mate choice of other species is unclear although there are some suggestive studies. Indeed, there is tentative evidence that MHC differences, presumably acting via odor changes, may influence human partner selection. Further studies should clarify both the mechanism underlying MHC influence on body odors as well as the generality of their importance in mate selection.

  14. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

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    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    , even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  15. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    individuals stem from three different maternal lineages, accounting for seven, four, and one individual(s), respectively. Using a Y-chromosome assay to confirm the morphological determination of sex for each individual, we found that, although the three adult males carried the same mtDNA lineage, each...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  16. Mating frequency and genetic structure of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile.

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    Krieger, M J; Keller, L

    2000-02-01

    The nest and population genetic structures of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile were investigated using eight microsatellite loci. Genotypes of the sperm from spermathecae of 87 queens were consistent with all queens being singly inseminated. The probability of a double mating remaining undetected was low (0.012) suggesting that no queens or only a very low proportion mate multiply. The relatedness between the queens and their mates was negative (R = -0.164 +/- 0.044) and significantly different to zero (P = 0.020). However, the high negative relatedness value was caused by a significant allele frequency difference between the sexes at a single locus (Lhum-28). When this locus was removed from the analyses, the relatedness was not significantly different from zero (R = 0.013 +/- 0.050, P = 0.812). Analysis of 10 nests revealed that the genetic differentiation among nests was weak (FST = 0.003) and not distinguishable from zero (P = 0.468). Similarly, the overall relatedness among nestmate females was not significantly different from zero (R = 0.007 +/- 0.018, P = 0.706). These results are consistent with the lack of distinct nest boundaries and the large number of queens per nest in the population studied. Although mating takes place inside the nest, the inbreeding coefficient was close to zero (F = 0.007 +/- 0.025, P = 0.786). Overall, these data indicate substantial local gene flow mediated by movement of reproductives among colonies.

  17. Structural similarity of genetically interacting proteins

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    Nussinov Ruth

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of gene mutants and their interactions is fundamental to understanding gene function and backup mechanisms within the cell. The recent availability of large scale genetic interaction networks in yeast and worm allows the investigation of the biological mechanisms underlying these interactions at a global scale. To date, less than 2% of the known genetic interactions in yeast or worm can be accounted for by sequence similarity. Results Here, we perform a genome-scale structural comparison among protein pairs in the two species. We show that significant fractions of genetic interactions involve structurally similar proteins, spanning 7–10% and 14% of all known interactions in yeast and worm, respectively. We identify several structural features that are predictive of genetic interactions and show their superiority over sequence-based features. Conclusion Structural similarity is an important property that can explain and predict genetic interactions. According to the available data, the most abundant mechanism for genetic interactions among structurally similar proteins is a common interacting partner shared by two genetically interacting proteins.

  18. Female mating preferences and offspring survival: testing hypotheses on the genetic basis of mate choice in a wild lekking bird.

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    Sardell, Rebecca J; Kempenaers, Bart; Duval, Emily H

    2014-02-01

    Indirect benefits of mate choice result from increased offspring genetic quality and may be important drivers of female behaviour. 'Good-genes-for-viability' models predict that females prefer mates of high additive genetic value, such that offspring survival should correlate with male attractiveness. Mate choice may also vary with genetic diversity (e.g. heterozygosity) or compatibility (e.g. relatedness), where the female's genotype influences choice. The relative importance of these nonexclusive hypotheses remains unclear. Leks offer an excellent opportunity to test their predictions, because lekking males provide no material benefits and choice is relatively unconstrained by social limitations. Using 12 years of data on lekking lance-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia lanceolata, we tested whether offspring survival correlated with patterns of mate choice. Offspring recruitment weakly increased with father attractiveness (measured as reproductive success, RS), suggesting attractive males provide, if anything, only minor benefits via offspring viability. Both male RS and offspring survival until fledging increased with male heterozygosity. However, despite parent-offspring correlation in heterozygosity, offspring survival was unrelated to its own or maternal heterozygosity or to parental relatedness, suggesting survival was not enhanced by heterozygosity per se. Instead, offspring survival benefits may reflect inheritance of specific alleles or nongenetic effects. Although inbreeding depression in male RS should select for inbreeding avoidance, mates were not less related than expected under random mating. Although mate heterozygosity and relatedness were correlated, selection on mate choice for heterozygosity appeared stronger than that for relatedness and may be the primary mechanism maintaining genetic variation in this system despite directional sexual selection.

  19. Evidence for genetic variation in human mate preferences for sexually dimorphic physical traits.

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    Karin J H Verweij

    Full Text Available Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%.

  20. Evidence for genetic variation in human mate preferences for sexually dimorphic physical traits.

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    Verweij, Karin J H; Burri, Andrea V; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2012-01-01

    Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%.

  1. Menstrual Cycle Changes in Mate Preferences for Cues Associated with Genetic Quality: The Moderating Role of Mate Value

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    Murray Millar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of mate value and fertility status on women's implicit and explicit preferences for male traits associated with genetic quality. It was hypothesized that a woman low in mate value would experience greater fluctuation across her menstrual cycle in her preferences for characteristics associated with genetic quality than a woman high in mate value. Specifically, a low mate value woman during the non-fertile part of the cycle would experience a reduction in a desire for traits associated with health and reproductive success. To test the hypothesis, the college age female participants completed two measures of mate value and a self-report measure designed to gauge fertility status. Then the participants performed an Implicit Associations Test (IAT designed to measure implicit associations with a male trait related to genetic quality and a questionnaire designed to measure their explicit responses to the same trait. As predicted, mate value moderated the relationship between fertility status and implicit preferences.

  2. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

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    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy...... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....

  3. Choosing mates based on the diet of your ancestors: replication of non-genetic assortative mating in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Michael A. Najarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Assortative mating has been a focus of considerable research because of its potential to influence biodiversity at many scales. Sharon et al. (2010 discovered that an inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster mated assortatively based on the diet of previous generations, leading to initial reproductive isolation without genetic evolution. This behavior was reproduced by manipulating the microbiome independently of the diet, pointing to extracellular bacterial symbionts as the assortative mating cue. To further investigate the biological significance of this result, we attempted to reproduce this phenomenon in an independent laboratory using different genotypes and additional mating assays. Supporting the previous result, we found that a different inbred strain also mated assortatively based on the diets of previous generations. However, we were unable to generate assortative mating in an outbred strain from North Carolina. Our results support the potential for non-genetic mechanisms to influence reproductive isolation, but additional work is needed to investigate the importance of this mechanism in natural populations of Drosophila.

  4. Multiple mating but not recombination causes quantitative increase in offspring genetic diversity for varying genetic architectures.

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    Olav Rueppell

    Full Text Available Explaining the evolution of sex and recombination is particularly intriguing for some species of eusocial insects because they display exceptionally high mating frequencies and genomic recombination rates. Explanations for both phenomena are based on the notion that both increase colony genetic diversity, with demonstrated benefits for colony disease resistance and division of labor. However, the relative contributions of mating number and recombination rate to colony genetic diversity have never been simultaneously assessed. Our study simulates colonies, assuming different mating numbers, recombination rates, and genetic architectures, to assess their worker genotypic diversity. The number of loci has a strong negative effect on genotypic diversity when the allelic effects are inversely scaled to locus number. In contrast, dominance, epistasis, lethal effects, or limiting the allelic diversity at each locus does not significantly affect the model outcomes. Mating number increases colony genotypic variance and lowers variation among colonies with quickly diminishing returns. Genomic recombination rate does not affect intra- and inter-colonial genotypic variance, regardless of mating frequency and genetic architecture. Recombination slightly increases the genotypic range of colonies and more strongly the number of workers with unique allele combinations across all loci. Overall, our study contradicts the argument that the exceptionally high recombination rates cause a quantitative increase in offspring genotypic diversity across one generation. Alternative explanations for the evolution of high recombination rates in social insects are therefore needed. Short-term benefits are central to most explanations of the evolution of multiple mating and high recombination rates in social insects but our results also apply to other species.

  5. Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits and the maintenance of genetic diversity in song sparrows.

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    Neff, B D; Pitcher, T E

    2009-02-01

    The lek paradox asserts that strong directional selection via female choice should deplete additive genetic variation in fitness and consequently any benefit to females expressing the preference. Recently, we have provided a novel resolution to the paradox by showing that nonadditive genetic effects such as overdominance can be inherited from parent to offspring, and populations with females that express a mating preference for outbred males maintain higher genetic variation than populations with females that mate randomly. Here, we test our dynamic model using empirical data previously published from a small island population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The model assumes that fitness and male trait expression display overdominance effects. The results demonstrate that female choice for outbred males mediated by directional selection on song repertoire size provides a heritable benefit to offspring through reduced inbreeding depression. Within the population, we estimate the heritability of the inbreeding coefficient to be 0.18 +/- 0.08 (SD). Furthermore, we show that mate choice for outbred males increases fitness-related genetic variation in the population by 12% and thereby reduces inbreeding depression by 1% per generation in typical years and upwards of 15% in severe years. Thus, mate choice may help to stave off population extinction in this and other small populations.

  6. The genetic basis for mating-induced sex differences in starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Jang, Taehwan; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2015-11-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence starvation resistance, which is an important determinant of fitness in many organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent studies have revealed that mating can alter starvation resistance in female D. melanogaster, but little is known about the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying such mating-mediated changes in starvation resistance. In the present study, we first investigated whether the effect of mating on starvation resistance is sex-specific in D. melanogaster. As indicated by a significant sex×mating status interaction, mating increased starvation resistance in females but not in males. In female D. melanogaster, post-mating increase in starvation resistance was mainly attributed to increases in food intake and in the level of lipid storage relative to lean body weight. We then performed quantitative genetic analysis to estimate the proportion of the total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic differences (i.e., heritability) for starvation resistance in mated male and female D. melanogaster. The narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of starvation resistance was 0.235 and 0.155 for males and females, respectively. Mated females were more resistant to starvation than males in all genotypes, but the degree of such sexual dimorphism varied substantially among genotypes, as indicated by a significant sex×genotype interaction for starvation resistance. Cross-sex genetic correlation was greater than 0 but less than l for starvation resistance, implying that the genetic architecture of this trait was partially shared between the two sexes. For both sexes, starvation resistance was positively correlated with longevity and lipid storage at genetic level. The present study suggests that sex differences in starvation resistance depend on mating status and have a genetic basis in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstructing genetic mating systems in the absence of parental information in colonially breeding waterbirds

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    Mussi Gonçalves Priscila F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA-based studies have demonstrated that avian genetic mating systems vary widely, with many species deviating from long-assumed monogamy by practicing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism. Colonially breeding waterbirds provide interesting models in which to investigate this question because they show nesting habits proposed to promote alternative reproductive strategies. However, little is known about the genetic mating systems of this group of birds, mainly due to difficulties in obtaining genetic data from incubating adults at nests that are necessary for conducting conventional parentage studies. Here, we inferred kinship patterns among offspring in broods of three co-distributed waterbird species, Wood Stork (Mycteria americana, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja and Great Egret (Ardea alba egretta, to investigate genetic mating system in the absence of parental data. Results Multi-step analyses combining estimates of relatedness coefficients, formulation of relationship-hypotheses, significance testing of alternative hypotheses, and maximum-likelihood sibship reconstruction techniques revealed evidence that alternative reproductive strategies may be present in natural populations of Wood Storks and Roseate Spoonbills, whereas relatedness of co-nestlings diagnosed in the Great Egrets did not deviate from a hypothesis of genetic monogamy. Specifically, under this analytical framework, inferred kinship relationships revealed that Great Egret nests contained full-sibling nestlings (100%, with the Roseate Spoonbill (RS and Wood Stork (WS exhibiting proportions of half-siblings (RS: 5% and/or unrelated nestlings (RS: 24%; WS: 70%, patterns consistent with extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism, respectively. Conclusions We provide evidence that genetic monogamy occurs in Brazilian natural breeding colonies of the Great Egret, but is not the sole reproductive strategy employed by the Wood Stork

  8. Vocal neighbour-mate discrimination in female great tits despite high song similarity

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    Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouring...... males, however, raises the question of whether females are also able to perceive differences between songs shared by their mate and a neighbour. The great tit is a socially monogamous, hole-nesting species with biparental care. Pair bond maintenance and coordination of the pair's reproductive efforts...... are important, and the female's ability to recognize her mate's song should therefore be adaptive. In a neighbour-mate discrimination playback experiment, we presented 13 incubating great tit females situated inside nestboxes with a song of their mate and the same song type from a neighbour. Each female...

  9. The Genetic Basis of Female Mate Preference and Species Isolation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Laturney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes that underlie mate choice have long fascinated biologists. With the advent of increasingly refined genetic tools, we are now beginning to understand the genetic basis of how males and females discriminate among potential mates. One aspect of mate discrimination of particular interest is that which isolates one species from another. As behavioral isolation is thought to be the first step in speciation, and females are choosy more often than males in this regard, identifying the genetic variants that influence interspecies female mate choice can enhance our understanding of the process of speciation. Here, we review the literature on female mate choice in the most widely used model system for studies of species isolation Drosophila. Although females appear to use the same traits for both within- and between-species female mate choice, there seems to be a different genetic basis underlying these choices. Interestingly, most genomic regions that cause females to reject heterospecific males fall within areas of low recombination. Likely, candidate genes are those that act within the auditory or olfactory system, or within areas of the brain that process these systems.

  10. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

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    Quentin Jossart

    Full Text Available Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007 proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  11. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus.

  12. Why do females mate multiply? A review of the genetic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennions, M D; Petrie, M

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this review is to consider the potential benefits that females may gain from mating more than once in a single reproductive cycle. The relationship between non-genetic and genetic benefits is briefly explored. We suggest that multiple mating for purely non-genetic benefits is unlikely as it invariably leads to the possibility of genetic benefits as well. We begin by briefly reviewing the main models for genetic benefits to mate choice, and the supporting evidence that choice can increase offspring performance and the sexual attractiveness of sons. We then explain how multiple mating can elevate offspring fitness by increasing the number of potential sires that compete, when this occurs in conjunction with mechanisms of paternity biasing that function in copula or post-copulation. We begin by identifying cases where females use pre-copulatory cues to identify mates prior to remating. In the simplest case, females remate because they identify a superior mate and 'trade up' genetically. The main evidence for this process comes from extra-pair copulation in birds. Second, we note other cases where pre-copulatory cues may be less reliable and females mate with several males to promote post-copulatory mechanisms that bias paternity. Although a distinction is drawn between sperm competition and cryptic female choice, we point out that the genetic benefits to polyandry in terms of producing more viable or sexually attractive offspring do not depend on the exact mechanism that leads to biased paternity. Post-copulatory mechanisms of paternity biasing may: (1) reduce genetic incompatibility between male and female genetic contributions to offspring; (2) increase offspring viability if there is a positive correlation between traits favoured post-copulation and those that improve performance under natural selection; (3) increase the ability of sons to gain paternity when they mate with polyandrous females. A third possibility is that genetic diversity among

  13. Genetic variation in the odorant receptors family 13 and the mhc loci influence mate selection in a multiple sclerosis dataset

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    Hauser Stephen L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When selecting mates, many vertebrate species seek partners with major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes different from their own, presumably in response to selective pressure against inbreeding and towards MHC diversity. Attempts at replication of these genetic results in human studies, however, have reached conflicting conclusions. Results Using a multi-analytical strategy, we report validated genome-wide relationships between genetic identity and human mate choice in 930 couples of European ancestry. We found significant similarity between spouses in the MHC at class I region in chromosome 6p21, and at the odorant receptor family 13 locus in chromosome 9. Conversely, there was significant dissimilarity in the MHC class II region, near the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes. We also found that genomic regions with significant similarity between spouses show excessive homozygosity in the general population (assessed in the HapMap CEU dataset. Conversely, loci that were significantly dissimilar among spouses were more likely to show excessive heterozygosity in the general population. Conclusions This study highlights complex patterns of genomic identity among partners in unrelated couples, consistent with a multi-faceted role for genetic factors in mate choice behavior in human populations.

  14. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Demian D; Wintner, Sabine P; Abercrombie, Debra L; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2013-06-23

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size ('hatchlings') consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation ('embryonic cannibalism' or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males ('behavioural polyandry') then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system ('genetic monogamy'). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species.

  15. The genetic correlation between height and IQ: shared genes or assortative mating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Keller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits ("pleiotropy" and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits ("gametic phase disequilibrium". In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905 to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height-IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation.

  16. The Genetic Correlation between Height and IQ: Shared Genes or Assortative Mating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C.; Garver-Apgar, Christine E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits (“pleiotropy”) and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits (“gametic phase disequilibrium”). In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905) to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height–IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation. PMID:23593038

  17. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Demian D.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Feldheim, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size (‘hatchlings’) consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation (‘embryonic cannibalism’ or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males (‘behavioural polyandry’) then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system (‘genetic monogamy’). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species. PMID:23637391

  18. Becoming more like your mate: hormonal similarity reduces divorce rates in a wild songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Jenny; Van Oers, Kees; Quetting, M.; Hau, M.

    2014-01-01

    In animals with biparental care, maintaining a pair bond is of adaptive value because it increases reproductive success and reduces costs, such as energy and time, for finding a new mate. Hormones are important mediators of social behaviours as well as parental care, and endocrine mechanisms are the

  19. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sékou F; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Distorted Segregation Ratio of Mating Types Among Basidiospores in Lentinula edodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shui-ming; LIN Fan-xue

    2008-01-01

    This study prepared 17 strains of Lentinula edodes, including wild and cultivated strains as materials, and statistically analyzed the ratios of spores from different aspects via mating types' analysis and the OWE-SOJ technique. The results from this study first systematically identified skewed expected distribution of mating-type factors segregation in Lentinula edodes spores has commonly statistical meanings in wild and cultivated strains. Genetic analysis of positive and negative parental-recombined fruiting showed that the nuclear type of F1 progeny spores among those strains segregated through theoretical distribution mainly depended on the combined state of parental dikaryons, and the predominant spores were those with the mating type identical to the dikaryotic parent, indicating that the genetic basis of segregation distortion of spores is different from that of protoplast monokaryons in which the B factor takes predominant responsibility for that phenomenon, and it cooperates A factor with B factor to influence the ratio of spores.

  1. Facialmetric similarities mediate mate choice: sexual imprinting on opposite-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Hegedus, Gabor; Hajnal, Gabor

    2009-01-07

    Former studies have suggested that imprinting-like processes influence the shaping of human mate preferences. In this study, we provide more direct evidence for assessing facial resemblance between subjects' partner and subjects' parents. Fourteen facial proportions were measured on 312 adults belonging to 52 families, and the correlations between family members were compared with those of pairs randomly selected from the population. Spouses proved to be assortatively mated in the majority of measured facial proportions. Significant correlations have been found between the young men and their partner's father (but not his mother), especially on facial proportions belonging to the central area of the face. Women also showed resemblance to their partner's mother (but not to their father) in the facial characteristics of their lower face. Replicating our previous studies, facial photographs of participants were also matched by independent judges who ascribed higher resemblance between partners, and subjects and their partners' opposite-sex parents, compared with controls. Our results support the sexual imprinting hypothesis which states that children shape a mental template of their opposite-sex parents and search for a partner who resembles that perceptual schema. The fact that only the facial metrics of opposite-sex parents showed resemblance to the partner's face tends to rule out the role of familiarity in shaping mating preferences. Our findings also reject several other rival hypotheses. The adaptive value of imprinting-related human mating is discussed, and a hypothesis is made of why different facial areas are involved in males' and females' search for resemblance.

  2. Interface between culturally based preferences and genetic preferences: female mate choice in Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugatkin, L A

    1996-01-01

    The relative contribution of genetic and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of behavior is of fundamental importance to biologists and social scientists, yet it has proven to be extremely difficult to study in a controlled, experimental fashion. Here I describe experiments that examined the strength of genetic and cultural (imitative) factors in determining female mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Female guppies from the Paria River in Trinidad have a genetic, heritable preference for the amount of orange body color possessed by males. Female guppies will, however, also copy (imitate) the mate choice of other females in that when two males are matched for orange color, an "observer" female will copy the mate choice of another ("model") female. Three treatments were undertaken in which males differed by an average of 12%, 24%, or 40% of the total orange body color. In all cases, observer females viewed a model female prefer the less colorful male. When males differed by 12% or 24%, observer females preferred the less colorful male and thus copied the mate choice of others, despite a strong heritable preference for orange body color in males. When males differed by 40% orange body color, however, observer females preferred the more colorful male and did not copy the mate choice of the other female. In this system, then, imitation can "override" genetic preferences when the difference between orange body color in males is small or moderate, but genetic factors block out imitation effects when the difference in orange body color in males is large. This experiment provides the first attempt to experimentally examine the relative strength of cultural and genetic preferences for a particular trait and suggests that these two factors moderate one another in shaping social behavior. PMID:11607646

  3. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  4. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  5. Genetic mating systems and reproductive natural histories of fishes: lessons for ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, John C; Jones, Adam G; Walker, DeEtte; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Fish species have diverse breeding behaviors that make them valuable for testing theories on genetic mating systems and reproductive tactics. Here we review genetic appraisals of paternity and maternity in wild fish populations. Behavioral phenomena quantified by genetic markers in various species include patterns of multiple mating by both sexes; frequent cuckoldry by males and rare cuckoldry by females in nest-tending species; additional routes to surrogate parentage via nest piracy and egg-thievery; egg mimicry by nest-tending males; brood parasitism by helper males in cooperative breeders; clutch mixing in oral brooders; kinship in schooling fry of broadcast spawners; sperm storage by dams in female-pregnant species; and sex-role reversal, polyandry, and strong sexual selection on females in some male-pregnant species. Additional phenomena addressed by genetic parentage analyses in fishes include clustered mutations, filial cannibalism, and local population size. All results are discussed in the context of relevant behavioral and evolutionary theory.

  6. Genetic and socioeconomic study of mate choice in Latinos reveals novel assortment patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, James Y; Park, Danny S; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Song, Yun S; Sankararaman, Sriram; Halperin, Eran; Zaitlen, Noah

    2015-11-01

    Nonrandom mating in human populations has important implications for genetics and medicine as well as for economics and sociology. In this study, we performed an integrative analysis of a large cohort of Mexican and Puerto Rican couples using detailed socioeconomic attributes and genotypes. We found that in ethnically homogeneous Latino communities, partners are significantly more similar in their genomic ancestries than expected by chance. Consistent with this, we also found that partners are more closely related--equivalent to between third and fourth cousins in Mexicans and Puerto Ricans--than matched random male-female pairs. Our analysis showed that this genomic ancestry similarity cannot be explained by the standard socioeconomic measurables alone. Strikingly, the assortment of genomic ancestry in couples was consistently stronger than even the assortment of education. We found enriched correlation of partners' genotypes at genes known to be involved in facial development. We replicated our results across multiple geographic locations. We discuss the implications of assortment and assortment-specific loci on disease dynamics and disease mapping methods in Latinos.

  7. The female perspective of mating in A. femoralis, a territorial frog with paternal care--a spatial and genetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ringler

    Full Text Available The adaptive significance of sequential polyandry is a challenging question in evolutionary and behavioral biology. Costs and benefits of different mating patterns are shaped by the spatial distribution of individuals and by genetic parameters such as the pairwise relatedness between potential mating partners. Thus, females should become less choosy as costs of mating and searching for mates increase. We used parentage assignments to investigate spatial and genetic patterns of mating across a natural population of the Neotropical frog Allobates femoralis, a species characterized by male territoriality and care and female iteroparity. There was no correlation between genetic and spatial distances between adult individuals across the population. In 72% of cases, females mated with males available within a radius of 20 m. Mean pairwise relatedness coefficients of successful reproducers did not differ from random mating but had a lower variance than expected by chance, suggesting maximal reproductive output at intermediate genetic divergence. We also found evidence for selection in favor of more heterozygous individuals between the embryo and adult stage. The level of sequential polyandry significantly increased with the number of spatially available males. Females that had more candidate males also produced more adult progeny. We hypothesize that the benefits associated with female multiple mating outweigh the costs of in- and outbreeding depression, and consequently precluded the evolution of 'choosy' mate selection in this species.

  8. The female perspective of mating in A. femoralis, a territorial frog with paternal care--a spatial and genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Eva; Ringler, Max; Jehle, Robert; Hödl, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive significance of sequential polyandry is a challenging question in evolutionary and behavioral biology. Costs and benefits of different mating patterns are shaped by the spatial distribution of individuals and by genetic parameters such as the pairwise relatedness between potential mating partners. Thus, females should become less choosy as costs of mating and searching for mates increase. We used parentage assignments to investigate spatial and genetic patterns of mating across a natural population of the Neotropical frog Allobates femoralis, a species characterized by male territoriality and care and female iteroparity. There was no correlation between genetic and spatial distances between adult individuals across the population. In 72% of cases, females mated with males available within a radius of 20 m. Mean pairwise relatedness coefficients of successful reproducers did not differ from random mating but had a lower variance than expected by chance, suggesting maximal reproductive output at intermediate genetic divergence. We also found evidence for selection in favor of more heterozygous individuals between the embryo and adult stage. The level of sequential polyandry significantly increased with the number of spatially available males. Females that had more candidate males also produced more adult progeny. We hypothesize that the benefits associated with female multiple mating outweigh the costs of in- and outbreeding depression, and consequently precluded the evolution of 'choosy' mate selection in this species.

  9. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C M; Baldauf, Sebastian A

    2012-08-01

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference.

  10. Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is one of the most serious threats to plant diversity. In general, fragmentation negatively impacts the genetic variability of plant populations due to increased random geneticdrift, inbreeding, and reductions in gene flow. To investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and the mating system of Tsoongiodendron odorum, in this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and the mating system in hierarchical levels at the population, stands, and the individual scales in a fragmented T.odorum population. We sampled and mapped 61 adult individuals from the population. Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped a total of 780 seeds from 15 maternal trees for the mating system analysis. The results revealed moderate levels of genetic diversity in both adults (HE = 0.522 and seeds (HE = 0.499 with no significant differences between the two ontogenic stages. In addition, we did not observe asignificant increase in the seeds inbreeding coefficient. Results from the multilocus mating system analysis indicated that T. odorum was an outbreeding species with a multilocus outcrossing rate (tm of 1.000. A small number of biparental inbreeding and correlated mating events were detected in this fragmented population. We found a small number of effective pollen donors (Nep is between 3.7 and 5.4, which seems to be a common character of insect-pollinated canopy trees. Minor differences in outcrossing rates were detected among stands, and more pollen donors were found in smaller stands. However, outcrossing rate was significantly different among individuals, and a few selfing events were detected in some seed trees. These results may provide fundamental information required to establish long term conservation strategies for this endangered tree which is endemic to China.

  11. The genetics of mating recognition between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Cantor, Elliott J F

    2003-10-01

    During courtship, visual and chemical signals are often exchanged between the sexes. The proper exchange of such signals ensures intraspecific recognition. We have examined the genetic basis of interspecific differences in male mating behaviour and pheromone concentration between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia by using Drosophila simulans/D. sechellia introgression lines. Our results show a majority of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining variation in both male mating behaviour and pheromone concentration to be located on the third chromosome. One QTL found on the third chromosome explains variation in time needed to start courtship and copulation as well as time spent courting. The position of such QTL (approximately 84A-88B) with effects on courtship and copulation aspects of mating includes the candidate sex determination gene doublesex (84E5-6) and Voila (86E1-2), a gene that affects male courtship in D. melanogaster. One additional third chromosome QTL explained variation in 7-tricosene pheromone concentrations among males. The interval mapping position of this QTL (approximately 68E-76E) did not overlap with the position detected for differences in mating behaviour and the intervals did not include candidate genes previously identified as having an effect on D. melanogaster cuticular hydrocarbon production. We did not detect any directionality of the effect of Drosophila sechellia allele introgressions in male mating recognition.

  12. Genetic and potential non-genetic benefits increase offspring fitness of polyandrous females in non-resource based mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuhkuri Nina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive significance of female polyandry is currently under considerable debate. In non-resource based mating systems, indirect, i.e. genetic benefits have been proposed to be responsible for the fitness gain from polyandry. We studied the benefits of polyandry in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus using an experimental design in which the material investments by the sires and maternal environmental effects were controlled. Results Embryonic mortality showed a strong paternal genetic component, and it was lower in polyandrously fertilized offspring (sperm competition of two males than in monandrous fertilizations. We also found that high sperm velocity was associated with low offspring mortality, but not with the size of the offspring or their yolk volume. Although no male effect was found on the size of the offspring yolk reserves, yolk volume was higher in offspring from polyandrous matings than offspring of the either of the two males when mated monandrously. Conclusions In support of the "good sperm hypothesis, we found that sperm velocity was positively associated with offspring fitness. In addition, our results suggest that polyandrous females gain genetic advantage (higher offspring survival from this behavior, but that some benefits of polyandry (larger yolk volume may not be explained solely by the additive genetic effects. This suggests that sperm competition environment may intensify the selection on genetically superior sperm which in turn may produce offspring that have superior yolk reserves. However, as high sperm velocity was not associated with larger yolk volume, it is possible that also some other non-genetic effects may contribute to offspring fitness. The potential role of polyandrous mating in inbreeding avoidance is discussed.

  13. Mating system and genetic diversity of a rare desert legume Ammopiptanthus nanus (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing CHEN; Hong-Wen HUANG; Daniel J CRAWFORD; Bo-Rong PAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2009-01-01

    Ammopiptanthus nanus is an endangered evergreen shrub endemic to the deserts of central Asia and plays an important role in delaying further desertification. We examined allozyme variation and AFLP diversity in A. Nanus populations and investigated the mating system of this species using progeny arrays assayed for poly-morphic allozyme loci. Mating system analysis in the Keyi'eryongke'er population showed low levels of out-crossing, and strong inbreeding depression. Low levels of genetic variation were detected at both population (allozyme, Pp=14.0%,A=1.14, He=0.031; AFLP, Pp=14.5%, Shannon's information index I=0.063) and species (allozyme, Pp=21.1%,A=1.21, He=0.040; AFLP, Pp=20.9%, I=0.083) levels; while moderate genetic differentia-tion existed among populations, as indicated by allozymes (GST=0.081) and AFLP (GST=0.151-0.193). Founder effect, bottlenecks in evolutionary history, the mixed mating system and co-ancestry may have influenced the level of genetic diversity in A. Nanus. Markers of both types provide new insights for conservation management, indicating that the Biao'ertuokuoyi and Keyi'eryongke'er populations should be given priority for in situ conser-vation and regarded as seed sources for ex situ conservation.

  14. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis...... they can be achieved without extra costs or practical constraints. MCAC mating merely uses pedigree information to pair the animals more appropriately and is clearly a worthy alternative to minimum-coancestry mating and probably any other mating criterion. We believe, therefore, that MCAC mating should...... by stochastic simulation and compared the mating criteria in hierarchical and factorial breeding schemes, where the animals were selected based on breeding values predicted by animal-model BLUP. Random mating was included as a reference-mating criterion. We found that MCAC mating generated 4% to 8% less...

  15. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  16. Genetic Compatibility Underlies Benefits of Mate Choice in an External Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-05-01

    Mate choice is a common feature of sexually reproducing species. In sessile or sedentary external fertilizers, however, direct interactions between reproductive partners are minimal, and instead mate recognition and choice must occur at the level of gametes. It is common for some sperm and egg combinations to have higher fertilization success than others, but it remains unclear whether differences in fertilization reflect gamete-level mate choice (GMC) for paternal quality or parental compatibility. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying GMC in an externally fertilizing ascidian. A manipulative mate-choice assay confirmed that offspring viability was greater in clutches where we allowed GMC than in clutches where we precluded GMC. A complementary quantitative genetic experiment then revealed that paternal quality effects were generally weaker than parental compatibility effects, particularly for the trait combination underlying the benefits of GMC. Overall, our data suggest that gametes that are more compatible at fertilization produce more viable offspring than gametes that are less compatible at fertilization. Therefore, although the regalia we typically associate with sexual selection are absent in external fertilizers, mechanisms that allow females to bias fertilization in favor of some males over others produce significant fitness benefits in organisms reproducing via the ancestral strategy.

  17. Female guppies agree to differ: phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior and the consequences for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A

    2001-08-01

    Variation among females in mate choice may influence evolution by sexual selection. The genetic basis of this variation is of interest because the elaboration of mating preferences requires additive genetic variation in these traits. Here we measure the repeatability and heritability of two components of female choosiness (responsiveness and discrimination) and of female preference functions for the multiple ornaments borne by male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that there is significant repeatable variation in both components of choosiness and in some preference functions but not in others. There appear to be several male ornaments that females find uniformly attractive and others for which females differ in preference. One consequence is that there is no universally attractive male phenotype. Only responsiveness shows significant additive genetic variation. Variation in responsiveness appears to mask variation in discrimination and some preference functions and may be the most biologically relevant source of phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior. To test the potential evolutionary importance of the phenotypic variation in mate choice that we report, we estimated the opportunity for and the intensity of sexual selection under models of mate choice that excluded and that incorporated individual female variation. We then compared these estimates with estimates based on measured mating success. Incorporating individual variation in mate choice generally did not predict the outcome of sexual selection any better than models that ignored such variation.

  18. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  19. Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breedng Western Sandpiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, D.; Kempenaers, B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Extra-pair copulations and fertilizations are common among birds, especially in passerines. So far, however, only a few studies have examined genetic mating systems in socially monogamous shorebirds. Here, we examine parentage in the Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri. Given that Western Sandpipers nest at high densities on the arctic tundra, have separate nesting and feeding areas, and show high divorce rates between years, we expected extra-pair paternity to be more common in this species compared to other monogamous shorebirds. However, DNA fingerprinting of 98 chicks from 40 families revealed that only 8% of the broods contained young sired by extra-pair males, in that 5% of all chicks were extrapair. All chicks were the genetic offspring of their social mothers. We found that males followed females more often than the reverse. Also, cuckolded males were separated from their mates (by more than 10 m) for longer than those that did not lose paternity. Although these results suggest a role for male mate guarding, we propose that high potential costs in terms of reduced paternal care likely constrain female Western Sandpipers from seeking extra-pair copulations.

  20. Helping Couples Fulfill the "Highest of Life's Goals": Mate Selection, Marriage Counselling, and Genetic Counseling in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Devon

    2016-02-01

    This article traces the history of modern genetic counseling to mate selection and marriage counselling practices of the early-20th century. Mate selection revolved around a belief that human heredity could be improved and genetic diseases eradicated through better breeding. Marriage counselling, though interested in reproduction, was also concerned with the emotional and psychological well-being of couples. These two practices coalesced most obviously in the work of well-known geneticist Sheldon Reed. Even as marriage and genetic counselling diverged in the post-WWII period, vestiges of these practices remain in contemporary counseling experiences with family planning and genetic screening programs. Emphasizing points of continuity between "positive" eugenic ideologies and modern genetic practices elaborates the diverse origins of genetic counseling. It also exposes how genetic counselors have become involved in genetic enterprises beyond standard clinical settings, and prods at key issues in the interaction between genetic science and social values.

