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Sample records for genetically modified maize

  1. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012.

  2. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

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    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  4. Risks and benefits of genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa: views from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph M

    2003-02-01

    In 2001 and 2002, many countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have suffered from severe food shortages resulting in an estimated 14 million people facing starvation due to inadequate quantities of the staple maize. The international community's response has been the donation of foodstuffs, including genetically modified maize. Reactions of the recipient countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi have been different. Zambia appealed to the donors not to send genetically modified maize, whereas Malawi accepted the maize donations. Malawi is currently facing many public health challenges because 10% of its 10-million population is HIV-positive, maternal mortality rate has almost doubled between 1992 and 2000, and there are also an estimated 1 million orphans due to HIV/AIDS. In the European Union, genetically modified maize falls under "Novel Foods" and its marketing and distribution are strictly regulated by law. This has never been the case in the southern African countries. In this article, we discuss the ethical challenges associated with genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa. Although genetically modified food offers a way to avoid many adverse effects of food shortages, we believe that some of the ethical questions of genetically modified food donations should be solved first, under the leadership of the donor countries and partnership of the developing countries. There are fears that consummation of genetically modified maize could have adverse health effects. These fears must be addressed if the confidence of developing countries in the donor community is to be maintained.

  5. Between myth and reality: genetically modified maize, an example of a sizeable scientific controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Frangne, Nathalie; Massonneau, Agnès; Dumas, Christian

    2002-11-01

    Maize is a major crop plant with essential agronomical interests and a model plant for genetic studies. With the development of plant genetic engineering technology, many transgenic strains of this monocotyledonous plant have been produced over the past decade. In particular, field-cultivated insect-resistant Bt-maize hybrids are at the centre of an intense debate between scientists and organizations recalcitrant to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This debate, which addresses both safety and ethical aspects, has raised questions about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the biodiversity of traditional landraces and on the environment. Here, we review some of the key points of maize genetic history as well as the methods used to stably transform this cereal. We describe the genetically engineered Bt-maizes available for field cultivation and we investigate the controversial reports on their impacts on non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly and on the flow of transgenes into Mexican maize landraces.

  6. Fungal growth and fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B

    2002-02-13

    Fungi of the genus Fusarium are common fungal contaminants of maize and are also known to produce mycotoxins. Maize that has been genetically modified to express a Bt endotoxin has been used to study the effect of insect resistance on fungal infection of maize grains by Fusarium species and their related mycotoxins. Maize grain from Bt hybrids and near-isogenic traditional hybrids was collected in France and Spain from the 1999 crop, which was grown under natural conditions. According to the ergosterol level, the fungal biomass formed on Bt maize grain was 4-18 times lower than that on isogenic maize. Fumonisin B(1) grain concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.3 ppm for Bt maize and from 0.4 to 9 ppm for isogenic maize. Moderate to low concentrations of trichothecenes and zearalenone were measured on transgenic as well as on non-transgenic maize. Nevertheless, significant differences were obtained in certain regions. The protection of maize plants against insect damage (European corn borer and pink stem borer) through the use of Bt technology seems to be a way to reduce the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and the resultant fumonisins in maize grain grown in France and Spain.

  7. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

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    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  8. Stock price responses on the German suspension of genetically modified maize

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Finger

    2010-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the German governments' decision to suspend the cultivation of genetically modified maize on the stock returns of involved companies. Moreover, the first announcement to investigate a ban as well as a court decision rejecting Monsanto's lawsuit against the suspension are considered. This study is motivated by the expectation that these decisions have consequences beyond the small German market for genetically modified maize. An event study is used to evalu...

  9. Detection of genetically modified maize events in Brazilian maize-derived food products

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    Maria Regina Branquinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has approved many transgenic maize lines for commercialization and has established a threshold of 1% for food labeling, which underscores need for monitoring programs. Thirty four samples including flours and different types of nacho chips were analyzed by conventional and real-time PCR in 2011 and 2012. The events MON810, Bt11, and TC1507 were detected in most of the samples, and NK603 was present only in the samples analyzed in 2012. The authorized lines GA21, T25, and the unauthorized Bt176 were not detected. All positive samples in the qualitative tests collected in 2011 showed a transgenic content higher than 1%, and none of them was correctly labeled. Regarding the samples collected in 2012, all positive samples were quantified higher than the threshold, and 47.0% were not correctly labeled. The overall results indicated that the major genetically modified organisms detected were MON810, TC1507, Bt11, and NK603 events. Some industries that had failed to label their products in 2011 started labeling them in 2012, demonstrating compliance with the current legislation observing the consumer rights. Although these results are encouraging, it has been clearly demonstrated the need for continuous monitoring programs to ensure consumers that food products are labeled properly.

  10. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, PO Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Griffiths, Bryan S. [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Caul, Sandra [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Thompson, Jacqueline [Scottish Crop Research Institute, Department of Soil Plant Dynamics, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA (United Kingdom); Pusztai-Carey, Marianne [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Moar, William J. [Auburn University, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Andersen, Mathias N. [Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Krogh, Paul Henning [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, PO Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: phk@dmu.dk

    2006-07-15

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast performed significantly better in all of the measured endpoints than those reared on maize. P. armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties. Although there were no negative effects of Bt maize in this experiment, we recommend future studies on Bt crops to focus on species interactions in long-term, multi-species experiments. - Protaphorura armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties.

  11. The Costs of Coexistence Measures for Genetically Modified Maize in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venus, Thomas J.; Dillen, Koen; Punt, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements ('coexistence measures') for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than €300 per measure and most are greate...

  12. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... address this food insecurity problem. The use of ... the conventional method of breeding is still important to keep maize seeds available in the gene bank. Therefore .... alimentary cellulose, and pre- and probiotics (Kosicka-.

  13. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control.

  14. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental risk assessments (ERA) has been assemb...

  15. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

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    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  16. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

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    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results.

  17. Determination of Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium Species in Genetically Modified Maize Varieties by Quantitative Flow Immunocytometry

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    Bánáti, Hajnalka; Darvas, Béla; Fehér-Tóth, Szilvia; Czéh, Árpád; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Levels of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in genetically modified (GM) and near-isogenic maize, were determined using multi-analyte, microbead-based flow immunocytometry with fluorescence detection, for the parallel quantitative determination of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, ochratoxin A, and aflatoxin B1. Maize varieties included the genetic events MON 810 and DAS-59122-7, and their isogenic counterparts. Cobs were artificially infested by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum conidia, and contained F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides natural infestation. The production of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol was substantially affected in GM maize lines: F. verticillioides, with the addition of F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly lower levels of fumonisin B1 (~300 mg·kg−1) in DAS-59122-7 than in its isogenic line (~580 mg·kg−1), while F. proliferatum, in addition to F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly higher levels of deoxynivalenol (~18 mg·kg−1) in MON 810 than in its isogenic line (~5 mg·kg−1). Fusarium verticillioides, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced lower amounts of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone than F. proliferatum, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides. T-2 toxin production remained unchanged when considering the maize variety. The results demonstrate the utility of the Fungi-Plex™ quantitative flow immunocytometry method, applied for the high throughput parallel determination of the target mycotoxins. PMID:28241411

  18. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  19. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

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    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  20. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  1. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  2. Lack of detectable allergenicity in genetically modified maize containing "Cry" proteins as compared to native maize based on in silico & in vitro analysis.

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    Chandni Mathur

    Full Text Available Genetically modified, (GM crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release.To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize.An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39 to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed.In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05 variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF.Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize.

  3. Temporal dynamics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of two genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids in tropical agrosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Marriel, Ivanildo Evodio; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) plants still raises concerns about their environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of GM maize, in comparison to the parental line, on the structure and abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the effe

  4. 转基因玉米育种研究进展%Review of Genetically Modified Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小丹; 李淑华; 徐国良; XUE Yin-gen; 才卓; XU Wen-wei

    2012-01-01

    转基因性状包括抗虫、耐除草剂、耐干旱、雄性不育、高赖氨酸含量和耐热淀粉酶等.介绍了转基因玉米的转化途径、转基因玉米的功能基因及性状、转基因玉米的基因聚合方法以及目前美国市场上的主要转基因玉米性状、转基因玉米及其产品检测技术和转Bt基因玉米害虫的抗性治理,讨论转基因玉米基因专利失效以后的管理问题和转基因玉米基因发展趋势.%The transgenic traits have been engineered into maize include resistance to insect pests, tolerance to herbicides, tolerance to drought, male sterility, elevated levels of lysine and expressing a heat stable alpha-amylase enzyme. We reviewed the methods for transformation, the genes and traits introduced into maize, the approaches for stacking multiple-transgenes, the common traits of transgenic maize in the US market, the detection of genetically modified maize, and insect resistance management strategies of Bt maize. We discussed the issues in the management of expired genes after 2014, and the trends in genetically-modified maize development.