  1. Molecular genetic variability, population structure and mating system in tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite (SSR markers were developed for the following tropical forage species, using accessions available from the plant genetic resources (PGR collections held by EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation: Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola, Panicum maximum, Paspalum spp., Stylosanthes capitata, S. guianensis, S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema spp. The markers were used to analyze population structure and genetic diversity, evolution and origin of the genetic variability in the center of origin, mating systems and genetic resources in EMBRAPA’s germplasm bank. The results shed light on the amount of genetic variation within and between populations, revealed the need in some cases for further plant collection to adequately represent the species in PGR collections, allowed us to assemble core collections (subsets of the total collections that should contain most of the available diversity and (in the case of the legumes showed the need to avoid unwanted outcrossing when regenerating conserved material. The data will allow plant breeders to better select accessions for hybrid production, discriminate between genotypes and use marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Our results will also underpin the construction of genetic maps, mapping of genes of agronomic interest and numerous other studies on genetic variability, population structure, gene flow and reproductive systems for the tropical forage species studied in this work.

  2. Do genetic diversity effects drive the benefits associated with multiple mating? A test in a marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Laura; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-08-12

    Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition -- both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits.

  3. Do genetic diversity effects drive the benefits associated with multiple mating? A test in a marine invertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McLeod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition -- both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits.

  4. Do Genetic Diversity Effects Drive the Benefits Associated with Multiple Mating? A Test in a Marine Invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Laura; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mothers that mate with multiple males often produce higher quality offspring than mothers that mate with a single male. By engaging in polyandry, mothers may increase their chances of mating with a compatible male or promote sperm competition - both of which act to increase maternal fitness via the biasing of the paternity of offspring. Surprisingly, mating with multiple males, can carry benefits without biasing paternity and may be due simply to differences in genetic diversity between monandrous and polyandrous clutches but role of genetic diversity effects in driving the benefits of polyandry remains poorly tested. Disentangling indirect, genetic benefits from genetic diversity effects is challenging but crucial if we are to understand the selection pressures acting to promote polyandry. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the post-fertilisation benefits of accessing the sperm of multiple males in an externally fertilising polychaete worm. Accessing the sperm of multiple males increases offspring performance but this benefit was driven entirely by genetic diversity effects and not by the biasing of paternity at fertilisation. Conclusions/Significance Previous studies on polyandry should be interpreted cautiously as genetic diversity effects alone can explain the benefits of polyandry yet these diversity effects may be difficult to disentangle from other mechanisms. We suggest that future studies use a modified experimental design in order to discriminate between genetic diversity effects and indirect, genetic benefits. PMID:19672289

  5. Variation in human mate choice: simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents ([Formula: see text] individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, while controlling for and not controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits were analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, personality, social attitudes, and religiosity. This revealed near-zero genetic influences on male and female mate choice over all traits and no significant genetic influences on mate choice for any specific trait. A significant family environmental influence was found for the age and income of females' mate choices, possibly reflecting parental influence over mating decisions. We also tested for evidence of sexual imprinting, where individuals acquire mate-choice criteria during development by using their opposite-sex parent as the template of a desirable mate; there was no such effect for any trait. The main discernible pattern of mate choice was assortative mating; we found that partner similarity was due to initial choice rather than convergence and also at least in part to phenotypic matching.

  6. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  7. Sir Francis Galton, epigenetic rules, genetic similarity theory, and human life-history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J P

    1990-03-01

    In this article, an evolutionary perspective is applied to individual differences. Among the issues discussed are (a) the seminal contributions of Francis Galton and the subsequent ideological reaction, (b) the distal proximal continuum for understanding levels of explanation in social behavior, (c) consistent patterns of group differences in behavior (age, sex, social class,and race), (d) the heritability of personality and the role epigenetic rules play in guiding development in one direction over alternatives, (e) the genetic similarity theory perspective on friendship and mate choice, and (f) the view that personality is part of an r-K reproductive strategy involving a compensatory exchange between the production of gametes and parental care. It is suggested in conclusion that personality traits be considered aspects of a coordinated life cycle deeply embedded m evolutionary history.

  8. Implementation of genetic evaluation and mating designs for the endangered local pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, A D M; Pimentel, E C G; Tietze, M; Pinent, T; König, S

    2014-02-01

    A pedigree including 1538 individuals of the endangered pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' and 3008 records of the fertility traits 'number of piglets born alive' (NBA) and 'number of piglets weaned' (NW) were used to i) characterize the population structure, ii) to estimate genetic (co)variance components and estimated breeding values (EBVs) and iii) to use EBVs for the application of the concept of optimal genetic contributions. The average coefficient of inbreeding increased from F = 0.103 to F = 0.121 within the two recent cohorts. Average rate of inbreeding amounted to 1.66%, which resulted in an effective population size of Ne  = 30 animals in the recent cohort. Average generation interval was 3.07 years considering the whole pedigree, and in total, only 612 sows and boars generated offspring. Estimated heritabilities for both traits NBA and NW were 0.12, and the estimated genetic correlation between both traits was 0.96. The variance component due to the service sire was higher than in commercial pig breeds, presumably due to the widespread use of natural service boars. The EBVs for NBA from 333 selection candidates (63 boars and 270 sows) were used to determine optimal genetic contributions. Based on selected animals and their optimal genetic contributions, specific mating designs were evaluated to minimize inbreeding in the next generation. Best results were achieved when using a simulated annealing algorithm and allowing artificial insemination. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Left or right? Sources of political orientation: the roles of genetic factors, cultural transmission, assortative mating, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we used an extended twin family design to investigate the influences of genetic and cultural transmission as well as different sources of nonrandom mating on 2 core aspects of political orientation: acceptance of inequality and rejecting system change. In addition, we studied the sources of phenotypic links between Big Five personality traits and political beliefs using self- and other reports. Data of 1,992 individuals (224 monozygotic and 166 dizygotic twin pairs, 92 unmatched twins, 530 spouses of twins, 268 fathers, and 322 mothers) were analyzed. Genetically informative analyses showed that political attitudes are genetically but not environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring and that a substantial proportion of this genetic variance can be accounted for by genetic variance in personality traits. Beyond genetic effects and genotypic assortative mating, generation-specific environmental sources act to increase twins' and spouses' resemblance in political beliefs. The results suggest multiple sources of political orientations in a modern democracy.

  10. Assortative mating by unwed biological parents of adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K

    1977-04-22

    Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.

  11. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  12. Genetic analysis of leg problems and growth in a random mating broiler population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Anthony, N B; Aggrey, S E

    2015-02-01

    Improvement in growth has been widely reported as the cause of increased incidence of leg problems in broiler chickens. We report herein the genetic relationship between growth and leg problems in a random mating broiler control population. The traits studied were valgus (VL), varus (VR), and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), which were expressed on a binary scale of 0 (normal) and 1 (abnormal); growth rates from 0 to 4 wk (BWG 0-4) and from 0 to 6 wk of age (BWG 0-6); and residual feed intake from 5 to 6 wk of age (RFI 5-6). A threshold-linear mixed model was employed for the joint analysis of the categorical and linear traits. Incidences of VL, VR, and TD were 26, 4, and 2%, respectively. Heritability of leg problems ranged from 0.11 to 0.13. Phenotypic correlations alluded to an unfavorable relationship between growth and leg problems; however, the genetic relationship between growth and leg problems was extremely weak, ranging from 0.01 to 0.08. There is, therefore, a basis for genetic improvement in leg problems. However, improved management practices would also be important to reduce incidence of leg problems in broiler chickens.

  13. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-12-30

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  14. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  15. Inbreeding avoidance drives consistent variation of fine-scale genetic structure caused by dispersal in the seasonal mating system of Brandt's voles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hui Liu

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression is a major evolutionary and ecological force influencing population dynamics and the evolution of inbreeding-avoidance traits such as mating systems and dispersal. Mating systems and dispersal are fundamental determinants of population genetic structure. Resolving the relationships among genetic structure, seasonal breeding-related mating systems and dispersal will facilitate our understanding of the evolution of inbreeding avoidance. The goals of this study were as follows: (i to determine whether females actively avoided mating with relatives in a group-living rodent species, Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, by combined analysis of their mating system, dispersal and genetic structure; and (ii to analyze the relationships among the variation in fine-genetic structure, inbreeding avoidance, season-dependent mating strategies and individual dispersal. Using both individual- and population-level analyses, we found that the majority of Brandt's vole groups consisted of close relatives. However, both group-specific FISs, an inbreeding coefficient that expresses the expected percentage rate of homozygosity arising from a given breeding system, and relatedness of mates showed no sign of inbreeding. Using group pedigrees and paternity analysis, we show that the mating system of Brandt's voles consists of a type of polygyny for males and extra-group polyandry for females, which may decrease inbreeding by increasing the frequency of mating among distantly-related individuals. The consistent variation in within-group relatedness, among-group relatedness and fine-scale genetic structures was mostly due to dispersal, which primarily occurred during the breeding season. Biologically relevant variation in the fine-scale genetic structure suggests that dispersal during the mating season may be a strategy to avoid inbreeding and drive the polygynous and extra-group polyandrous mating system of this species.

  16. A novel method of comparing mating success and survival reveals similar sexual and viability selection for mobility traits in female tree crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercit, K; Gwynne, D T

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sexual and viability selection in females is necessarily different than that in males, as investment in sexual traits potentially comes at the expense of both fecundity and survival. Accordingly, females do not usually invest in sexually selected traits. However, direct benefits obtained from mating, such as nuptial gifts, may encourage competition among females and subsidize investment into sexually selected traits. We compared sexual and viability selection on female tree crickets Oecanthus nigricornis, a species where females mate frequently to obtain nuptial gifts and sexual selection on females is likely. If male choice determines female mating success in this species, we expect sexual selection for fecundity traits, as males of many species prefer more fecund females. Alternatively, intrasexual scramble or combat competition on females may select for larger jumping legs or wider heads (respectively). We estimated mating success in wild caught crickets using microsatellite analysis of stored sperm and estimated relative viability by comparing surviving female O. nigricornis to those captured by a common wasp predator. In support of the scramble competition hypothesis, we found sexual selection for females with larger hind legs and narrower heads. We also found stabilizing viability selection for intermediate head width and hind leg size. As predicted, traits under viability and sexual selection were very similar, and the direction of that selection was not opposing. However, because the shape of sexual and viability selection differs, these episodes of selection may favour slightly different trait sizes.

  17. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  18. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  19. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.MAC(I)AS GARCIA; G SMITH; C.GONZ(A)LEZ ZUARTH; J.A.GRAVES; M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification.The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape.Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae.Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations.In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences.We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology.However,this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating.Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations.However,gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating.Rather,it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds.We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection.

  20. Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity induced by sexual recombination in Setosphaeria turcica in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yongshan; MA Jifang; GUI Xiumei; AN Xinlong; SUN Shuqin; DONG Jingao

    2007-01-01

    Mature ascocarps and ascospores in the heterothallic ascomycete fungus,Setosphaeria turcica,were successfully produced in Sach's medium with barley culm as the mating stimulator after four weeks' coincubation of two opposite mating type isolates at 25℃ in darkness.A single isolate could not produce ascospores or ascocarps.The ascocarps were produced on the exposed surface and embedded parts of barley culm or in the upper layer of the medium.The asci linked themselves to ascocarp with their short handles and assembled at the bottom of the ascocarp.Many asci had four to six colorless mature ascospores with one to six septa.But asci with eight ascospores were also found.Using isolate 9914 and isolate 9961 as standard testers for mating types (MAT1 and MAT2),respectively,94 isolates of S.turcica collected from northern China in 1999,2003,and 2004 were grouped into three mating types:MAT1 (53 isolates),MAT2 (31 isolates) and MAT12 (10 isolates).The MAT12 isolates,which were first found in China,were compatible with not only MAT1 isolates but also MAT2 isolates.No MAT12 isolates were found in 1999,but 2 MAT12 isolates and 8 MAT12 isolates were found in 2001 and 2003,respectively.The geographic distribution of different mating types was unequal among locations.Generally the frequency of MAT1 was significantly higher than that of MAT2 and MAT12.The unequal distribution of mating types suggested a low frequency of genetic recombination.The pathogenicity of different mating type isolates was tested on the susceptible corn inbred B37 and the results revealed that the disease latency period,disease incidence,lesion area and conidia production were not significantly different among the three mating type groups.However,the pathogenicity of the progeny isolates of isolate 99-12 (MAT2,race 1) and isolate 99-15 (MAT1,race 0) was significantly different from the parent isolates,isolate 99-12 and isolate 99-15,suggesting that sexual recombination could cause significantly virulence

  1. Cooperation as a signal of genetic or phenotypic quality in female mate choice? Evidence from preferences across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Previous research highlighting the role sexual selection may play in the evolution of human cooperation has yet to distinguish what qualities such behaviours actually signal. The aim here was to examine whether female preferences for male cooperative behaviours are because they signal genetic or indirect phenotypic quality. This was possible by taking into account female participants' stage of menstrual cycle, as much research has shown that females at the most fertile stage show greater preferences specifically for signals of genetic quality than any other stage, particularly for short-term relationships. Therefore, different examples of cooperation (personality, costly signals, heroism) and the mate preferences for altruistic traits self-report scale were used across a series of four experiments to examine females' attitudes towards cooperation in potential mates for different relationship lengths at different stages of the menstrual cycle. The results here consistently show that female fertility had no effect on perceptions of cooperative behaviour, and that such traits were considered more important for long-term relationships. Therefore, this provides strong evidence that cooperative behaviour is important in mate choice as predominantly a signal of phenotypic rather than genetic quality.

  2. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  3. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Rempoulakis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS that has a white pupae (wp and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C. The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2 strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  4. Understanding the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals of a continuous Theobroma cacao population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C R S; Albuquerque, P S B; Ervedosa, F R; Mota, J W S; Figueira, A; Sebbenn, A M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mating patterns of populations of tree species is a key component of ex situ genetic conservation. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure (SGS) and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals as well as pollen dispersal patterns in a continuous population of Theobroma cacao in Pará State, Brazil. A total of 156 individuals in a 0.56 ha plot were mapped and genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. For the mating system analyses, 50 seeds were collected from nine seed trees by sampling five fruits per tree (10 seeds per fruit). Among the 156 individuals, 127 had unique multilocus genotypes, and the remaining were clones. The population was spatially aggregated; it demonstrated a significant SGS up to 15 m that could be attributed primarily to the presence of clones. However, the short seed dispersal distance also contributed to this pattern. Population matings occurred mainly via outcrossing, but selfing was observed in some seed trees, which indicated the presence of individual variation for self-incompatibility. The matings were also correlated, especially within (r̂p(m)=0.607) rather than among the fruits (r̂p(m)=0.099), which suggested that a small number of pollen donors fertilised each fruit. The paternity analysis suggested a high proportion of pollen migration (61.3%), although within the plot, most of the pollen dispersal encompassed short distances (28 m). The determination of these novel parameters provides the fundamental information required to establish long-term ex situ conservation strategies for this important tropical species. PMID:21139632

  5. Genetic structure, mating system, and long-distance gene flow in heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiotto, F A; Grattapaglia, D; Vencovsky, R

    2003-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the population genetic structure, mating system, and gene flow of heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.-Arecaceae) in central Brazil. This palm is considered a keystone species because it supplies fruits for birds and rodents all year and is intensively harvested for culinary purposes. Two populations of this palm tree were examined, using 18 microsatellite loci. The species displays a predominantly outcrossed mating system (tm = 0.94), with a probability of full sibship greater than 70% within open-pollinated families. The following estimates of interpopulation genetic variation were calculated and found significant: FIT = 0.17, FIS = 0.12, FST = 0.06, and RST = 0.07. This low but significant level of interpopulation genetic variation indicates high levels of gene flow. Two adult trees were identified as likely seed parents (P > 99.9%) of juveniles located at a distance of 22 km. Gene flow over such distances has not been reported before for tropical tree species. The establishment and management of in situ genetic reserves or ex situ conservation and breeding populations for E. edulis should contemplate the collection of several hundreds open-pollinated maternal families from relatively few distant populations to maximize the genetic sampling of a larger number of pollen parents.

  6. Mating Type Alleles,Female Fertility and Genetic Diversity of Magnaporthe grisea Populations Pathogenic to Rice from Some Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Joelle Milazzo; YUAN Xiao-ping; Henry Adreit; WANG Yan-li; Jean Loup Notteghem; Didier Tharreau

    2003-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-two isolates of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from rice in 5 Asian countries were characterized for their mating type by crossing them with 4 hermaphroditic isolates (KA3 and TH2: MAT1.1; Guy11 and TH-16: MAT1.2). Among them, 41% were MAT1.1 and 25% were MAT1.2.The remaining 34% did not produce perithecia with any of the 4 hermaphroditic testers. In Bangladesh, India,Nepal, Vietnam and in most provinces of China, both mating types were present. Only one mating type was found in 3 provinces and 1 city of China. Almost all the isolates had very low fertility, as they were in general female sterile and sometimes also male sterile. Hermaphroditic isolates were recovered from the 5 countries. In these countries, they represented between 13% and 75% of the isolates. In Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangdong,Hunan, Yunnan and H-ubei provinces of China, hermaphroditic isolates represented between 6% and 67%.The genetic diversity of 143 isolates from these countries and provinces, where hermaphroditic isolates had been collected, was analyzed using SCAR markers. Genetic diversity was high and population structure did not resemble classical clonal structure described in most rice growing regions. The existence of sexual reproduction in the field, localization of a center of diversity in China, and migration between countries were discussed in this paper.

  7. fullfact: an R package for the analysis of genetic and maternal variance components from full factorial mating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Aimee Lee S; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-03-01

    Full factorial breeding designs are useful for quantifying the amount of additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance that explain phenotypic traits. Such variance estimates are important for examining evolutionary potential. Traditionally, full factorial mating designs have been analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, which may produce negative variance values and is not suited for unbalanced designs. Mixed-effects models do not produce negative variance values and are suited for unbalanced designs. However, extracting the variance components, calculating significance values, and estimating confidence intervals and/or power values for the components are not straightforward using traditional analytic methods. We introduce fullfact - an R package that addresses these issues and facilitates the analysis of full factorial mating designs with mixed-effects models. Here, we summarize the functions of the fullfact package. The observed data functions extract the variance explained by random and fixed effects and provide their significance. We then calculate the additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance components explaining the phenotype. In particular, we integrate nonnormal error structures for estimating these components for nonnormal data types. The resampled data functions are used to produce bootstrap-t confidence intervals, which can then be plotted using a simple function. We explore the fullfact package through a worked example. This package will facilitate the analyses of full factorial mating designs in R, especially for the analysis of binary, proportion, and/or count data types and for the ability to incorporate additional random and fixed effects and power analyses.

  8. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  9. Conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus in vulnerable habitats in NW Spain: temporal and spatial stability of wild populations with flexible polygamous mating system in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena López

    Full Text Available This study was focused on conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus on the Atlantic coast of NW Iberian Peninsula. Information about spatial structure and temporal stability of wild populations was obtained based on microsatellite markers, and used for monitoring a captive breeding program firstly initiated in this zone at the facilities of the Institute of Marine Research (Vigo, Spain. No significant major genetic structure was observed regarding the biogeographical barrier of Cape Finisterre. However, two management units under continuous gene flow are proposed based on the allelic differentiation between South-Atlantic and Cantabrian subpopulations, with small to moderate contemporary effective size based on single-sample methods. Temporal stability was observed in South-Atlantic population samples of H. guttulatus for the six-year period studied, suggesting large enough effective population size to buffer the effects of genetic drift within the time frame of three generations. Genetic analysis of wild breeders and offspring in captivity since 2009 allowed us to monitor the breeding program founded in 2006 in NW Spain for this species. Similar genetic diversity in the renewed and founder broodstock, regarding the wild population of origin, supports suitable renewal and rearing processes to maintain genetic variation in captivity. Genetic parentage proved single-brood monogamy in the wild and in captivity, but flexible short- and long-term mating system under captive conditions, from strict monogamy to polygamy within and/or among breeding seasons. Family analysis showed high reproductive success in captivity under genetic management assisted by molecular relatedness estimates to avoid inbreeding. This study provides genetic information about H. guttulatus in the wild and captivity within an uncovered geographical range for this data deficient species, to be taken into account for management and conservation purposes.

  10. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower...

  11. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  12. Genetic diversity in the Homosporous Fern Ophioglossum vulgatum (Ophioglossaceae) from South Korea: inference of mating system and population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; López-Pujol, Jordi; Chung, Jae Min; Moon, Myung-Ok; Chung, Myong Gi

    2013-03-01

    It is generally believed that the members of Ophioglossaceae have subterranean, potentially bisexual gametophytes, which favor intragametophytic selfing. In Ophioglossaceae, previous allozyme studies revealed substantial inbreeding within Botrychium species and Mankyua chejuense. However, little is known about the mating system in species of the genus Ophioglossum. Molecular marker analyses can provide insights into the relative occurrence of selfing versus cross-fertilization in the species of Ophioglossum. We investigated allozyme variation in 8 Korean populations of the homosporous fern Ophioglossum vulgatum to infer its mating system and to get some insight into the population-establishment history in South Korea. We detected homozygous genotypes for alternative alleles at several loci, which suggest the occurrence of intragametophytic self-fertilization. Populations harbor low within-population variation (% P = 7.2, A = 1.08, and H (e) = 0.026) and a high among-population differentiation (F (ST) = 0.733). This, together with the finding that alternative alleles were fixed at several loci, suggests that the number and size of populations of O. vulgatum might have been severely reduced during the last glaciation (i.e., due to its in situ persistence in small, isolated refugia). The combined effects of severe random genetic drift and high rates of intragametophytic selfing are likely responsible for the genetic structure displayed by this homosporous fern. Its low levels of genetic diversity in South Korea justify the implementation of some conservation measures to ensure its long-term preservation.

  13. Evidence for genetic variation in human mate preferences for sexually dimorphic physical traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Burri, A.V.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large

  14. Intensive genetic assessment of the mating system and reproductive success in a semi-closed population of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony C. Fiumera; Brady A. Porter; Gary D. Grossman; John C. Avise

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic surveys of parentage in nature sample only a small fraction of the breeding population. Here we apply micro satellite markers to deduce the genetic mating system and assess the reproductive success of females and males in an extensively collected, semiclosed stream population of the mottled sculpin fish, Cottus bairdi. In this species,...

  15. Genetic Algorithm-Based Relevance Feedback for Image Retrieval Using Local Similarity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejic, Zoran; Takama, Yasufumi; Hirota, Kaoru

    2003-01-01

    Proposes local similarity pattern (LSP) as a new method for computing digital image similarity. Topics include optimizing similarity computation based on genetic algorithm; relevance feedback; and an evaluation of LSP on five databases that showed an increase in retrieval precision over other methods for computing image similarity. (Author/LRW)

  16. Genetic entities and mating system in hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and its close dioecious relative F. vesiculosus (Fucaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Daguin, C; Serrão, E A

    2005-06-01

    To date, molecular markers have not settled the question of the specific status of the closely related, but phylogenetically unresolved, brown seaweeds, hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and dioecious Fucus vesiculosus, nor their propensity for natural hybridization. To test the degree of species integrity and to assess effect of the mating system on the population genetic structure, 288 individuals coming from parapatric (discontinuous) and sympatric (contiguous) spatial configurations at two sites were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. Using a Bayesian admixture analysis, our results show that F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus comprise clearly distinct genetic entities (clusters) generally characterized by cosexual and unisexual individuals, respectively. Genetic diversity within each entity suggests that F. spiralis reproduces primarily through selfing while F. vesiculosus is characterized by an endogamous breeding regime. Nevertheless, aberrant sexual phenotypes were observed in each cluster, no diagnostic alleles were revealed and 10% of study individuals were intermediate between the two genetic entities. This pattern can be explained by recent divergence of two taxa with retention of ancestral polymorphism or asymmetrical, introgressive hybridization. However, given (i) coincident monomorphism at three loci in spiralis clusters and (ii) that significantly more intermediates were observed in sympatric stations than in parapatric stations, we argue that interspecific gene flow has occurred after divergence of the two taxa. Finally, we show that whether recently separated or recently introgressive, the divergent breeding systems probably contribute to species integrity in these two taxa.

  17. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies...... revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced...... to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses...

  18. The dilemma of Fisherian sexual selection: mate choice for indirect benefits despite rarity and overall weakness of trait-preference genetic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D; Alem, Sylvain; Limousin, Denis; Bailey, Nathan W

    2014-12-01

    Fisher's mechanism of sexual selection is a fundamental element of evolutionary theory. In it nonrandom mate choice causes a genetic covariance between a male trait and female preference for that trait and thereby generates a positive feedback process sustaining accelerated coevolution of the trait and preference. Numerous theoretical models of Fisher's mechanism have confirmed its mathematical underpinnings, yet biologists have often failed to find evidence for trait-preference genetic correlation in populations in which the mechanism was expected to function. We undertook a survey of the literature to conduct a formal meta-analysis probing the incidence and strength of trait-preference correlation among animal species. Our meta-analysis found significant positive genetic correlations in fewer than 20% of the species studied and an overall weighted correlation that is slightly positive. Importantly, a significant positive correlation was not found in any thorough study that included multiple subgroups. We discuss several ways in which the dynamic, multivariate nature of mate choice may reduce the trait-preference genetic correlation predicted by Fisher's mechanism. We then entertain the possibilities that Fisherian-like processes sometimes function without genetic correlation, and that mate choice may persist in a population as long as genetic correlation, and therefore Fisher's mechanism, occurs intermittently.

  19. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration,female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke van der SLUIJS; Peter D.DIJKSTRA; Charlotte M.LINDEYER; Bertanne VISSER; Alan M.SMITH; Ton G.G.GROOTHUIS; Jacques J.M.van ALPHEN

    2013-01-01

    Both inter-and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits.Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can,in theory,lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait.Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow,while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism.Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on.We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference,male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia.We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red).Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire,indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable.We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests.There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires,but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference.Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males,whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias.There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration,possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage,which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism.

  2. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].

  3. Demonstrating an Interactive Genetic Drift Exercise: Examining the Processes of Random Mating and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity on the phenomenon of genetic drift in populations that reinforces the random nature of drift and demonstrates the effect of the population size on the mean frequency of an allele over a few generations. Includes materials for the demonstration, procedures, and discussion topics. (KHR)

  4. Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Morley, K.I.; Shekar, S.N.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Keller, M.C.; MacGregor, S.; Wright, M.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. One hypothesis proposes that while genes predisposing to homosexual

  5. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic QTL mapping in partial NCII mating design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which hybrid F1 exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, theoretical studies on the genetic basis of heterosis were based on bi-parental segregation populations instead of multiple-parental hybrid F1 populations. In simulation study, we mapped...

  6. A genetic similarity algorithm for searching the Gene Ontology terms and annotating anonymous protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Razib M; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli M

    2008-02-01

    A genetic similarity algorithm is introduced in this study to find a group of semantically similar Gene Ontology terms. The genetic similarity algorithm combines semantic similarity measure algorithm with parallel genetic algorithm. The semantic similarity measure algorithm is used to compute the similitude strength between the Gene Ontology terms. Then, the parallel genetic algorithm is employed to perform batch retrieval and to accelerate the search in large search space of the Gene Ontology graph. The genetic similarity algorithm is implemented in the Gene Ontology browser named basic UTMGO to overcome the weaknesses of the existing Gene Ontology browsers which use a conventional approach based on keyword matching. To show the applicability of the basic UTMGO, we extend its structure to develop a Gene Ontology -based protein sequence annotation tool named extended UTMGO. The objective of developing the extended UTMGO is to provide a simple and practical tool that is capable of producing better results and requires a reasonable amount of running time with low computing cost specifically for offline usage. The computational results and comparison with other related tools are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and tools.

  7. Impacts of forest fragmentation on the mating system and genetic diversity of white spruce (Picea glauca) at the landscape level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L M; Mosseler, A; Rajora, O P

    2006-12-01

    We studied the mating system of white spruce (Picea glauca) in a landscape fragmented by agriculture in northern Ontario, Canada. We sampled 23 stands that ranged in size from 1 to >500 trees isolated by 250-3000 m from the nearest other stand. Six polymorphic allozyme loci from four enzyme systems were used to genotype approximately 10 000 embryos from 104 families. We detected no allele frequency heterogeneity in the pollen pool among stands or families (Phi(FT)=-0.025). Overall, estimates of outcrossing were high (t(m)=94% and mean t(s)=91%) but significantly different from unity. Bi-parental inbreeding (t(m)-t(s)=3.2%) was low but significantly different from zero. Allozyme-based outcrossing estimates did not differ significantly among three stand-size classes (SSCs): small (large (> or =100 trees). The number of effective pollen donors was high in all SSCs, but was significantly lower in small stands (N(ep)=62.5) than in medium-sized and large stands (both N(ep)=143). The primary selfing rate was significantly higher in medium stands than in large stands. We found no significant difference in genetic diversity measures in the filial (seed) population among SSCs. Overall, these results indicate that white spruce stands in this fragmented landscape are resistant to genetic diversity losses, primarily through high pollen-mediated gene-flow and early selection against inbred embryos. We discuss the importance of using seed data, in conjunction with genetic data, to evaluate the impacts of fragmentation on natural populations.

  8. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic association mapping in a partial NCII mating design

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jia; Zhao, Xinwang; Wu, Guorong; Xiang, Dan; Liu, Qing; Bu, Su-Hong; Yi, Can; Song, Qijian; Dunwell, Jim M; Tu, Jinxing; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which an F1 hybrid exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, previous theoretical studies on heterosis have\\ud been based on bi-parental segregating populations instead of F1 hybrids. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis, here we used a subset of F1 hybrids, named a partial North Carolina II design, to perform association mapping for dependent variables: original trait value, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ab...

  9. Absence of evidence for MHC-dependent mate selection within HapMap populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Derti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC of immunity genes has been reported to influence mate choice in vertebrates, and a recent study presented genetic evidence for this effect in humans. Specifically, greater dissimilarity at the MHC locus was reported for European-American mates (parents in HapMap Phase 2 trios than for non-mates. Here we show that the results depend on a few extreme data points, are not robust to conservative changes in the analysis procedure, and cannot be reproduced in an equivalent but independent set of European-American mates. Although some evidence suggests an avoidance of extreme MHC similarity between mates, rather than a preference for dissimilarity, limited sample sizes preclude a rigorous investigation. In summary, fine-scale molecular-genetic data do not conclusively support the hypothesis that mate selection in humans is influenced by the MHC locus.

  10. Genetic similarity between cancers and comorbid Mendelian diseases identifies candidate driver genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Rachel D; Emmett, Kevin J; Madubata, Chioma; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-04-30

    Despite large-scale cancer genomics studies, key somatic mutations driving cancer, and their functional roles, remain elusive. Here, we propose that analysis of comorbidities of Mendelian diseases with cancers provides a novel, systematic way to discover new cancer genes. If germline genetic variation in Mendelian loci predisposes bearers to common cancers, the same loci may harbour cancer-associated somatic variation. Compilations of clinical records spanning over 100 million patients provide an unprecedented opportunity to assess clinical associations between Mendelian diseases and cancers. We systematically compare these comorbidities against recurrent somatic mutations from more than 5,000 patients across many cancers. Using multiple measures of genetic similarity, we show that a Mendelian disease and comorbid cancer indeed have genetic alterations of significant functional similarity. This result provides a basis to identify candidate drivers in cancers including melanoma and glioblastoma. Some Mendelian diseases demonstrate 'pan-cancer' comorbidity and shared genetics across cancers.

  11. Genetic similarity of island populations of tent caterpillars during successive outbreaks.

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    Michelle T Franklin

    Full Text Available Cyclic or fluctuating populations experience regular periods of low population density. Genetic bottlenecks during these periods could give rise to temporal or spatial genetic differentiation of populations. High levels of movement among increasing populations, however, could ameliorate any differences and could also synchronize the dynamics of geographically separated populations. We use microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic differentiation of four island and one mainland population of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale, in two periods of peak or pre-peak density separated by 8 years. Populations showed high levels of genetic variation and little genetic differentiation either temporally between peaks or spatially among sites. Mitochondrial haplotypes were also shared between one island population and one mainland population in the two years studied. An isolation-by-distance analysis showed the FST values of the two geographically closest populations to have the highest level of differentiation in both years. We conclude that high levels of dispersal among populations maintain both synchrony of population dynamics and override potential genetic differentiation that might occur during population troughs. As far we are aware, this is the first time that genetic similarity between temporally separated population outbreaks in insects has been investigated. A review of genetic data for both vertebrate and invertebrate species of cyclic animals shows that a lack of spatial genetic differentiation is typical, and may result from high levels of dispersal associated with fluctuating dynamics.

  12. Genetic similarity of island populations of tent caterpillars during successive outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michelle T; Myers, Judith H; Cory, Jenny S

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic or fluctuating populations experience regular periods of low population density. Genetic bottlenecks during these periods could give rise to temporal or spatial genetic differentiation of populations. High levels of movement among increasing populations, however, could ameliorate any differences and could also synchronize the dynamics of geographically separated populations. We use microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic differentiation of four island and one mainland population of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale, in two periods of peak or pre-peak density separated by 8 years. Populations showed high levels of genetic variation and little genetic differentiation either temporally between peaks or spatially among sites. Mitochondrial haplotypes were also shared between one island population and one mainland population in the two years studied. An isolation-by-distance analysis showed the FST values of the two geographically closest populations to have the highest level of differentiation in both years. We conclude that high levels of dispersal among populations maintain both synchrony of population dynamics and override potential genetic differentiation that might occur during population troughs. As far we are aware, this is the first time that genetic similarity between temporally separated population outbreaks in insects has been investigated. A review of genetic data for both vertebrate and invertebrate species of cyclic animals shows that a lack of spatial genetic differentiation is typical, and may result from high levels of dispersal associated with fluctuating dynamics.