  5. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2005 onwards. Following a search of the scientific literature published between 2005 and October 2012, the EFSA GMO Panel identified 287 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize Bt11, of which 270 publications were previously discussed and cited in relevant GM maize-related applications and/or the numerous EFSA GMO Panel scientific outputs. From the remaining 17 publications, three were relevant for the food and feed safety assessment, and 14 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management of maize Bt11. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize Bt11 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize Bt11, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  6. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H

    2013-09-04

    Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars.

  8. Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-McKellep, A M; Sanden, M; Danieli, A; Acierno, R; Hemre, G-I; Maffia, M; Krogdahl, A

    2008-06-01

    Physiological and health related responses to dietary inclusion of genetically modified (GM) full-fat soybean meal (Roundup Ready; GM-soy) and maize (MON810 Bt-maize; GM-maize), as well as non-parental, untransformed lines (nGM-soy and nGM-maize D2), were evaluated in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr during the first 8 months of feeding. Significant effects of dietary GM presence were only found in intestinal Na+-dependent d-glucose uptake and SGLT1 protein level in the region pyloric caeca in which the highest values were found in the GM-soy, intermediate in the nGM-soy, and lowest in the standard FM fed groups. Data from this study confirm that GM soybeans (RRS) and maize (MON810) at inclusion levels of about 6% appear to be as safe as commercially available nGM soy and maize in diets for Atlantic salmon parr. Results from studies with higher inclusion levels and with non-modified, isogenic or near-isogenic parental lines as control groups are pending.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2013-12-04

    Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from "omics" analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments.

  11. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2009 onwards. Following a search of the scientific literature published between 2009 and October 2012, the EFSA GMO Panel identified 165 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize MON 810, of which 68 publications were discussed and/or cited in previous EFSA GMO Panel scientific outputs. From the remaining 97 publications, eight were relevant for the molecular characterisation, 27 for food and feed safety assessment, 55 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management, two for the molecular characterisation and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management and five for the food and feed safety assessment and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management of maize MON 810. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize MON 810 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize MON 810, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  12. Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

  13. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  14. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2005 onwards. The EFSA GMO Panel performed a search of the scientific literature published between 2005 and September 2012, and identified 61 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize 1507, of which two were relevant for the food and feed safety assessment, and 34 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize 1507 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize 1507, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  15. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM and non-GM maizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wihkochombom Bumunang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the analytical profile index. Species of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella and Bacillus were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as, ammonia production, catalase activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity. All the 32 rhizobacterial strains tested in this study were positive for catalase activity, ammonia production and IAA production; 90.6% were positive for phosphate solubilisation, 34.3% for indicate antifungal activity but none for hydrogen cyanide production. These findings contributed to the quest for potential biofertilizers and biocontrol agents for sustainable agriculture.

  16. Direction of Policy Convergence in the EU: The Case of Genetically Modified Maize Labelling Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sadot Sosa-Núñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to the academic dialogue of policy convergence by examining the direction taken by the policy to label genetically modified maize in the European Union. Considering international harmonisation as the causal mechanism, this article provides a chronological account of policy outputs, understood as directives and regulations related to this policy area. Additionally, there is an analysis of the increase of the degree of policy convergence. Furthermore, different national perspectives on the issue are presented, offering an insight about policy direction in terms of the interaction that governments of member states have between them and with the European Commission. Concomitantly, the direction that policy convergence takes points at strengthening member states’ views of developing stricter rules through time. Subsequently, results demonstrate that policy convergence can appear only with member states’ consent, regardless of the position that regional institutions may have; although they may influence the process to some extent. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the current direction should be taken for granted.

  17. A Comparison of Soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denma...... in these agricultural systems....

  18. Maize Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  19. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes.

  20. Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

  1. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Gress, Steeve; Defarge, Nicolas; Malatesta, Manuela; Hennequin, Didier; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant NK603 genetically modified (GM) maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup application and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb of the full pesticide containing glyphosate and adjuvants) in drinking water, were evaluated for 2 years in rats. This study constitutes a follow-up investigation of a 90-day feeding study conducted by Monsanto in order to obtain commercial release of this GMO, employing the same rat strain and analyzing biochemical parameters on the same number of animals per group as our investigation. Our research represents the first chronic study on these substances, in which all observations including tumors are reported chronologically. Thus, it was not designed as a carcinogenicity study. We report the major findings with 34 organs observed and 56 parameters analyzed at 11 time points for most organs. Biochemical analyses confirmed very significant chronic kidney deficiencies, for all treatments and both sexes; 76% of the altered parameters were kidney-related. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher. Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 times greater. In females, all treatment groups showed a two- to threefold increase in mortality, and deaths were earlier. This difference was also evident in three male groups fed with GM maize. All results were hormone- and sex-dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors more frequently and before controls; the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by consumption of GM maize and Roundup treatments. Males presented up to four times more large palpable tumors starting 600 days earlier than in the control group, in which only one tumor was noted. These results may be explained by not only the non-linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup but also by the overexpression of the EPSPS transgene or

  2. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  3. Development and validation of an event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize MIR162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162.

  4. Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms using differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction: application to 35S in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Chauvensy-Ancel, Valérie; Fortabat, Marie-Noelle; Gruden, Kristina; Kobilinsky, André; Zel, Jana; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-05-15

    Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has always presented an analytical challenge because the complete sequence data needed to detect them are generally unavailable although sequence similarity to known GMOs can be expected. A new approach, differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of nonauthorized GMOs is presented here. This method is based on the presence of several common elements (e.g., promoter, genes of interest) in different GMOs. A statistical model was developed to study the difference between the number of molecules of such a common sequence and the number of molecules identifying the approved GMO (as determined by border-fragment-based PCR) and the donor organism of the common sequence. When this difference differs statistically from zero, the presence of a nonauthorized GMO can be inferred. The interest and scope of such an approach were tested on a case study of different proportions of genetically modified maize events, with the P35S promoter as the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus common sequence. The presence of a nonauthorized GMO was successfully detected in the mixtures analyzed and in the presence of (donor organism of P35S promoter). This method could be easily transposed to other common GMO sequences and other species and is applicable to other detection areas such as microbiology.

  5. Randomly detected genetically modified (GM maize (Zea mays L. near a transport route revealed a fragile 45S rDNA phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar Espinosa Waminal

    Full Text Available Monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.

  6. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  7. The EU adventures of 'Herculex' : Report on the EU authorization of the genetically modified maize 1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Pisani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EU authorization process of the insect-resistant maize 1507, branded by its developer company Pioneer-DuPont as ‘Herculex’, is perhaps the most interesting and emblematic example of the current regulatory crisis of GMO regulation in Europe.1 The case is particularly controversial, because it

  8. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  9. A new PCR-CGE (size and color) method for simultaneous detection of genetically modified maize events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Anna; Coll, Anna; La Paz, Jose-Luis; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2006-10-01

    We present a novel multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple transgenic events in maize. Initially, five PCR primers pairs specific to events Bt11, GA21, MON810, and NK603, and Zea mays L. (alcohol dehydrogenase) were included. The event specificity was based on amplification of transgene/plant genome flanking regions, i.e., the same targets as for validated real-time PCR assays. These short and similarly sized amplicons were selected to achieve high and similar amplification efficiency for all targets; however, its unambiguous identification was a technical challenge. We achieved a clear distinction by a novel CGE approach that combined the identification by size and color (CGE-SC). In one single step, all five targets were amplified and specifically labeled with three different fluorescent dyes. The assay was specific and displayed an LOD of 0.1% of each genetically modified organism (GMO). Therefore, it was adequate to fulfill legal thresholds established, e.g., in the European Union. Our CGE-SC based strategy in combination with an adequate labeling design has the potential to simultaneously detect higher numbers of targets. As an example, we present the detection of up to eight targets in a single run. Multiplex PCR-CGE-SC only requires a conventional sequencer device and enables automation and high throughput. In addition, it proved to be transferable to a different laboratory. The number of authorized GMO events is rapidly growing; and the acreage of genetically modified (GM) varieties cultivated and commercialized worldwide is rapidly increasing. In this context, our multiplex PCR-CGE-SC can be suitable for screening GM contents in food.