  13. Narcissism Guides Mate Selection: Humans Mate Assortatively, as Revealed by Facial Resemblance, following an Algorithm of “Self Seeking Like”

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    Liliana Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that mating and pair formation is not likely to be random. Computer simulations suggested that sex among genetically complex organisms requires mate choice strategies for its evolutionary maintenance, to reduce excessive genetic variance produced by out-crossing. One strategy achieving this aim efficiently in computer simulations is assortative mating modeled as “self seeking like”. Another one is selection of “good genes”. Assortative mating increases the probability of finding a genetically similar mate, without fomenting inbreeding, achieving assortative mating without hindering the working of other mate selection strategies which aim to maximize the search for “good genes”, optimizing the working of sex in evolutionary terms. Here we present indirect evidence that in a significant proportion of human reproductive couples, the partners show much higher facial resemblances than can be expected by random pair formation, or as the outcome of “matching for attractiveness” or the outcome of competition for the most attractive partner accessible, as had been previously assumed. The data presented is compatible with the hypothesis derived from computer simulations, that human mate selection strategies achieve various aims: “self seeking like” (including matching for attractiveness and mating with the best available genes.

  14. Testing the prediction from sexual selection of a positive genetic correlation between human mate preferences and corresponding traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Burri, A.V.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection can cause evolution in traits that affect mating success, and it has thus been implicated in the evolution of human physical and behavioural traits that influence attractiveness. We use a large sample of identical and nonidentical female twins to test the prediction from mate choice

  15. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic association mapping in a partial NCII mating design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; Zhao, Xinwang; Wu, Guorong; Xiang, Dan; Liu, Qing; Bu, Su-Hong; Yi, Can; Song, Qijian; Dunwell, Jim M; Tu, Jinxing; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2015-12-17

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which an F1 hybrid exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, previous theoretical studies on heterosis have been based on bi-parental segregating populations instead of F1 hybrids. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis, here we used a subset of F1 hybrids, named a partial North Carolina II design, to perform association mapping for dependent variables: original trait value, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and mid-parental heterosis (MPH). Our models jointly fitted all the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. The analyses resulted in several important findings: 1) Main components are additive and additive-by-additive effects for GCA and dominance-related effects for SCA and MPH, and additive-by-dominant effect for MPH was partly identified as additive effect; 2) the ranking of factors affecting heterosis was dominance > dominance-by-dominance > over-dominance > complete dominance; and 3) increasing the proportion of F1 hybrids in the population could significantly increase the power to detect dominance-related effects, and slightly reduce the power to detect additive and additive-by-additive effects. Analyses of cotton and rapeseed datasets showed that more additive-by-additive QTL were detected from GCA than from trait phenotype, and fewer QTL were from MPH than from other dependent variables.

  16. Identification of submicroscopic genetic changes and precise breakpoint mapping in myelofibrosis using high resolution mate-pair sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasho, Terra; Johnson, Sarah H; Smith, David I; Crispino, John D; Pardanani, Animesh; Vasmatzis, George; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2013-09-01

    We used high resolution mate-pair sequencing (HRMPS) in 15 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF): eight with normal karyotype and seven with PMF-characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities, including der(6)t(1;6)(q21-23;p21.3) (n = 4), der(7)t(1;7)(q10;p10) (n = 2), del(20)(q11.2q13.3) (n = 3), and complex karyotype (n = 1). We describe seven novel deletions/translocations in five patients (including two with normal karyotype) whose breakpoints were PCR-validated and involved MACROD2, CACNA2D4, TET2, SGMS2, LRBA, SH3D19, INTS3, FOP (CHTOP), SCLT1, and PHF17. Deletions with breakpoints involving MACROD2 (lysine deacetylase; 20p12.1) were recurrent and found in two of the 15 study patients. A novel fusion transcript was found in one of the study patients (INTS3-CHTOP), and also in an additional non-study patient with PMF. In two patients with der(6)t(1;6)(q21-23;p21.3), we were able to map the precise translocation breakpoints, which involved KCNN3 and GUSBP2 in one case and HYDIN2 in another. This study demonstrates the utility of HRMPS in uncovering submicroscopic deletions/translocations/fusions, and precise mapping of breakpoints in those with overt cytogenetic abnormalities. The overall results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of PMF, given the low frequency of recurrent specific abnormalities, identified by this screening strategy. Currently, we are pursuing the pathogenetic relevance of some of the aforementioned findings.

  17. The more the better - polyandry and genetic similarity are positively linked to reproductive success in a natural population of terrestrial salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Barbara A; Krause, E Tobias; Hendrix, Ralf; Kopp, Michael; Rupp, Oliver; Rosentreter, Katrin; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Although classically thought to be rare, female polyandry is widespread and may entail significant fitness benefits. If females store sperm over extended periods of time, the consequences of polyandry will depend on the pattern of sperm storage, and some of the potential benefits of polyandry can only be realized if sperm from different males is mixed. Our study aimed to determine patterns and consequences of polyandry in an amphibian species, the fire salamander, under fully natural conditions. Fire salamanders are ideal study objects, because mating, fertilization and larval deposition are temporally decoupled, females store sperm for several months, and larvae are deposited in the order of fertilization. Based on 18 microsatellite loci, we conducted paternity analysis of 24 female-offspring arrays with, in total, over 600 larvae fertilized under complete natural conditions. More than one-third of females were polyandrous and up to four males were found as sires. Our data clearly show that sperm from multiple males is mixed in the female's spermatheca. Nevertheless, paternity is biased, and the most successful male sires on average 70% of the larvae, suggesting a 'topping off' mechanism with first-male precedence. Female reproductive success increased with the number of sires, most probably because multiple mating ensured high fertilization success. In contrast, offspring number was unaffected by female condition and genetic characteristics, but surprisingly, it increased with the degree of genetic relatedness between females and their sires. Sires of polyandrous females tended to be genetically similar to each other, indicating a role for active female choice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus induced by gamma-ray radiation and their genetic similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.-K.; Chang, H.-H.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, K.-S.

    2000-02-01

    To induce the lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus, the mycelia were irradiated by gamma-ray radiation to doses of 1-2 kGy. Five strains were isolated by the criteria of clamp connection, fruiting body formation, growth rate and activities of extracellular enzymes. All isolated strains were able to form the fruiting bodies and grew similarly to the control. The extracellular enzymes activities in liquid media of isolated strains were up to 10 times higher than the control. Genetic similarities of the isolated strains ranged from 64.4% to 93.3% of the control. From these results, it seems that the genetic diversity of P. ostreatus could be changed and useful strains be induced by gamma-ray radiation to recycle or reuse biowastes.

  19. Lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus induced by gamma-ray radiation and their genetic similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y-K. E-mail: yklee@nanum.kaeri.re.kr; Chang, H-H.; Kim, J-S.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, K-S

    2000-02-01

    To induce the lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus, the mycelia were irradiated by gamma-ray radiation to doses of 1-2 kGy. Five strains were isolated by the criteria of clamp connection, fruiting body formation, growth rate and activities of extracellular enzymes. All isolated strains were able to form the fruiting bodies and grew similarly to the control. The extracellular enzymes activities in liquid media of isolated strains were up to 10 times higher than the control. Genetic similarities of the isolated strains ranged from 64.4% to 93.3% of the control. From these results, it seems that the genetic diversity of P. ostreatus could be changed and useful strains be induced by gamma-ray radiation to recycle or reuse biowastes. (author)

  20. Authentication scheme for routine verification of genetically similar laboratory colonies: a trial with Anopheles gambiae

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    Sutcliffe Alice C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When rearing morphologically indistinguishable laboratory strains concurrently, the threat of unintentional genetic contamination is constant. Avoidance of accidental mixing of strains is difficult due to the use of common equipment, technician error, or the possibility of self relocation by adult mosquitoes ("free fliers". In many cases, laboratory strains are difficult to distinguish because of morphological and genetic similarity, especially when laboratory colonies are isolates of certain traits from the same parental strain, such as eye color mutants, individuals with certain chromosomal arrangements or high levels of insecticide resistance. Thus, proving genetic integrity could seem incredibly time-consuming or impossible. On the other hand, lacking proof of genetically isolated laboratory strains could question the validity of research results. Results We present a method for establishing authentication matrices to routinely distinguish and confirm that laboratory strains have not become physically or genetically mixed through contamination events in the laboratory. We show a specific example with application to Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strains at the Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center. This authentication matrix is essentially a series of tests yielding a strain-specific combination of results. Conclusion These matrix-based methodologies are useful for several mosquito and insect populations but must be specifically tailored and altered for each laboratory based on the potential contaminants available at any given time. The desired resulting authentication plan would utilize the least amount of routine effort possible while ensuring the integrity of the strains.

  1. Dispersal similarly shapes both population genetics and community patterns in the marine realm

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem

    2016-06-27

    Dispersal plays a key role to connect populations and, if limited, is one of the main processes to maintain and generate regional biodiversity. According to neutral theories of molecular evolution and biodiversity, dispersal limitation of propagules and population stochasticity are integral to shaping both genetic and community structure. We conducted a parallel analysis of biological connectivity at genetic and community levels in marine groups with different dispersal traits. We compiled large data sets of population genetic structure (98 benthic macroinvertebrate and 35 planktonic species) and biogeographic data (2193 benthic macroinvertebrate and 734 planktonic species). We estimated dispersal distances from population genetic data (i.e., FST vs. geographic distance) and from β-diversity at the community level. Dispersal distances ranked the biological groups in the same order at both genetic and community levels, as predicted by organism dispersal ability and seascape connectivity: macrozoobenthic species without dispersing larvae, followed by macrozoobenthic species with dispersing larvae and plankton (phyto- and zooplankton). This ranking order is associated with constraints to the movement of macrozoobenthos within the seabed compared with the pelagic habitat. We showed that dispersal limitation similarly determines the connectivity degree of communities and populations, supporting the predictions of neutral theories in marine biodiversity patterns.

  2. Quantitative genetic analysis of methylxanthines and phenolic compounds in mate progenies Análise genética quantitativa de metilxantinas e compostos fenólicos em progênies de erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the contents of methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, and phenolic compounds, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, in 51 mate progenies (half-sib families and estimate the heritability of genetic parameters. Mate progenies were from five Brazilian municipalities: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, and Cascavel. The progenies were grown in the Ivaí locality. The contents of the compounds were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The estimation of genetic parameters by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML and the prediction of genotypic values via best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP were obtained by the Selegen - REML/BLUP software. Caffeine (0.248-1.663% and theobromine (0.106-0.807% contents were significantly different (p0.5. The two different progeny groups determined for chlorogenic (1.365-2.281% and caffeic (0.027-0.037% acid contents were not significantly different (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de metilxantinas, cafeína e teobromina, e de compostos fenólicos, ácido clorogênico e ácido cafeico, em 51 progênies de erva-mate e estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. As progênies de erva-mate eram oriundas de cinco municipios brasileiros: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão do Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu e Cascavel. Essas progênies foram cultivadas na localidade de Ivaí. O conteúdo dos compostos foi obtido por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Na estimativa dos componentes da variância e dos parâmetros genotípicos, utilizou-se a metodologia de modelos mistos para a obtenção da melhor predição linear não viciada (BLUP dos efeitos genotípicos e o processo da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, processados pelo programa Selegen - REML/BLUP. Os conteúdos de cafeína (0,248-1,663 % e teobromina (0,106-0.807% foram significativamente (p0,5. Foram determinados dois diferentes grupos de progênie para

  3. Similarity in recombination rate estimates highly correlates with genetic differentiation in humans.

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    Hafid Laayouni

    Full Text Available Recombination varies greatly among species, as illustrated by the poor conservation of the recombination landscape between humans and chimpanzees. Thus, shorter evolutionary time frames are needed to understand the evolution of recombination. Here, we analyze its recent evolution in humans. We calculated the recombination rates between adjacent pairs of 636,933 common single-nucleotide polymorphism loci in 28 worldwide human populations and analyzed them in relation to genetic distances between populations. We found a strong and highly significant correlation between similarity in the recombination rates corrected for effective population size and genetic differentiation between populations. This correlation is observed at the genome-wide level, but also for each chromosome and when genetic distances and recombination similarities are calculated independently from different parts of the genome. Moreover, and more relevant, this relationship is robustly maintained when considering presence/absence of recombination hotspots. Simulations show that this correlation cannot be explained by biases in the inference of recombination rates caused by haplotype sharing among similar populations. This result indicates a rapid pace of evolution of recombination, within the time span of differentiation of modern humans.

  4. Nest-mate recognition based on heritable odors in the termite Microcerotermes arboreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E S

    1991-03-01

    Workers of the Neotropical termite Microcerotermes arboreus distinguish nest mates from other conspecifics by odor. A controlled breeding experiment demonstrated a genetic component to variation in colony odors. Workers were less aggressive toward unfamiliar relatives than toward nonrelatives and distinguished degree of relatedness among unfamiliar workers. Unfamiliar relatives were attacked more often than nest mates, despite similar levels of genetic relatedness; thus, nest-mate recognition is not based solely upon heritable characteristics of individual workers. No difference was detected between the effects of cues inherited through the mother and cues inherited through the father.

  5. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

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    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  6. Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

  7. Evidence for multiple genetic forms with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Thomas E; Martasian, David P; Jeffery, William R

    2002-04-01

    A diverse group of animals has adapted to caves and lost their eyes and pigmentation, but little is known about how these animals and their striking phenotypes have evolved. The teleost Astyanax mexicanus consists of an eyed epigean form (surface fish) and at least 29 different populations of eyeless hypogean forms (cavefish). Current alternative hypotheses suggest that adaptation to cave environments may have occurred either once or multiple times during the evolutionary history of this species. If the latter is true, the unique phenotypes of different cave-dwelling populations may result from convergence of form, and different genetic changes and developmental processes may have similar morphological consequences. Here we report an analysis of variation in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 2 (ND2) gene among different surface fish and cavefish populations. The results identify a minimum of two genetically distinctive cavefish lineages with similar eyeless phenotypes. The distinction between these divergent forms is supported by differences in the number of rib-bearing thoracic vertebrae in their axial skeletons. The geographic distribution of ND2 haplotypes is consistent with roles for multiple founder events and introgressive hybridization in the evolution of cave-related phenotypes. The existence of multiple genetic lineages makes A. mexicanus an excellent model to study convergence and the genes and developmental pathways involved in the evolution of the eye and pigment degeneration.

  8. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  9. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  10. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  11. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-06-08

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  12. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  13. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Genes confer similar robustness to environmental, stochastic, and genetic perturbations in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lehner

    Full Text Available Gene inactivation often has little or no apparent consequence for the phenotype of an organism. This property-enetic (or mutational robustness-is pervasive, and has important implications for disease and evolution, but is not well understood. Dating back to at least Waddington, it has been suggested that mutational robustness may be related to the requirement to withstand environmental or stochastic perturbations. Here I show that global quantitative data from yeast are largely consistent with this idea. Considering the effects of mutations in all nonessential genes shows that genes that confer robustness to environmental or stochastic change also buffer the effects of genetic change, and with similar efficacy. This means that selection during evolution for environmental or stochastic robustness (also referred to as canalization may frequently have the side effect of increasing genetic robustness. A dynamic environment may therefore promote the evolution of phenotypic complexity. It also means that "hub" genes in genetic interaction (synthetic lethal networks are generally genes that confer environmental resilience and phenotypic stability.

  15. Phylogeny and prediction of genetic similarity of Cronobacter and related taxa by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Korczak, Bozena M; Stephan, Roger; Joosten, Han; Iversen, Carol

    2009-12-31

    Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on recN, rpoA and thdF genes was done on more than 30 species of the family Enterobacteriaceae with a focus on Cronobacter and the related genus Enterobacter. The sequences provide valuable data for phylogenetic, taxonomic and diagnostic purposes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Cronobacter forms a homogenous cluster related to recently described species of Enterobacter, but distant to other species of this genus. Combining sequence information on all three genes is highly representative for the species' %GC-content used as taxonomic marker. Sequence similarity of the three genes and even of recN alone can be used to extrapolate genetic similarities between species of Enterobacteriaceae. Finally, the rpoA gene sequence, which is the easiest one to determine, provides a powerful diagnostic tool to identify and differentiate species of this family. The comparative analysis gives important insights into the phylogeny and genetic relatedness of the family Enterobacteriaceae and will serve as a basis for further studies and clarifications on the taxonomy of this large and heterogeneous family.

  16. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R

    2005-10-01

    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  17. Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco - the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity.

  18. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)The body breaks down the caffeine in yerba mate to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  19. Genetic Similarity Assessment among Selected Naked Oat Cultivars and Breeding Lines Using ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta PACZOS-GRZEDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naked oat refers to a variety of Avena sativa with lemma and palea separating from the grains. Its spikelets are multiflorous and morphologically different from the husked oat. Problems with preharvest sprouting, threshability, rancidity, a wide range of kernel sizes, as well as its relatively low tolerance to limited soil water content, are its main drawbacks. Nevertheless it could be an alternative to a conventional oat. Unfortunately, its genetic variation is still poorly recognized.  In the given study a set of 26 naked oat cultivars and lines were analyzed with 25 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR primers that amplified as many as 429 DNA fragments among which 204 were polymorphic. The average number of markers amplified per primer pair and polymorphism information content (PIC value equaled to eight and 0.23, respectively. Forty four unique PCR products were identified for different genotypes. While Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean failed to distinguish the materials into main clusters it demonstrated that cultivars ‘Akt’, ‘Polar’, ‘Cacko’, ‘Siwek’, ‘Nagus’ and most of the DC lines were within a single group. Moreover, the cultivars that were closely related based on their breeding pedigree (related to ‘Akt’ were close to each other. Principal Coordinate Analysis explained 54.1% of variance and was in good agreement with the UPGMA. ISSR markers could be used for the evaluation of genetic similarity of cultivars and lines as well as the differentiation of individual genotypes. This study demonstrated that the available A. sativa naked type genetic pool is relatively wide and have the potential for further breeding progress.

  20. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.

  1. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  2. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Mori

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.

  3. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies...... under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (... to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses...

  4. A molecular genetic examination of the mating system of pumpkinseed sunfish reveals high pay-offs for specialized sneakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Webster, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    Intrasexual variation in reproductive behaviour and morphology are common in nature. Often, such variation appears to result from conditional strategies in which some individuals (e.g. younger males or those in poor condition) adopt a low pay-off phenotype as a 'best of a bad job'. Alternatively, reproductive polymorphisms can be maintained by balancing selection, with male phenotypes having equal fitnesses at equilibrium, but examples from nature are rare. Many species of sunfish (genus Lepomis) are thought to have alternative male reproductive behaviours, but most empirical work has focused on the bluegill sunfish and the mating systems of other sunfish remain poorly understood. We studied a population of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in upstate New York. Field observations confirm the existence of two male reproductive strategies: 'parentals' were relatively old and large males that maintained nests, and 'sneakers' were relatively young and small males that fertilize eggs by darting into nests of parentals during spawning. The sneaker and parental male strategies appear to be distinct life-history trajectories. Sneaker males represented 39% of the males observed spawning, and sneakers intruded on 43% of all mating attempts. Microsatellite analyses revealed that sneaker males fertilized an average of 15% of the eggs within a nest. This level of paternity by sneaker males appears to be higher than seen in most other fishes, and preliminary analyses suggest that the two male reproductive strategies are maintained as a balanced polymorphism.

  5. Estimate Landslide Volume with Genetic Algorithms and Image Similarity Method from Single Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-To

    2013-04-01

    It is important to acquire the volume of landslide in short period of time. For hazard mitigation and also emergency response purpose, the traditional method takes much longer time than expected. Due to the weather limit, traffic accessibility and many regulations of law, it take months to handle these process before the actual carry out of filed work. Remote sensing imagery can get the data as long as the visibility allowed, which happened only few day after the event. While traditional photometry requires a stereo pairs images to produce the post event DEM for calculating the change of volume. Usually have to wait weeks or even months for gathering such data, LiDAR or ground GPS measurement might take even longer period of time with much higher cost. In this study we use one post event satellite image and pre-event DTM to compare the similarity between these by alter the DTM with genetic algorithms. The outcome of smartest guess from GAs shall remove or add exact values of height at each location, which been converted into shadow relief viewgraph to compare with satellite image. Once the similarity threshold been make then the guessing work stop. It takes only few hours to finish the entire task, the computed accuracy is around 70% by comparing to the high resolution LiDAR survey at a landslide, southern Taiwan. With extra GCPs, the estimate accuracy can improve to 85% and also within few hours after the receiving of satellite image. Data of this demonstration case is a 5 m DTM at 2005, 2M resolution FormoSat optical image at 2009 and 5M LiDAR at 2010. The GAs and image similarity code is developed on Matlab at windows PC.

  6. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Ordoñez, M E; Manisterski, J; Anikster, Y

    2011-07-01

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the previously characterized population from Central Asia to determine whether genetically similar groups of isolates are found in the two regions. In total, 118 isolates of P. triticina collected from common wheat and durum wheat in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Kenya were tested for virulence on 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance and for molecular genotypes with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After removal of isolates with identical virulence and SSR genotype in each country, 103 isolates were retained for further analysis. Clustering of SSR genotypes based on two-dimensional principal coordinates and virulence to wheat differential lines grouped the isolates into four Middle East (ME) groups. The two largest ME groups had virulence phenotypes typical of isolates collected from common wheat and two smaller ME groups had virulence typical of isolates collected from durum wheat. All pairs of ME groups were significantly differentiated for SSR genotype based on R(ST) and F(ST) statistics, and for virulence phenotype based on Φ(PT). All ME groups had observed values of heterozygosity greater than expected and significant fixation indices that indicated the clonal reproduction of urediniospores in the overall population. Linkage disequilibria for SSR genotypes was high across the entire population. The overall values of R(ST) and F(ST) were lower when isolates were grouped by country of origin that indicated the likely migration of isolates within the region. Although the two ME groups with virulence typical of isolates from common wheat were not differentiated for SSR genotype from groups of isolates from Central Asia based on

  7. MHC-correlated mate choice in humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig

    2009-05-01

    Extremely high variability in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates is assumed to be a consequence of frequency-dependent parasite-driven selection and mate preferences based on promotion of offspring heterozygosity at MHC, or potentially, genome-wide inbreeding avoidance. Where effects have been found, mate choice studies on rodents and other species usually find preference for MHC-dissimilarity in potential partners. Here we critically review studies on MHC-associated mate choice in humans. These are based on three broadly different aspects: (1) odor preferences, (2) facial preferences and (3) actual mate choice surveys. As in animal studies, most odor-based studies demonstrate disassortative preferences, although there is variation in the strength and nature of the effects. In contrast, facial attractiveness research indicates a preference for MHC-similar individuals. Results concerning MHC in actual couples show a bias towards similarity in one study, dissimilarity in two studies and random distribution in several other studies. These vary greatly in sample size and heterogeneity of the sample population, both of which may significantly bias the results. This pattern of mixed results across studies may reflect context-dependent and/or life history sensitive preference expression, in addition to higher level effects arising out of population differences in genetic heterogeneity or cultural and ethnic restrictions on random mating patterns. Factors of special relevance in terms of individual preferences are reproductive status and long- vs. short-term mating context. We discuss the idea that olfactory and visual channels may work in a complementary way (i.e. odor preference for MHC-dissimilarity and visual preference for MHC-similarity) to achieve an optimal level of genetic variability, methodological issues and interesting avenues for further research.

  8. The effects of disruptive and stabilizing selection on body size in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Genetic analysis of two lines with different reactions to disruptive selection with mating of opposite extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.

    1974-01-01

    A genetic analysis was made of two lines which when subjected to disruptive selection with compulsary mating of opposite extremes (D−) showed a different response viz. one, D−-1, showing predominantly an increase of environmental variance and possibly interaction variance, the other, D−-2, showing a

  9. The effects of disruptive and stabilizing selection on body size in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Genetic analysis of two lines with different reactions to disruptive selection with mating of opposite extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.

    1974-01-01

    A genetic analysis was made of two lines which when subjected to disruptive selection with compulsary mating of opposite extremes (D−) showed a different response viz. one, D−-1, showing predominantly an increase of environmental variance and possibly interaction variance, the other, D−-2, showing

  10. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  11. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.

  12. Ancient structure in Africa unlikely to explain Neanderthal and non-African genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Melinda A; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Durand, Eric Y; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2012-10-01

    Neanderthals have been shown to share more genetic variants with present-day non-Africans than Africans. Recent admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans outside of Africa was proposed as the most parsimonious explanation for this observation. However, the hypothesis of ancient population structure within Africa could not be ruled out as an alternative explanation. We use simulations to test whether the site frequency spectrum, conditioned on a derived Neanderthal and an ancestral Yoruba (African) nucleotide (the doubly conditioned site frequency spectrum [dcfs]), can distinguish between models that assume recent admixture or ancient population structure. We compare the simulations to the dcfs calculated from data taken from populations of European, Chinese, and Japanese descent in the Complete Genomics Diversity Panel. Simulations under a variety of plausible demographic parameters were used to examine the shape of the dcfs for both models. The observed shape of the dcfs cannot be explained by any set of parameter values used in the simulations of the ancient structure model. The dcfs simulations for the recent admixture model provide a good fit to the observed dcfs for non-Africans, thereby supporting the hypothesis that recent admixture with Neanderthals accounts for the greater similarity of Neanderthals to non-Africans than Africans.

  13. SNP typing reveals similarity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity between Portugal and Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao S; Marques, Isabel; Soares, Patricia; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Costa, Joao; Miranda, Anabela; Duarte, Raquel; Alves, Adriana; Macedo, Rita; Duarte, Tonya A; Barbosa, Theolis; Oliveira, Martha; Nery, Joilda S; Boechat, Neio; Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pereira-Leal, Jose; Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda; Penha-Goncalves, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Human tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Although spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR are standard methodologies in MTBC genetic epidemiology, recent studies suggest that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are advantageous in phylogenetics and strain group/lineages identification. In this work we use a set of 79 SNPs to characterize 1987 MTBC isolates from Portugal and 141 from Northeast Brazil. All Brazilian samples were further characterized using spolygotyping. Phylogenetic analysis against a reference set revealed that about 95% of the isolates in both populations are singly attributed to bacterial lineage 4. Within this lineage, the most frequent strain groups in both Portugal and Brazil are LAM, followed by Haarlem and X. Contrary to these groups, strain group T showed a very different prevalence between Portugal (10%) and Brazil (1.5%). Spoligotype identification shows about 10% of mis-matches compared to the use of SNPs and a little more than 1% of strains unidentifiability. The mis-matches are observed in the most represented groups of our sample set (i.e., LAM and Haarlem) in almost the same proportion. Besides being more accurate in identifying strain groups/lineages, SNP-typing can also provide phylogenetic relationships between strain groups/lineages and, thus, indicate cases showing phylogenetic incongruence. Overall, the use of SNP-typing revealed striking similarities between MTBC populations from Portugal and Brazil.

  14. Isolation of the rickettsial agent genetically similar to Candidatus Rickettsia kotlanii, from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masako; Ogasawara, Yumiko; Sakata, Akiko; Ito, Takuya; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji

    2014-09-01

    Two rickettsial isolates, HM-1 and HM-2, were isolated from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa collected in Japan in 2006 and 2011, respectively. The isolates were analyzed by DNA sequences of the outer membrane protein A gene, the outer membrane protein B gene, the citrate synthase gene, the genus Rickettsia-specific outer membrane protein 17-kDa gene, the 16S ribosome RNA gene, and the PS120 protein gene ("geneD"). HM-1 was identified as Rickettsia tamurae. HM-2 matched most closely with 'Candidatus Rickettsia kotlanii' DNA, which has only been reported from H. concinna in Hungary. This is the first report of isolation in Japan of the agent genetically similar to 'Candidatus R. kotlanii,' which belongs phylogenetically to the spotted fever group Rickettsia. Our study shows the possibility that 'Candidatus R. kotlanii' can be carried by at least two tick species. Furthermore, because the Rickettsia sp. has been found two distant countries, Hungary and Japan, it has potential for wider distribution.

  15. Reconsidering the heritability of intelligence in adulthood: taking assortative mating and cultural transmission into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H M; Posthuma, Danielle

    2012-03-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may lead to biased estimates of the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental factors. To investigate the effects of assortative mating on the estimates of the variance components of intelligence, we employed an extended twin-family design. Psychometric IQ data were available for adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, the partners of the twins and siblings, and either the parents or the adult offspring of the twins and siblings (N = 1314). Two underlying processes of assortment were considered: phenotypic assortment and social homogamy. The phenotypic assortment model was slightly preferred over the social homogamy model, suggesting that assortment for intelligence is mostly due to a selection of mates on similarity in intelligence. Under the preferred phenotypic assortment model, the variance of intelligence in adulthood was not only due to non-shared environmental (18%) and additive genetic factors (44%) but also to non-additive genetic factors (27%) and phenotypic assortment (11%).This non-additive nature of genetic influences on intelligence needs to be accommodated in future GWAS studies for intelligence.

  16. Molecular assessment of mating strategies in a population of Atlantic spotted dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Green

    Full Text Available Similar to other small cetacean species, Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis have been the object of concentrated behavioral study. Although mating and courtship behaviors occur often and the social structure of the population is well-studied, the genetic mating system of the species is unknown. To assess the genetic mating system, we genotyped females and their progeny at ten microsatellite loci. Genotype analysis provided estimates of the minimum number of male sires necessary to account for the allelic diversity observed among the progeny. Using the estimates of male sires, we determined whether females mated with the same or different males during independent estrus events. Using Gerud2.0, a minimum of two males was necessary to account for the genetic variation seen among progeny arrays of all tested females. ML-Relate assigned the most likely relationship between offspring pairs; half or full sibling. Relationship analysis supported the conservative male estimates of Gerud2.0 but in some cases, half or full sibling relationships between offspring could not be fully resolved. Integrating the results from Gerud2.0, ML-Relate with previous observational and paternity data, we constructed two-, three-, and four-male pedigree models for each genotyped female. Because increased genetic diversity of offspring may explain multi-male mating, we assessed the internal genetic relatedness of each offspring's genotype to determine whether parent pairs of offspring were closely related. We found varying levels of internal relatedness ranging from unrelated to closely related (range -0.136-0.321. Because there are several hypothesized explanations for multi-male mating, we assessed our data to determine the most plausible explanation for multi-male mating in our study system. Our study indicated females may benefit from mating with multiple males by passing genes for long-term viability to their young.

  17. The influence of space in genetic-environmental relationships when environmental heterogeneity and seed dispersal occur at similar scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volis, S; Anikster, Y; Olsvig-Whittaker, L; Mendlinger, S

    2004-02-01

    We tested the importance of microenvironmental topographic parameters as predictors of emmer wheat genetic variation using three classes of single-locus (or at most several-loci) genetic markers (allozymes, glutenins, and qualitative traits) and two classes of markers of polygenic inheritance (phenological and morphological traits). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) detected a significant effect of spatially structured environmental variation on genetic differences between plants for allozymes, glutenins, and quantitative morphological and phenological traits. However, after removing a spatial component of variation in partial CCA and partial RDA, the relationship of the remaining environmental variation with these genetic markers could be explained by chance alone, allowing us to rule out microniche topographic specialization in emmer wheat. Topographic autocorrelation exhibited a certain degree of similarity with genetic marker autocorrelation, indicating similar scales of environmental heterogeneity and seed flow. The detected population genetic structure agrees with one expected under isolation by distance as a result of limited gene flow. A negative relationship of genetic similarity with the logarithm of distance between plants was detected for both molecular markers and quantitative traits, which differed in the strength but not the pattern of association.

  18. Genetically similar VHSV isolates are differentially virulent in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Young; Lee, Unn Hwa; Moon, Chang Hoon; Bang, Jong Deuk; Jee, Bo Young; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Do, Jeong Wan; Park, Jeong Woo

    2012-11-08

    Two viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolates, VHSV-KR-CJA and VHSV-KR-YGH, were isolated from viral hemorrhagic septicemia disease outbreaks in flounder farms in South Korea. The VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with high mortality (80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with low mortality (15%), suggesting that these isolates differ in virulence. The virulence of these isolates was evaluated in juvenile flounder via intraperitoneal injection. Consistent with their virulence in the field, mortality data revealed that the VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was highly pathogenic (cumulative mortality of 80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was less pathogenic in flounder (cumulative mortality of 20%). To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, the full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding nucleoprotein N, phosphoprotein P, matrix protein M, glycoprotein G, nonstructural viral protein NV, and polymerase L of these viruses were sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that both isolates are genetically very similar (identical amino acid sequences for P, M, NV, and L and >99.7 and 99.8% amino acid sequence identity for N and G, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both of these viruses belong to the Genotype IVa group, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral virus. The low pathogenicity VHSV strain may potentially evolve to become a more pathogenic strain through only a few nucleotide substitutions. Further functional analyses of mutations in VHSV genes are necessary to identify factors that determine VHSV pathogenicity in flounder.

  19. Multiple mating and clutch size in invertebrate brooders versus pregnant vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, John C; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2011-07-12

    We summarize the genetic literature on polygamy rates and sire numbers per clutch in invertebrate animals that brood their offspring and then compare findings with analogous data previously compiled for vertebrate species displaying viviparity or other pregnancy-like syndromes. As deduced from molecular parentage analyses of several thousand broods from more than 100 "pregnant" species, invertebrate brooders had significantly higher mean incidences of multiple mating than pregnant vertebrates, a finding generally consistent with the postulate that clutch size constrains successful mate numbers in species with extended parental care. However, we uncovered no significant correlation in invertebrates between brood size and genetically deduced rates of multiple mating by the incubating sex. Instead, in embryo-gestating animals otherwise as different as mammals and mollusks, polygamy rates and histograms of successful mates per brooder proved to be strikingly similar. Most previous studies have sought to understand why gestating parents have so many mates and such high incidences of successful multiple mating; an alternative perspective based on logistical constraints turns the issue on its head by asking why mate numbers and polygamy rates are much lower than they theoretically could be, given the parentage-resolving power of molecular markers and the huge sizes of many invertebrate broods.

  20. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guha Dharmarajan

    2015-03-01

    Inbreeding in parasite populations can have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications. However, theoretical models have predominantly focussed on the evolution of parasite populations under strong selection or in epidemic situations, and our understanding of neutral gene dynamics in parasite populations at equilibrium has been limited to verbal arguments or conceptual models. This study focusses on how host–parasite population dynamics affects observed levels of inbreeding in a random sample of parasites from an infinite population of hosts by bridging traditional genetic and parasitological processes utilizing a backward–forward branching Markov process embedded within a flexible statistical framework, the logarithmic-poisson mixture model. My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by ‘equilibrium’ levels of inbreeding calculated assuming regular systems of mating. Specifically, the model reveals that at low levels of inbreeding ( ≤ 0.1), equilibrium levels of inbreeding are lower than those observed, while at high levels of inbreeding the opposite pattern occurs. The model also indicates that inbreeding could have important epidemiological implications (e.g., the spread of recessive drug resistance genes) by directly impacting the observed frequency of rare homozygotes in parasite populations. My results indicate that frequencies of rare homozygotes are affected by aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure, and also that an increase in the frequency of rare homozygotes can be caused by a decrease in effective population size solely due to the presence of a subdivided breeding system.