  10. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  11. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  12. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  13. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  14. One-year oral toxicity study on a genetically modified maize MON810 variety in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljenková, Dagmar; Aláčová, Radka; Ondrejková, Júlia; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa; Černák, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Spustová, Viera; Tulinská, Jana; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Ševčíková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of a 1-year feeding trial with a GM maize MON810 variety, its near-isogenic non-GM comparator and an additional conventional maize variety are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 452. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after a chronic exposure.

  15. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.

  16. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    . Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...... or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON...

  17. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  18. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  19. Effects of genetically modified maize events expressing Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, Cry1F, and CP4 EPSPS proteins on arthropod complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálinkás, Zoltán; Kiss, József; Zalai, Mihály; Szénási, Ágnes; Dorner, Zita; North, Samuel; Woodward, Guy; Balog, Adalbert

    2017-04-01

    Four genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant, coleopteran and herbicide tolerant) and its non-GM control maize stands were tested to compare the functional diversity of arthropods and to determine whether genetic modifications alter the structure of arthropods food webs. A total number of 399,239 arthropod individuals were used for analyses. The trophic groups' number and the links between them indicated that neither the higher magnitude of Bt toxins (included resistance against insect, and against both insects and glyphosate) nor the extra glyphosate treatment changed the structure of food webs. However, differences in the average trophic links/trophic groups were detected between GM and non-GM food webs for herbivore groups and plants. Also, differences in characteristic path lengths between GM and non-GM food webs for herbivores were observed. Food webs parameterized based on 2-year in-field assessments, and their properties can be considered a useful and simple tool to evaluate the effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms.

  20. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...... x MON88017 from inbred lines of the respective parental events. The structural integrity of the inserts in the single events as well as the phenotypes were retained in the hybrid. The expression levels of the Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1 and CP4 EPSPS proteins in maize MON89034 x MON88017 were...

  1. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSAGMO-NL-2012-107) for the placing on the market of maize MON 810 pollen under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    In this opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel addresses the safety of maize MON 810 pollen to complete the scope of an application (RX-MON 810) for the marketing of genetically modified maize MON 810 with the use of MON 810 pollen as or in food. Data on molecular characterisation of maize MON 810 did...... apply to the Cry1Ab protein expressed in MON 810 pollen. While the EFSA GMO Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of maize pollen in or as food in general, it concludes that the genetic modification in maize MON 810 does not constitute an additional health risk if maize MON 810 pollen...... not raise any safety concerns with respect to its pollen. The EFSA GMO Panel has previously assessed the safety of the newly expressed Cry1Ab protein in maize MON 810. The assessment and conclusions of the GMO Panel on the safety of this protein, including its potential toxicity and allergenicity, also...

  2. MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence, stock, phenotype, genotypic and karyotypic variation, and chromosomal mapping data. In addition, MaizeGDB provides contact information for over 2400 maize cooperative researchers, facilitating interactions between members of the rapidly expanding maize community. MaizeGDB represents the synthesis of all data available previously from ZmDB and from MaizeDB—databases that have been superseded by Maiz...

  3. Rock phosphate solubilization and colonization of maize rhizosphere by wild and genetically modified strains of Penicillium rugulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, I; Bernier, L; Antoun, H

    2002-07-01

    Maize root colonization and phosphate solubilizing activity of the fungus Penicillium rugulosum were assessed in a greenhouse trial using soil-plant microcosms. The bacterial gene hph conferring resistance to hygromicin B was introduced by electroporation in the wild-type strain IR-94MF1 of P. rugulosum and one transformant, w-T3, was selected. Maize plants were grown for 5 weeks in a P-poor soil and fertilized with a Florida apatite mineral, with Navay, an apatite rock deposit from Venezuela, or with simple superphosphate. Inoculation treatments included strain IR-94MF1, transformant w-T3 and two IR-94MF1 UV-induced mutants with enhanced (Mps++) or reduced (Mps-) in vitro mineral phosphate solubilizing activity. In the absence of P fertilization, inoculation with any P. rugulosum isolate significantly reduced the size of the total and P-solubilizing bacterial community present in maize rhizosphere. The bacterial community significantly increased in maize inoculated with IR-94MF1 and w-T3 when P was added as apatites Navay or Florida. All P. rugulosum strains were able to stimulate the growth of maize plants as indicated by 3.6 to 28.6% increases in dry matter yields. In the presence of rock phosphate, P uptake by maize plants inoculated with the two mutants Mps++ and Mps- was not always in agreement with their P-solubilizing phenotypes. Strain IR-94MF1 and transformant w-T3 increased P assimilation by the plants fertilized with Navay rock phosphate by 26 and 38%, respectively. In this treatment, w-T3 showed its highest significant maize rhizosphere colonization. With the simple superphosphate treatment, w-T3 increased P uptake in plants by 8% over the uninoculated control and also decreased significantly the community size of total bacteria, total fungi, and P-solubilizing fungi in the rhizosphere.

  4. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lisa; Gardiner, Jack; Andorf, Carson; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genomic, genetic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website ( http://www.maizegdb.org ) are custom interfaces enabling researchers to browse data and to seek out specific information matching explicit search criteria. In addition, pre-compiled reports are made available for particular types of data and bulletin boards are provided to facilitate communication and coordination among members of the community of maize geneticists.

  5. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of genetic structures on haploid genome-based quantification of genetically modified DNA: theoretical considerations, experimental data in MON 810 maize kernels (Zea mays L.) and some practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David; Corlet, Aurélie; Fouilloux, Stephane

    2008-06-01

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assays are widely used to estimate the content of genetically modified (GM) materials in food, feed and seed. It has been known that the genetic structures of the analyte can significantly influence the GM content expressed by the haploid genome (HG) % estimated using real-time PCR assays; this kind of influence is also understood as the impact of biological factors. The influence was first simulated at theoretical level using maize as a model. We then experimentally assessed the impact of biological factors on quantitative results, analysing by quantitative real-time PCR six maize MON 810 hybrid kernels with different genetic structures: (1) hemizygous from transgenic male parent, (2) hemizygous from transgenic female parent and (3) homozygous at the transgenic locus. The results obtained in the present study showed clear influences of biological factors on GM DNA quantification: 1% of GM materials by weight (wt) for the three genetic structures contained 0.39, 0.55 and 1.0% of GM DNA by HG respectively, from quantitative real-time PCR analyses. The relationships between GM wt% and GM HG% can be empirically established as: (1) in the case of the presence of a single GM trait: GM HG% = GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where Y is the endosperm DNA content (%) in the total DNA of a maize kernel, (2) in the case of the presence of multiple GM traits: GM HG% = N x GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where N is the number of GM traits (stacked or not) present in an unknown sample. This finding can be used by stakeholders related to GMO for empirical prediction from one unit of expression to another in the monitoring of seed and grain production chains. Practical equations have also been suggested for haploid copy number calculations, using hemizygous GM materials for calibration curves.

  7. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Urquídez, Dalmira; Pérez-Urquiza, Melina; Valdez Torres, José-Benigno; León-Félix, Josefina; García-Estrada, Raymundo; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham

    2016-01-05

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%-100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the annual post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM report from Monsanto Europe S.A. on the cultivation of genetically modified maize MON 810 in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel assessed the post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM report for the 2012 growing season of maize MON 810 provided by Monsanto Europe S.A. The EFSA GMO Panel noted that the applicant used a similar methodology as the one previously established for monitoring maize MON 810 in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The EFSA GMO Panel therefore focused its assessment on the novel datasets specific to the 2012 growing season of maize MON 810, and not on the methodology. The data submitted by the applicant in its 2012 PMEM report do not indicate any adverse effects on human and animal health or the environment arising from maize MON 810 cultivation in 2012. However, having already highlighted the poor sensitivity of the methodology followed by the applicant, the EFSA GMO Panel strongly reiterates its previous recommendations for the improvement of the methodology. In addition, the EFSA GMO Panel recommends that the applicant: (1 further investigates effects observed during the monitoring of baseline susceptibility of target pests in Spain; (2 follow-up possible adverse effects of maize MON 810 on rove beetles.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the annual Post-Market Environmental Monitoring (PMEM report from Monsanto Europe S.A. on the cultivation of genetically modified maize MON 810 in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel assessed the monitoring report for the 2011 growing season of maize MON 810 provided by Monsanto Europe S.A. The EFSA GMO Panel already assessed the 2009 and 2010 monitoring reports and followed the same approach as for the assessment of the methodology applied by the applicant for monitoring maize MON 810 in 2011. The EFSA GMO Panel considered the plan for insect-resistant management and addressed the comments raised by the applicant on its previous recommendations for improving the methodology of the resistance monitoring of target pests. The EFSA GMO Panel also paid particular attention to the design and analysis of the farmer questionnaires. The EFSA GMO Panel notes similar shortcomings in the overall methodology for the post-market environmental monitoring of maize MON 810 as in the previous monitoring reports. Hence, while the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates its previous recommendations for the improvement of the methodology, it also clarifies and elaborates on those related to the monitoring of resistance evolution in target pests. However, from the data submitted by the applicant, the EFSA GMO Panel does not identify adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health due to maize MON 810 cultivation during the 2011 growing season. The outcomes of the 2011 monitoring report do not invalidate the previous EFSA GMO Panel’s scientific opinions on maize MON 810.