  1. Rates of inbreeding and genetic adaptation for populations managed as herds in zoos with a rotational mating system or with optimized contribution of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Komen, H

    2016-08-01

    This study compares two genetic management scenarios for species kept in herds, such as deer. The simulations were designed so that their results can be extended to a wide range of zoo populations. In the first scenario, the simulated populations of size 3 × 20, 6 × 40 or 20 × 60 (herds × animals in herd) were managed with a rotational mating (RM) scheme in which 10%, 20% or 50% of males were selected for breeding and moved between herds in a circular fashion. The second scenario was based on optimal contribution theory (OC). OC requires an accurate pedigree to calculate kinship; males were selected and assigned numbers of offspring to minimize kinship in the next generation. RM was efficient in restriction of inbreeding and produced results comparable with OC. However, RM can result in genetic adaptation of the population to the zoo environment, in particular when 20% or less males are selected for rotation and selection of animals is not random. Lowest rates of inbreeding were obtained by combining OC with rotation of males as in the RM scheme. RM is easy to implement in practice and does not require pedigree data. When full pedigree is available, OC management is preferable. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. SSR ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND SIMILARITY OF BARLEY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Lakhneko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to develop an evaluation system of the genetic polymorphism for barley cultivars of Ukrainian and foreign origin based on the analysis of simple sequence repeats and valuable agricultural trait loci as well as to compose the molecular genetic passports for those cultivars. PCRs with the following separation of amplification products by agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis were performed to find out genetic polymorphism. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean was used for phylogenetic relationship detection. The dandrogram of phylogenetic relationships of 55 barley cultivars was constructed and molecular genetic passports were developed. Molecular genetic passports can be involved in verification for the compliance with standards cultivars, stability and seed purity.

  3. Imposing nonlinear constraints when estimating genetic and cultural transmission under assortative mating: a simulation study using Mx and BUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the

  4. Imposing Nonlinear Constraints When Estimating Genetic and Cultural Transmission Under Assortative Mating: A Simulation Study Using Mx and BUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-o

  5. One group of genetically similar Listeria monocytogenes strains frequently dominates and persists in several fish slaughter- and smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Gitte; Gram, Lone; Ahrens, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of foods with the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes may occur during processing, and the purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically similar strains colonize different processing plants or whether specific persistent strains are unique to each processing plant. We...... smokehouses and two slaughterhouses and was predominant in three of these plants. A subset of 35 strains was also analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, which confirmed the genetic similarity of the groups. Moreover, strains of the dominant RAPD type were indistinguishable from strains...... related may be especially adapted to colonizing the processing equipment or especially resistant to cleaning and disinfection....

  6. Two Genetically Similar H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Show Different Pathogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtao Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06 virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of 102.83 50% egg infectious dose, whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01 virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of >106.81 50% egg infectious dose. Further studies showed that the NJ06 virus grew faster and reached significantly higher titers than NJ01 in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the NJ06 virus induced more severe lung lesions, and higher levels of inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs than NJ01 did. However, only twelve different amino acid residues (HA-K157E, NA-A9T, NA-R435K, PB2-T149P, PB2-K627E, PB1-R187K, PA-L548M, PA-M550L, NP-G127E, NP-P277H, NP-D340N, NS1-D171N were found between the two viruses, and all these residues except for NA-R435K were located in the known functional regions involved in interaction of viral proteins or between the virus and host factors. Summary, our results suggest that multiple amino acid differences may be responsible for the higher pathogenicity of the NJ06 virus for mice, resulting in lethal infection, enhanced viral replication, severe lung lesions, and excessive inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs. These observations will be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic potential and the corresponding molecular basis of H9N2 viruses that might pose threats to human health in the future.

  7. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  8. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Understanding The Role of Mate Selection Processes in Couples' Pair-Bonding Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Briana N; Reynolds, Chandra A; Walum, Hasse; Ganiban, Jody; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2016-01-01

    Couples are similar in their pair-bonding behavior, yet the reasons for this similarity are often unclear. A common explanation is phenotypic assortment, whereby individuals select partners with similar heritable characteristics. Alternatively, social homogamy, whereby individuals passively select partners with similar characteristic due to shared social backgrounds, is rarely considered. We examined whether phenotypic assortment and/or social homogamy can contribute to mate similarity using a twin-partner design. The sample came from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, which included 876 male and female monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins plus their married or cohabitating partners. Results showed that variance in pair-bonding behavior was attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Furthermore, phenotypic assortment accounted for couple similarity in pair-bonding behavior. This suggests that individuals' genetically based characteristics are involved in their selection of mates with similar pair-bonding behavior.

  10. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic

  11. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  12. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  13. Imposing nonlinear constraints when estimating genetic and cultural transmission under assortative mating: a simulation study using Mx and BUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-oriented BUGS software package can handle such nonlinear constraints under various conditions. Results generally showed good and comparable results for Mx and BUGS, although BUGS was much slower than Mx. However, since BUGS uses Markov-chain Monte Carlo estimation it could be used for parent-offspring models with non-normal data and/or item-response theory models.

  14. The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

    2003-03-22

    We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research.

  15. Patterns of cuticular hydrocarbon variation and genetic similarity between natural populations of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A; Guglielmone, A A; Mangold, A J; Castellá, J

    1993-10-01

    Gas chromatography has been used to analyze the variation in cuticular hydrocarbon patterns between several populations of Amblyomma cajennense. 88 compounds were detected and these could be divided into 17 groups of hydrocarbons. Heterozygosis in the populations ranges from 0% to 25.84%. Isomers for pentacosane, heptacosane and nonatriacontane are the most variable, with 13, 10 and 11 variants, respectively. Nei's genetic identity and genetic distance show that populations may be considered as regional variants of only one species: the results do not indicate the presence of sibling species. However, a relatively high genetic distance has been observed between several Cuban and continental populations, suggesting a long reproductive isolation. Gas chromatography of cuticular hydrocarbons is a good alternative to isozyme analysis for population studies, when collecting conditions do not allow the use of live ticks and only alcohol-preserved collections are available. The high number of compounds available for genetic studies will provide excellent markers for evaluating the extent of gene flow and migration of tick species.

  16. Genetic and epigenetic similarities and differences between childhood and adult AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl-Christensen, Caroline; Ommen, Hans Beier; Aggerholm, Anni

    2012-01-01

    The biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is complex and includes both genetic and epigenetic aberrations. We addressed the combined consequences of promoter hypermethylation of p15, CDH1, ER, MDR1, and RARB2 and mutation of NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and WT1 in a Danish cohort of 70 pediatric and 383...

  17. The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D

    2014-08-13

    To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75 Gy for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on the competitiveness of male An. arabiensis were studied. The competitiveness of ANO IPCL1 males that were treated either with irradiation or both dieldrin and irradiation, was compared with that of the wild-type strain (An. arabiensis Dongola) at a 1:1 ratio in 5.36 m3 semi-field cages located in a climate-controlled greenhouse. In addition, three irradiated: untreated male ratios were tested in semi-field cages (1:1, 5:1 and 10:1) and their competition for virgin wild-type females was assessed. The ANO IPCL1 males were equally competitive as the wild-type males in this semi-field setting. The ANO IPCL1 males irradiated at 75 Gy were approximately half as competitive as the unirradiated wild-type males. ANO IPCL1 males that had been treated with dieldrin as eggs, and irradiated with 75 Gy as pupae were slightly more competitive than males that were only irradiated. Ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 irradiated ANO IPCL1 males: untreated wild-type males resulted in 31, 66 and 81% induced sterility in the female cage population, respectively. An irradiation dose of 75 Gy reduced the competitiveness of male ANO IPCL1 significantly and will need to be compensated by releasing higher numbers of sterile males in the field. However, the dieldrin treatment used to eliminate females appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect, however the mechanism is not understood. A sterile to wild-type ratio of 10:1 effectively reduced the population

  18. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  19. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts.

  20. Similar genetic switch systems might integrate the floral inductive pathways in dicots and monocots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.H.; Jensen, C.S.; Petersen, K.

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper by Million Tadege et A shows that a SOC1-like gene from rice, OsSOC1, can complement the Arabidopsis soc1 mutant, and that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLC in rice delays flowering and up-regulation of OsSOC1 These findings, together with the identificatio...... of the wheat vernalization VRN1 locus as an AP1 homologue, suggest that related genetic switch systems control floral transition in dicots and monocots but that they are based on different MADS-box transcription factors....

  1. Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and famil

  2. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  3. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...

  4. Genetic Dissection of Acute Anterior Uveitis Reveals Similarities and Differences in Associations observed with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip C.; Claushuis, Theodora A.M.; Cortes, Adrian; Martin, Tammy M.; Evans, David M.; Leo, Paul; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Bradbury, Linda A.; Cremin, Katie; Harris, Jessica; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Inman, Robert D.; Rahman, Proton; Haroon, Nigil; Gensler, Lianne; Powell, Joseph E.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Lim, Lyndell L.; Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Voigt, Valentina; Fleming, Peter; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia; Pointon, Jennifer J.; Weisman, Michael H.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Reveille, John D.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use high density genotyping to investigate the genetic associations of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in patients both with and without ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Method We genotyped 1,711 patients with AAU (either primary or with AAU and AS), 2,339 AS patients without AAU, and 10,000 controls on the Illumina Immunochip Infinium microarray. We also used data on AS patients from previous genomewide association studies to investigate the AS risk locus ANTXR2 for its putative effect in AAU. ANTXR2 expression in mouse eyes was investigated by RT-PCR. Results Comparing all AAU cases with HC, strong association was seen over HLA-B corresponding to the HLA-B27 tag SNP rs116488202. Three non-MHC loci IL23R, the intergenic region 2p15 and ERAP1 were associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5×10−8). Five loci harboring the immune-related genes IL10-IL19, IL18R1-IL1R1, IL6R, the chromosome 1q32 locus harboring KIF21B, as well as the eye related gene EYS, were also associated at a suggestive level of significance (P < 5×10−6). A number of previously confirmed AS associations demonstrated significant differences in effect size between AS patients with AAU and AS patients without AAU. ANTXR2 expression was found to vary across eye compartments. Conclusion These findings, with both novel AAU specific associations, and associations shared with AS demonstrate overlapping but also distinct genetic susceptibility loci for AAU and AS. The associations in IL10 and IL18R1 are shared with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting common etiologic pathways. PMID:25200001

  5. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  6. Phenotype Similarity Regression for Identifying the Genetic Determinants of Rare Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Daniel; Richardson, Sylvia; Turro, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic disorders, which can now be studied systematically with affordable genome sequencing, are often caused by high-penetrance rare variants. Such disorders are often heterogeneous and characterized by abnormalities spanning multiple organ systems ascertained with variable clinical precision. Existing methods for identifying genes with variants responsible for rare diseases summarize phenotypes with unstructured binary or quantitative variables. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) allows composite phenotypes to be represented systematically but association methods accounting for the ontological relationship between HPO terms do not exist. We present a Bayesian method to model the association between an HPO-coded patient phenotype and genotype. Our method estimates the probability of an association together with an HPO-coded phenotype characteristic of the disease. We thus formalize a clinical approach to phenotyping that is lacking in standard regression techniques for rare disease research. We demonstrate the power of our method by uncovering a number of true associations in a large collection of genome-sequenced and HPO-coded cases with rare diseases. PMID:26924528

  7. Phenotype Similarity Regression for Identifying the Genetic Determinants of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Daniel; Richardson, Sylvia; Turro, Ernest

    2016-03-01

    Rare genetic disorders, which can now be studied systematically with affordable genome sequencing, are often caused by high-penetrance rare variants. Such disorders are often heterogeneous and characterized by abnormalities spanning multiple organ systems ascertained with variable clinical precision. Existing methods for identifying genes with variants responsible for rare diseases summarize phenotypes with unstructured binary or quantitative variables. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) allows composite phenotypes to be represented systematically but association methods accounting for the ontological relationship between HPO terms do not exist. We present a Bayesian method to model the association between an HPO-coded patient phenotype and genotype. Our method estimates the probability of an association together with an HPO-coded phenotype characteristic of the disease. We thus formalize a clinical approach to phenotyping that is lacking in standard regression techniques for rare disease research. We demonstrate the power of our method by uncovering a number of true associations in a large collection of genome-sequenced and HPO-coded cases with rare diseases.

  8. Repeated Rule Acquisition using Rule Ontology from Similar Web Sites Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugapriya. D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web, which is the key component of Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, is an evolving development of the World Wide Web in which the semantics of information and services on the Web are being defined. Knowledge is an essential part of most Semantic Web applications and ontology, which is a formal explicit description of concepts or classes in a domain of discussion, is the most important part of the knowledge. As a model for knowledge description and formalization, ontology’s are widely used to represent user profiles in personalized web information gathering. The ontology can decrease the amount of information and reduce the work of utilizing the information in rule acquisition, because it is generalized and specifically rearranged for rule acquisition. Moreover, the ontology can be accumulated and reused throughout repeated rule acquisition. The main contribution of existing work is that the complete and detailed rule composition process with examples and its evaluation. The enhancement work is, with the existing system concept we combining the concept of selecting exact parts that contain rules from Web pages to increase the accuracy in their result. In this proposed work we are combining the screen method from WebPages with use of genetic Techniques to extract the rule optimally.

  9. Leaf shape evolution has a similar genetic architecture in three edaphic specialists within the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Rushton, Tullia; Greenlee, Anna B; Toll, Katherine; Blackman, Benjamin K; Willis, John H

    2015-08-01

    The genetic basis of leaf shape has long interested botanists because leaf shape varies extensively across the plant kingdom and this variation is probably adaptive. However, knowledge of the genetic architecture of leaf shape variation in natural populations remains limited. This study examined the genetic architecture of leaf shape diversification among three edaphic specialists in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. Lobed and narrow leaves have evolved from the entire, round leaves of M. guttatus in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and a polymorphic serpentine M. guttatus population (M2L). Bulk segregant analysis and next-generation sequencing were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie leaf shape in an M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F2 population. To determine whether the same QTLs contribute to leaf shape variation in M. nudatus and M2L, F2s from M. guttatus × M. nudatus and lobed M2L × unlobed M. guttatus crosses were genotyped at QTLs from the bulk segregant analysis. Narrow and lobed leaf shapes in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and M. guttatus are controlled by overlapping genetic regions. Several promising leaf shape candidate genes were found under each QTL. The evolution of divergent leaf shape has taken place multiple times in the M. guttatus species complex and is associated with the occupation of dry, rocky environments. The genetic architecture of elongated and lobed leaves is similar across three species in this group. This may indicate that parallel genetic evolution from standing variation or new mutations is responsible for the putatively adaptive leaf shape variation in Mimulus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genetic Biomarker Prevalence Is Similar in Fecal Immunochemical Test Positive and Negative Colorectal Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Theodore R; Corley, Douglas A; Jensen, Christopher D; Marks, Amy R; Zhao, Wei K; Zebrowski, Alexis M; Quinn, Virginia P; Browne, Lawrence W; Taylor, William R; Ahlquist, David A; Lidgard, Graham P; Berger, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening detects most asymptomatic colorectal cancers. Combining FIT screening with stool-based genetic biomarkers increases sensitivity for cancer, but whether DNA biomarkers (biomarkers) differ for cancers detected versus missed by FIT screening has not been evaluated in a community-based population. To evaluate tissue biomarkers among Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 2 years after FIT screening. FIT-negative and FIT-positive colorectal cancer patients 50-77 years of age were matched on age, sex, and cancer stage. Adequate DNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded specimens in 210 FIT-negative and 211 FIT-positive patients. Quantitative allele-specific real-time target and signal amplification assays were performed for 7 K-ras mutations and 10 aberrantly methylated DNA biomarkers (NDRG4, BMP3, SFMBT2_895, SFMBT2_896, SFMBT2_897, CHST2_7890, PDGFD, VAV3, DTX1, CHST2_7889). One or more biomarkers were found in 414 of 421 CRCs (98.3%). Biomarker expression was not associated with FIT status, with the exception of higher SFMBT2_897 expression in FIT-negative (194 of 210; 92.4%) than in FIT-positive cancers (180 of 211; 85.3%; p = 0.02). There were no consistent differences in biomarker expression by FIT status within age, sex, stage, and cancer location subgroups. The biomarkers of a currently in-use multi-target stool DNA test (K-ras, NDRG4, and BMP3) and eight newly characterized methylated biomarkers were commonly expressed in tumor tissue specimens, independent of FIT result. Additional study using stool-based testing with these new biomarkers will allow assessment of sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility.

  11. Gene Flow Results in High Genetic Similarity Between Sibiraea (Rosaceae species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying closely related species and divergent populations provides insight into the process of speciation. Previous studies showed that the Sibiraea complex's evolutionary history on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP was confusing and could not be distinguishable on the molecular level. In this study, the genetic structure and gene flow of S. laevigata and S. angustata on the QTP was examined across 45 populations using 8 microsatellite loci. Microsatellites revealed high genetic diversity in Sibiraea populations. Most of the variance was detected within populations (87.45% rather than between species (4.39%. We found no significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all individuals in the sympatric area of Sibiraea into one cluster and other individuals of S. angustata into another. Divergence history analysis based on the approximate Bayesian computation method indicated that the populations of S. angustata at the sympatric area derived from the admixture of 2 species. The assignment test assigned all individuals to populations of their own species rather than its congeneric species. Consistently, intraspecies were detected rather than interspecies first-generation migrants. The bidirectional gene flow in long-term patterns between the 2 species was asymmetric, with more from S. angustata to S. laevigata. In conclusion, the Sibiraea complex was distinguishable on the molecular level using microsatellite loci. We found that the high genetic similarity of these 2 species resulted from huge bidirectional gene flow, especially on the sympatric area where population admixtures between the species occurred.

  12. Genetically similar isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 causing liver abscesses in three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Englender, Hilary; Gabriel, Samantha N; Turton, Sarah E; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2007-05-01

    The magA gene was sought in hypermucoviscous isolates of Klebsiella spp., the Klebsiella K serotype reference strains and in isolates of the K1 serotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the UK, Hong Kong, Israel, Taiwan and Australia. Only K1 isolates were PCR positive for magA; this gene was found in all such isolates tested. Hypermucoviscosity was not confined to magA positive isolates, nor was it found in all magA positive isolates. Comparison of XbaI PFGE profiles revealed that most (19/23) of the magA positive isolates clustered within 72 % similarity, with a further subcluster of isolates, from three different continents, clustering within >80 %. All of the 16 isolates tested within the main cluster had the same sequence type (ST 23) by multilocus sequence typing, with the exception of one isolate, which had a single nucleotide difference at one of the seven loci. This study indicates that a genotype strongly associated with highly invasive disease in Taiwan, where large numbers of cases have been reported, is geographically very widespread.

  13. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  14. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

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    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest

  15. Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens

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    Forsgren Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens, a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1% of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.

  16. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  17. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  18. Variabilidade genética e limite da seleção em populações de diferentes tipos de acasalamento Genetic variability and selection limit in populations of different mating designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Cunha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Populações de cinco diferentes tipos de acasalamento, submetidas à seleção baseada no melhor preditor linear não-viesado (BLUP, foram avaliadas quanto às perdas genéticas por fixação de alelos desfavoráveis e limite da seleção, durante 50 gerações. Foram utilizados dados simulados na obtenção do genoma dos indivíduos de todas as populações. Uma característica quantitativa de herdabilidade 0,10 foi estudada em populações de seleção, com a seguinte estrutura de dados: razão sexual de 10, 20, 25 e 50 e tamanho efetivo da população de 36,36, 19,05, 15,38, e 7,84, respectivamente. Para cada razão sexual, formaram-se populações correspondentes aos tipos de acasalamento efetuados entre os reprodutores, em todas as gerações: acasalamentos preferenciais entre meios-irmãos e irmãos completos, acasalamentos preferenciais entre meios-irmãos, acasalamentos ao acaso, exclusão de acasalamentos entre irmãos completos e exclusão de acasalamentos entre meios-irmãos e irmãos completos. Valores percentuais mais baixos para locos fixados desfavoravelmente e limite da seleção mais alto foram observados na menor razão sexual (d= 10, na qual houve também melhor distinção entre os tipos de acasalamento estudados.Populations of five different mating designs, submitted to selection based on best linear unbiased predicto (BLUPr, were evaluated regarding to genetic losses by fixation of unfavorable alleles and selection limit, during 50 generations. Simulated data were used to obtain the genome of all individuals of the populations. A quantitative trait with heritability of 0.10 was studied in the selected populations, with the following structure: sexual ratio of 10, 20, 25, and 50 and effective population size of 36.36, 19.05, 15.38 and 7.84, respectively. For each sexual ratio different populations were generated corresponding to the following mating designs: preferential matings between half and full sibs, preferential

  19. Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

  20. HLA similarities indicate shared genetic risk in 21-hydroxylase autoantibody positive South African and United States Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Babu, S; Armstrong, T; Zhang, L; Schatz, D; Pugliese, A; Eisenbarth, G; Baker Ii, P

    2014-10-01

    Genetic similarities between patients from the United States and South African (SA) Addison's Disease (AD) strengthen evidence for genetic association. SA-AD (n = 73), SA healthy controls (N = 78), and US-AD patients (N = 83) were genotyped for DQA1, DQB1, DRB1, and HLA-B alleles. Serum was tested for the quantity of 21OH-AA and IFNα-AA at the Barbara Davis Center. Although not as profound as in US-AD, in SA-AD 21OH-AA + subjects the predominantly associated risk haplotypes were DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 (DR3), DRB1*04xx-DQB1*0302 (DR4), and the combined DR3/4 genotype. DQB1*0302 associated DRB1*04xx haplotypes conferred higher risk than those DRB1*04xx haplotypes associated with other DQB1 alleles. We found negative association in 21OH-AA + SA-AD for DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 and DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501 vs SA controls, and positive association for DQA1*0401-DQB1*0402 vs US-AD. Apart from the class II DR3 haplotype, HLA-B8 did not have an independent effect; however together DR3 and HLA-B8 conferred the highest risk vs 21OH-AA negative SA-AD and SA-controls. HLA-B7 (often with DR4) conferred novel risk in 21OH-AA + SA-AD vs controls. This study represents the first comparison between South African and United States AD populations utilizing genotyping and serology performed at the same center. SA-AD and US-AD 21OH-AA + patients share common HLA risk haplotypes including DR4 (with HLA-B7) and DR3 (with HLA-B8), strengthening previously described HLA associations and implicating similar genetic etiology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Optimization of selection contribution and mate allocations in monoecious tree breeding populations

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    Waldmann Patrik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of optimized contribution dynamic selection and various mating schemes was investigated over seven generations for a typical tree breeding scenario. The allocation of mates was optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm for various object functions including random mating (RM, positive assortative mating (PAM and minimization of pair-wise coancestry between mates (MCM all combined with minimization of variance in family size and coancestry. The present study considered two levels of heritability (0.05 and 0.25, two restrictions on relatedness (group coancestry; 1 and 2% and two maximum permissible numbers of crosses in each generation (100 and 400. The infinitesimal genetic model was used to simulate the genetic architecture of the trait that was the subject of selection. A framework of the long term genetic contribution of ancestors was used to examine the impacts of the mating schemes on population parameters. Results MCM schemes produced on average, an increased rate of genetic gain in the breeding population, although the difference between schemes was small but significant after seven generations (up to 7.1% more than obtained with RM. In addition, MCM reduced the level of inbreeding by as much as 37% compared with RM, although the rate of inbreeding was similar after three generations of selection. PAM schemes yielded levels of genetic gain similar to those produced by RM, but the increase in the level of inbreeding was substantial (up to 43%. Conclusion The main reason why MCM schemes yielded higher genetic gains was the improvement in managing the long term genetic contribution of founders in the population; this was achieved by connecting unrelated families. In addition, the accumulation of inbreeding was reduced by MCM schemes since the variance in long term genetic contributions of founders was smaller than in the other schemes. Consequently, by combining an MCM scheme with an algorithm that

  2. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  3. Mate choice: from sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have successfully combined sexual selection theory and empirical research to compile lists of sexual attractiveness cues used in human mate choice. But a list of inputs is not the same as a normative or descriptive model of a psychological adaptation. We need to shift from cataloguing sexual cues to modelling cognitive adaptations for mate choice. This theoretical chapter addresses how to make this transition in three parts. The introduction discusses four general problems with cue cataloguing as an evolutionary psychology research strategy: animals' promiscuous flexibility of cue use; cue use being marginal to cognition; cue use being marginal to the hard game-theoretical aspects of mate choice; and cue use being uninformative about the exact adaptive functions of mate choice. The middle section develops six critiques of current mate choice research: the obsession with sex difference; the over-emphasis on physical rather than behavioural cues; the assumption of weighted linear models of cue integration; the avoidance of game-theoretical problems of mutual choice and assortative mating; the neglect of co-evolution between mate choice heuristics and the cues that they select; and the failure to understand that mate choice is only worth doing if potential mates show significant genetic variance. The conclusion outlines a new normative and descriptive framework for mate choice, centred on the use of brutally efficient search heuristics that exploit the informational structure of human genotypes, phenotypes and populations to make good mate choices.

  4. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  5. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D; Svensson, Erik I

    2013-03-05

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research.

  6. Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Lisa L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit, is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe, is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.

  7. MATLAB code to estimate landslide volume from single remote sensed image using genetic algorithm and imagery similarity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Shiuan; Yu, Teng-To; Lee, Shing-Tsz; Peng, Wen-Fei; Lin, Wei-Ling; Li, Pei-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Information regarding the scale of a hazard is crucial for the evaluation of its associated impact. Quantitative analysis of landslide volume immediately following the event can offer better understanding and control of contributory factors and their relative importance. Such information cannot be gathered for each landslide event, owing to limitations in obtaining useable raw data and the necessary procedures of each applied technology. Empirical rules are often used to predict volume change, but the resulting accuracy is very low. Traditional methods use photogrammetry or light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to produce a post-event digital terrain model (DTM). These methods are both costly and time-intensive. This study presents a technique to estimate terrain change volumes quickly and easily, not only reducing waiting time but also offering results with less than 25% error. A genetic algorithm (GA) programmed MATLAB is used to intelligently predict the elevation change for each pixel of an image. This deviation from the pre-event DTM becomes a candidate for the post-event DTM. Thus, each changed DTM is converted into a shadow relief image and compared with a single post-event remotely sensed image for similarity ranking. The candidates ranked in the top two thirds are retained as parent chromosomes to produce offspring in the next generation according to the rules of GAs. When the highest similarity index reaches 0.75, the DTM corresponding to that hillshade image is taken as the calculated post-event DTM. As an example, a pit with known volume is removed from a flat, inclined plane to demonstrate the theoretical capability of the code. The method is able to rapidly estimate the volume of terrain change within an error of 25%, without the delays involved in obtaining stereo image pairs, or the need for ground control points (GCPs) or professional photogrammetry software.

  8. Evolution of assortative mating in a population expressing dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan A Schneider

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the influence of dominance on the evolution of assortative mating. We perform a population-genetic analysis of a two-locus two-allele model. We consider a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection and density- and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The trait is determined by a single (ecological locus and expresses intermediate dominance. The second (modifier locus determines the degree of assortative mating, which is expressed in females only. Assortative mating is based on similarities in the quantitative trait ('magic trait' model. Analytical conditions for the invasion of assortment modifiers are derived in the limit of weak selection and weak assortment. For the full model, extensive numerical iterations are performed to study the global dynamics. This allows us to gain a better understanding of the interaction of the different selective forces. Remarkably, depending on the size of modifier effects, dominance can have different effects on the evolution of assortment. We show that dominance hinders the evolution of assortment if modifier effects are small, but promotes it if modifier effects are large. These findings differ from those in previous work based on adaptive dynamics.

  9. Female mate choice across mating stages and between sequential mates in flour beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, T Y; Lewis, S M

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined how female premating choice correlates with the outcome of copulatory and post-copulatory processes. It has been shown that polyandrous Tribolium castaneum females discriminate among males before mating based on olfactory cues, and also exert cryptic choice during mating through several mechanisms. This study tested whether a male's relative attractiveness predicted his insemination success during copulation. Bioassays with male olfactory cues were used to rank two males as more and less attractive to females; each female was then mated to either her more attractive male followed by less attractive male, or vice versa. Dissections immediately after second copulations revealed a significantly higher percent of successful inseminations for females that remated with more attractive males compared with those that remated with less attractive males. These results indicate that cryptic female choice during copulation reinforces precopulatory female choice in T. castaneum, and suggest that females could use cryptic choice to trade up to more attractive males, possibly gaining better phenotypic or genetic quality of sires.

  10. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile van Lieshout

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.

  11. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Interferon response following infection with genetically similar isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) exhibiting contrasting virulence in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S; McBeath, A; Secombes, C; Snow, M; Collet, B

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) were identified which are genetically similar yet, based on their isolation history were considered likely to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. An experimental infection study was performed in order to verify this hypothesis and provide an experimental infectivity model with which to investigate the basis for susceptibility of rainbow trout to this commercially important virus. Significant differences in mortality were obtained following both intraperitoneal (IP) injection and immersion challenges with an early marine (DK-M.Rhabdo) and early rainbow trout VHSV isolate (DK-F1) respectively. Expression of Type I IFN, Mx1 (an IFN-inducible protein), and viral genes (encoding nucleo-, phospho-, matrix, glyco- and non-viron proteins) was studied in sequential tissue samples using real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). Resulting data revealed a significant increase in IFN and Mx1 expression detected in fish challenged by IP injection with both isolates. Expression levels of these genes were directly related to the degree of viral replication as measured by the expression of VHSV RNAs. In immersion-challenged fish a significant increase in Mx1 was observed only when using the virulent isolate DK-F1; however no elevated host response was detectable in fish challenged with the marine isolate DK-M.Rhabdo. Quintessentially the inability to detect any virus in trout challenged with the marine isolate via immersion suggests the virus was incapable of establishing infection. The mechanisms for this appear to be more related to initial cellular entry and replication rather than due to the overcoming of initial infection via an elevated host innate immune response.

  13. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

  14. The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, D.A. van de; Wensing, A.M.J.; Angarano, G.; Asjo, B.; Balotta, C.; Camacho, R.; Chaix, M.; Costagliola, D.; De Luca, A.; Derdelinckx, I.; Grossman, Z.; Hamouda, O.; Hatzakis, A.; Hemmer, R.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Horban, A.; Korn, K.; Kücherer, C.; Leitner, T.; Loveday, C.; MacRae, E.; Maljkovic, I.; Mendoza, C. de; Meyer, L.; Nielsen, C.; Op de Coul, E.L.M.; Omaasen, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Perrin, L.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Salminen, M.; Schmit, J.; Scheider, F.; Schuurman, R.; Soriano, V.; Stanczak, G.; Stanojevic, M.; Vandamme, A.; Laethem, K. van; Violin, M.; Wilde, K.; Yerly, S.; Zazzi, M.; Boucher, C.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic barrier, defined as the number of mutations required to overcome drug-selective pressure, is an important factor for the development of HIV drug resistance. Because of high variability between subtypes, particular HIV-1 subtypes could have different genetic barriers for drug resistance s

  15. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  16. Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

  17. Transcription factors Mat2 and Znf2 operate cellular circuits orchestrating opposite- and same-sex mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae during opposite sex (mating and unisexual reproduction (same-sex mating. Opposite- and same-sex mating are induced by similar environmental conditions and involve many shared components, including the conserved pheromone sensing Cpk1 MAPK signal transduction cascade that governs the dimorphic switch in C. neoformans. However, the homeodomain cell identity proteins Sxi1alpha/Sxi2a encoded by the mating type locus that are essential for completion of sexual reproduction following cell-cell fusion during opposite-sex mating are dispensable for same-sex mating. Therefore, identification of downstream targets of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway holds the key to understanding molecular mechanisms governing the two distinct developmental fates. Thus far, homology-based approaches failed to identify downstream transcription factors which may therefore be species-specific. Here, we applied insertional mutagenesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transcription analysis using whole genome microarrays to identify factors involved in C. neoformans differentiation. Two transcription factors, Mat2 and Znf2, were identified as key regulators of hyphal growth during same- and opposite-sex mating. Mat2 is an HMG domain factor, and Znf2 is a zinc finger protein; neither is encoded by the mating type locus. Genetic, phenotypic, and transcriptional analyses of Mat2 and Znf2 provide evidence that Mat2 is a downstream transcription factor of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway whereas Znf2 functions as a more terminal hyphal morphogenesis determinant. Although the components of the MAPK pathway including Mat2 are not required for virulence in animal models, Znf2, as a hyphal morphology determinant, is a negative regulator of virulence. Further characterization of these elements and their target circuits will reveal genes controlling biological

  18. Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum%观光木片断化居群的遗传多样性和交配系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 王静; 蒋敬虎; 康明

    2012-01-01

    观光木(Tsoongiodendron odorum)是我国特有的濒危植物,有居群较小、间断分布的特点.为探讨生境片断化对观光木居群的遗传多样性和交配系统的影响,我们采用8对微卫星引物对采自广东南昆山的观光木片断化居群的61个成株和15个家系共780个种子进行了基因分型,调查了5个空间隔离的斑块中观光木的两代遗传多样性以及各个层次(居群、斑块及个体)的交配系统参数.结果显示:片断化生境中观光木成株遗传多样性水平适中(HE=0.522),种子遗传多样性比成株稍低(HE=0.499),但没有显著的差异,近交系数在种子中也没有显著的升高,暗示生境片断化并没有侵蚀观光木的遗传多样性;多位点交配系统分析(MLTR)结果表明,该片断化生境中观光木为高度异交树种(tm=1.000),只有较少的双亲近交(biparental inbreeding)和相关性交配(correlated mating)事件发生,但有效花粉供体(effective pollen donor)数目较少(Nep为3.7-5.4);5个斑块间异交率差异不明显,但小的斑块有效花粉供体相对较多;另外,观光木个体之间的异交率存在明显差异,少数个体存在自交现象.这些结果为濒危物种观光木的长期保护提供了重要的遗传学信息.%Habitat fragmentation is one of the most serious threats to plant diversity. In general, fragmentation negatively impacts the genetic variability of plant populations due to increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reductions in gene flow. To investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and the mating system of Tsoongiodendron odorum, in this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and the mating system in hierarchical levels at the population, stands, and the individual scales in a fragmented T. odorum population. We sampled and mapped 61 adult individuals from the population. Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped a total of 780 seeds from 15 maternal trees for the

  19. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  20. The role of personality and intelligence in assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorial, Sergio; Martin-Buro, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Assortative mating is the individuals' tendency to mate with those who are similar to them in some variables, at a higher rate than would be expected from random. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of assortative mating through the Big Five model of personality and two measures of intelligence using Spanish samples. The sample consisted of 244 Spanish couples. It was divided into two groups according to relationship time. The effect of age, educational level and socioeconomic status was controlled. The results showed strong assortative mating for intelligence and moderate for personality. The strongest correlations for Personality were found in Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

  1. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  2. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia blight (sensu lato) is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, R. solani, consists of several genetically different subpopulations. Though hyphal anastomosis reactions have been used to group Rhizoctonia species, they are time consuming a...

  3. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880 Genetic similarity among four species of Plectranthus genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.Medicinal plants are widely used by the population, therefore they are important sources of natural chemical products. Plectranthus includes species related as “boldo” that have anti-dyspeptics, analgesic and stimulants of digestion properties. Related species or genotypes can differ widely in the amount of natural active principles, in such case the lack of genetic fitness can lead to the use of not appropriate plants to the population health. Molecular techniques can be used for DNA-fingerprinting of plants providing its correct identification. This work aimed at verifying the genetic diversity among four species of Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P

  4. Influence of parental sample sizes on the estimating genetic parameters in cultured clamMeretrix meretrix based on factorial mating designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bingbing; YUE Xin; WANG Hongxia; LIU Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The precise and accurate knowledge of genetic parameters is a prerequisite for making efficient selection strategies in breeding programs. A number of estimators of heritability about important economic traits in many marine mollusks are available in the literature, however very few research have evaluated about the accuracy of genetic parameters estimated with different family structures. Thus, in the present study, the effect of parent sample size for estimating the precision of genetic parameters of four growth traits in clamM. meretrix by factorial designs were analyzed through restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Bayesian. The results showed that the average estimated heritabilities of growth traits obtained from REML were 0.23–0.32 for 9 and 16 full-sib families and 0.19–0.22 for 25 full-sib families. When using Bayesian inference, the average estimated heritabilities were 0.11–0.12 for 9 and 16 full-sib families and 0.13–0.16 for 25 full-sib families. Compared with REML, Bayesian got lower heritabilities, but still remained at a medium level. When the number of parents increased from 6 to 10, the estimated heritabilities were more closed to 0.20 in REML and 0.12 in Bayesian inference. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and high and had no significant difference between different sizes of designs. The accuracies of estimated breeding values from the 9 and 16 families were less precise than those from 25 families. Our results provide a basic genetic evaluation for growth traits and should be useful for the design and operation of a practical selective breeding program in the clamM. meretrix.

  5. Plant Resistance to Virus Diseases through Genetic Engineering: Can a Similar Approach Control Plant-parasitic Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...

  6. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  7. Similar patterns of mitochondrial vulnerability and rescue induced by genetic modification of alpha-synuclein, parkin, and DJ-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Rina; Saha, Shamol; Westlund, Beth; Perier, Celine; Burnam, Lucinda; Sluder, Anne; Hoener, Marius; Rodrigues, Cecilia M P; Alfonso, Aixa; Steer, Clifford; Liu, Leo; Przedborski, Serge; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2005-12-30

    How genetic and environmental factors interact in Parkinson disease is poorly understood. We have now compared the patterns of vulnerability and rescue of Caenorhabditis elegans with genetic modifications of three different genetic factors implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). We observed that expressing alpha-synuclein, deleting parkin (K08E3.7), or knocking down DJ-1 (B0432.2) or parkin produces similar patterns of pharmacological vulnerability and rescue. C. elegans lines with these genetic changes were more vulnerable than nontransgenic nematodes to mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, including rotenone, fenperoximate, pyridaben, or stigmatellin. In contrast, the genetic manipulations did not increase sensitivity to paraquat, sodium azide, divalent metal ions (Fe(II) or Cu(II)), or etoposide compared with the nontransgenic nematodes. Each of the PD-related lines was also partially rescued by the antioxidant probucol, the mitochondrial complex II activator, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, or the anti-apoptotic bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Complete protection in all lines was achieved by combining d-beta-hydroxybutyrate with tauroursodeoxycholic acid but not with probucol. These results show that diverse PD-related genetic modifications disrupt the mitochondrial function in C. elegans, and they raise the possibility that mitochondrial disruption is a pathway shared in common by many types of familial PD.

  8. Negative public information in mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro; Matos, Margarida; Varela, Susana A M

    2014-11-01

    Numerous field and laboratory experiments have shown that many species have the capacity for social learning, including mate choice decisions that can be influenced by witnessing the mating decisions of others. Here we develop a numerical model of mate choice copying that follows the population genetics tradition, consisting in tracking allele frequencies in a population over time under various scenarios. In contrast to previous evolutionary models, we consider both positive social information and negative social information because many mating systems are driven by males in pursuit of a mate and female refusal of copulation may provide negative social information. The inclusion of negative social information to mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait, even if female innate mate choice preference is biased toward the common male type. We argue that the presence or absence of copying might simply mirror the associated cost-benefit relationship of the mating system of a given species and suggest how to test this prediction.

  9. Genetic similarity of polyploids - A new version of the computer program POPDIST (ver. 1.2.0) considers intraspecific genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomiuk, Jürgen; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    For evolutionary studies of polyploid species estimates of the genetic identity between species with different degrees of ploidy are particularly required because gene counting in samples of polyploid individuals often cannot be done, e.g., in triploids the phenotype AB can be genotypically eithe...

  10. Mating for variety increases foraging activity in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Hines, Jessica; Parker, Dara G; Cole, Blaine J

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating by females characterizes most insect species, but is relatively uncommon in social insects. Females may mate with multiple mates because they experience the direct benefits of increased survival or fecundity, to acquire high quality mates, or to lower the risk of reduced fecundity by mating with incompatible males. We used the extensive natural variation in mating frequency in the western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, to test the hypothesis that increased mating by the queen leads to an increase in colony performance. Colonies with greater genetic diversity began to forage earlier in the day and foraged for longer time periods. The workers which initiated foraging were a nonrandom subset of the genotypes present in the colony. We used a statistical approach to correctly predict the direction and magnitude of the correlation between genetic diversity and colony foraging activity.

  11. Non-random mate choice in humans: insights from a genome scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, R; Toupance, B; Chaix, R

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors influencing mate choice in humans. Still, there is evidence for non-random mate choice with respect to physical traits. In addition, some studies suggest that the Major Histocompatibility Complex may affect pair formation. Nowadays, the availability of high density genomic data sets gives the opportunity to scan the genome for signatures of non-random mate choice without prior assumptions on which genes may be involved, while taking into account socio-demographic factors. Here, we performed a genome scan to detect extreme patterns of similarity or dissimilarity among spouses throughout the genome in three populations of African, European American, and Mexican origins from the HapMap 3 database. Our analyses identified genes and biological functions that may affect pair formation in humans, including genes involved in skin appearance, morphogenesis, immunity and behaviour. We found little overlap between the three populations, suggesting that the biological functions potentially influencing mate choice are population specific, in other words are culturally driven. Moreover, whenever the same functional category of genes showed a significant signal in two populations, different genes were actually involved, which suggests the possibility of evolutionary convergences.

  12. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  13. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  14. Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  15. Male mating history and body size influence female fecundity and longevity of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Harrington, Laura C

    2011-03-01

    Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity, and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by >50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison with females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were third-fifth in mating sequence compared with females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared with females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute toward a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts.

  16. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes.

  17. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genner, M J; Young, K A; Haesler, M P; Joyce, D A

    2008-09-01

    Sexual selection arising through female mate choice typically favours males with larger, brighter and louder signals. A critical challenge in sexual selection research is to determine the degree to which this pattern results from direct mate choice, where females select individual males based on variation in signalling traits, or indirect mate choice, where male competition governs access to reproductively active females. We investigated female mate choice in a lekking Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus, in which males build and aggressively defend sand 'bowers'. Similar to previous studies, we found that male reproductive success was positively associated with bower height and centrality on the lek. However, this pattern resulted from males holding these territories encountering more females, and thus their greater success was due to indirect mate choice. Following initial male courtship, an increase in the relative mating success of some males was observed, but this relative increase was unrelated to bower size or position. Crucially, experimentally manipulating bowers to resemble those of a co-occurring species had no appreciable effect on direct choice by females or male spawning success. Together, these results suggest indirect mate choice is the dominant force determining male-mating success in this species, and that bowers are not signals used in direct mate choice by females. We propose that, in this species, bowers have a primary function in intraspecific male competition, with the most competitive males maintaining larger and more central bowers that are favoured by sexual selection due to higher female encounter rates.

  18. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  19. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Petrova; S. N. Goroshkevich; Y.S. Belokon; D.V. Politov

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin) by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca...

  20. Open-nucleus breeding strategies compared with population-wide positive assortative mating: I. Equal distribution of testing efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lstibůrek, M; Mullin, T J; Lindgren, D; Rosvall, O

    2004-10-01

    Positive assortative mating (PAM) can enhance the additive genetic variance in a breeding population(BP). This increases the potential for gains in the production population (PP, selected subset of the BP) for recurrent selection programs in forest trees. The assortment of mates can be either: (1) by individual tree rank across the whole BP (PAM), or (2) trees of similar rank can be merged into larger hierarchical groups and then mated randomly within group ("open"-nucleus breeding,NB). The objective of this study was to compare PAM and NB in quantitative terms. The NB simulation model assumed two tiers (nucleus, main) with unrestricted migration between the tiers. Clonal tests were used to predict breeding values and test resources per mate were kept constant for all mates. Both gain and diversity were combined into a single selection criterion, "group-merit selection." Alternatives were compared over five breeding cycles by considering genetic gain and diversity in a selected PP established in a seed orchard. The assortment of mates in both alternatives enhanced additive variance and increased the additive effect in the BP, leading to additional gain in the PP. Gains generated under PAM always exceeded gains under NB. Thus, the main message from this study is that PAM in both the short- and long-term results in more gain at any target level of diversity in the PP (the breeder's target) than is achieved by the NB alternative. The optimum size of the nucleus varies with the desired level of seed orchard diversity. At lower target diversity, smaller nucleus sizes are favorable, while larger sizes result in more gain when seed orchard diversity is considered more important.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    Full Text Available Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  3. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  5. Female mate choice across spatial scales: influence of lek and male attributes on mating success of blue-crowned manakins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Renata; Loiselle, Bette A; Parker, Patricia G; Blake, John G

    2009-05-22

    Lekking males compete for females within and among leks, yet female choice is expected to work differently at each of these spatial scales. We used paternity analyses to examine how lek versus male attributes influence mate choice in the blue-crowned manakin Lepidothrix coronata. We tested the hypotheses that females prefer (i) to mate at larger leks where a larger number of potential mates can be assessed, (ii) to mate with unrelated or highly heterozygous males expected to produce high-quality offspring, (iii) to mate with males that display at higher rates, and that (iv) display honestly reflects male genetic quality. Our results show that (i) males at larger leks are not more likely to sire young, although females nesting close to small leks travel further to reach larger leks, (ii) siring males are not less related to females or more heterozygous than expected, (iii) within a lek, high-display males are more likely to sire young, and (iv) both male heterozygosity and display rate increased with lek size, and as a result display does not reliably reflect male genetic quality across leks. We suggest that female mate choice in this species is probably driven by a Fisherian process rather than adaptive genetic benefits.

  6. Newcastle Disease Viruses Causing Recent Outbreaks Worldwide Show Unexpectedly High Genetic Similarity to Historical Virulent Isolates from the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Lee, Dong-Hun; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Olivier, Timothy L; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-05-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII through XVIII. Here, partial and complete genomic sequences of recent virulent isolates of genotypes II and IX from China, Egypt, and India were found to be nearly identical to those of historical viruses isolated in the 1940s. Phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide distances, and rates of change demonstrate that these recent isolates have not evolved significantly from the most closely related ancestors from the 1940s. The low rates of change for these virulent viruses (7.05 × 10(-5) and 2.05 × 10(-5) per year, respectively) and the minimal genetic distances existing between these and historical viruses (0.3 to 1.2%) of the same genotypes indicate an unnatural origin. As with any other RNA virus, Newcastle disease virus is expected to evolve naturally; thus, these findings suggest that some recent field isolates should be excluded from evolutionary studies. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses show that these recent virulent isolates are more closely related to virulent strains isolated during the 1940s, which have been and continue to be used in laboratory and experimental challenge studies. Since the preservation of viable viruses in the environment for over 6 decades is highly unlikely, it is possible that the source of some of the recent virulent viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds might be laboratory viruses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  8. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  9. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  10. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila(Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P.sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3,Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analysis.Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees.This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  11. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  12. High similarity of Trypanosoma cruzi kDNA genetic profiles detected by LSSP-PCR within family groups in an endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alkmim-Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Determining the genetic similarities among Trypanosoma cruzi populations isolated from different hosts and vectors is very important to clarify the epidemiology of Chagas disease. Methods An epidemiological study was conducted in a Brazilian endemic area for Chagas disease, including 76 chronic chagasic individuals (96.1% with an indeterminate form; 46.1% with positive hemoculture. Results T. cruzi I (TcI was isolated from one child and TcII was found in the remaining (97.1% subjects. Low-stringency single-specific-primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR showed high heterogeneity among TcII populations (46% of shared bands; however, high similarities (80-100% among pairs of mothers/children, siblings, or cousins were detected. Conclusions LSSP-PCR showed potential for identifying similar parasite populations among individuals with close kinship in epidemiological studies of Chagas disease.

  13. Employing mated females as recipients for transfer of cloned dog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-transferring parthenogenetic embryos could improve the pregnancy success rate with cloned embryos in mammals. As an alternative to co-transferring parthenotes, in dogs we employed recipient females that possessed in vivo-fertilised embryos as a result of mating to determine whether mated bitches could be suitable recipients for cloned embryos. The effect of using mated recipients on implantation and pregnancy rates of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos was also determined. Cloned embryos were transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous females that had mated with male dogs before ovulation. The pregnancy rate appeared to be similar between mated recipients (50%) and non-mated recipients (28.57%; P>0.05). However, the delivery rate of cloned pups was significantly higher in mated recipients than non-mated recipients (10.53 vs 2.38%; Pdogs can be used as recipients for cloned embryos.

  14. Mating success follows duet dancing in the Java sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Midori

    2017-01-01

    Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing. However, both males and females perform courtship dances, often in a duet-like manner. These dances are typically terminated by female copulation solicitation displays (CSDs). In the current study, we observed higher mating success when courtship dances were mutually exchanged, and when males sang. However, the sex initiating the courtship did not affect mating success. Most females produced CSDs after duet dancing but before hearing the entire song, indicating that duet dancing played a crucial role in mating. This finding highlights an unexplored aspect of duetting behaviour in the process of mutual mate choice. These results conflict with the majority of past songbird research, which has interpreted songs as primary behavioural sexual signals. PMID:28273111

  15. Recombination hotspots flank the Cryptococcus mating-type locus: implications for the evolution of a fungal sex chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Hsueh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination increases dramatically during meiosis to promote genetic exchange and generate recombinant progeny. Interestingly, meiotic recombination is unevenly distributed throughout genomes, and, as a consequence, genetic and physical map distances do not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination hotspots and coldspots have been described in many organisms and often reflect global features of chromosome structure. In particular, recombination frequencies are often distorted within or outside sex-determining regions of the genome. Here, we report that recombination is elevated adjacent to the mating-type locus (MAT in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Among fungi, C. neoformans has an unusually large MAT locus, and recombination is suppressed between the two >100-kilobase mating-type specific alleles. When genetic markers were introduced at defined physical distances from MAT, we found the meiotic recombination frequency to be approximately 20% between MAT and a flanking marker at 5, 10, 50, or 100 kilobases from the right border. As a result, the physical/genetic map ratio in the regions adjacent to MAT is distorted approximately 10- to 50-fold compared to the genome-wide average. Moreover, recombination frequently occurred on both sides of MAT and negative interference between crossovers was observed. MAT heterozygosity was not required for enhanced recombination, implying that this process is not due to a physical distortion from the two non-paired alleles and could also occur during same-sex mating. Sequence analysis revealed a correlation between high G + C content and these hotspot regions. We hypothesize that the presence of recombinational activators may have driven several key events during the assembly and reshaping of the MAT locus and may have played similar roles in the origins of both metabolic and biosynthetic gene clusters. Our findings suggest that during meiosis the MAT locus may be exchanged onto

  16. Genetically similar strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from sheep, cattle and human patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderlund Robert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively little is known about the prevalence or the molecular characteristics of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in the sheep reservoir. To investigate this and determine the host specificity of subclones of the bacterium, we have conducted a slaughterhouse prevalence study in sheep and compared the collected isolates to O157:H7 previously isolated from cattle and human patients. Results Verotoxin-producing O157:H7 was found in 11/597 (1.8% of samples from sheep in Swedish slaughterhouses, 9/492 faecal (1.8% and 2/105 ear samples (1.9%. All positive sheep were eaeA, hlyA, cdtV-B, vtx1, and partial sequencing of vtx2. The observed profiles were similar to those of cattle strains investigated previously. Conclusions The same pathogenic subtypes of VTEC O157:H7, including the highly virulent clade 8, appear to be present in both sheep and cattle in Sweden, suggesting strains can circulate freely between ruminant reservoirs.

  17. Mating success of two geographically distinct populations of Gulf Coast ticks, Amblyomma maculatum Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, H R; Teel, P D; Strey, O F; Longnecker, M T

    2006-08-31

    Gulf Coast ticks collected from Refugio Co., TX and Osage Co., KS are reproductively compatible despite differences in genetic haplotypes, geographic separation and seasonal phenologies. Two heifers per mating combination (TX males x TX females, KS males x KS females, TX males x KS females, KS males x TX females) were each infested with 360 pairs of Gulf Coast ticks. Only mean pre-oviposition and mean egg conversion efficiency index for the Texas male-Kansas female mating were significantly different (p<0.05) from other mating treatments. These females began oviposition 1-day later and used 4% less body mass toward egg production when compared to site-specific matings. However, the overall trend in reproductive performance of reciprocal tick matings was slightly lower than that of site-specific matings. There appear to be no pre-zygotic barriers to mating among Gulf Coast ticks from these Texas and Kansas populations.

  18. 杂种优势的进化意义探析——以适合度对随机交配群体遗传多样性的贡献为依据%Analysis of the Evolutionary Significance of Heterosis——taking the contribution of fitness to the genetic diversity in random mating population as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大林; 陈奇; 林建国; 蔡润

    2009-01-01

    Upon the analogy of definition of heterosis and inbreeding depresstion in terms of population genetics, the heterosis is thought to be evaluated overall with fitness. By establishing a mathematical model, the equilibrium status of three genotypes of random mating population (i.e. RR, Rr and rr) under different fitness, which exposes that heterosis is the precondition for multiallele to exist in the population. The heterosis protects the genetic diversity and makes the population owning a stronger self-control and evolution making the individual fitness consonant with population fitness.

  19. Restrictive mating by females on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebigre, C; Alatalo, R V; Siitari, H; Parri, S

    2007-10-01

    In bird species with pair bonds, extra-pair matings could allow females to choose genetically superior males. This is not needed in lekking species because female choice is not constrained by pairing opportunities. However, polyandry has been reported in most lekking species studied so far. Using 12 microsatellite loci, we determined the paternity of 135 broods of black grouse sampled between 2001 and 2005 (970 hatchlings and 811 adult birds genotyped). The paternity assignments were combined to lek observations to investigate the mating behaviour of black grouse females. About 10% of the matings seemed to take place with males displaying solitarily. Forty per cent of the copulations between males displaying on the studied leks and radio-tagged females were not recorded. This was due to difficulties in identifying the females and because our observations did not cover all the possible time for matings. However, females of the undetected copulations had chosen males that were already known to be successful on the leks. There was a strong consistency between the observations and true paternity, even when the copulation was disturbed by a neighbouring male. Multiple mating and multiple paternities were rare. We can now confidently ascertain that most females mate only once with one male for the whole clutch. This mating behaviour requires that a single insemination is sufficient to fertilize a clutch and that females can determine whether the sperm has been successfully transferred. Grouse Tetraoninae with many lekking species may be the only bird taxon that has evolved these traits.

  20. IMPROVED GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED ON INDIVIDUAL SIMILARITY EVALUATION STRATEGY%基于个体相似性评价策略的改进遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤可宗; 张彤; 罗立民

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithm is a method of searching the optimal solution by simulating natural evolutionary process.But it always requires longer computation time for the best solution in solving process.This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm,it is based on individual similarity evaluation strategy.In it a new rotation crossover operator is incorporated.The fitness value of each individual is assigned according to its similarity and reliability with its parents.The real fitness of individual is only evaluated when the reliability value is below a threshold.Experimental results show that the fitness values of individual derived from similarity evaluation strategy are close to the actual ones,and the number of evaluations required for seeking the optimal solution by the improved genetic algorithm is significantly less than that of traditional genetic algorithm.Additionally,the data on test criterion show that the performance of the proposed algorithm and the optimal solution derived from it are relatively better than the traditional genetic algorithm as well.%遗传算法是一种通过模拟自然进化过程搜索最优解的方法。但这种算法在求解最优解过程中总是以计算时间为代价来换得最优解的产生。对此,提出一种基于个体相似`性评价策略的改进遗传算法,融入了一种新的旋转交叉算子,每个子个体根据其与父个体的相似度和可信度来确定个体的适应度值,仅当可信度值低于某个阈值时,个体才做真实的适应度计算。实验结果显示,相似性评价策略计算得到的个体适应度值接近真实的适应度值,并且改进的算法求得最优解需要的评价次数明显要少于传统遗传算法,而在测试准测上的数据表明:提出的改进遗传算法相对于传统遗传算法,性能较好且求得的最优解也较为理想。

  1. 牙鲆连续两代减数分裂雌核发育家系的遗传特征%Analysis of homozygosity and genetic similarity between two successive generations in a meiogynogenetic Japanese flounder family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂兴; 刘海金; 张晓彦; 刘永新; 王玉芬; 蒋丽

    2012-01-01

    The artificial induction of gynogenesis is a form of chromosome manipulation that has several applications, including the rapid establishment of inbred lines or strains. The technique offers a high degree of homozygosity, sex-control, and accelerated elimination of recessive deleterious genes from a cultured population. We produced two meiotic gynogenetic Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) family lines: meio-Gl (the first generation) and meio-G2 (the second generation). We evaluated the efficacy of artificial meiotic gynogenesis for producing pure inbred lines by quantifying the homozygosity and genetic similarity of meio-Gl and meio-G2 using microsatellite markers The average homozygosity among 15 loci was 0.124 7 for meio-Gl and 0.221 5 for meio-G2, which was higher than that in the natural mating family (0.091 7). The average similarity indices among individuals within meio-Gl and meio-G2 were 0.891 7 and 0.923 8, which were higher than within the natural mating family (0.5603). The average similarity in meio-G2 was slightly higher than in meio-Gl. The observed heterozygosity in meio-Gl and meio-G2 was 1 at the Poli9-8tuf, Polil8tuf, Polil07tuf loci, all of which were located at some distance from the centromere (i.e., had high recombination frequencies). The loci {PoliHtuf, Poli24MHFS) closest to the centromere (i.e., with a low recombination frequency) were homozygous in meio-Gl and meio-G2. Our results suggest that artificially induced meiotic gynogenesis is an efficient method for inbreeding to purify the genome, increase genetic similarity, and fix maternal genetic traits in the Japanese flounder. The meiogynogenetic families cultured in our study may be used in further selective breeding research.%对牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)减数分裂雌核发育二倍体(Meio-G1)再次诱导减数分裂雌核发育,获得连续两代雌核发育二倍体家系(Meio-G2),以Meio-G1亲本与1尾普通牙鲆雄鱼人工授精获得的

  2. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Genetic similarity between coriander genotypes using ISSR markers Similaridade genética entre genótipos de coentro por marcadores ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de A Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new cultivars, a precise genetic characterization is essential for improvement programs or for cultivar registration and protection. Molecular markers have been complementing the traditional morphological and agronomic characterization techniques because they are virtually unlimited, cover the whole genome and are not environmentally influenced. Genetic characterization constitutes the basis for studies involving estimates of genetic similarity. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic similarity between ten coriander genotypes (nine cultivars and one line using ISSR markers. The cultivars used were: Americano, Asteca, Palmeira, Português, Santo, Supéria, Tabocas, Tapacurá, Verdão and the experimental line HTV-9299. The genetic similarity between the cultivars was estimated using 227 banded regions of ISSR molecular markers. The UBC 897 oligonucleotide generated the highest number of fragments (16, resulting in a higher polymorphism. The results indicate that the twenty-nine oligonucleotides chosen were satisfactory for detecting polymorphism. Based on the grouping analysis determined from the similarity data, there were two groups and two sub-groups. The calculated similarity for the genotypes varied from 52 to 75%. The lowest similarity was observed between Português and Verdão, at 52%. The highest similarity was found between Português and Palmeira, at 75%. The ISSR is efficient for identifying DNA polymorphism in coriander.Com o surgimento de novas cultivares, uma caracterização genética precisa é essencial, visando à utilização em programas de melhoramento ou para fins de registros e ou proteção de cultivares. Marcadores moleculares vêm complementando a caracterização morfológica e agronômica tradicional, uma vez que são virtualmente ilimitados, cobrem todo o genoma e não são influenciados pelo ambiente. A caracterização genética constitui a base para

  4. SynchroMate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M

    2005-01-01

    – that are less concerned with capturing and communicating information and more about the establishment and maintenance of social connection. Drawing on insights and inspiration gleaned from a recent field-based study of the role of interactive technologies within intimate relationships we outline our preliminary...... ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  5. What uses are mating types? The "developmental switch" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-04-01

    Why mating types exist at all is subject to much debate. Among hypotheses, mating types evolved to control organelle transmission during sexual reproduction, or to prevent inbreeding or same-clone mating. Here I review data from a diversity of taxa (including ciliates, algae, slime molds, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes) to show that the structure and function of mating types run counter the above hypotheses. I argue instead for a key role in triggering developmental switches. Genomes must fulfill a diversity of alternative programs along the sexual cycle. As a haploid gametophyte, an individual may grow vegetatively (through haploid mitoses), or initiate gametogenesis and mating. As a diploid sporophyte, similarly, it may grow vegetatively (through diploid mitoses) or initiate meiosis and sporulation. Only diploid sporophytes (and not haploid gametophytes) should switch on the meiotic program. Similarly, only haploid gametophytes (not sporophytes) should switch on gametogenesis and mating. And they should only do so when other gametophytes are ready to do the same in the neighborhood. As argued here, mating types have evolved primarily to switch on the right program at the right moment. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  8. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined...... (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs). These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females...

  9. Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Li-Wen Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about prospective mates is typically acquired in a sequential and cumulative fashion. The aim of this study was to examine whether a reject-the-worst strategy is more efficient than an accept-the-best strategy for women in response to serial information and to identify the point at which a woman will terminate her assessment of a prospective mate’s attributes. A pilot survey was conducted to determine the chronological order in which attribute information typically becomes available during the early stages of a relationship. Using this order of presentation, attributes were presented to participants one at a time. After participants specified their minimum acceptable percentile level for each attribute, they were given numerical feedback about the extent to which the prospect exceeded or failed to meet their standard. Participants were randomly assigned to either the accept-the-best condition (accept a date or request more information or the reject-the-worst condition (reject a date or request more information. Participants in the reject-the-worst condition requested more trait information before making a decision than those in the accept-the-best condition. This suggests that the costs of a false-negative error exceed those of a false-positive error and that in actively accepting a mate, women satisfice rather than optimize.

  10. i-mate6150

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,i-mate Ultimate6150正式在香港开卖。作为i-mate Ultimate系列中唯一一款没有配备物理键盘的产品,当然也就成为了Ultimate系列四款机型中最具个性的产品。这款机型,从它黑色轮廓分明的外观也可以看出浓厚的商务氛围。Ultimate6150的键盘处设计很有特点,导航摇杆并没有像一般手机一样处于正中位置,而是偏右一些的不对称设计,这样的设计并没有影响操作的便利性,反而用左手托起手机背部,

  11. Variation in mating systems of salamanders: mate guarding or territoriality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Alcorn, Michael A; Graham, Sean P

    2014-07-01

    Two of the most common mating tactics in vertebrates are mate guarding and territoriality, yet much of the research on these strategies has focused on mating systems in birds, despite novel insights gained from studying less traditional systems. North American stream salamanders that comprise the Eurycea bislineata complex represent an excellent nontraditional system for comparing mating strategies because these species exhibit a continuum of male morphologies, diverse habitat associations, and various potential mating strategies. We studied two species within this complex that exhibit the extremes of this continuum, Eurycea aquatica (robust morph) and Eurycea cirrigera (slender morph). The larger head in males of E. aquatica is due to larger musculature around the jaw and may be associated with aggressive behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that the robust morphology exhibited by males of E. aquatica provides benefits during either territorial defense or mate defense and that males of E. cirrigera would not exhibit aggression in either scenario. We found that neither species exhibited aggressive behavior to defend a territory. However, in the presence of a female, males of E. aquatica were significantly more aggressive toward intruding males than were males of E. cirrigera. Therefore, mate-guarding behavior occurs in E. aquatica, and the enlarged head of males likely aids in deterring rivals. This is the first demonstration of mate-guarding behavior in a plethodontid, the most speciose family of salamanders.

  12. Mate guarding and parental influence on mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the degree to which parents control the mate choice of their children may explain differences in mate guarding across and within cultures was tested. Study 1, in a sample of 80 students from 30 different countries studying in The Netherlands, showed that the perceived level of pa

  13. Sexual imprinting in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Gyuris, Petra; Weisfeld, Glenn E

    2004-06-07

    Animal and human studies have shown that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity, a tendency referred to as homogamy. Several authors have suggested that a specific innate recognition mechanism, phenotypic matching, allows the organism to detect similar others by their resemblance to itself. However, several objections have been raised to this theory on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Here, we report that homogamy in humans is attained partly by sexual imprinting on the opposite-sex parent during childhood. We hypothesized that children fashion a mental model of their opposite-sex parent's phenotype that is used as a template for acquiring mates. To disentangle the effects of phenotypic matching and sexual imprinting, adopted daughters and their rearing families were examined. Judges found significant resemblance on facial traits between daughter's husband and her adoptive father. Furthermore, this effect may be modified by the quality of the father-daughter relationship during childhood. Daughters who received more emotional support from their adoptive father were more likely to choose mates similar to the father than those whose father provided a less positive emotional atmosphere.

  14. 植物交配系统的进化、资源分配对策与遗传多样性%MATING SYSTEM EVOLUTION, RESOURCE ALLOCATION, AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大勇; 姜新华

    2001-01-01

    of those advantages can be expressed. Pollen discounti ng reduces a selfers' success as an outcross pollen parent, i.e. lowering au tomatic selection advantage, and inbreeding depression is expected to reduce any advantage selfers might gain through reproductive assurance or automatic selection. Changes in a species' mating system are likely to induce evolutionary adjus tments in its resource allocation. Theory predicts that sex allocation, or the proportion of reproductive resources allocated to male function in hermaphroditic plants, decreases as the selfing rate increases, and that total reproductive al location increases with increased selfing if inbreeding depression is not so sev ere as to prevent the evolution of self-fertilization. In some extreme conditio ns, increased selfing may lead to severe change in life history, i.e. from peren niality to annuality. Sex allocation theory provides a general explanation for diversity in breeding systems, in particular, it explains why most flowering plan ts are hermaphroditic. While empirical evidence is abundant that supports the ex pected decrease in sex allocation as selfing rate increases, there has been no demonstration of the expected correlation between mating system and total reprodu ctive effort. Selfing tends both to reduce the level of genetic variability with in populations and to increase the amount of genetic differentiation among popul ations. A longtime conjecture that selfers may give up some long-term evolution ary flexibility has now been partially confirmed.

  15. Mate Choice Copying in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynforth, D

    2007-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial costs associated with directly searching for information about potential males by mate choice copying. The present study was a test of whether women perceived men to be more attractive when men were presented with a female date or consort than when they were presented alone, and whether the physical attractiveness of the female consort affected women's copying decisions. The results suggested that women's mate choice decision rule is to copy only if a man's female consort is physically attractive. Further analyses implied that copying may be a conditional female mating tactic aimed at solving the problem of informational constraints on assessing male suitability for long-term sexual relationships, and that lack of mate choice experience, measured as reported lifetime number of sex partners, is also an important determinant of copying.

  16. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  17. Similaridade genética entre acessos de Bidens pilosa resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Genetic similarity among Bidens pilosa accesses resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS têm sido amplamente utilizados no controle da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa. A pressão de seleção causada pelo uso intensivo desses herbicidas tem selecionado biótipos de picão-preto resistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de similaridade genética entre acessos de picão-preto resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, bem como a relação entre coeficiente de similaridade genética e distância geográfica desses acessos. Para isso, sementes de dois grupos de acessos de picão-preto, originárias de uma propriedade em Pato Branco, Paraná, resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS foram colhidas, e plântulas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre-RS, em outubro de 2004. Por meio do marcador molecular RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso foi possível avaliar a similaridade genética entre os acessos de picão-preto. Na análise conjunta dos acessos, dos 20 primers utilizados, 17 apresentaram-se polimórficos, amplificando um total de 94 bandas. Houve baixa similaridade genética (38% entre acessos de picão-preto resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS originários de uma mesma propriedade. Não foi observada relação entre distância genética e distância geográfica entre os acessos avaliados.Acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been widely used to control the weed hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa. The selection pressure caused by intensive herbicide use has selected hairy beggarticks resistant biotypes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the degree of genetic similarity among hairy beggarticks accesses (Bidens pilosa resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and to evaluate the relation between genetic similarity and geographic distance. Seeds of two groups of hairy beggarticks accesses resistant to ALS-inhibitors were sampled from a

  18. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  19. Revisiting telegony : Offspring inherit an acquired characteristic of their mother's previous mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crean, Angela J.; Kopps, Anna M.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered non-genetic mechanisms break the link between genes and inheritance, thereby also raising the possibility that previous mating partners could influence traits in offspring sired by subsequent males that mate with the same female (‘telegony’). In the fly Telostylinus angusticollis, m

  20. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne GABIROT, Pilar LÓPEZ, José MARTÍN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations, which may or may not be reproductively isolated. We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males’ chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P. hispanica from central Spain. We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population, versus areas marked by males of the other population. Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population. In contrast, females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males’ pheromones that did not differ between populations. Finally, to test for strong premating reproductive isolation, we staged intersexual encounters between males and females. The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations. We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment. However, females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males. Thus, male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations [Current Zoology 59 (2: 210 –220, 2013].