  10. Statement on a request from the European Commission related to the emergency measure notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 for cultivation according to Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC. All concerns on the safety of maize MON 810 related to human and animal health or the environment raised by Greece were already addressed in previous outputs of the EFSA or its GMO Panel on maize MON 810 or related Bt maize events expressing Cry1Ab protein. The concern pertaining to co-existence was not considered as this is not in the remit of EFSA. Therefore, EFSA concludes that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of an emergency measure under Article 18 of Directive 2002/53/EC and that would invalidate the previous EFSA GMO Panel risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  11. 转基因玉米LY038转化事件的特异性检测%Event-specific Transgenic Detection of Genetically Modified Maize LY038

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟志芳; 许文涛; 张南; 闫兴华; 王一南; 罗云波; 黄昆仑

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified maize with high lysine LY038 has been widely applied in animal feed, but so far there has been no report about the method of amplification for flanking sequence of LY038 and its event-specific qualitative PCR detection. In this study, the 5'- flanking sequence of integrated gene-construct of genetically modified maize LY038 was characterized by modified adapter-linked PCR (M-AL-PCR). According to the 5'flanking sequence, the event-specific primers were designed, and the event-specific qualitative detection of genetically modified plant LY038 was established to produce a 175 bp product. With genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) LY038, MIR604, Bt176, Btll, MON810, MON863, GA21, NK603, non-genetically modified maize, genetically modified rice (Oryza sativa L.) CrylC* and Cry2A*, genetically modified soybean (Glycine max) Roundup Ready and genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica campestris L.) GT73 as materials, this method developed in this work proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the limit of detection was 0.1%. It is suggested that the developed qualitative detection system can accurately, fast and efficiently identify the genetically modified maize LY038 and its derivates.%转基因高赖氨酸玉米LY038在畜禽饲料中已得到广泛应用,但目前还没有关于其侧翼序列扩增及转化事件特异性定性PCR检测方法方面的报道.本研究采用修饰接头连接PCR(modified adapter-linked PCR,M-AL-PCR)技术获得了转基因玉米LY038的外源基因与玉米基因组之间的5′端侧翼序列.据此侧翼 序列设计其转化事件特异性引物,建立了转基因玉米LY038转化事件特异性定性检测方法,扩增片段175bp.以转基因玉米(Zea mays L.)LY038、MIR604、Bt176、Bt11、MON810、MON863、GA21、NK603、非转基因玉米、转基因水稻(Oryza sativa L.)Cry1C*、Cry2A*、转基因大豆(Glycine max)Roundup Ready和转基因油菜(Brassica campestris L.)GT73为材料,验证

  12. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the emergency measure notified by Luxembourg on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Luxembourg in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003. All concerns related to human and animal health or the environment raised by Luxembourg were already addressed in previous scientific opinions of the EFSA GMO Panel on maize MON 810 while other concerns relate to socio-economic aspects and co-existence and thus fall outside the remit of EFSA. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel concludes that, based on the documentation submitted by Luxembourg, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of an emergency measure under Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  13. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the emergency measure notified by Italy on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Italy in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003. All concerns related to human and animal health or the environment raised by Italy were already addressed in previous scientific opinions of the EFSA GMO Panel on maize MON 810 while other concerns relate to co-existence and thus fall outside the remit of EFSA. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel concludes that, based on the documentation submitted by Italy, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of an emergency measure under Article 34 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  14. Genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genet...

  15. Effects of genetically modified Bt maize on growth performance and organ indices in growing Wuzhishan pigs%转Bt玉米对生长期五指山猪生长性能及器官指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲; 刘圈炜; 谭树义; 杨晓光; 张宏福

    2013-01-01

    为研究转Bt玉米对五指山猪生长性能及器官指数的影响,评价其饲用安全性,选取2月龄遗传背景相近、初始体重(9.80± 0.41)kg、健康断奶五指山猪72头,随机分为2处理组,每个处理6个重复,每个重复6头.分别饲喂含转Bt玉米(试验组)和非转基因玉米(对照组)的日粮.试验为期68 d,于68 d屠宰取样.结果表明:①试验组的末重、平均日增重、平均日采食量及料重比均与对照组间差异不显著(P>0.05);②两组的器官指数间也未达到显著差异的水平(P>0.05).结果提示,转Bt玉米对生长期五指山猪的生长性能和器官指数未产生不良影响.%In order to investigate the influences of genetically modified Bt maize on growth performance and organ indices of growing Wuzhishan pigs and to evaluate the safety, seventy-two 2-month-old healthy weaning pigs with average initial weight of (9.80±0.41) kg and the similar genetic backgrounds were randomly divided into two treatments, 6 replicates of 6 pigs each. Pigs were fed with diets containing genetically modified Bt maize (experimental group) or non-genetically modified maize (control one) during the period of 68 days, respectively. Pigs were slaughtered on 68 d for sampling. The results showed that: ①final weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed/gain ratio of experimental group were not significantly different from those of control one (P>0.05); ②there were no significant differences in organ indices between the two groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, there were no adverse effects of genetically modified Bt maize on growth performance and organ indices of growing Wuzhishan pigs.

  16. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations for the cultivation of the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11 and MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize Bt11 or MON 810 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Statement supplementing the evaluation of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on insect resistant genetically modified maize Bt11 for cultivation. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making process; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  17. Quantitation of 35S promoter in maize DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction, part 2: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Max; Fernandez, Sophie; Cassard, Sylvanie; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Network of GMO Working Laboratories have proposed development of a modular strategy for stepwise validation of complex analytical techniques. When applied to the quantitation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products, the instrumental quantitation step of the technique is separately validated from the DNA extraction step to better control the sources of uncertainty and facilitate the validation of GMO-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory study on the quantitation step of the method standardized by CEN for the detection of a regulatory element commonly inserted in GMO maize-based foods. This is focused on the quantitation of P35S promoter through using the quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Fifteen French laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study of the P35S quantitation operating procedure on DNA extract samples using either the thermal cycler ABI Prism 7700 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) or Light Cycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Attention was focused on DNA extract samples used to calibrate the method and unknown extract samples. Data were processed according to the recommendations of ISO 5725 standard. Performance criteria, obtained using the robust algorithm, were compared to the classic data processing after rejection of outliers by the Cochran and Grubbs tests. Two laboratories were detected as outliers by the Grubbs test. The robust precision criteria gave values between the classical values estimated before and after rejection of the outliers. Using the robust method, the relative expanded uncertainty by the quantitation method is about 20% for a 1% Bt176 content, whereas it can reach 40% for a 0.1% Bt176. The performances of the quantitation assay are relevant to the application of the European regulation, which has an accepted tolerance interval of about +/-50%. These data

  18. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  19. Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architectur...

  20. Genetic characterization of a core set of a tropical maize race Tuxpeno for further use in maize improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wen

    Full Text Available The tropical maize race Tuxpeño is a well-known race of Mexican dent germplasm which has greatly contributed to the development of tropical and subtropical maize gene pools. In order to investigate how it could be exploited in future maize improvement, a panel of maize germplasm accessions was assembled and characterized using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. This panel included 321 core accessions of Tuxpeño race from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm bank collection, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs and 54 U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM lines. The panel also included other diverse sources of reference germplasm: 14 U.S. maize landrace accessions, 4 temperate inbred lines from the U.S. and China, and 11 CIMMYT populations (a total of 498 entries with 795 plants. Clustering analyses (CA based on Modified Rogers Distance (MRD clearly partitioned all 498 entries into their corresponding groups. No sub clusters were observed within the Tuxpeño core set. Various breeding strategies for using the Tuxpeño core set, based on grouping of the studied germplasm and genetic distance among them, were discussed. In order to facilitate sampling diversity within the Tuxpeño core, a minicore subset of 64 Tuxpeño accessions (20% of its usual size representing the diversity of the core set was developed, using an approach combining phenotypic and molecular data. Untapped diversity represents further use of the Tuxpeño landrace for maize improvement through the core and/or minicore subset available to the maize community.