  1. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne GABIROT; Pilar L(O)PEZ; José MART(I)N

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations,which may or may not be reproductively isolated.We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males' chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P.hispanica from central Spain.We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population,versus areas marked by males of the other population.Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population.In contrast,females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males' pheromones that did not differ between populations.Finally,to test for strong premating reproductive isolation,we staged intersexual encounters between males and females.The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations.We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment.However,females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males.Thus,male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations.

  2. Transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights: effects of genes, social learning and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2008-05-01

    The biological and social transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights are analyzed in a large sample of adult twins, siblings, and their parents. We present a linear model for family resemblance allowing for both genetic and cultural transmission of attitudes from parents to offspring, as well as phenotypic assortative mating (the tendency to marry like) and other environmental sources of twin and sibling resemblance that do not depend on the attitudes of their parents. The model gives a close fit to the patterns of similarity between relatives for the two items. Results are consistent with a substantial role of genetic liability in the transmission of both attitudes. Contrary to the dominant paradigm of the social and political sciences, the kinship data are consistent with a relatively minor non-genetic impact of parental attitudes on the development of adult attitudes in their children. By contrast, the choice of mate is a social action that has a marked impact on the polarization of social attitudes and on the long-term influence that parents exert upon the next generation.

  3. Resistance to Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) when mite-resistant queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were free-mated with unselected drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbo, J R; Harris, J W

    2001-12-01

    This study demonstrated (1) that honey bees, Apis mellifera L, can express a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman when bees were selected for only one resistant trait (suppression of mite reproduction); and (2) that a significant level of mite-resistance was retained when these queens were free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: (1) resistant--queens selected for suppression of mite reproduction and artificially inseminated in Baton Rouge with drones from similarly selected stocks; (2) resistant x control--resistant queens, as above, produced and free-mated to unselected drones by one of four commercial queen producers; and (3) control--commercial queens chosen by the same four queen producers and free-mated as above. All colonies started the test with approximately 0.9 kg of bees that were naturally infested with approximately 650 mites. Colonies with resistant x control queens ended the 115-d test period with significantly fewer mites than did colonies with control queens. This suggests that beekeepers can derive immediate benefit from mite-resistant queens that have been free-mated to unselected drones. Moreover, the production and distribution of these free-mated queens from many commercial sources may be an effective way to insert beneficial genes into our commercial population of honey bees without losing the genetic diversity and the useful beekeeping characteristics of this population.

  4. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  5. Socioeconomic Development and Shifts in Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Stone

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mate preferences shift according to contexts such as temporal duration of mateship sought and ecological prevalence of parasites. One important cross-cultural context that has not been explored is a country's socioeconomic development. Because individuals in less developed countries are generally less healthy and possess fewer resources than those in more developed countries, displays of health and resources in a prospective long-term partner were hypothesized to be valued more in populations in which they are rare than in populations in which they are more common. We also predicted negative correlations between development and preferences for similar religious background and a desire for children. We found strong support for the health hypothesis and modest support for the resource acquisition potential hypothesis. We also found an unpredicted positive correlation between development and importance ratings for love. Discussion addresses limitations of the current research and highlights directions for future cross-cultural research on mating psychology.

  6. The mating system of the true fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni and its sister species, Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Wasala M T D; Jayasundara, Mudalige S H; Peek, Thelma; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark K

    2017-06-01

    The frugivorous "true" fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly), is presumed to have a nonresourced-based lek mating system. This is largely untested, and contrary data exists to suggest Bactrocera tryoni may have a resource-based mating system focused on fruiting host plants. We tested the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni, and its close sibling Bactrocera neohumeralis, in large field cages using laboratory reared flies. We used observational experiments that allowed us to determine if: (i) mating pairs were aggregated or nonaggregated; (ii) mating system was resource or nonresource based; (iii) flies utilized possible landmarks (tall trees over short) as mate-rendezvous sites; and (iv) males called females from male-dominated leks. We recorded nearly 250 Bactrocera tryoni mating pairs across all experiments, revealing that: (i) mating pairs were aggregated; (ii) mating nearly always occurred in tall trees over short; (iii) mating was nonresource based; and (iv) that males and females arrived at the mate-rendezvous site together with no evidence that males preceded females. Bactrocera neohumeralis copulations were much more infrequent (only 30 mating pairs in total), but for those pairs there was a similar preference for tall trees and no evidence of a resource-based mating system. Some aspects of Bactrocera tryoni mating behavior align with theoretical expectations of a lekking system, but others do not. Until evidence for unequivocal female choice can be provided (as predicted under a true lek), the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni is best described as a nonresource based, aggregation system for which we also have evidence that land-marking may be involved. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  8. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  9. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The gametes of unicellular eukaryotes are morphologically identical, but are nonetheless divided into distinct mating types. The number of mating types varies enormously and can reach several thousand, yet most species have only two. Why do morphologically identical gametes need to be differentiated into self-incompatible mating types, and why is two the most common number of mating types? In this work, we explore a neglected hypothesis that there is a need for asymmetric signalling interactions between mating partners. Our review shows that isogamous gametes always interact asymmetrically throughout sex and argue that this asymmetry is favoured because it enhances the efficiency of the mating process. We further develop a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the evolution of the number of mating types based on the strength of signalling interactions between gametes. Novel mating types have an advantage as they are compatible with all others and rarely meet their own type. But if existing mating types coevolve to have strong mutual interactions, this restricts the spread of novel types. Similarly, coevolution is likely to drive out less attractive mating types. These countervailing forces specify the number of mating types that are evolutionarily stable. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619695

  10. Radiation-induced mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luggen-Hölscher, J; Kiefer, J

    1988-09-01

    Haploid yeast cells possess two different mating types which are controlled genetically by the MAT locus. Information of the opposite mating type is stored on the same chromosome but not expressed. Radiation may initiate a gene conversion event leading to 'mating-type switching'. This was studied by using X-rays and 254 nm ultraviolet light. X-ray-induced mating type switching shows an oxygen enhancement ratio of 2.9 which is higher than that for survival (1.8) and equals that for double-strand break induction. Mating-type switching by UV is not photoreactivable and depends on a functioning excision repair system. The results are compatible with the interpretation that mating type switching is initiated by a double-strand break in the MAT coding region.

  11. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  12. The Cost of Mating: Influences of Life History Traits and Mating Strategies on Lifespan in Two Closely Related Yponomeuta Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and thus reproductive fitness. We tested an extension of this idea and compared male and female lifespan of two closely related Yponomeuta species with different degree of polyandry. Our results confirmed the theoretical prediction that male lifespan is fine-tuned to female receptive lifespan; once-mated males and females of both polyandrous species had an equal lifespan. However, the degree of polyandry was not reflected in male relative to female lifespan. The observed similar female and male lifespan could largely be attributed to a dramatic reduction of female lifespan after mating.

  13. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  14. Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alex Mesoudi; Kevin N Laland

    2007-01-01

    ...’, and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human mating behaviour. A gene...

  15. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    Polyandrous females may gain genetic benefits for their offspring through postmating sexual selection. To facilitate postcopulatory choice for males of superior genetic quality females are expected to bias precopulatory mate choice towards novel males (i.e. genetically novel sources). Preference ......-off between direct benefits and costs of remating. We found no effect of mate novelty on male mating behaviour, indicating either lack of discriminatory ability or that risk of sperm competition creates paternity benefits from remating with the same female....

  16. Cancer and yerba mate consumption: a review of possible associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Dora; Barrios, Enrique; Zanetti, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    To identify any possible link between mate consumption and cancer, mainly of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. A review of literature, published through August 2008, pertaining to the carcinogenic risk of mate consumption was undertaken by searching the two databases, MEDLINE and TOXLINE, for relevant articles. The bibliographies of the articles were examined for additional relevant sources. In addition, a search on the name of each author having published on the topic was conducted. The epidemiological studies are presented by cancer site; experimental works are examined in dedicated sections; and the discussion combines epidemiological and experimental evidence. Almost all epidemiological studies shared similar methodology: hospital-based, case-control studies where participants were personally interviewed on the main risk factors, using similar questionnaires. Several studies found an association between the temperature of the mate infusion and oral, esophageal, and/or laryngeal cancer risks; while a few focused on carcinogenic contaminants introduced during the industrial processing of the leaves. The cancer most frequently mentioned in association with hot mate with bombilla (drunk through a metal straw) was the esophagus. Size, exposure assessment, methods of analysis, and quality were different among the studies reviewed. The results varied greatly. The higher risk estimate (odds ratio = 34.6) was found for women who drank 1 L or more daily; for men it was only 4.8. Risk increased with duration, daily quantity, and temperature at drinking. The synergic action between mate, alcohol, and tobacco was a clear result in several studies, and in some, nutritional deficiencies and poor oral hygiene played a role. No increased risk was associated with cold mate beverages. The role of hot mate in increasing the risk of cancer of esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity seems to be supported by several epidemiological studies. The temperature could act by damaging the

  17. Reproductive consequences of mate quantity versus mate diversity in a wind-pollinated plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, K.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Honnay, O.

    2009-07-01

    Since most pollen travels limited distances in wind-pollinated plants, both the local quantity and diversity of mates may limit female reproductive success. Yet little evidence exists on their relative contribution, despite the importance of viable seed production to population dynamics. To study how variation in female reproductive success is affected by the quantity versus the diversity of surrounding mates contributing pollen, we integrated pollination experiments, data on natural seed set and seed viability, and AFLP genetic marker data in the wind-pollinated dioecious clonal forest herb Mercurialis perennis. Pollination experiments indicated weak quantitative pollen limitation effects on seed set. Among-population crosses showed reduced seed viability, suggesting outbreeding depression due to genetic divergence. Pollination with pollen from a single source did not negatively affect reproductive success. These findings were consistent with results of the survey of natural female reproductive success. Seed set decreased with the distance to males in a female plants' local neighborhood, suggesting a shortage of pollen in isolated female plants, and increased with the degree of local genetic diversity. Spatial isolation to other populations and population size did not affect seed set. None of these variables were related to seed viability. We conclude that pollen movement in M. perennis is likely very limited. Both male proximity and the local degree of genetic diversity influenced female reproductive success.

  18. Population structure and mating-type genes of Colletotrichum graminicola from Agrostis palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fajun; Goodwin, Paul H; Khan, Adalat; Hsiang, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Eighty-seven isolates of Colletotrichum graminicola, mostly from Agrostis palustris, were collected in grass fields, most of which were in Ontario, Canada. Specific primers were designed to amplify the mating-type (MAT) genes and, among 35 isolates tested, all yielded a band of the expected size for MAT2. For six isolates, the MAT2 PCR products were sequenced and found to be similar to that reported for MAT2 of C. graminicola from maize. Based on 119 polymorphic bands from 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers, analyses of genetic distances were found to generally cluster isolates by host and geographic origin. Among 42 isolates from a grass field in Ontario, significant spatial autocorrelation was found to occur within a 20-m distance, implying that this is the effective propagule dispersal distance. Although clonal propagation was observed in the 87 isolates with 67 unique genotypes, the extent of genetic variation in local populations implies some occurrence of sexual or asexual recombination.

  19. Diversidade e similaridade genéticas em clones de pimenta-do-reino Genetic diversity and similarity in clones of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M.D. Gaia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito clones de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. foram analisados por meio de eletroforese de isozimas para os sistemas ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH e FUM, para avaliar a diversidade por meio da porcentagem de locos polimórficos, número médio de alelos por locos e heterozigosidade média. A similaridade genética foi obtida por meio do coeficiente de semelhança simples e foi resumida num fenograma de média de grupo. Foram detectados 14 locos e 35 alelos. Os locos que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: G6pdh-1, Acp-1 e Skdh-1. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos variou de 3,57% a 64,29%; o número médio de alelos variou de 0,04 a 1,64; e a heterozigosidade média variou de 0,036 a 0,321. Os baixos valores observados no intervalo de variação da heterozigosidade média são consistentes com a estreita base genética dos genótipos e a amplitude deste intervalo pode estar relacionada com o grau de hibridação (artificial ou natural de cada clone. A similaridade genética variou de 65% a 100%, sendo que 70 clones estiveram contidos na faixa de 85% e 100%, o que ratifica o estreitamento da base genética da espécie e conseqüente homogeneidade dos genomas cultivados.Seventy eight black pepper clones (Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by means of isozyme electrophoresis for the systems ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH and FUM, in order to evaluate the diversity through the percentage of polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus and mean heterozigosity. Genetic similarity was calculated by simple matching coefficient and summarized in the group average phenogram. Fourteen loci and 35 alleles were detected. The loci that presented larger diversity were G6pdh-1, Acp-1 and Skdh-1. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 3.57% to 64.29%; the mean number of alleles ranged from 0.04 to 1.64 and; the mean heterozigosity varied from 0.036 to 0.321. The lower values observed in the interval of variation of the

  20. Exact Markov chains versus diffusion theory for haploid random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyvand, Peder A; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2010-05-01

    Exact discrete Markov chains are applied to the Wright-Fisher model and the Moran model of haploid random mating. Selection and mutations are neglected. At each discrete value of time t there is a given number n of diploid monoecious organisms. The evolution of the population distribution is given in diffusion variables, to compare the two models of random mating with their common diffusion limit. Only the Moran model converges uniformly to the diffusion limit near the boundary. The Wright-Fisher model allows the population size to change with the generations. Diffusion theory tends to under-predict the loss of genetic information when a population enters a bottleneck.

  1. Sport Participation Influences Perceptions of Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extracurricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  2. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

    2012-02-22

    Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  3. Notes and observations on courtship and mating in Tityus (Atreus magnimanus Pocock, 1897 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LK Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Courtship and mating behaviors of the scorpion Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are herein described, consisting of various components that pertain to four distinct behavioral stages. The courtship and mating rituals of Tityus (Atreus magnimanus are similar to those of other scorpions. Behavioral components are presented in an ethogram to demonstrate their occurrence during mating sequences. The current report is presented as observational data that were acquired during life history studies of this species.

  4. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mating structure and male production in the giant hornet Vespa mandarinia (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Akimoto, Shin'Ichi; Martin, Stephen J.; Tamukae, Masato; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2004-01-01

    Queen mating frequency, genetic relatedness between workers and worker reproduction were estimated in Vespa mandarinia by microsatellite DNA markers. Of 20 colonies examined, eighteen contained queens inseminated by a single male and two colonies contained queens inseminated by two males. The estimated effective number of matings was 1.03±0.023 (mean±SE) with 85% of the offspring of the two multiply-mated queens being sired by one of the two males. The genetic relatedness between workers was ...

  6. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2008-03-07

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates.

  7. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.

  8. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  9. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  10. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  11. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  12. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  13. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  14. Overt female mate competition and preference for central males in a lekking antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2002-07-01

    In mammals, there exists only scant evidence of female mate choice in species mating on arenas, so-called leks. This has led to hypotheses of lek evolution that are based on benefits to females from reduced harassment by males, low predation risk, or improved availability of scarce nutrients. Here I report that female topi antelopes (Damaliscus lunatus) compete aggressively for matings with preferred males on central lek territories. Females fight at higher rates and more likely disrupt mating attempts of others in the lek center than elsewhere. Contrary to the predictions of the alternative hypotheses, food resources were insignificant, and harassment levels and estimated predation risk were higher on than off lek. These results clearly demonstrate female competition for mates in a lekking mammal in which a female chooses between males for the sole purpose of mating. The finding suggests that the forces leading to lek evolution in mammals and birds may be more similar than previously acknowledged.

  15. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  16. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madlen ZIEGE; Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ; Frauke MUECKSCH; David BIERBACH; Ralph TIEDEMANN; Bruno STREIT; Martin PLATH

    2012-01-01

    Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior.Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented.This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk:interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions.In line with this hypothesis,a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice,but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests.Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs,but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior.Thus,we createl five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males' mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping) and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting).Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured,while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior.The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male's behavior.A reduction in the strength of focal males' preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male's preferred mate.In comparison,the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior.While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male's motivational state is reflected but also females' behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1):84-94,2012].

  17. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  18. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna QVARNSTR(O)M; Niclas VALLIN; Andreas RUDH

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice.In particular,much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating.However,male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection.We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice.For example,biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources.Moreover,male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance,protection against predators and general stress tolerance.Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities.In resource based breeding systems,a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence.We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways.Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored.

  19. Pedigrees, assortative mating and speciation in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

    2008-03-22

    Pedigree analysis is a useful tool in the study of speciation. It can reveal trans-generational influences on the choice of mates. We examined mating patterns in a population of Darwin's medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) on Daphne Major Island to improve our understanding of how a barrier to the exchange of genes between populations arises in evolution. Body sizes of mates were weakly correlated. In one year, the smallest females were paired non-randomly with the males of similar size, and in another year the largest males were paired with the largest females. An influence of parental morphology on the choice of mates, as expected from sexual imprinting theory, was found; the body size of mates was predicted by the body sizes of both parents, and especially strongly by the father's. These associations imply that the seeds of reproductive isolation between species are present within a single variable population. The implication was subject to a natural test: two exceptionally large birds of the study species, apparently immigrants, bred with each other, as did their offspring, and not with the members of the resident population. The intense inbreeding represents incipient speciation. It parallels a similar phenomenon when another species, the large ground finch, immigrated to Daphne and established a new population without interbreeding with the resident medium ground finches.

  20. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. SANTOS; M. MATOS; P. SILVA; A. M. FIGUEIRAS; C. BENITO; O. PINTO-CARNIDE

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships amongSecalespp. and among cultivars ofSecale cerealeusing RAPDs, ISSRs and sequence analysis of six exons ofScMATE1gene.Thirteen ryes (cultivated and wild) were genotyped using 21 RAPD and 16 ISSR primers. A total of 435 markers (242 RAPDsand 193 ISSRs) were obtained, with 293 being polymorphic (146 RAPDs and 147 ISSRs). Two RAPD and nine ISSR primersgenerated more than 80% of polymorphism. The ISSR markers were more polymorphic and informative than RAPDs. Further,69% of the ISSR primers selected achieved at least 70% of DNA polymorphism. The study of six exons of theScMATE1gene also demonstrated a high genetic variability that subsists inSecalegenus. One difference observed in exon 1 sequencesfromS. vaviloviiseems to be correlated with Al sensitivity in this species. The genetic relationships obtained using RAPDs,ISSRs and exons ofScMATE1gene were similar.S. ancestrale ,S. kuprijanoviiandS. cerealewere grouped in the same clusterandS. segetalewas in another cluster.S. vaviloviishowed evidences of not being clearly an isolate species and having greatintraspecific difference

  1. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  2. Similar Frequencies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Producing KPC and VIM Carbapenemases in Diverse Genetic Clones at Tertiary-Care Hospitals in Medellín, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Johanna M.; Cienfuegos, Astrid V.; Ocampo, Ana M.; López, Lucelly; del Corral, Helena; Roncancio, Gustavo; Sierra, Patricia; Echeverri-Toro, Lina; Ospina, Sigifredo; Maldonado, Natalia; Robledo, Carlos; Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious health threat worldwide due to the limited options available for its treatment. Understanding its epidemiology contributes to the control of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates in five tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five tertiary-care hospitals from June 2012 to March 2014. All hospitalized patients infected by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were included. Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Molecular analyses included PCR for detection of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaOXA-48, and blaKPC genes plus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for molecular typing. A total of 235 patients were enrolled: 91.1% of them were adults (n = 214), 88.1% (n = 207) had prior antibiotic use, and 14.9% (n = 35) had urinary tract infections. The blaVIM-2 and blaKPC-2 genes were detected in 13.6% (n = 32) and 11.5% (n = 27), respectively, of all isolates. Two isolates harbored both genes simultaneously. For KPC-producing isolates, PFGE revealed closely related strains within each hospital, and sequence types (STs) ST362 and ST235 and two new STs were found by MLST. With PFGE, VIM-producing isolates appeared highly diverse, and MLST revealed ST111 in four hospitals and five new STs. These results show that KPC-producing P. aeruginosa is currently disseminating rapidly and occurring at a frequency similar to that of VIM-producing P. aeruginosa isolates (approximately 1:1 ratio) in Medellín, Colombia. Diverse genetic backgrounds among resistant strains suggest an excessive antibiotic pressure resulting in the selection of resistant strains. PMID:25210071

  3. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  4. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  5. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro;

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present......) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring...... production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males....

  6. The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y

    2015-02-01

    Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems.

  7. MHC-dependent mate choice in humans: why genomic patterns from the HapMap European American dataset support the hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Romain; Chaix, Raphaëlle

    2012-04-01

    The role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mate choice in humans is controversial. Nowadays, the availability of genetic variation data at genomic scales allows for a careful assessment of this question. In 2008, Chaix et al. reported evidence for MHC-dependent mate choice among European American spouses from the HapMap 2 dataset. Recently, Derti et al. suggested that this observation was not robust. Furthermore, when Derti et al. applied similar analyses to the HapMap 3 European American samples, they did not see a significant effect. Although some of the points raised by Derti et al. are relevant, we disagree with the reported absence of evidence for MHC-dependent mate choice within the HapMap samples. More precisely, we show here that the MHC dissimilarity among HapMap 3 European American spouses is still extreme in comparison to the rest of the genome, even after multiple testing correction. This finding supports the hypothesis of MHC-dependent mate choice in some human populations.

  8. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  9. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants...

  10. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  11. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  12. Assignment tests for variety identification compared to genetic similarity-based methods using experimental datasets from different marker systems in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riek, de J.; Everaert, I.; Esselink, D.; Calsyn, E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2007-01-01

    High genetic variation within sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties hampers reliable classification procedures independent of the type of marker technique applied. Datasets on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, sequence tagged microsatellite sites, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sites mar

  13. Comparative evaluation and its implications for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Healy, Susan D

    2005-12-01

    Experiments on decision making by humans show that the choices that we make can be very labile. The magnitude of our preferences, and even our rank ordering of options, can vary according to the number and type of alternatives available for comparison. This apparent irrationality has been argued to result from our use of decision heuristics that have evolved to enable us to choose quickly and efficiently between options differing in multiple attributes. Here, we argue that, because there is also selective pressure for animals to make mating decisions quickly, and because potential mates also differ in multiple attributes, similar decision heuristics might have evolved for mate choice. Following this reasoning, the attractiveness of a given mate will depend on the others with whom he or she is being compared, rather than being an absolute function of his or her underlying quality. We describe some of the ramifications of such comparative evaluation, and argue that it could offer new insights into some of the biggest outstanding problems in mate choice and sexual selection.

  14. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Jennifer L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating

  15. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao-Qiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Tu, Ying; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website), where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals) who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  16. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Qiao He

    Full Text Available To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website, where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  17. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced t

  18. Genotype-by-environment interactions for female mate choice of male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C Ingleby

    Full Text Available Recent research has highlighted the potential importance of environmental and genotype-by-environment (G×E variation in sexual selection, but most studies have focussed on the expression of male sexual traits. Consequently, our understanding of genetic variation for plasticity in female mate choice is extremely poor. In this study we examine the genetics of female mate choice in Drosophila simulans using isolines reared across two post-eclosion temperatures. There was evidence for G×Es in female choosiness and preference, which suggests that the evolution of female mate choice behaviour could differ across environments. However, the ranked order of preferred males was consistent across females and environments, so the same males are favoured by mate choice in spite of G×Es. Our study highlights the importance of taking cross-environment perspectives in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the operation of sexual selection.

  19. Nuclear fusion occurs during mating in Candida albicans and is dependent on the KAR3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J; Miller, Mathew G; Chua, Penelope R; Maxon, Mary E; Johnson, Alexander D

    2005-02-01

    It is now well established that mating can occur between diploid a and alpha cells of Candida albicans. There is, however, controversy over when, and with what efficiency, nuclear fusion follows cell fusion to create stable tetraploid a/alpha cells. In this study, we have analysed the mating process between C. albicans strains using both cytological and genetic approaches. Using strains derived from SC5314, we used a number of techniques, including time-lapse microscopy, to demonstrate that efficient nuclear fusion occurs in the zygote before formation of the first daughter cell. Consistent with these observations, zygotes micromanipulated from mating mixes gave rise to mononuclear tetraploid cells, even when no selection for successful mating was applied to them. Mating between different clinical isolates of C. albicans revealed that while all isolates could undergo nuclear fusion, the efficiency of nuclear fusion varied in different crosses. We also show that nuclear fusion in C. albicans requires the Kar3 microtubule motor protein. Deletion of the CaKAR3 gene from both mating partners had little or no effect on zygote formation but reduced the formation of stable tetraploids more than 600-fold, as determined by quantitative mating assays. These findings demonstrate that nuclear fusion is an active process that can occur in C. albicans at high frequency to produce stable, mononucleate mating products.

  20. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  1. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  2. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  3. Biological characteristics and mating type distribution of Phytophthora capsici from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Gong, Z-H; Liu, G-Z; Chai, G-X; Li, C

    2014-01-21

    Phytophthora capsici from seven provinces of China were investigated for their mating type, hyphal growth, zoospore production, and virulence. All of the morphological characteristics and the results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these isolates were indeed Phytophthora capsici. The test of mating type showed that the mating types of 19 representative isolates from China varied. The hyphal growth and the amount of zoospores produced from these isolates differed and there was no evident relationship between them, which indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the isolates in China. Also, the isolates that were more virulent on the pepper cultivars that we checked produced more zoospores than other isolates.

  4. The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel I.BOLNICK; Mark KIRKPATRICK

    2012-01-01

    The term'assortative mating' has been applied to describe two very different phenomena:(1) the tendency for individuals to choose phenotypically similar mates from among conspecifics; or (2) the tendency to prefer conspecific over heterospecific mates (behavioral reproductive isolation).Both forms of assortative mating are widespread in nature,but the relationship between these behaviors remains unclear.Namely,it is plausible that a preference for phenotypically similar conspecifics incidentally reduces the probability of mating with phenotypically divergent heterospecifics.We present a model to calculate how the level of reproductive isolation depends on intraspecific assortative mating and the phenotypic divergence between species.For empirically reasonable levels of intraspecific assortment on a single trait axis,we show that strong reproductive isolation requires very substantial phenotypic divergence.We illustrate this point by applying our model to empirical data from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Darwin's Finches (Geospiza spp).We conclude that typical levels of intraspecific assortment cannot generally be extrapolated to explain levels of interspecitie reproductive isolation.Instead,reproductive isolation between species likely arises from different mate choice behaviors,or multivariate assortative mating.

  5. The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. BOLNICK, Mark KIRKPATRICK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'assortative mating' has been applied to describe two very different phenomena: (1 the tendency for individuals to choose phenotypically similar mates from among conspecifics; or (2 the tendency to prefer conspecific over hete- rospecific mates (behavioral reproductive isolation. Both forms of assortative mating are widespread in nature, but the relationship between these behaviors remains unclear. Namely, it is plausible that a preference for phenotypically similar conspecifics incidentally reduces the probability of mating with phenotypically divergent heterospecifics. We present a model to calculate how the level of reproductive isolation depends on intraspecific assortative mating and the phenotypic divergence between species. For empirically reasonable levels of intraspecific assortment on a single trait axis, we show that strong reproductive isolation requires very substantial phenotypic divergence. We illustrate this point by applying our model to empirical data from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp. We conclude that typical levels of intraspecific assortment cannot generally be extrapolated to explain levels of interspecific reproductive isolation. Instead, reproductive isolation between species likely arises from different mate choice behaviors, or multivariate assortative mating [Current Zoology 58 (3: 481–489, 2012].

  6. Genetic distance and species formation in evolving populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, P G; Derrida, B

    1992-11-01

    We compare the behavior of the genetic distance between individuals in evolving populations for three stochastic models. In the first model reproduction is asexual and the distribution of genetic distances reflects the genealogical tree of the population. This distribution fluctuates greatly in time, even for very large populations. In the second model reproduction is sexual with random mating allowed between any pair of individuals. In this case, the population becomes homogeneous and the genetic distance between pairs of individuals has small fluctuations which vanish in the limit of an infinitely large population. In the third model reproduction is still sexual but instead of random mating, mating only occurs between individuals which are genetically similar to each other. In that case, the population splits spontaneously into species which are in reproductive isolation from one another and one observes a steady state with a continual appearance and extinction of species in the population. We discuss this model in relation to the biological theory of speciation and isolating mechanisms. We also point out similarities between these three models of evolving populations and the theory of disordered systems in physics.

  7. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  8. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  9. Parental Mate Choice Manipulation Tactics: Exploring Prevalence, Sex and Personality Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents and children are genetically related but not genetically identical, which means that their genetic interests overlap but also diverge. In the area of mating, this translates into children making mate choices that are not in the best interest of their parents. Parents may then resort to manipulation in order to influence their children's mating decisions in a way that best promotes the former's interests. This paper attempts to identify the structure of manipulation tactics that parents employ on their daughters and sons, as well as on their daughters' and sons' mates, and also to estimate their prevalence. On the basis of the structure of the derived tactics, four hypotheses are tested: Mothers are more willing than fathers to use manipulation tactics; parents are willing to use more manipulation on their daughters than on their sons; the personality of parents predicts the use of tactics on their children and on their children's mates; and the personality of children and of children's mates predicts the use of tactics on them. Evidence from two independent studies provides support for the first three hypotheses, but mixed support for the fourth hypothesis. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  10. Estimating Breeding Values With Molecular Relatedness and Reconstructed Pedigrees in Natural Mating Populations of Common Sole, Solea Solea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.; Komen, J.; Kamstra, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Captive populations where natural mating in groups is used to obtain offspring typically yield unbalanced population structures with highly skewed parental contributions and unknown pedigrees. Consequently, for genetic parameter estimation, relationships need to be reconstructed or estimated using D

  11. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  12. Non-density dependent pollen dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae revealed by a Bayesian mating model based on paternity analysis in two synchronized flowering seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Masuda

    Full Text Available Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers. A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.

  13. Non-density dependent pollen dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae) revealed by a Bayesian mating model based on paternity analysis in two synchronized flowering seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinsuke; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Numata, Shinya; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.

  14. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

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    Sa Geng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was

  15. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

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    Marco A Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles at the MAT locus (bipolar system. However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar

  16. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Cryptic Associations Reveal Evidence of Kin-Based Sociality in the African Forest Elephant

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie G Schuttler; Jessica A Philbrick; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Eggert, Lori S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geograph...

  17. An approach for modeling cross-immunity of two strains, with application to variants of Bartonella in terms of genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang Woo; Kosoy, Michael; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    We developed a two-strain susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that provides a framework for inferring the cross-immunity between two strains of a bacterial species in the host population with discretely sampled co-infection time-series data. Moreover, the model accounts for seasonality in host reproduction. We illustrate an approach using a dataset describing co-infections by several strains of bacteria circulating within a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Bartonella strains were clustered into three genetically close groups, between which the divergence is correspondent to the accepted level of separate bacterial species. The proposed approach revealed no cross-immunity between genetic clusters while limited cross-immunity might exist between subgroups within the clusters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Sanchez, Gie-Bele; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (pBlastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be selected, reducing their genetic variability.

  19. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  20. Increased prevalence of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel and the Palestinian Authority caused by the recent emergence of a population of genetically similar strains of Leishmania tropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Krayter, Lena; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Ereqat, Suheir; Schnur, Lionel F; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Abdeen, Ziad; Schönian, Gabriele

    2016-08-04

    Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers were used to determine the microsatellite profiles of 50 newly and 46 previously typed strains of L. tropica from various Israeli and Palestinian foci. Their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 99 previously typed strains of L. tropica from 15 countries. Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. tropica fell into three different groups, one of which contained 75 of the 96 Israeli and Palestinian strains. This population separated from all the others at the first hierarchical level by Bayesian statistics and formed a distinct monophyletic group on applying genetic distance and allele frequency analyses. The second cluster contained ten Israeli strains from a specific focus north of the Sea of Galilee, which were previously shown to differ from all other strains of L. tropica in their serological, biochemical and molecular biological parameters. This cluster was closely related to clusters comprising strains of L. tropica from Africa. Four Israeli and five Palestinian strains fell into different genetic entities mostly related to strains from Asian foci of CL. Importation during numerous migrations of humans and, perhaps, infected reservoir animals in the past and, now, through modern travel is the most likely explanation for the existence of so many locally encountered genetic variants of L. tropica in the Israeli-Palestinian region. Geographical and ecological variation may play a role in expanding the genetic heterogeneity once given importations had become established in different foci. Currently, one population is expanding in the area comprising almost all of the Palestinian and Israeli strains of L. tropica isolated since 1996 and investigated in this study, which differ clearly from all other strains of whatsoever origin. This population seems to result from the re-emergence of a previously existing genotype owing to environmental changes and human activities.

  1. Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypti males carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males-with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK-competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain.

  2. Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypti males carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine Massonnet-Bruneel

    Full Text Available OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males-with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK-competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18% lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain.

  3. Mating system and gene flow in the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis: effect of haploid-diploid life history and intertidal rocky shore landscape on fine-scale genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2004-04-01

    The impact of haploid-diploidy and the intertidal landscape on a fine-scale genetic structure was explored in a red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis. The pattern of genetic structure was compared in haploid and diploid stages at a microgeographic scale (shore. In this intertidal species, biased spore dispersal may occur during the transport of spores and gametes at low tide when small streams flow from high- to lower-shore pools. The longevity of both haploid and diploid free-living stages and the long generation times typical of G. gracilis populations may promote the observed pattern of high genetic diversity within populations relative to that among populations.

  4. Influence of experimental illumination and seasonal variation on crossbreending mating in the snail Biomphalaria Glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pimentel-Souza

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding activities of the Schistosoma mansoni vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata were counted in a laboratory aquarium throughout the year under two regimes of 12h light: 12h dark from 7 A., M. to 10 P. M. Mating increased significantly in Authmn and Winter and just missed a significant inverse correlation with temperature and a direct one with locomotion. Other similar experiments were carried out to compare mating under various ilumination conditions in complete daily cycle measurements. Mating counts decreased under the regimes which submited snail to a total exposure of 12h light and 12 dark during a daily cycle in the following sequence: 12h light: 12h dark alternating hourly with light gradient, 12h light: 12h dark, 1h light: 1h dark and 12h dark: 12h light. Under two constant illuminations, the mating scored less than under the previous conditions, except under 12h light. Under darkeness the mating count was lower than light conditions. There was no way to differentiate the night and day rhythms of mating on different days in each regime, except for mating under 12h light: 12 dark alternating with light gradient, constant dark and 12h dark: 12h light conditions. Mating increased in certain light and temperature conditions, in wich the intensities, should have an optimum value.