  1. Method for the Identification of Six lines of Genetically Modified Maize%商业化种植的六种基因改良玉米品系的鉴定检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹际娟; 覃文; 朱水芳; 徐宝梁; 陈明生; 曹远银

    2003-01-01

    以PCR方法鉴定检测六种商业化种植的基因改良玉米(genetically modified maize,简称GM-玉米).针对Mon810(Monsanto公司)、Bt11(Novartis公司)、Event 176(Novartis公司)、CBH-351(AgrEvo公司)、T14/T25Liberty(AgrEvo公司)及GA21(Monsanto公司)GM-玉米转入的外源基因质粒图谱,设计具有品系特异性的引物进行PCR检测,建立了GM-玉米品系鉴定检测的方法.

  2. Scientific Opinion on an application from Pioneer Hi-Bred International and Dow AgroSciences LLC (EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23 for placing on the market of genetically modified maize 59122 for food and feed uses, import, processing and cultivation under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Scientific Opinion reports on a risk assessment on an application for placing on the market of genetically modified maize 59122 for import and processing for food and feed uses and cultivation. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that maize 59122 is unlikely to have any adverse effect on the environment, except for the possible evolution of resistance to the Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in coleopteran target pests. The Panel recommends the implementation of appropriate and diversified insect resistance management strategies and case-specific monitoring to delay and monitor the possible evolution of resistance to Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 in coleopteran target pests, respectively. In addition, the Panel recommends revision of the applicants’ insect resistance management plan and the proposed post-market environmental monitoring plan. Although maize 59122 is tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium-based herbicides, the Panel did not assess the potential adverse effects associated with the use of such herbicides on maize 59122, as maize 59122 will not be marketed in the European Union as a herbicide-tolerant crop. This Scientific Opinion updates the previous Panel safety evaluation of the food and feed uses, and import and processing of maize 59122 and derived products. The Panel concludes that the information available for maize 59122 addresses the scientific comments raised by Member States and that maize 59122, as described in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties with respect to potential adverse effects on human and animal health. If subjected to appropriate management measures, the cultivation of maize 59122 is unlikely to raise safety concerns for the environment.

  3. Genetic analysis of teosinte for kernel composition traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared to maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic ...

  4. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  5. 转基因抗矮花叶病玉米及其亲本生理特性的对比研究%Seedling physiological characteristics of genetically modified maize variety with dwarf mosaic virus resistant genes and its parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕平梅; 赵文婧; 单树花; 宋敏丽; 孙毅

    2012-01-01

    In order to verify the physiological characteristics of genetically modified maize, this paper studied the germination ability, chlorophyll content and activities of amylase, protease, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genetically modified maize with dwarf mosaic virus resistance genes and its parent. The paper also analyzed zymograms of three protective enzymes. Germination abilities of genetically modified maize and its parent were not significantly different. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-a+b contents were significantly higher in the modified maize than in the parent maize. Amylase and protease activities of genetically modified maize were significantly higher than those of the parent. POD, CAT and SOD enzyme activities of the germs of genetically modified maize and the parent were not significantly different. Three protective enzymes activities of the first true leaf of genetically modified maize were significantly higher than those of the parents. Three isozymes of POD (POD-1, POD-3 and POD-4) were detected both in the germs of genetically modified maize and the parent. Four isozymes of POD (POD-1, POD-2, POD-3 and POD-4) were detected in the first true leaf of the parent, and five isozymes of POD (POD-1, POD-2, POD-3, POD-4 and POD-5) in the first true leaf of genetically modified maize. However, four CAT isozymes (CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-3 and CAT-4) exited in the germs and the first true leaf of both the genetically modified maize and the parents. Isozymes of SOD in germs of genetically modified maize and the parents had two bands consisting of SOD-1 and SOD-2. However, seven bands (SOD-1, SOD-2, SOD-3, SOD-4, SOD-5, SOD-6, and SOD-7) were noted in the first true leaf both of the genetically modified maize and the parents. The results showed that physiological indexes of genetically modified maize and the parent were different. Three protective enzymes activities in the first true leaf of genetically modified maize were

  6. Genetic control of leaf curl in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, G C; Guedes, F L; Oliveira, A A; Nascimento, J P; Souza, J C

    2014-03-17

    Among the many implications of climatic change on agriculture, drought is expected to continue to have a major impact on agribusinesses. Leaf curling is an anatomical characteristic that might be potentially used to enhance plant tolerance to water deficit. Hence, we aimed to study the genetic control of leaf curl in maize. From 2 contrasting inbred lines for the trait, generations F1, F2, and the backcrosses were obtained. All of these generations were evaluated in a randomized block design with 2 replicates. Leaf curl samples were collected from 3 leaves above the first ear at the tasseling stage, and quantified by dividing the width of the leaf blade with natural curling against its extended width. The mean and variance components were estimated by the weighted least square method. It was found that the trait studied has predominance of the additive effects, with genetic control being attributed to few genes that favor selection and exhibit minimal influence from the environment.

  7. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  8. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-UK-2006-34 for the placing on the market of genetically modified maize 3272 with a thermotolerant alpha-amylase, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Syngenta Crop Protection AG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize 3272 contains a single insert consisting of the amy797E and the pmi cassettes, expressing a thermotolerant alpha-amylase (AMY797E and a phosphamannose isomerase (PMI. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. The levels of the AMY797E and PMI proteins in maize 3272 have been sufficiently analysed. In the absence of an appropriately performed comparative assessment, the EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO was not in the position to conclude either on the compositional, agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of maize 3272 or on its nutritional assessment, on the basis of the data provided. The safety assessment could therefore not be completed, and has focused mainly on the newly expressed proteins. No indications of safety concern over the toxicity of the AMY797E and PMI proteins and over the allergenicity of the PMI protein were identified. The Panel could not conclude on the potential for de novo allergic sensitisation of the AMY797E protein. The Panel has identified a gap in the data on the agronomic and phenotypic characterisation of GM maize 3272 and considers that uncertainty over these characteristics remains. However, considering the scope of this application, a weight of evidence approach from different sources of available data and the poor ability of maize to survive outside cultivated land, the Panel concluded that there is very little likelihood of any adverse environmental impacts due to the accidental release into the environment of viable grains from maize 3272. Considering its intended uses as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment were not considered to be an issue. Risks associated with a theoretically possible horizontal gene transfer from maize 3272 to prokaryotes have been analysed and did not raise safety concerns. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals were in line with the intended uses of maize 3272.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  10. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Chinese waxy maize germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Zheng

    Full Text Available Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh, with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F* were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection.

  11. Detection of genetically modified maize by the polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis with UV detection and laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2002-02-27

    In this paper, the possibilities of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to detect transgenic maize in flours are shown. The method is based on the extraction and amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a specific DNA fragment from transgenic maize and its subsequent analysis by CGE with UV detection or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Some useful considerations regarding the optimization of DNA extraction and amplification conditions are given. Also, a comparison is established between the two CGE protocols for DNA detection based on ultraviolet absorption (CGE-UV) and LIF (CGE-LIF). The requirements, advantages, and limitations of both CGE methods are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first paper on the use of CGE-LIF to detect transgenic food.

  12. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507 for cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize 1507 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Scientific Opinion updating the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on maize 1507. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making processes; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  13. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.

    2006-01-01

    armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast...

  14. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-06-03

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology.

  15. The art and design of genetic screens: maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is an excellent model for basic research. Genetic screens have informed our understanding of developmental processes, meiosis, epigenetics and biochemical pathways--not only in maize but also in other cereal crops. We discuss the forward and reverse genetic screens that are possible in this organism, and emphasize the available tools. Screens exploit the well-studied behaviour of transposon systems, and the distinctive chromosomes allow an integration of cytogenetics into mutagenesis screens and analyses. The imminent completion of the maize genome sequence provides the essential resource to move seamlessly from gene to phenotype and back.

  16. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  17. Genetic Architecture of Domestication-Related Traits in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shang; Bradbury, Peter J; Casstevens, Terry; Holland, James B

    2016-09-01

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genetic basis of this could be sequence variation at the same key genes controlling maize-teosinte differentiation (due to lack of fixation or arising as new mutations after domestication), distinct loci with large effects, or polygenic background variation. Previous studies permit annotation of maize genome regions associated with the major differences between maize and teosinte or that exhibit population genetic signals of selection during either domestication or postdomestication improvement. Genome-wide association studies and genetic variance partitioning analyses were performed in two diverse maize inbred line panels to compare the phenotypic effects and variances of sequence polymorphisms in regions involved in domestication and improvement to the rest of the genome. Additive polygenic models explained most of the genotypic variation for domestication-related traits; no large-effect loci were detected for any trait. Most trait variance was associated with background genomic regions lacking previous evidence for involvement in domestication. Improvement sweep regions were associated with more trait variation than expected based on the proportion of the genome they represent. Selection during domestication eliminated large-effect genetic variants that would revert maize toward a teosinte type. Small-effect polygenic variants (enriched in the improvement sweep regions of the genome) are responsible for most of the standing variation for domestication-related traits in maize.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of maize landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... diversity and genetic structure of 35 maize accessions using 10 microsatellite markers. These accessions ... In addition, they provide new sources of resistance to ..... http://taylor0.biology.ucla.edu/structureHarvester/.The .... environment and in other areas. ..... Molecular population genetics and evolution. In:.

  19. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wills

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant, we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1 was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1 gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

  20. Study on the Maize Genetic Transformation Technology%转基因玉米的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 张玲

    2011-01-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified crops had been large-scale commercial cultivation and developed rapidly in the international debate environment. Nowadays, it has been the fastest growing crop of new technology in modern history and created a huge economic, social and environmental benefit. The research and application of genetically modified maize has made maize breeding to a new era, and has opened up broad prospects for the cultivation of new varieties of maize. The domestic and international commercialization of genetically modified maize overview and trends were reviewed in this paper, and pointed out the direction for future of genetically modified maize industry.%转基因农作物自1996年大规模商业化种植以来,在国际争论的环境中迅猛发展,成为近代历史上应用最快的作物新技术,创造了巨大的经济、社会与环境效益.转基因玉米研究与应用使玉米的育种工作进入到新时代,为培育玉米新品种开辟了广阔的前景.综述国内外转基因玉米的商业化概况和发展趋势,为今后转基因玉米产业化方向提供参考.

  1. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    variants and cancer risk in Mendelian cancer syndromes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 20: 299–307. S0959-437X(10)00044-4 [pii];10.1016/j.gde.2010.03.010 [doi]. 3...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0341 TITLE: Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fergus J. Couch, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...DATE AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15MAY2010 - 14MAY2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian

  2. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  3. 环介导等温扩增技术检测含有CaMV35S的转基因玉米%Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Detection of CaMV35S Promoter in Genetically Modified Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金松; 黄丛林; 张秀海; 吴忠义

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of CaMV-35S promoter in Genetically Modified maize. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) , a novel nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the rapid detection of Genetically Modified maize. Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter gene was amplified by a set of four primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. The optimized conditions for LAMP were studied using different Mg2+ , dNTPs, Betaine and primers concentrations. Furthermore, the sensitivity of LAMP was tested comparing with PCR. The LAMP method can detect CaMV35S promoter from genetically modified maize and their test results were consistent with the results of conventional PCR method. LAMP assay results were found to be more sensitive than the conventional PCR. The LAMP assay is an extremely rapid, highly sensitive, specific method, and will be an effective tool for rapid detection of Genetically Modified maize.%DNA环介导等温扩增技术是一种特异、灵敏、快速的新型基因检测技术.针对玉米表达载体的花椰菜花叶病毒35 S启动子(CaMV35S)的6个区域设计4种特异引物,对LAMP反应的MgSO4、dNTPs、Betaine、内引物、外引物各个成分进行了优化,此外还对LAMP和PCR两种不同方法的特异性进行了比较.建立转基因玉米花椰菜花叶病毒35 S启动子环介导等温扩增技术检测方法,LAMP与PCR相比具有更高的灵敏度.环介导等温扩增技术检测方法具有时间少,成本低,特异性高,检测方法多样等优势,为检测转基因玉米花椰菜花叶病毒35 S启动子提供了一种更加简便快速的方法.

  4. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  5. Estimating maize genetic erosion in modernized smallholder agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hellin, J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of crop landraces by modern varieties is thought to cause diversity loss. We studied genetic erosion in maize within a model system; modernized smallholder agriculture in southern Mexico. The local seed supply was described through interviews and in situ seed collection. In spite of the

  6. Establishment of Event-specific Quantitative PCR of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays) Event MON863%转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋君; 雷绍荣; 刘勇; 尹全; 王东; 张富丽; 刘文娟; 常丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Event-specific quantitative PCR detection method of genetically modified maize (Event MON863) was established. PCR primers and Taqman probe were designed according to the flanking sequence of exogenous gene of Event MON863. Sample (CRM) containing 1% of Event MON863 (uncertainty was 10%) was tested. The results showed that the slope of standard curve obtained was in the range of -3.6-3.1. Correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99; And the amplification efficiency of this method was 90%~l 10% (averaged at 102.2%). The detection result of sample was 1.113%, closed to the true content (1%). It was proved that the sensitivity and precision of this method was relatively high and could be used to test GMO samples.%根据转基因玉米MON863外源基因的旁侧序列,设计引物和TaqMan探针,建立了转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR检测方法,并采用该法检测了1%含量的MON863玉米粉末(不确定度为10%).结果显示,采用构建的方法获得的标准曲线斜率为-3.6~-3.1,相关系数大于0.99,扩增效率为102.2%,在90%~110%内.样品的定量检测结果1.113%接近已知含量1%(不确定度为10%),表明建立的转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR检测方法的灵敏度和准确度高可以在日常检验中推产应用.

  7. 转基因玉米NK603结构特异定量PCR方法的建立%Establishment of Construct Specific Quantitative PCR of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays), Event NK603

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋君; 雷绍荣; 向冰; 刘勇; 王东; 尹全

    2011-01-01

    根据转基因玉米NK603载体构建特异序列,设计引物和Taqman探针,建立了转基因玉米NK603载体构建特异结构定量PCR检测方法,并采用该法检测了2%含量的NK603标准品(不确定度为10%).结果显示,采用本文构建的方法获得的标准曲线斜率,在-3.6- -3.1之间,相关系数大于0.99,扩增效率为98.1%,在90%~110%的范围内.样品检测结果(1.6%)接近已知含量(2%,不确定度为10%).表明本文建立的转基因玉米NK603结构特异定量PCR检测方法,可以在日常检验中推广应用.%The construct specific quantitative PCR detection method of genetically modified maize, Event NK603, was established according to the sequence of the vector of the event NK603 and the sample ( CRM ) containing two percentage of event NK603 component ( uncertainty was 10%) was tested using the established method. "Hie results showed the slope of standard curve was in the range of -3.6- -3.1. Correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. The amplified efficiency of this method fell between the scope of 90 % -110 % (98.1%). The detection results of the sample were 1.6%, close to the true content (2 % ). It proved that the sensitivity and precision of the method was relatively high and the method could be used to test GMO samples.

  8. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays); Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao gama e de aceleradores de eletrons na deteccao de graos de milho (Zea mays) geneticamente modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-07-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source

  9. Genetic Parameters and Predictive Genetic Gain in Maize with Modified Recurrent Selection Method Parámetros Genéticos y Ganancia Genética Predicha en Maíz con el Método de Selección Recurrente Modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Afonso Doná

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified recurrent selection method suggests a less productive population to test the other population more productive and itself aiming to have more genetic gains than tradition recurrent selection method that uses one population to test the other one. The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic components, to predict and to evaluate the genetic gains of the SynFlint and Syndent populations of maize (Zea mays L., applying a modified recurrent selection method. Two recombination cycles were carried out, with 144 Si progeny per cycle. These progenies were test crossed with SynFlint, generating a SynFlint x Syndent inter-population and a SynFlint x SynFlint intra-population. The progenies were evaluated in five environments in the first cycle of selection and in three in the second cycle of selection, in a 12 x 12 lattice. Genetic variability in plant height and ear height, ear weight and prolificacy was observed in the first cycle of selection and in plant height and ear height in the second cycle. The intensity of selection practiced in the first cycle exhausted the genetic variability in ear weight and prolificacy. It can conclude that the two maize populations evaluated do not show adequate levels of genetic variability and predicted genetics gains estimates to allow their use in breeding programs to obtain lines and superior hybrids; and the modified recurrent selection method is inefficient to increase in population performance per se for the two populations.El método de selección recurrente modificado sugiere el uso de una población menos productiva para probar otra población más productiva y a sí misma que difiere del método de selección recurrente tradicional en que usa una población para testar otra. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estimar los componentes genéticos, predecir y evaluar los avances de la ganancia genética y las poblaciones SynFlint y Syndent de maíz (Zea mays L. con un método modificado

  10. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  11. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  12. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  13. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resul...

  14. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176.