  5. Herkogamy and its effects on mating patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Luo

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating systems, which exhibit an extraordinary diversity in flowering plants, is of central interest in plant biology. Herkogamy, the spatial separation of sexual organs within flowers, is a widespread floral mechanism that is thought to be an adaptive trait reducing self-pollination in hermaphroditic plants. In contrast with previous studies of herkogamy that focused on plants with relatively large floral displays, we here characterized herkogamy in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a strong selfing syndrome. Developmental features, reproductive consequences, and genetic architecture of herkogamy were exploited using naturally variable A. thaliana accessions, under both greenhouse and natural conditions. Our results demonstrate that the degree of herkogamy can strongly influence the mating patterns of A. thaliana: approach herkogamy can effectively promote outcrossing, no herkogamy is also capable of enhancing the opportunity for outcrossing, and reverse herkogamy facilitates efficient self-pollination. In addition, we found that the expression of herkogamy in A. thaliana was environment-dependent and regulated by multiple quantitative trait loci. This study reveals how minor modifications in floral morphology may cause dramatic changes in plant mating patterns, provides new insights into the function of herkogamy, and suggests the way for dissecting the genetic basis of this important character in a model plant.

  6. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  7. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Practical implementation of optimal management strategies in conservation programmes: a mate selection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity is, from a genetic point of view, a key objective of conservation programmes. The selection of individuals contributing offspring and the decision of the mating scheme are the steps on which managers can control genetic diversity, specially on ‘ex situ’ programmes. Previous studies have shown that the optimal management strategy is to look for the parents’ contributions that yield minimum group coancestry (overall probability of identity by descent in the population and, then, to arrange mating couples following minimum pairwise coancestry. However, physiological constraints make it necessary to account for mating restrictions when deciding the contributions and, therefore, these should be implemented in a single step along with the mating plan. In the present paper, a single-step method is proposed to optimise the management of a conservation programme when restrictions on the mating scheme exist. The performance of the method is tested by computer simulation. The strategy turns out to be as efficient as the two-step method, regarding both the genetic diversity preserved and the fitness of the population.

  9. Mating system plasticity promotes persistence and adaptation of colonizing populations of hermaphroditic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Persistence and adaptation in novel environments are limited by small population size, strong selection, and maladaptive gene flow. Mating system plasticity is common in angiosperms and may provide both demographic and genetic benefits that promote niche evolution, including reproductive assurance and isolation from maladaptive gene flow. Yet increased self-fertilization may also cause inbreeding depression, accumulation of deleterious mutations, and reduced adaptive potential. Here we use individual-based simulations to examine the consequences of mating system plasticity for persistence and adaptation in a novel environment that imposes selection on a quantitative trait. We examine the joint evolution of local adaptation, inbreeding depression, and genetic load. We find that a plastic shift to a mixed mating system generally promotes niche evolution by decreasing the risk of extinction, providing isolation from maladaptive gene flow, and temporarily increasing genetic variance in the trait under selection, whereas obligate self-fertilization reduces adaptive potential. These effects are most pronounced under conditions of mate limitation, strong selection, or maladaptive gene flow. Our results highlight the diverse demographic and genetic consequences of self-fertilization and support the potential role for plastic shifts in mating system to promote niche evolution in flowering plants.

  10. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  11. Variation in mate-recognition pheromones of the fungal genus Microbotryum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Petit, E; Hood, M E

    2016-01-01

    Mate recognition is an essential life-cycle stage that exhibits strong conservation in function, whereas diversification of mating signals can contribute directly to the integrity of species boundaries through assortative mating. Fungi are simple models, where compatibility is based on the recognition of pheromone peptides by corresponding receptor proteins, but clear patterns of diversification have not emerged from the species examined, which are few compared with mate signaling studies in plant and animal systems. In this study, candidate loci from Microbotryum species were used to characterize putative pheromones that were synthesized and found to be functional across multiple species in triggering a mating response in vitro. There is no significant correlation between the strength of a species' response and its genetic distance from the pheromone sequence source genome. Instead, evidence suggests that species may be strong or weak responders, influenced by environmental conditions or developmental differences. Gene sequence comparisons reveals very strong purifying selection on the a1 pheromone peptide and corresponding receptor, but significantly less purifying selection on the a2 pheromone peptide that corresponds with more variation across species in the receptor. This represents an exceptional case of a reciprocally interacting mate-recognition system in which the two mating types are under different levels of purifying selection.

  12. Mating order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; Clobert, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male-male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female's choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought.

  13. Genetic variation at the MHC DRB1 locus is similar across Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colonies regardless of plague history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, Kacy R.; Califf, Katy J.; Stone, Nathan E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Colman, Rebecca E.; Schupp, James M.; Aziz, Maliha; Van Andel, Roger; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.; Busch, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis was introduced to North America around 1900 and leads to nearly 100% mortality in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies during epizootic events, which suggests this pathogen may exert a strong selective force. We characterized genetic diversity at an MHC class II locus (DRB1) in Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) and quantified population genetic structure at the DRB1versus 12 microsatellite loci in three large Arizona colonies. Two colonies, Seligman (SE) and Espee Ranch (ES), have experienced multiple plague-related die-offs in recent years, whereas plague has never been documented at Aubrey Valley (AV). We found fairly low allelic diversity at the DRB1 locus, with one allele (DRB1*01) at high frequency (0.67–0.87) in all colonies. Two otherDRB1 alleles appear to be trans-species polymorphisms shared with the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), indicating that these alleles have been maintained across evolutionary time frames. Estimates of genetic differentiation were generally lower at the MHC locus (FST = 0.033) than at microsatellite markers (FST = 0.098). The reduced differentiation at DRB1 may indicate that selection has been important for shaping variation at MHC loci, regardless of the presence or absence of plague in recent decades. However, genetic drift has probably also influenced theDRB1 locus because its level of differentiation was not different from that of microsatellites in anFST outlier analysis. We then compared specific MHC alleles to plague survivorship in 60C. gunnisoni that had been experimentally infected with Y. pestis. We found that survival was greater in individuals that carried at least one copy of the most common allele (DRB1*01) compared to those that did not (60% vs. 20%). Although the sample sizes of these two groups were unbalanced, this result suggests the possibility that this MHC class II locus, or a nearby linked gene, could play a role in plague survival.

  14. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, K; Kovacheva, N; Vosman, B; Zhang, L; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I

    2005-08-01

    Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultivation is based on a very narrow genepool and that oil rose collections contain many genetically identical accessions. The study of long-term vegetative propagation of the Damask roses also reveals high somatic stability for the microsatellite loci analyzed.

  15. Genetic variation at the MHC DRB1 locus is similar across Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colonies regardless of plague history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, Kacy R; Califf, Katy J; Stone, Nathan E; Shuey, Megan M; Birdsell, Dawn N; Colman, Rebecca E; Schupp, James M; Aziz, Maliha; Van Andel, Roger; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M; Busch, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Yersinia pestis was introduced to North America around 1900 and leads to nearly 100% mortality in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies during epizootic events, which suggests this pathogen may exert a strong selective force. We characterized genetic diversity at an MHC class II locus (DRB1) in Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) and quantified population genetic structure at the DRB1 versus 12 microsatellite loci in three large Arizona colonies. Two colonies, Seligman (SE) and Espee Ranch (ES), have experienced multiple plague-related die-offs in recent years, whereas plague has never been documented at Aubrey Valley (AV). We found fairly low allelic diversity at the DRB1 locus, with one allele (DRB1*01) at high frequency (0.67-0.87) in all colonies. Two other DRB1 alleles appear to be trans-species polymorphisms shared with the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), indicating that these alleles have been maintained across evolutionary time frames. Estimates of genetic differentiation were generally lower at the MHC locus (F ST = 0.033) than at microsatellite markers (F ST = 0.098). The reduced differentiation at DRB1 may indicate that selection has been important for shaping variation at MHC loci, regardless of the presence or absence of plague in recent decades. However, genetic drift has probably also influenced the DRB1 locus because its level of differentiation was not different from that of microsatellites in an F ST outlier analysis. We then compared specific MHC alleles to plague survivorship in 60 C. gunnisoni that had been experimentally infected with Y. pestis. We found that survival was greater in individuals that carried at least one copy of the most common allele (DRB1*01) compared to those that did not (60% vs. 20%). Although the sample sizes of these two groups were unbalanced, this result suggests the possibility that this MHC class II locus, or a nearby linked gene, could play a role in plague survival.

  16. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    to measure female preference for mates prior to introduction, which could improve pair compatibility and breeding success if applied to endangered zoo species. In the discussion and future perspectives (Chapter V), I summarise the main results of each chapter and suggest directions for future studies......Conservation-breeding programs in zoos are essential for the management of threatened species. By moving animals amongst institutions for prescribed breeding, these programs aim to promote demographic stability and preserve genetic variation in the captive populations. Yet many breeding programs...... of the outcomes of mate choice suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose from several males might improve the sustainability of captive populations. The main objective of this thesis is to develop...

  17. Distribution of mating-type alleles and M13 PCR markers in the black leaf spot fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis of bananas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C B; Miranda, E C; Hanada, R E; Sousa, N R; Gasparotto, L; Soares, M A; Silva, G F

    2013-02-08

    The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causative agent of black sigatoka, which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana plants. Infection with this pathogen results in underdeveloped fruit, with no commercial value. We analyzed the distribution of the M. fijiensis mating-type system and its genetic variability using M13 phage DNA markers. We found a 1:1 distribution of mating-type alleles, indicating MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs. A polymorphism analysis using three different primers for M13 markers showed that only the M13 minisatellite primers generated polymorphic products. We then utilized this polymorphism to characterize 40 isolates from various Brazilian states. The largest genetic distances were found between isolates from the same location and between isolates from different parts of the country. Therefore, there was no correlation between the genetic similarity and the geographic origin of the isolates. The M13 marker was used to generate genetic fingerprints for five isolates; these fingerprints were compared with the band profiles obtained from inter-simple sequence repeat (UBC861) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism analyses. We found that the M13 marker was more effective than the other two markers for differentiating these isolates.

  18. Long-term effects of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and gene flow of a tropical dry forest tree, Ceiba aesculifolia (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Mauricio; Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Lobo, Jorge A; Sánchez-Montoya, Gumersindo; Rosas, Fernando; Aguilar, Ramiro

    2013-06-01

    Tropical forest loss and fragmentation isolate and reduce the size of remnant populations with negative consequences for mating patterns and genetic structure of plant species. In a 4-yr study, we determined the effect of fragmentation on mating patterns and pollen pool genetic structure of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia in two habitat conditions: isolated trees in disturbed areas (≤3 trees/ha), and trees (≥6 trees/ha) in undisturbed mature forest. • Using six allozyme loci, we estimated the outcrossing rate (tm), the mean relatedness of progeny (rp) within and between fruits, the degree of genetic structure of pollen pools (Φft), and the effective number of pollen donors (Nep). • The outcrossing rates reflected a strict self-incompatible species. Relatedness of progeny within fruits was similar for all populations, revealing single sires within fruits. However, relatedness of progeny between fruits within trees was consistently greater for trees in fragmented conditions across 4 yr. We found high levels of genetic structure of pollen pools in all populations with more structure in isolated trees. The effective number of pollen donors was greater for trees in undisturbed forest than in disturbed conditions. • Our study showed that the progeny produced by isolated trees in disturbed habitats are sired by a fraction of the diversity of pollen donors found in conserved forests. The foraging behavior of bats limits the exchange of pollen between trees, causing higher levels of progeny relatedness in isolated trees.

  19. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. MHC-dependent mate choice is linked to a trace-amine-associated receptor gene in a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pablo S C; Courtiol, Alexandre; Heidel, Andrew J; Höner, Oliver P; Heckmann, Ilja; Nagy, Martina; Mayer, Frieder; Platzer, Matthias; Voigt, Christian C; Sommer, Simone

    2016-12-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a pivotal role in vertebrate self/nonself recognition, parasite resistance and life history decisions. In evolutionary terms, the MHC's exceptional diversity is likely maintained by sexual and pathogen-driven selection. Even though MHC-dependent mating preferences have been confirmed for many species, the sensory and genetic mechanisms underlying mate recognition remain cryptic. Since olfaction is crucial for social communication in vertebrates, variation in chemosensory receptor genes could explain MHC-dependent mating patterns. Here, we investigated whether female mate choice is based on MHC alleles and linked to variation in chemosensory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) in the greater sac-winged bat (Saccopteryx bilineata). We sequenced several MHC and TAAR genes and related their variation to mating and paternity data. We found strong evidence for MHC class I-dependent female choice for genetically diverse and dissimilar males. We also detected a significant interaction between mate choice and the female TAAR3 genotype, with TAAR3-heterozygous females being more likely to choose MHC-diverse males. These results suggest that TAARs and olfactory cues may be key mediators in mammalian MHC-dependent mate choice. Our study may help identify the ligands involved in the chemical communication between potential mates.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope characteristics associated with disease progression differ in family members infected with genetically similar viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Elly; van der Sluis, Renée M; Bakker, Margreet E; Bekker, Vincent; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kuijpers, Taco W; Berkhout, Ben; Wolthers, Katja C; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein provides the primary contact between the virus and host, and is the main target of the adaptive humoral immune response. The length of gp120 variable loops and the number of N-linked glycosylation events are key determinants for virus infectivity and immune escape, while the V3 loop overall positive charge is known to affect co-receptor tropism. We selected two families in which both parents and two children had been infected with HIV-1 for nearly 10 years, but who demonstrated variable parameters of disease progression. We analysed the gp120 envelope sequence and compared individuals that progressed to those that did not in order to decipher evolutionary alterations that are associated with disease progression when individuals are infected with genetically related virus strains. The analysis of the V3-positive charge demonstrated an association between higher V3-positive charges with disease progression. The ratio between the amino acid length and the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites was also shown to be associated with disease progression with the healthier family members having a lower ratio. In conclusion in individuals initially infected with genetically linked virus strains the V3-positive charges and N-linked glycosylation are associated with HIV-1 disease progression and follow varied evolutionary paths for individuals with varied disease progression.

  2. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  3. Dynamic linkage relationships to the mating-type locus in automictic fungi of the genus Microbotryum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, J L; Hood, M E

    2010-08-01

    Regions of the chromosomes determining mating compatibility in some fungi, including Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Neurospora tetrasperma, exhibit suppressed recombination similar to sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and recent studies have sought to apply basic theories of sex chromosome evolution to fungi. A phylogeny of the MTL1 locus in Microbotryum indicates that it has become part of the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes in multiple independent events, and that recombination may have been subsequently restored in some cases. This illustrates that fungal mating-type chromosomes can exhibit linkage relationship that are quite dynamic, adding to the list of similarities to animal or plant sex chromosomes. However, fungi such as M. lychnidis-dioicae and N. tetrasperma exhibit an automictic mating system, for which an alternate theoretical framework exists to explain the evolution of linkage with the mating-type locus. This study encourages further comparative studies among fungi to evaluate the role of mating systems in determining the evolution of fungal mating-type chromosomes.

  4. The Daughter-Guarding Hypothesis: Parental Influence on, and Emotional Reactions to, Offspring's Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Scant research has examined how individuals attempt to influence others' mating decisions. Parents are a special case because of their genetic relatedness to, and power over, their children. This paper tests the Daughter-Guarding Hypothesis: humans possess adaptations that motivate (1 protecting their daughter's sexual reputation, (2 preserving their daughter's mate value, and (3 preventing their daughters from being sexually exploited. Using two data sources, young adults and their parents, we found that parents were more likely to control their daughters' mating decisions. Parents were more likely to control their daughters' sexual behavior; parents reported more emotional upset over daughters' sexual activity; parents controlled their daughters' mate choice more than their sons'. The results support several hypothesized design features of the Daughter-Guarding hypothesis.

  5. Microsatellites for the mangrove tree Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae): Tools for hybridization and mating system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M; Zucchi, Maria I; Sampaio, Iracilda; Souza, Anete P

    2010-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for the black mangrove Avicennia germinans, to provide new informative tools for further studies of the mating system, interspecific hybridization, and population genetics. • We used the microsatellite-enriched library approach to isolate and characterize 25 new primer pairs. Sixteen of them are polymorphic, showing a variable degree of variation in A. germinans, while nine were monomorphic in the samples examined. Eight exhibited private alleles in A. schaueriana. • These results indicate that these new microsatellite markers will be useful molecular tools for further studies of A. germinans and A. schaueriana population genetics, mating systems, and hybridization.

  6. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Brown Trout Populations Using Mitochondrial Markers In Relatively Similar Geographical and Ecological Conditions – a Carpathian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Gina-Oana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analiza diversităţii genetice cu ajutorul markerilor mitocondriali, a unor populaţii de păstrav comun aflate în condiţii geografice şi ecologice relativ similare în Munţii Carpaţi.

  8. The role of VuMATE1 expression in aluminium-inducible citrate secretion in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei Ya; Chen, Wei Wei; Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium (Al)-activated citrate secretion plays an important role in Al resistance in a number of plant species, such as rice bean (Vigna umbellata). This study further characterized the regulation of VuMATE1, an aluminium-activated citrate transporter. Al stress induced VuMATE1 expression, followed by the secretion of citrate. Citrate secretion was specific to Al stress, whereas VuMATE1 expression was not, which could be explained by a combined regulation of VuMATE1 expression and Al-specific activation of VuMATE1 protein. Pre-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor suppressed VuMATE1 expression, indicating that de novo biosynthesis of proteins is required for gene expression. Furthermore, post-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor inhibited citrate secretion, indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 is critical for citrate secretion. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies showed that reversible phosphorylation was important not only for transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 expression but also for post-translational regulation of VuMATE1 protein activity. These results suggest that citrate secretion is dependent on both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1. Additionally, VuMATE1 promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion lines revealed that VuMATE1 expression was restricted to the root apex and was entirely Al induced, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements regulating root tip-specific and Al-inducible gene expression, which will be an important resource for genetic improvement of plant Al resistance.

  9. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated: un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2009-06-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments with a higher ratio of irradiated versus un-irradiated males were performed. Second, pupae were irradiated just prior to emergence and male mating competitiveness was determined. Males were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. Pupae were irradiated aged 20-26 h (young) as routinely performed, or the pupal stage was artificially prolonged by cooling and pupae were irradiated aged 42-48 h (old). Irradiated males competed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to un-irradiated males for mates in a large cage design. At the 3:1 ratio, the number of females inseminated by males irradiated with 70 Gy as young pupae was similar to the number inseminated by un-irradiated males for the majority of the replicates. At 120 Gy, significantly fewer females were inseminated by irradiated than by un-irradiated males. The irradiation of older pupae did not result in a significantly improved male mating competitiveness compared to the irradiation of young pupae. Our findings indicate that the loss of competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation can be compensated for by a threefold increase of irradiated males, but only for the partially-sterilizing dose. In addition, cooling might be a useful tool to facilitate handling processes of large numbers of mosquitoes in genetic control programmes.

  10. Life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on excised Petroselinum crispum roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Mehmet

    2007-11-15

    The life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai were observed in vitro on excised roots of Petroselinum crispum in gnotobiotic culture. Eggs hatched into juveniles whose appearance and structure were similar to those of the adults. Juveniles grew in size and each juvenile stage was terminated by a molt. Z. guevarai had four juvenile stages with the first molt occurred outside the egg shortly after hatching. After the final molt the juveniles differentiated into adult males and females. Mating was required for reproduction. After mating, fertilized females began to lay eggs. The life cycle from second stage juvenile to second stage juvenile was completed in 43 days.

  11. Aporte de Minerales del mate cocido a la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Francini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo surgió como la continuación del trabajo "YERBA MATE... ¿SIMPLEMENTE UN HABITO O UN BUEN ALIMENTO?" en el cual se analizó el contenido total de: K, Mn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu y Ni en once yerbas comercializadas en Uruguay.En la región comprendida por Argentina, Uruguay, Brasil y Paraguay la yerba mate se consume mayoritariamente como mate (extracción en caliente, tereré (extracción en frío y mate cocido (infusión caliente. A los efectos de conocer el aporte de minerales de la yerba a la dieta diaria, se analizó el contenido de K, Mn, Mg, Fe y Zn (por ser los presentes en mayor cantidad en la yerba mate en una simulación de mate cocido, con lo que se determinó que porcentaje de estos es extraído en dicha infusión.Para realizar la simulación de mate cocido, se colocaron 50g de yerba mate en 1L de agua desionizada y se calentó en plancha con agitación hasta alcanzar una temperatura de 99°C. La solución sobrenadante fue filtrada en caliente en filtro de papel de 640W y luego en frío a través de filtro de membrana de 0,45 µm. Los minerales antes mencionados fueron determinados por espectroscopía de emisión óptica (PERKIN ELMER OPTIMA 2100. Obteniéndose como resultado Zn= 2,9mg/L, Fe= 0,36mg/L, Mn= 57mg/L, K= 848mg/L en el extracto preparado como se mencionó anteriormente. Representando una extracción del contenido total de la yerba mate cercano al 100% para potasio y cinc, del 70% para el manganeso y del 2% para el hierro.De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que de consumirse un litro de mate cocido diario preparado en forma similar a la de este trabajo, se cubrirían ampliamente los requerimientos diarios de manganeso, se cubriría el 50% de los requerimientos diarios de magnesio, el 20% de los de potasio y cinc y el 6% de los de hierro.La yerba mate es un alimento ampliamente difundido y en los estratos sociales más bajos llega a sustituir una o más comidas diarias, lo que convierte a la I

  12. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Fabrick

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]. The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3 in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1 linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1 progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4 predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  13. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]). The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R) was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3) in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1) linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1) progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4) predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  14. Active phenotypic assortment in mate selection: self-descriptions and sought-for attributes of mates in dating advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, D K; Johnson, R C

    1997-01-01

    Assortative mating results both from social homogamy (coming for similar environments) and active phenotypic assortment (seeking a mate with desired attributes). Dating advertisements provide a means of assessing the role of active phenotypic assortment in the absence of social homogamy. The relative frequency of mention of different attributes (given limited advertising space) is informative regarding the salience of these attributes in active phenotypic assortment. Sex differences in self descriptions and in attributes desired in others in dating advertisements provide a means of evaluating sociobiological issues. Data were analyzed from 191 ads placed by females and 253 ads placed by males seeking to meet members of the opposite sex. The most frequently mentioned attributes are age, race, occupation, moral characteristics, and physical attractiveness. While close to 80 per cent of the advertisers provided information concerning their own race/ethnicity, only a minority of those providing such information limited their quest for a partner to members of their own race/ethnicity. There is substantial assortative mating for religion, family background, status, and educational attainment, yet these attributes are rarely (religion and education) or never (family background) mentioned in advertisements, suggesting that assortative mating on these dimensions may be solely a consequence of social homogamy.

  15. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates.

  17. Fertility after ovarian follicular wave synchronization and fixed-time natural mating compared to random natural mating in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Juhasz, J

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two ovarian follicular wave synchronization protocols coupled with fixed-time natural mating with that of random mating in dromedary camels. Dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of the three treatment groups. Group 1 animals (RM; n = 46) were mated randomly. Group 2 camels (1×GnRH-FTM; n = 46) were given a GnRH analog (Buserelin, 20 μg/animal, i.v.; Receptal, Intervet, Holland) at random, then were mated 14 days later. In Group 3 animals (2×GnRH-FTM; n = 41), random GnRH analog was followed by repeated GnRH injection 14 days later and fixed-time natural mating on Day 28. Transrectal examination and ultrasonography were performed at weekly intervals to evaluate ovarian follicular status, diagnose ovulation and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected for progesterone determination by ELISA to confirm ovulation and pregnancy. All female dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of thirteen fertile bulls and were bred once on Days 1, 14 and 28 in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ovarian follicular status and ovulation rate was similar among groups at the start of the study. Seventy-five of the 133 dromedaries (56.4%) ovulated after random natural mating or random GnRH treatment. Mean length of mating was 386 ± 17.8 (±SEM) seconds. There was no significant difference in mating time among groups and in pregnancy rate among dromedary bulls. In Group 3 (2×GnRH-FTM), ovarian follicular status before mating (P dromedaries (1×GnRH-FTM), treatment tended to improve follicular status before mating, ovulation rate (n = 34, 73.9%) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n = 21, 45.7% and PR 60 days n = 16, 34.8%), but the effect was not significant compared to random natural mating. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that favorable pregnancy rate can be achieved following ovarian follicular wave synchronization with repeated GnRH analog and fixed-time natural mating at 14 days intervals in

  18. Effects of different mating scenarios on embryo viability in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alain; Evanno, Guillaume; Von Siebenthal, Beat A; Grossen, Christine; Wedekind, Claus

    2010-12-01

    Mating with attractive or dominant males is often predicted to offer indirect genetic benefits to females, but it is still largely unclear how important such non-random mating can be with regard to embryo viability. We sampled a natural population of adult migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta), bred them in vitro in a half-sib breeding design to separate genetic from maternal environmental effects, raised 2098 embryos singly until hatching, and exposed them experimentally to different levels of pathogen stress at a late embryonic stage. We found that the embryos' tolerance to the induced pathogen stress was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of their parents, i.e. certain MHC genotypes appeared to provide better protection against infection than others. We also found significant additive genetic variance for stress tolerance. Melanin-based dark skin patterns revealed males with 'good genes', i.e. embryos fathered by dark coloured males had a high tolerance to infection. Mating with large and dominant males would, however, not improve embryo viability when compared to random mating. We used simulations to provide estimates of how mate choice based on MHC or melanin-based skin patterns would influence embryos' tolerance to the experimentally induced pathogen stress.

  19. The advantage of factorial mating under selection is uncovered by deterministically predicted rates of inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Anders

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rates of inbreeding (ΔF in selected populations were predicted using the framework of long-term genetic contributions and validated against stochastic simulations. Deterministic predictions decomposed ΔF into four components due to: finite population size, directional selection, covariance of genetic contribution of mates, and deviation of variance of family size from that expected from a Poisson distribution. Factorial (FM and hierarchical (HM mating systems were compared under mass and sib-index selection. Prediction errors were in most cases for ΔF less than 10% and for rate of gain less than 5%. ΔF was higher with index than mass selection. ΔF was lower with FM than HM in all cases except random selection. FM reduced the variance of the average breeding value of the mates of an individual. This reduced the impact of the covariance of contributions of mates on ΔF. Thus, contributions of mates were less correlated with FM than HM, causing smaller deviations of converged contributions from the optimum contributions. With index selection, FM also caused a smaller variance of number of offspring selected from each parent. This reduced variance of family size reduced ΔF further. FM increases the flexibility in breeding schemes for achieving the optimum genetic contributions.

  20. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Maria J.; Peretti, Alfredo V.

    2015-01-01

    In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings). Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability. PMID:26107397

  1. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  2. Can social learning promote hybridisation? : mate-choice cpying in Drosophila subobscura populations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gonçalo Faria, 1991-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Mate-choice copying (MCC) by females (although the same behaviour can be found on males) occurs when they obtain information about the mating performance of a male with other females, increasing or decreasing their preference for that male, accordingly. MCC generalization occurs when males with similar phenotypes to the first one are also preferred. This behavioural pat...

  3. Effective size of density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E

    2017-08-01

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare Ne in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual Ne /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the Ne /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Mate choice theory and the mode of selection in sexual populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L

    2003-05-27

    Indirect new data imply that mate and/or gamete choice are major selective forces driving genetic change in sexual populations. The system dictates nonrandom mating, an evolutionary process requiring both revised genetic theory and new data on heritability of characters underlying Darwinian fitness. Successfully reproducing individuals represent rare selections from among vigorous, competing survivors of preadult natural selection. Nonrandom mating has correlated demographic effects: reduced effective population size, inbreeding, low gene flow, and emphasis on deme structure. Characters involved in choice behavior at reproduction appear based on quantitative trait loci. This variability serves selection for fitness within the population, having only an incidental relationship to the origin of genetically based reproductive isolation between populations. The claim that extensive hybridization experiments with Drosophila indicate that selection favors a gradual progression of "isolating mechanisms" is flawed, because intra-group random mating is assumed. Over deep time, local sexual populations are strong, independent genetic systems that use rich fields of variable polygenic components of fitness. The sexual reproduction system thus particularizes, in small subspecific populations, the genetic basis of the grand adaptive sweep of selective evolutionary change, much as Darwin proposed.

  5. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  6. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  7. Mate choice on fallow deer leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M; Robertson, A

    1989-08-10

    Leks, on which males defend small clustered mating territories, may have evolved because of the unusual opportunities they provide for female choice of mating partners, and several studies of lek-breeding animals have demonstrated correlations between the mating success of males and their phenotype or behaviour. However, these could arise because (1) females select mates on the basis of male phenotypic traits; (2) males interfere with each other's mating attempts; or (3) females show preferences for particular mating territories, and larger or stronger males are more likely to win access to these territories. Here we report that when fallow bucks on a traditional lek were experimentally induced to change their territories, differences in the mating success of bucks persisted, whereas differences in the position of their territories relative to the centre of the lek did not. The observation that bucks rarely interfered with their neighbours' harems and females moved freely between bucks suggests that females choose their mates on the basis of male phenotype rather than territory type or location. In this population, the immediate factor affecting the movements of females between males was the size of a buck's harem.

  8. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with a 13-helix topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wright, Stephen H

    2009-08-01

    The mammalian members of the Multidrug And Toxin Extruder family, i.e., MATE1 and MATE2-K, are suspected of mediating the luminal step in renal secretion of organic cations. The 1,000+ prokaryotic/fungal/plant MATE family members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs), whereas MATE1/2-K appear to have an additional (13th) COOH-terminal helix. Here, we determined whether rabbit MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with the presence of 13 TMHs. A V5 epitope tag at the COOH terminus of MATE1 was freely accessible to external V5 antibody, whereas tags at the NH(2) terminus, or at sites of truncation within the long cytoplasmic loop between predicted TMHs 12 and 13, were only accessible to the V5 antibody following permeabilization of the membrane. The truncated mutants that lacked TMH13 still retained transport activity, indicating that the terminal helix was not necessary for transport function. Cells that expressed a mutant lacking only TMH13 displayed similar K(t) and J(max) values to those of the full-length protein, although when normalized to protein expressed at the plasma membrane, the transport rate of the mutant was COOH terminus was freely accessible to maleimide biotin. These data are consistent with a mammalian MATE topology that includes 13 TMHs and indicate that the terminal TMH, although not necessary for transport function, may influence the turnover characteristics of the transporter.

  10. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  11. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kuduk

    Full Text Available Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear.

  12. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  13. Mating patterns amongst Siberian reindeer herders: inferences from mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Novgorodov, Innokentij N; Osakovskij, Vladimir L; Stoneking, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The Evenks and Evens, who speak closely related languages belonging to the Northern Tungusic branch of the Tungusic family, are nomadic reindeer herders and hunters. They are spread over an immense territory in northeastern Siberia, and consequently different subgroups are in contact with diverse peoples speaking Samoyedic, Turkic, Mongolic, Chukotka-Kamchatkan, and Yukaghir languages. Nevertheless, the languages and culture of the Evenks and Evens are similar enough for them to have been classified as a single ethnic group in the past. This linguistic and cultural similarity indicates that they may have spread over their current area of habitation relatively recently, and thus may be closely related genetically. On the other hand, the great distances that separate individual groups of Evens and Evenks from each other might have led to preferential mating with geographic neighbors rather than with linguistically related peoples. In this study, we assess the correlation between linguistic and genetic relationship in three different subgroups of Evenks and Evens, respectively, via mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses. The results show that there is some evidence of a common origin based on shared mtDNA lineages and relatively similar Y-haplogroup frequencies amongst most of the Evenk and Even subgroups. However, there is little sharing of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes, indicating that males within Evenk and Even subgroups have remained relatively isolated. There is further evidence of some female admixture in different Even subgroups with their respective geographic neighbors. However, the Tungusic groups, and especially the Evenks, show signs of genetic drift, making inferences about their prehistory difficult.

  14. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  15. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  16. The evolution of multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2012-01-01

    Polyandry is a paradox: why do females mate multiple times when a single ejaculate often provides enough sperm for lifetime egg production? Gowaty et al. addressed explanations for polyandry in Drosophila pseudoobscura from the perspective of hypotheses based on sex differences in costs of reproduction (CoR). Contrary to CoR, Gowaty et al. showed that (1) a single ejaculate was inadequate for lifetime egg production; (2) polyandry provided fitness benefits to females beyond provision of adequate sperm and (3) fitness benefits of polyandry were not offset by costs. Here, I discuss predictions of the ad hoc hypotheses of CoR and three alternative hypotheses to CoR to facilitate a discussion and further development of a strong inference approach to experiments on the adaptive significance of polyandry for females. Each of the hypotheses makes testable predictions; simultaneous tests of the predictions will provide a strong inference approach to understanding the adaptive significance of multiple mating. I describe a sex-symmetric experiment meant to evaluate variation in fitness among lifelong virgins (V); monogamous females and males with one copulation (MOC); monogamous females and males with multiple copulations (MMC); PAND, polyandrous females; and PGYN, polygynous males. Last, I recommend the study of many different species, while taking care in choice of study species and attention to the assumptions of specific hypotheses. I particularly urge the study of many more Drosophila species both in laboratory and the wild to understand the “nature of flies in nature,” where opportunities and constraints mold evolutionary responses. PMID:22223093

  17. Are indirect genetic benefits associated with polyandry? Testing predictions in a natural population of lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Feldheim, Kevin A; Gruber, Samuel H; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating has clear fitness benefits for males, but uncertain benefits and costs for females. We tested for indirect genetic benefits of polyandry in a natural population, by using data from a long-term genetic and demographic study of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) at Bimini, Bahamas. To do so, we followed the fates of individuals from six cohorts (450 age-0 and 254 age-1 fish) in relation to their individual level of genetic variation, and whether they were from polyandrous or monoandrous litters. We find that offspring from polyandrous litters did not have a greater genetic diversity or greater survival than did the offspring of monoandrous litters. We also find no evidence of positive associations between individual offspring genetic diversity metrics and our surrogate measure of fitness (i.e. survival). In fact, age-1 individuals with fewer heterozygous microsatellite loci and more genetically similar parents were more likely to survive to age-2. Thus, polyandry in female lemon sharks does not appear to be adaptive from the perspective of indirect genetic benefits to offspring. It may instead be the result of convenience polyandry, whereby females mate multiply to avoid harassment by males. Our inability to find indirect genetic benefits of polyandry despite detailed pedigree and survival information suggests the need for similar assessments in other natural populations.