  15. Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects. PMID:26308050

  16. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  17. Numerous genetic loci identified for drought tolerance in the maize nested association mapping populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize requires more water than most other crops; therefore, the water use efficiency of this crop must be improved for maize production under undesirable land and changing environmental conditions. To elucidate the genetic control of drought in maize, we evaluated approximately 5000 inbred lines fr...

  18. Genetic resistance of maize inbred lines to anthracnose leaf blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Christine Prochno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of maize inbred lines to anthracnose leaf blight (Colletotrichum graminicola Ces., and to estimate genetic parameters associated with resistance. Sixteen lines (S5 were evaluated for resistance to anthracnose leaf blight in three experiments, in a randomized block design with four replications. From three evaluations of severity, it was estimated the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the genetic parameters associated with resistance. Results showed the existence of genetic variability for resistance to anthracnose leaf blight in the set of studied lines. Five lines stood out for the high resistance pattern to anthracnose leaf blight, presenting the lowest AUDPC values in the three experiments, and thus were considered important sources of C. graminicola resistance genes. Estimates of genetic parameters indicated low participation of the environment and highlighted the possibility of genetic gains with artificial selection for resistance in this pathosystem.

  19. Genetic and physiological analysis of iron biofortification in maize kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy G Lung'aho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe deficiency anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, where poverty is a major factor. Therefore, biofortification of maize by increasing Fe concentration and or bioavailability has great potential to alleviate this deficiency. Maize is also a model system for genomic research and thus allows the opportunity for gene discovery. Here we describe an integrated genetic and physiological analysis of Fe nutrition in maize kernels, to identify loci that influence grain Fe concentration and bioavailability. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis was used to dissect grain Fe concentration (FeGC and Fe bioavailability (FeGB from the Intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM recombinant inbred (RI population. FeGC was determined by ion coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP. FeGB was determined by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell line bioassay. CONCLUSIONS: Three modest QTL for FeGC were detected, in spite of high heritability. This suggests that FeGC is controlled by many small QTL, which may make it a challenging trait to improve by marker assisted breeding. Ten QTL for FeGB were identified and explained 54% of the variance observed in samples from a single year/location. Three of the largest FeGB QTL were isolated in sister derived lines and their effect was observed in three subsequent seasons in New York. Single season evaluations were also made at six other sites around North America, suggesting the enhancement of FeGB was not specific to our farm site. FeGB was not correlated with FeGC or phytic acid, suggesting that novel regulators of Fe nutrition are responsible for the differences observed. Our results indicate that iron biofortification of maize grain is achievable using specialized phenotyping tools and conventional plant breeding techniques.

  20. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... where non-GM conventional maize (8 different varieties) was planted. In addition, economic assessments of the GM crop were performed by quantifying the differences in variable costs, revenues and external effects in comparison with the conventional variety. The implications for the EU Common Agriculture...... corn borer, was chosen as the model GM crop since it has been approved for planting in the EU and been available to growers in Europe since 2003 (introduced first in Spain), with commercial plantings being conducted in five Member States in 2006 on more than 63,000 ha. MON 810 maize was first...

  1. A construct-specific real-time PCR for quantitative detection of genetically modified maize MIR604%转基因玉米MIR604结构特异片段实时荧光定量检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常丽娟; 宋君; 雷绍荣; 尹全; 王东; 刘文娟; 张富丽

    2015-01-01

    根据转基因玉米 MIR604外源载体序列,设计引物和探针,并优化反应体系和热循环条件,建立了MIR604结构特异片断实时荧光定量PCR检测方法。采用该方法对6种非转基因作物、MIR604及其他非目标转基因作物进行检测,除MIR604外,其余样品均未检测到MIR604分子片段的扩增信号;对含量为1%的MIR604标准品进行定量检测,测试样品平均含量为1.05%;灵敏度测试结果显示该方法能检测到仅5个拷贝的MIR604分子片段。因此,本研究建立的方法具有较高的特异性、准确度及灵敏度,能为中国转基因生物安全监管提供技术支持。%A structure-specific quantitative PCR technique for the detection of genetically modified maize MIR604 was developed in this study to provide supports for genetically modified organism safety supervision in China by optimizing reaction system and thermal cycling condition. Six kinds of non-genetically modified crops, MIR604 and other non-target transgenic crops were detected. The fluorescent signal was only detected in MIR604. The measured value of 1% MIR604 was 1. 05%. The sensitivity experiment revealed the method could detect only 5 copies of MIR604 molecular fragments. In conclusion, the structure-specific quantitative PCR detection method for genetically modified maize MIR604 is of high spe-cificity, accuracy and sensitivity.

  2. Genetic variation of phytate and ionorganic phosphorus in maize population

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 60 maize populations was conducted to identify genotypes that had either low or high concentration of phytate. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 1,147 to 4, 13 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations were between 0, 35 and 1, 29 and averaged 0, 65 g kg-1. Three groups of populations were identified as having low, intermediate and high phytate content. The low phytate concentration was measured in eight, intermediate in 25 a...

  3. Effects of genetically modified anti-dwarf mosaic maize on the male reproductive function in SD rats of F1 generation%转基因抗矮花叶病玉米对子一代雄性大鼠生殖功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪坡; 奥宁; 燕平梅; 阎小艳; 高晋华

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of genetically modified maize on male reproductive parameters SD rats (F1 generation)were divided into 2 groups randomly, including the treatment group fed with the 33% GM-corn and the control group fed with the 33% non-GM-corn. The rats were killed at the 170^th day, the tissue samples of testis and epididymis were obtained for histopathological examinations while the serum samples were analyzed. No morphology changes were detected in testis and epididymis. The relative organ weights, motile sperm rate, number of sperm and Abnormal sperm rate in the treatment groups were not significantly different from the control group (P〉0.05). It was concluded that the genetically modified anti-dwarf mosaic maize had no negative effect on male reproductive function of F1 rats.%分别采用含33%剂量的转基因抗矮花叶病玉米和非转基因玉米对大鼠进行170d的全食物饲喂,检测F1代大鼠睾丸、附睾的脏器系数,精子的活动率和畸形率,以及睾丸、附睾组织病理学变化。结果显示:试验组与对照组比较,大鼠睾丸、附睾和精子的各项指标均无显著性差异(P〉0.05);转基因抗矮花叶病玉米对F1代雄性大鼠生殖功能无显著影响。

  4. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops (preface)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    to integrate the combined soil ecological and economic effects of introducing systems including genetically modified (GM) crops by performing data mining and building decision support systems. The project involved eight academic partners from five EU countries and an input from Monsanto. Maize expressing...

  5. Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci MESERI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the “Green Revolution” was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO’s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460

  6. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  7. Genetically modified food -The dilemma of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Key words: Benefits, concerns, food security, genetically modified plant. INTRODUCTION .... health effects, environmental safety and conservation, intellectual .... including coffee, tobacco, cocoa, coconut, palm oil, sugar.

  8. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions.

  9. Genetic Relationships Among Chinese Maize OPVs Based on SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-ya; LIU Xue; CHEN Wei-guo; HAO Zhuan-fang; BAI Li; ZHANG De-gui

    2013-01-01

    Bulk-SSR method was used to analyze the genetic diversity of 44 open-pollinated varieties collected from Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, and Jilin provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China using 70 pairs of SSR primers. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare the genetic diversity among 44 Chinese maize open-pollinated varieties;(2) estimate the minimum number of alleles for construction of a stable dendrogram;and (3) trace the genetic relationships among local germplasm from different regions of China. In total, these 70 SSR primers yielded 292 alleles in 176 samples (4×44) analyzed. The number of alleles per locus was 4.17 on average and ranged from 2 to 8. The highest number of alleles per open-pollinated variety (55.25) was detected in Shanxi germplasm, which indicated that open-pollinated varieties from Shanxi possessed the largest genetic diversity among those from the five locations. The correlation coefficients between different genetic similarity matrices suggested that 200 alleles were sufficient for analysis of the genetic diversity of these 44 open-pollinated varieties. The cluster analysis showed that 44 open-pollinated varieties collected from three growing regions in China were accurately classified into three groups that were highly consistent with their geographic origins, and there is no correlation between GS and geographic distance in this study.

  10. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis.

  11. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  12. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  13. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  14. Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and the ... of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. ... use of living modified organisms (LMOs) such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the ...

  15. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods...... efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general....

  16. College Students’ Cognition of Genetically Modified Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxia; WANG; Yuzhen; YANG; Lipei; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    In order to have knowledge about the college students’awareness and acceptance of genetically modified foods and their attitudes toward the identification of genetically modified foods and the government’s regulation,we conduct a questionnaire survey of 150 college students’cognition of genetically modified foods in North College Town of Zhengzhou City.The results show that the college students have a certain understanding of genetically modified foods,but the cognition level is low;electronic media has become the main channel for the current college students to know the information about genetically modified foods;for security reasons,the majority of college students are wary of genetically modified foods,and pay more attention to whether there is genetically modified component in the foods labeling;college students generally believe that the government should strengthen the supervision of genetically modified foods,and make the GM labeling system strict,to protect consumers’right to know and choice.

  17. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  18. Identification of genetic variants associated with maize flowering time using an extremely large multi-genetic background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering time is one of the major adaptive traits in domestication of maize and an important selection criterion in breeding. To detect more maize flowering time variants we evaluated flowering time traits using an extremely large multi- genetic background population that contained more than 8000 l...

  19. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  20. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual color is a primary factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in-situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. We used 24 genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) to investigate the effect of pigment and copigme...

  1. Genetic diversity of Hungarian Maize dwarf mosaic virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Gyöngyvér; Balázs, Ervin; Petrik, Kathrin

    2010-04-01

    The genetic diversity of the coat-protein (CP) region and the untranslated C-terminal region (3'UTR) of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) was analyzed to evaluate the variability between isolates (inter-isolate sequence diversity). The results of inter-isolate sequence diversity analysis showed that the diversity of the MDMV CP gene is fairly high (p-distance: up to 0.136). During sequence analysis, a 13 amino-acid residue insertion and an 8 amino-acid residue deletion were found within the N-terminal region of the CP gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed that-unlike other potyvirus species in this subgroup-the MDMV isolates could not be distinguished on the basis of their host plants or geographic origins.

  2. Genetic variation of phytate and ionorganic phosphorus in maize population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 60 maize populations was conducted to identify genotypes that had either low or high concentration of phytate. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 1,147 to 4, 13 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi concentrations were between 0, 35 and 1, 29 and averaged 0, 65 g kg-1. Three groups of populations were identified as having low, intermediate and high phytate content. The low phytate concentration was measured in eight, intermediate in 25 and high in 27 populations. Positive correlation was found between phytate and protein. Population 216 had the lowest phytate concentration of 1, 14 gkg-1, and a Pi concentration 40% greater than Pi mean but lower than average protein content. This population will be used for further breeding genotypes with low phytate content and good agronomic traits.

  3. Genetic dissection of maize phenology using an intraspecific introgression library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguineti Maria C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collections of nearly isogenic lines where each line carries a delimited portion of a donor source genome into a common recipient genetic background are known as introgression libraries and have already shown to be instrumental for the dissection of quantitative traits. By means of marker-assisted backcrossing, we have produced an introgression library using the extremely early-flowering maize (Zea mays L. variety Gaspé Flint and the elite line B73 as donor and recipient genotypes, respectively, and utilized this collection to investigate the genetic basis of flowering time and related traits of adaptive and agronomic importance in maize. Results The collection includes 75 lines with an average Gaspé Flint introgression length of 43.1 cM. The collection was evaluated for flowering time, internode length, number of ears, number of nodes (phytomeres, number of nodes above the ear, number and proportion of nodes below the ear and plant height. Five QTLs for flowering time were mapped, all corresponding to major QTLs for number of nodes. Three additional QTLs for number of nodes were mapped. Besides flowering time, the QTLs for number of nodes drove phenotypic variation for plant height and number of nodes below and above the top ear, but not for internode length. A number of apparently Mendelian-inherited phenotypes were also observed. Conclusions While the inheritance of flowering time was dominated by the well-known QTL Vgt1, a number of other important flowering time QTLs were identified and, thanks to the type of plant material here utilized, immediately isogenized and made available for fine mapping. At each flowering time QTL, early flowering correlated with fewer vegetative phytomeres, indicating the latter as a key developmental strategy to adapt the maize crop from the original tropical environment to the northern border of the temperate zone (southern Canada, where Gaspé Flint was originally cultivated. Because of

  4. Philosophical Research on Genetically Modified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly analyzes the essential features of transgenic technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of transgenic technology, so as to promote the better development of genetically modified food. With the technical improvement, genetically modified food is no longer strange, which has been applied in the production of our life. Compared with the traditional biological breeding, transgenic food has changed significantly in nature. Trying to meet the basic needs of human beings to achieve the common development of mankind, so as to achieve consensus between the scientific field and consumer is the purpose of exploring the philosophical problems of genetically modified food.

  5. Genetic characterization of early maturing maize hybrids (Zea mays L. obtained by protein and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Iva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of maize germplasm genetic diversity is important for planning breeding programmes, germplasm conservation per se etc. Genetic variability of maize hybrids grown in the fields is also very important because genetic uniformity implies risks of genetic vulnerability to stress factors and can cause great losts in yield. Early maturing maize hybrids are characterized by shorter vegetation period and they are grown in areas with shorter vegetation season. Because of different climatic conditions in these areas lines and hybrids are developed with different features in respect to drought resistance and disease resistance. The objective of our study was to characterize set of early maturing maize hybrids with protein and RAPD markers and to compare this clasification with their pedigree information. RAPD markers gave significantly higher rate of polymorphism than protein markers. Better corelation was found among pedigree information and protein markers.

  6. Genetic properties of the MAGIC maize population: a new platform for high definition QTL mapping in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Matteo; Gatti, Daniel M; Pea, Giorgio; Cattonaro, Federica; Coppens, Frederik; Magris, Gabriele; Hlaing, Aye L; Aung, Htay H; Nelissen, Hilde; Baute, Joke; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Churchill, Gary A; Inzé, Dirk; Morgante, Michele; Pè, Mario Enrico

    2015-09-11

    Maize (Zea mays) is a globally produced crop with broad genetic and phenotypic variation. New tools that improve our understanding of the genetic basis of quantitative traits are needed to guide predictive crop breeding. We have produced the first balanced multi-parental population in maize, a tool that provides high diversity and dense recombination events to allow routine quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in maize. We produced 1,636 MAGIC maize recombinant inbred lines derived from eight genetically diverse founder lines. The characterization of 529 MAGIC maize lines shows that the population is a balanced, evenly differentiated mosaic of the eight founders, with mapping power and resolution strengthened by high minor allele frequencies and a fast decay of linkage disequilibrium. We show how MAGIC maize may find strong candidate genes by incorporating genome sequencing and transcriptomics data. We discuss three QTL for grain yield and three for flowering time, reporting candidate genes. Power simulations show that subsets of MAGIC maize might achieve high-power and high-definition QTL mapping. We demonstrate MAGIC maize's value in identifying the genetic bases of complex traits of agronomic relevance. The design of MAGIC maize allows the accumulation of sequencing and transcriptomics layers to guide the identification of candidate genes for a number of maize traits at different developmental stages. The characterization of the full MAGIC maize population will lead to higher power and definition in QTL mapping, and lay the basis for improved understanding of maize phenotypes, heterosis included. MAGIC maize is available to researchers.

  7. Philosophical Research on Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of transgenic technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of transgenic technology, so as to promote the better development of genetically modified food. With the technical improvement, genetically modified food is no longer strange, which has been applied in the production of our life. Compared with the traditional biological breeding, transgenic food has changed significantly in nature. Trying to meet th...

  8. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  9. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  10. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  11. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... indicate that the EU corn growing farmers would forego direct economic benefits in the area of 150 million Euro per year by postponing the full introduction of MON 810. The direct economic benefits are high enough to compensate for possible but highly unlikely irreversible costs of full introduction...

  12. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends.

  13. Advances in maize genomics and their value for enhancing genetic gains from breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L; Crouch, Jonathan H

    2009-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products.

  14. Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

  15. Genetic diversity among yellow maize with pro-vitamin A content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Oluremi Olowolafe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An improvement in the concentration of vitamin A in adapted yellow maize varieties grown in Africa can have a positive impact on the dietary intakes in regions where maize is a staple food. The present study was designed to identify heterotic groups and divergent parents for developing new pro-vitamin A enriched maize lines. Ten Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR markers were used to generate DNA profiles among thirteen commonly grown yellow maize lines across south western Nigeria and three high pro-vitamin A lines from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Ibadan. The result obtained estimated 100% polymorphism among the ten SSR markers with polymorphic information content that ranged from 0.28 to 0.71 on an average of 0.50. Genetic similarity coefficients among the 16 maize lines varied from 0.28 to 0.92 GS with an average of 0.63 GS. Four well defined groups were identified at 0.65 GS with an IITA line, PVA8, solely, formed a group. The study identified PVA8 and its most three distant relatives as potential divergent parents that could serve as important genetic resources for broadening the genetic base of the presently assessed IAR&T