  18. Computing mating bull fertility from DHI nonreturn data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J S; McDaniel, B T

    2001-05-01

    Animal model methodology was used to compute yearly measures of relative fertility of Holstein AI mating bulls based upon 70-d nonreturn of first breedings as reported to U.S. DHIA from 1988 through 1997. Estimated Relative Conception Rates (ERCR) were computed for bulls with a minimum of 50 first breedings in a single year using variance ratios 45.5 for mating bull, 45.5 for animal genetic effects, and 31 for permanent environment. The model assumed repeatability across lactations of 0.05 and included fixed effects of herd-year-month bred and classes of parity, early lactation energy-corrected milk and days open when bred. Estimates of fertility were greater for breedings to cows that were young, had low early lactation production, and were in late stages of lactation. ERCR were expressed as difference in nonreturn from the average AI mating bull of herdmates. Values ranged from -18 to +13. For ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 breedings, 90% were within four units of zero. Early ERCR computed from a few breedings in a single year were tested for ability to predict later ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 different breedings. Early ERCR computed from 300 or more matings accurately predicted later independent ERCR. For yearly estimates each based upon a minimum of 1000 breedings, 8% changed more than three units, and 4% declined more than three units. Correlations between ERCR and predicted transmitting abilities protein and type production index were significant but accounted for little variance. Correlations between ERCR and other traits were not significant.

  19. A New Orbivirus Isolated from Mosquitoes in North-Western Australia Shows Antigenic and Genetic Similarity to Corriparta Virus but Does Not Replicate in Vertebrate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Harrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry’s Lagoon virus, PLV from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV, a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2% amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle.

  20. Genetic Similarity and Population Structure in a Rice Drought Stress Adaptation Panel%一组水稻种质资源的遗传相似性及群体结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇龙; 雷建国; 余传元; Quirino D.Dela Cruz; Jonalyn M.Cstillo; Dindo A.Tabanao

    2012-01-01

    育种的成功基于试验材料中具有可利用的遗传变异,了解种质资源的群体机构及遗传变异范围是作物遗传改良的先决条件.本试验通过利用每3 Mb bin均匀分布于水稻染色体的156个SSR标记子,分析了一组(184个)用于干旱适应性研究的水稻种质资源的遗传相似性及群体结构.结果显示,水稻中确实存在着可供利用的遗传多样性,但也存在着普遍的遗传相似性,如国际水稻所的IR品种及菲律宾国家水稻所的PR及BP 水稻品种.通过利用Structure中的混合模型对该184个水稻品种在K=3和K=7时的分析表明,群体结构普遍存在于相同类型或亚种的水稻品种中,籼稻及粳稻品种具有相对明显的群体结构,同一亲本的衍生后代具有显著的遗传相似性和群体结构,不同的群体均存在一定程度的遗传混合.对该组干旱适应性水稻种质资源的遗传相似性及群体结构的研究为今后的抗旱性基因的联合作图,也为合理选择亲本进行水稻抗旱性改良提供了有价值的遗传信息.%The success of plant breeding is based on the availability of genetic variation. Understanding the population structure and range of diversity in available germplasm is fundamental for genetic improvement in all crop species. In this study, the authors analyzed the genetic diversity and the population structure of a drought stress adaptation panel (184 rice genotypes) through 156 SSR markers nearly evenly distributed across the rice genome at every 3 Mb bin. The results indicated that large range of genetic diversity existed among rice germplasms, while some accessions exhibited comparatively higher genetic similarity, such as IR designated varieties from IRRI and BP and PR designated varieties from PhilRice. The results of population structure of the 184 rice genotypes analyzed when K = 3 and K=7 through the mixed model of STRUCTURE indicated: population generally existed in the same type or rice

  1. Concordance in mate choice in female mound-building mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigneux, Emilie; Féron, Christophe; Gouat, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Females must evaluate male quality to perform mate choice. Since females generally base their selection on different male features, individual females may differ in their choice. In this study, we show that concordance between females in mate choice decisions may arise without any experimental maximization of a particular attractive trait. Choice tests were performed in mound-building mice, Mus spicilegus, a monogamous species. Body odours of two male donors were presented to 12 female subjects individually. To determine female choice, the same pair of males was presented three times to a female. Four different pairs of male body odours were used. Male donors, not related to females, were selected at random in our polymorphic breeding stock. Using this two-way choice design, female mice displayed a clear choice and had a similar preference for particular males.

  2. Parthenogenesis in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, P; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2016-10-15

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. Also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin Chinese Painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (PV). When these PV hens are mated (PM), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (CM) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. However, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in PM hens, reduces hatchability due to infertility and altered albumen characteristics. Sperm-egg penetration (SEP) holes are indicative of true fertilization and may be useful in identifying if eggs from PM hens exhibit a decrease in fertility versus CM hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if parthenogenesis in PM hens (1) decreases SEP, (2) alters albumen characteristics similar to parthenogenesis in eggs from PV hens, and (3) yields albumen characteristics similar to fertilized eggs containing early mortality. Daily, PV and PM eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 10 days, then broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis and albumen characteristics. Also daily, fresh PM and CM quail eggs were macroscopically examined to determine if an egg was infertile with no embryonic development, parthenogenetic, or fertile. Each of these eggs was then microscopically examined for SEP. For both PV and PM incubated eggs, parthenogenesis decreased albumen pH, O2, and protein concentrations yet increased Ca(2+) and CO2 concentrations versus eggs with no development. For incubated PM eggs, albumen pH and O2 were lower, yet CO2 was higher for eggs containing parthenogens or early dead embryos versus infertile eggs. For SEP, fresh eggs classified as infertile or parthenogenetic from PM and CM hens had similar SEP holes but only one sixth as many SEP holes as eggs classified as fertilized. Eggs from CM hens had 3.5 times as many SEP holes as PM eggs. In conclusion

  3. Conflict and cooperation over sex: the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success in dunnocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Santos, Luana L S; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-11-01

    Conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. Among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success of females and males in a population of the dunnock, Prunella modularis. We show that female multiple mating ameliorates the negative effects of inbreeding. We, however, found little evidence that females engage in extra-group (pair) mating with less related or more heterozygous males. Breeding in socially polyandrous groups reduced the amount of paternity lost to extra-group males, such that, on average, cobreeding and monogamous males fledged a similar number of young. Importantly, c. 30% of cobreeding male dyads were related, suggesting they could gain indirect fitness benefits. Taken together, cobreeding males achieve equivalent reproductive success to monogamous counterparts under most circumstances. Our study has revealed unexpected complexities in the variable mating system of dunnocks in New Zealand. Our results differ from the well-known Cambridge dunnock study and can help our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of various breeding systems in the animal kingdom.

  4. Switching attraction to inhibition: mating-induced reversed role of sex pheromone in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, Romina B; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2010-09-01

    In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, newly mated males cease to be attracted to the female-produced sex pheromone, preventing them from re-mating until the next night, by which time they would have refilled their reproductive glands for a potential new ejaculate. The behavioural plasticity is accompanied by a decrease in neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it was not clear whether the lack of the sexually guided behaviour results from the absence of sex pheromone detection in the ALs, or if they ignore it in spite of detection, or if the sex pheromone itself inhibits attraction behaviour after mating. To test these hypotheses, we performed behavioural tests and intracellular recordings of AL neurons to non-pheromonal odours (flower volatiles), different doses of sex pheromone and their mixtures in virgin and newly mated males. Our results show that, although the behavioural and AL neuron responses to flower volatiles alone were similar between virgin and mated males, the behavioural response of mated males to flower odours was inhibited by adding pheromone doses above the detection threshold of central neurons. Moreover, we show that the sex pheromone becomes inhibitory by differential central processing: below a specific threshold, it is not detected within the AL; above this threshold, it becomes inhibitory, preventing newly mated males from responding even to plant odours. Mated male moths have thus evolved a strategy based on transient odour-selective central processing, which allows them to avoid the risk-taking, energy-consuming search for females and delay re-mating until the next night for a potential new ejaculate.

  5. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  6. Mating plugs in polyandrous giants: which sex produces them, when, how and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Kuntner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Males usually produce mating plugs to reduce sperm competition. However, females can conceivably also produce mating plugs in order to prevent unwanted, superfluous and energetically costly matings. In spiders-appropriate models for testing plugging biology hypotheses-mating plugs may consist of male genital parts and/or of amorphous covers consisting of glandular or sperm secretions. In the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes, a highly sexually dimorphic and polygamous species, males are known to produce ineffective embolic plugs through genital damage, but nothing is known about the origin and function of additional conspicuous amorphous plugs (AP covering female genitals. METHODOLOGY: We tested alternative hypotheses of the nature and function of AP in N. pilipes by staging mating trials with varying degrees of polyandry. No APs were ever formed during mating trials, which rules out the possibility of male AP formation. Instead, those females that oviposited produced the AP from a liquid secreted during egg sac formation. Polyandrous females were more likely to lay eggs and to produce the AP, as were those that mated longer and with more total insertions. Our further tests revealed that, in spite of being a side product of egg sac production, AP, when hardened, prevented any subsequent copulation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in the giant wood spider (Nephila pilipes, the amorphous mating plugs are not produced by the males, that repeated copulations (most likely polyandrous are necessary for egg fertilization and AP formation, and that the AP represents a female adaptation to sexual conflict through prevention of unwanted, excessive copulations. Considering the largely unknown origin of amorphous plugs in spiders, we predict that a similar pattern might be detected in other clades, which would help elucidate the evolutionary interplay of various selection pressures responsible for the origin and maintenance of mating plugs.

  7. A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-King, Malin; Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2016-07-01

    Mate choice hypotheses usually focus on trait variation of chosen individuals. Recently, mate choice studies have increasingly attended to the environmental circumstances affecting variation in choosers' behavior and choosers' traits. We reviewed the literature on phenotypic plasticity in mate choice with the goal of exploring whether phenotypic plasticity can be interpreted as individual flexibility in the context of the switch point theorem, SPT (Gowaty and Hubbell 2009). We found >3000 studies; 198 were empirical studies of within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and sixteen showed no evidence of mate choice plasticity. Most studies reported changes from choosy to indiscriminate behavior of subjects. Investigators attributed changes to one or more causes including operational sex ratio, adult sex ratio, potential reproductive rate, predation risk, disease risk, chooser's mating experience, chooser's age, chooser's condition, or chooser's resources. The studies together indicate that "choosiness" of potential mates is environmentally and socially labile, that is, induced - not fixed - in "the choosy sex" with results consistent with choosers' intrinsic characteristics or their ecological circumstances mattering more to mate choice than the traits of potential mates. We show that plasticity-associated variables factor into the simpler SPT variables. We propose that it is time to complete the move from questions about within-sex plasticity in the choosy sex to between- and within-individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making of both sexes simultaneously. Currently, unanswered empirical questions are about the force of alternative constraints and opportunities as inducers of individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making, and the ecological, social, and developmental sources of similarities and differences between individuals. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individual mate preferences and subsequent

  8. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W.; Dugdale, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are

  9. Parents Just Don't Understand : Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research reveals that children and parents are not in complete agreement over which traits are most important for the mate of the child. Children tend to prefer traits that suggest genetic quality, whereas parents prefer characteristics that suggest high parental investment and cooperation

  10. Mixed mating system in the fern Asplenium scolopendrium: implication for colonization potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, P.; Wubs, E.R.J.; Groot, de G.A.; During, H.J.; Vogel, J.C.; Grundmann, M.; Schneider, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Human-mediated environmental change is increasing selection pressure for the capacity in plants to colonize new areas. Habitat fragmentation combined with climate change, in general, forces species to colonize areas over longer distances. Mating systems and genetic load are impor

  11. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-09-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over time, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare.

  12. Prioritization of Potential Mates' History of Sexual Fidelity During a Conjoint Ranking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilski, Justin K; Wade, T Joel; Welling, Lisa L M

    2014-07-01

    This series of studies is the first to use conjoint analysis to examine how individuals make trade-offs during mate selection when provided information about a partner's history of sexual infidelity. Across three studies, participants ranked profiles of potential mates, with each profile varying across five attributes: financial stability, physical attractiveness, sexual fidelity, emotional investment, and similarity. They also rated each attribute separately for importance in an ideal mate. Overall, we found that for a long-term mate, participants prioritized a potential partner's history of sexual fidelity over other attributes when profiles were ranked conjointly. For a short-term mate, sexual fidelity, physical attractiveness, and financial stability were equally important, and each was more important than emotional investment and similarity. These patterns contrast with participants' self-reported importance ratings of each individual attribute. Our results are interpreted within the context of previous literature examining how making trade-offs affect mate selection. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Spermless males elicit large-scale female responses to mating in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thailayil, Janis; Magnusson, Kalle; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Crisanti, Andrea; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the major vector of malaria, a disease with devastating consequences for human health. Given the constant spread of the disease, alternative approaches to the use of insecticides are urgently needed to control vector populations. Females of this species undergo large behavioral changes after mating, which include a life-long refractoriness to further insemination and the induction of egg laying in blood-fed individuals. Genetic control strategies aimed at impacting Anopheles fertility through the release of sterile males are being advocated to reduce the size of mosquito field populations. Such strategies depend on the ability of the released sterile males to mate successfully with wild females and to switch off the female receptivity to further copulation. Here we evaluate the role of sperm in regulating female behavioral responses after mating in An. gambiae. We developed spermless males by RNAi silencing of a germ cell differentiation gene. These males mated successfully and preserved standard accessory gland functions. Females mated to spermless males exhibited normal postcopulatory responses, which included laying large numbers of eggs upon blood feeding and becoming refractory to subsequent insemination. Moreover, spermless males induced transcriptional changes in female reproductive genes comparable to those elicited by fertile males. Our data demonstrate that, in contrast to Drosophila, targeting sperm in An. gambiae preserves normal male and female reproductive behavior for the traits and time frame analyzed and validate the use of approaches based on incapacitation or elimination of sperm for genetic control of vector populations to block malaria transmission. PMID:21825136

  14. In-Law and Mate Preferences in Chinese Society and the Role of Traditional Cultural Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Li, Yujie; Yu, Shushuang

    2017-01-01

    Using 347 parent-child dyads as participants, this study directly examined in-law and mate preferences in a typical collectivist culture. The results showed (1) traits indicating social status and parental investment were more highly valued by the parents, while traits indicating genetic quality and traits related to romantic love were more highly valued by the children. (2) Parental preferences were moderated by gender of the in-laws. Good earning capacity was more preferred by parents in a son-in-law, traits connoting genetic quality and reproductive fitness were more preferred by parents in a daughter-in-law. (3) There was more convergence in in-law and mate preferences in Chinese culture than in Western cultures. (4) Traditional cultural values (i.e., filial piety) can be used as a predictor of traditional mate preferences and less parent-child divergences. Additionally, greater preference for kind and understanding by parents than by children as well as by daughters than by sons, and greater preference for social status by the daughters' than by the sons' parents have not been observed in the rating and the ranking instrument. These findings illustrated how culture handles the parent-child disagreement over mating by authorizing greater parental influence on children's mating decisions.

  15. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  16. Status and mating success amongst visual artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller's evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art.

  17. Similaridade genética entre cultivares de cebola de diferentes tipos e origens, baseada em marcadores AFLP Genetic similarity among onion cultivars of different types and origins, based on AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAF Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a similaridade genética entre cultivares de cebola de diferentes tipos e regiões geográficas, de forma a orientar programas de recursos genéticos e melhoramento da espécie no Nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas 41 cultivares, adotando-se para a visualização da similaridade genética o fenograma UPGMA gerado da matriz de distâncias genéticas estimadas pelo coeficiente de Jaccard e baseadas em 146 bandas polimórficas de Pst1 e Mse1 de AFLP. A correlação cofenética foi de 0,91, indicando boa confiabilidade da representação gráfica para a interpretação dos resultados. Foram observados dois grupos principais no fenograma, no ponto de corte de 0,55 de similaridade: 1 grupo formado por cultivares predominantemente brasileiras, com algumas inclusões de cultivares estrangeiras; e 2 grupo formado por três cultivares estrangeiras (Mercedes, Perfect e TEG 502 PRR. Rijnsburger Jumbo e IPA 8 apresentaram a maior similaridade (85%, enquanto Madrugada foi a mais divergente em relação às demais cultivares. As cultivares da série IPA se dividiram em subgrupos no grupo das cultivares brasileiras (IPA 8, IPA 10 e IPA 11; IPA 12, IPA 7, IPA 2 e IPA 6; IPA 3, IPA 4 e IPA 9, indicando haver variabilidade genética a ser explorada entre aquelas situadas em subgrupos distintos. Bola Precoce e BRS Cascata apresentaram a maior similaridade entre as cultivares de origem brasileira. Foi observada similaridade superior a 39%, refletindo a alta variabilidade genética da coleção de cebola estudada. A introdução de novos acessos deve considerar procedências outras que não norte americanas, para aumentar a variabilidade de germoplasma de cebola disponível no Nordeste do Brasil.The genetic similarity among onion cultivars of different origins was evaluated, in order to carry out genetic resources and breeding programs for this species on the Brazilian Northeast. Forty-one onion cultivars were analyzed for 146 polymorphic Pst1/Mse1

  18. Speciation is not necessarily easier in species with sexually monomorphic mating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Henry, C S

    2015-11-01

    Should we have different expectations regarding the likelihood and pace of speciation by sexual selection when considering species with sexually monomorphic mating signals? Two conditions that can facilitate rapid species divergence are Felsenstein's one-allele mechanism and a genetic architecture that includes a genetic association between signal and preference loci. In sexually monomorphic species, the former can manifest in the form of mate choice based on phenotype matching. The latter can be promoted by selection acting upon genetic loci for divergent signals and preferences expressed simultaneously in each individual, rather than acting separately on signal loci in males and preference loci in females. Both sexes in the Chrysoperla carnea group of green lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) produce sexually monomorphic species-specific mating signals. We hybridized the two species C. agilis and C. carnea to test for evidence of these speciation-facilitating conditions. Hybrid signals were more complex than the parents and we observed a dominant influence of C. carnea. We found a dominant influence of C. agilis on preferences in the form of hybrid discrimination against C. carnea. Preferences in hybrids followed patterns predicting preference loci that determine mate choice rather than a one-allele mechanism. The genetic association between signal and preference we detected in the segregating hybrid crosses indicates that speciation in these species with sexually monomorphic mating signals can have occurred rapidly. However, we need additional evidence to determine whether such genetic associations form more readily in sexually monomorphic species compared to dimorphic species and consequently facilitate speciation.

  19. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-01-01

    .... To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism...

  20. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  1. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus = Similaridade genética de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.O gênero Plectranthus abrange plantas de diversas espécies, referidas como boldo, que são utilizadas na medicina popular pelas suas propriedades antidispépticas, analgésicas e estimulantes da digestão. Genótipos relacionados podem diferir amplamente na quantidade de princípios ativos naturais, resultando no uso de plantas não-apropriadas à saúde da população. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética interespecífica de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus e P. amboinicus e intraespecífica de P. barbatus, coletadas em diferentes localidades da região Sul do Brasil, por meio da técnica de RAPD

  2. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Cortesi, Paolo; Spanu, Pietro D; Milgroom, Michael G

    2011-07-01

    In ascomycetes, mating compatibility is regulated by the mating-type locus, MAT1. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to develop degenerate primers for amplification by PCR of conserved regions of mating-type idiomorphs in other powdery mildew fungi. We identified MAT1-2-1 of the MAT1-2 idiomorph in E. necator based on the homologous sequence in the genome of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and we found MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-3 of the MAT1-1 idiomorph from transcriptome sequences of E. necator. We developed and applied a reliable PCR-based multiplex marker to confirm that genotype correlated with mating phenotype, which was determined by pairing with mating-type tester isolates. Additionally, we used the marker to genotype populations of E. necator from different Vitis spp. from throughout the USA. We found both mating types were present in all populations and mating-type ratios did not deviate from 1:1. The mating-type genes in E. necator are similar to those of other Leotiomycetes; however, the structure of the MAT1 locus in E. necator, like the MAT1-2 idiomorph of B. graminis, is markedly different from other ascomycetes in that it is greatly expanded and may contain a large amount of repetitive DNA. As a result, we were unable to amplify and sequence either idiomorph in its entirety. We designed degenerate primers that amplify conserved regions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 in E. necator, Podosphaera xanthii, Microsphaera syringae, and B. graminis, representing the major clades of the Erysiphales. These degenerate primers or sequences obtained in this study from these species can be used to identify and sequence MAT1 genes or design mating-type markers in other powdery mildew fungi as well.

  3. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  5. RNA-sequencing elucidates the regulation of behavioural transitions associated with the mating process in honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Brown, Mark J F; Vergoz, Vanina; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-07-31

    Mating is a complex process, which is frequently associated with behavioural and physiological changes. However, understanding of the genetic underpinnings of these changes is limited. Honey bees are both a model system in behavioural genomics, and the dominant managed pollinator of human crops; consequently understanding the mating process has both pure and applied value. We used next-generation transcriptomics to probe changes in gene expression in the brains of honey bee queens, as they transition from virgin to mated reproductive status. In addition, we used CO2-narcosis, which induces oviposition without mating, to isolate the process of reproductive maturation. The mating process produced significant changes in the expression of vision, chemo-reception, metabolic, and immune-related genes. Differential expression of these genes maps clearly onto known behavioural and physiological changes that occur during the transition from being a virgin queen to a newly-mated queen. A subset of these changes in gene expression were also detected in CO2-treated queens, as predicted from previous physiological studies. In addition, we compared our results to previous studies that used microarray techniques across a range of experimental time-points. Changes in expression of immune- and vision-related genes were common to all studies, supporting an involvement of these groups of genes in the mating process. Our study is an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating post-mating behavioural transitions in a natural system. The weak overlap in patterns of gene expression with previous studies demonstrates the high sensitivity of genome-wide approaches. Thus, while we build on previous microarray studies that explored post-mating changes in honey bees, the broader experimental design, use of RNA-sequencing, and focus on Australian honey bees, which remain free from the devastating parasite Varroa destructor, in the current study, provide unique insights

  6. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  7. Assortative mating and the maintenance of population structure in a natural hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Ochoa, Olivia M; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the factors that give rise to natural hybrid zones and govern their dynamics and structure is important to predicting the evolutionary consequences of hybridization. Here we use a combination of multigenerational population genetic data, mating patterns from a natural population, behavioral assays, and mark-recapture data within clinal hybrid zones of the genus Xiphophorus to test the role of assortative mating in maintaining population structure and the potential for ongoing genetic exchange between heterospecifics. Our data demonstrate that population structure is temporally robust and driven largely by assortative mating stemming from precopulatory isolation between pure species. Furthermore, mark-recapture data revealed that rates of migration within the same stream reach are far below the level needed to support population structure. In contrast to many empirical studies of natural hybrid zones, there appeared to be no hybrid male dysfunction or discrimination against hybrid males by pure parental females, and hybrid females mated and associated with pure species and hybrid males at random. Despite strong isolation between pure parentals, hybrids therefore can act as a conduit for genetic exchange between heterospecifics, which has been shown to increase the tempo of evolutionary change. Additionally, our findings highlight the complexity of natural hybrid zone dynamics, demonstrating that sexual and ecological selection together can give rise to patterns that do not fit classical models of hybrid zone evolution.

  8. Relationship between Monokaryotic Growth Rate and Mating Type in the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Iribarren, Iñaki; Blanco, Juan A.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is an industrially produced heterothallic homobasidiomycete whose mating is controlled by a bifactorial tetrapolar genetic system. Two mating loci (matA and matB) control different steps of hyphal fusion, nuclear migration, and nuclear sorting during the onset and progress of the dikaryotic growth. Previous studies have shown that the segregation of the alleles present at the matB locus differs from that expected for a single locus because (i) new nonparental B alleles appeared in the progeny and (ii) there was a distortion in the segregation of the genomic regions close to this mating locus. In this study, we pursued these observations by using a genetic approach based on the identification of molecular markers linked to the matB locus that allowed us to dissect it into two genetically linked subunits (matBα and matBβ) and to correlate the presence of specific matBα and matA alleles with differences in monokaryotic growth rate. The availability of these molecular markers and the mating type dependence of growth rate in monokaryons can be helpful for marker-assisted selection of fast-growing monokaryons to be used in the construction of dikaryons able to colonize the substrate faster than the competitors responsible for reductions in the industrial yield of this fungus. PMID:11472908

  9. Mating compatibility and competitiveness of transgenic and wild type Aedes aegypti (L.) under contained semi-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Vasan, Seshadri; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Idris, Iswarti; Hanum, Norhaida; Selvi, S; Alphey, Luke; Murad, Shahnaz

    2013-02-01

    We conducted the world's first experiments under semi-field conditions (ACL-2 field house) to assess the mating competitiveness of genetically sterile RIDL male mosquitoes (513A strain). The field house is a state-of-the-art, fully-contained trial facility, simulating the living space for a household of 2-4 people in Peninsular Malaysia. Ten genetically sterile RIDL male A. aegypti mosquitoes competed with ten wild type males inside this field house to mate with ten wild type females. Hatched larvae from mated females were screened under a fluorescent microscope for genetic markers to determine if they were fathered by RIDL male or wild type male, and all results were cross-checked by PCR. Two such experiments were conducted, each repeated sufficient number of times. All strains were on a Malaysian lab strain background for the first experiment, while the RIDL males alone were on a recently-colonised Mexican strain background for the second experiment. A total of 52 % of the matings were with RIDL males in the first experiment, while 45 % of the matings were with RIDL (Mexican) males in the second experiment. Statistically, this is not significantly different from 50 % of the matings expected to take place with RIDL males if the latter were as competitive as that of the wild type males. This shows that A. aegypti RIDL-513A has excellent mating competitiveness under semi-field conditions, verifying earlier trends obtained in small lab cages. We also observed high mating compatibility between recently-colonised Mexican RIDL males and lab-reared Malaysian wild type females.

  10. A Role of DLPFC in the Learning Process of Human Mate Copying

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    Jin-Ying eZhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we conducted a behavioral experiment to test the mate coping effect and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to test the neural basis involved in the social learning process of mate copying. In the behavioral experiment, participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of isolated opposite-sex (potential mates facial photographs, then shown the targets associating with a neutral-faced model with textual cues indicating the models’ attitude (interested vs. not-interested towards the potential mates, and then asked to re-evaluate the potential mates’ attractiveness. Using a similar procedure as the behavioral experiment, participants were scanned while observing the compound images in the fMRI experiment. The mate copying effect was confirmed in the behavioral experiment –greater increase in attractiveness ratings was observed for opposite-sex photographs in the interested than in the not-interested condition. The fMRI results showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (DLPFC was significantly active in the comparison of interested  not-interested condition, suggesting that a cognitive integration and selection function may be involved when participants process information from conditions related to mate copying.

  11. Reproduction in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi: estrus and the relationship between multiple partner matings and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, D K; Whitten, P L

    1996-05-01

    Female sifaka mate selectively with one or more resident and/or non-resident males during the breeding season. Various adaptive explanations have been advanced to explain why female primates mate with multiple males including that 1) females seek to confuse paternity and thereby forestall male infanticide and/or ensure male infant care or 2) females seek to ensure fertilization. Assessing the power of fertilization insurance to explain mating patterns in females requires information on the temporal relationship between mating and ovarian hormones. The hormonal correlates of reproduction and mating in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi were investigated using excreted steroids as indices of reproductive state. Solid-phase extraction and radioimmunoassay techniques were used to measure unconjugated estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) in 485 desiccated fecal samples collected from five female sifaka before and during the breeding season at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Results suggest that behavioral estrus was characterized by 10 to 15-day elevations in E(2); hormonal activity was observed to be similar to pseudo-estrus reported for other lemur species; apparent conception was associated with sustained P4 elevations beginning 1 to 3 days post-estrus with gestational phase elevations of E2 beginning 42 to 45 days post-conception; and mating with multiple partners appeared not to be a prerequisite to fertilization, as conception resulted from both monoandrous and polyandrous matings. These preliminary data suggest that fertilization insurance is not adequate to explain polyandrous mating in sifaka at Beza Mahafaly.

  12. Working with what you've got: unattractive males show greater mate-guarding effort in a duetting songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jenélle; Webster, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear how a male's relative attractiveness influences his tactics. We conducted observations and experiments on red-backed fairy-wrens (Malurus melanocephalus) to address this question. We found that older, more attractive (red-black) males sought EPP, whereas unattractive (brown) males invested in alternative tactics-physical and acoustic mate guarding. Younger red-black males used intermediate tactics. This suggests that males adopt mating tactics appropriate to their attributes. Males obtained similar reproductive success, suggesting these alternative tactics may maximize each male's paternity gain. Though it is likely that female choice also determines paternity, rather than just male tactics, we establish that the many interconnected components of a male's sexual phenotype influence the evolution of his decision-making rules, deepening our understanding of how mating tactics evolve under sexual selection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Mating system and early viability resistance to habitat fragmentation in a bird-pollinated eucalypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, M F; Ottewell, K M; Gardner, M G; Marklund, M H K; Stead, M G; Harris, J B C; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation has been shown to disrupt ecosystem processes such as plant-pollinator mutualisms. Consequently, mating patterns in remnant tree populations are expected to shift towards increased inbreeding and reduced pollen diversity, with fitness consequences for future generations. However, mating patterns and phenotypic assessments of open-pollinated progeny have rarely been combined in a single study. Here, we collected seeds from 37 Eucalyptus incrassata trees from contrasting stand densities following recent clearance in a single South Australian population (intact woodland=12.6 trees ha(-1); isolated pasture=1.7 trees ha(-1); population area=10 km(2)). 649 progeny from these trees were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. We estimated genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, indirect contemporary pollen flow and mating patterns for adults older than the clearance events and open-pollinated progeny sired post-clearance. A proxy of early stage progeny viability was assessed in a common garden experiment. Density had no impact on mating patterns, adult and progeny genetic diversity or progeny growth, but was associated with increased mean pollen dispersal. Weak spatial genetic structure among adults suggests high historical gene flow. We observed preliminary evidence for inbreeding depression related to stress caused by fungal infection, but which was not associated with density. Higher observed heterozygosities in adults compared with progeny may relate to weak selection on progeny and lifetime-accumulated mortality of inbred adults. E. incrassata appears to be resistant to the negative mating pattern and fitness changes expected within fragmented landscapes. This pattern is likely explained by strong outcrossing and regular long-distance pollen flow.

  14. Determination of the mating system of Tucumã palm using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Linorio Ferreyra Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian Tucumã palm (Astrocaryum aculeatum produces edible fruit, traditionally consumed in indigenouscommunities and increasingly in urban centers. The species is incipiently domesticated and little studied, despite its growingeconomic importance for smallholder farmers and gatherers. Studies on the mating system are required for the conservation anduse of the species’ genetic resources. Our objective was to estimate mating system parameters of the Tucumã palm using microsatellitemarkers. Plants of 11 progenies of a spontaneous population were genotyped with eight microsatellite loci and the mating systemparameters estimated. The population outcrossing rate was estimated at 0.978, and ranged from 0.774 to 1at the family level. Theestimates of the correlation of paternity (0.176 and 0.205 suggest a low probability of full-sibs within progenies. Tucumã palm is apredominantly allogamous species and the open-pollinated progenies consist predominantly of half-sibs.

  15. Speciation in peripheral populations: effects of drift load and mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettelbach, A; Servedio, M R; Hermisson, J

    2016-05-01

    Speciation in peripheral populations has long been considered one of the most plausible scenarios for speciation with gene flow. In this study, however we identify two additional problems of peripatric speciation, as compared to the parapatric case, that may impede the completion of the speciation process for most parameter regions. First, with (predominantly) unidirectional gene flow, there is no selection pressure to evolve assortative mating on the continent. We discuss the implications of this for different mating schemes. Second, genetic load can build up in small populations. This can lead to extinction of the peripheral species, or generate selection pressure for lower assortative mating to avoid inbreeding. In this case, either a stable equilibrium with intermediate assortment evolves or there is cycling between phases of hybridization and phases of complete isolation.

  16. Patterns of Nonrandom Mating Within and Across 11 Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsletten, Ashley E.; Larsson, Henrik; Crowley, James J.; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-01-01

    significantly elevated. Differences in the magnitude of observed relationships were apparent by disorder (odds ratio range, 0.8-11.4). The number of comorbidities in a case proband was associated with the proportion of affected mates. These relationships were not apparent or weaker in magnitude among nonpsychiatric conditions (correlation range, −0.03 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Nonrandom mating is evident in psychiatric populations both within specific disorders and across the spectrum of psychiatric conditions. This phenomenon may hold important implications for how we understand the familial transmission of these disorders and for psychiatric genetic research. PMID:26913486

  17. The genetics of speciation by reinforcement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement occurs when natural selection strengthens behavioral discrimination to prevent costly interspecies matings, such as when matings produce sterile hybrids. This evolutionary process can complete speciation, thereby providing a direct link between Darwin's theory of natural selection and the origin of new species. Here, by examining a case of speciation by reinforcement in Drosophila,we present the first high-resolution genetic study of variation within species for female mating discrimination that is enhanced by natural selection. We show that reinforced mating discrimination is inherited as a dominant trait, exhibits variability within species, and may be influenced by a known set of candidate genes involved in olfaction. Our results show that the genetics of reinforced mating discrimination is different from the genetics of mating discrimination between species, suggesting that overall mating discrimination might be a composite phenomenon, which in Drosophila could involve both auditory and olfactory cues. Examining the genetics of reinforcement provides a unique opportunity for both understanding the origin of new species in the face of gene flow and identifying the genetic basis of adaptive female species preferences, two major gaps in our understanding of speciation.

  18. Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa Ana; Hammers, Martijn; Hansson, Bengt; Van Gossum, Hans; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Galicia Mendoza, Dalia Ivette; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2013-06-06

    Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in male mating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate male mating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in male mating preferences for female morphs. Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. The ontogenetic change in male mate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females.

  19. The mate choice brain: comparing gene profiles between female choice and male coercive poeciliids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K S; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2012-03-01

    Genes that mediate mate preferences potentially play a key role in promoting and maintaining biological diversity. In this study, we compare mate preference behavior in two related poeciliid fishes with contrasting behavioral phenotypes and relate these behavioral differences to gene profiles in the brain. Results reveal that one poeciliid fish, the Northern swordtail, exhibits robust mate preference as compared to the Western mosquitofish, which utilizes a coercive mating system. Female swordtails display no significant difference in association time between male- and female-exposure trials, whereas female mosquitofish spend significantly less time associating with males relative to females. Furthermore, the preference strength for large males is significantly lower in female mosquitofish relative to swordtails. We then examine expression of three candidate genes previously shown to be associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails and linked to neural plasticity in other vertebrates: neuroserpin (NS), neuroligin-3 (NLG-3) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R). Whole brain gene expression patterns reveal that two genes (NS and NLG-3) are positively associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails, a pattern opposing that of the mosquitofish. In mosquitofish females, these genes are downregulated when females express biases toward males yet are elevated in association with total motor activity patterns under asocial conditions, suggesting that the presence of males in mosquitofish species may inhibit expression of these genes. Both gene expression and female behavioral responses to males exhibit opposing patterns between these species, suggesting that this genetic pathway may potentially act as a substrate for the evolution of mate preference behavior.

  20. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics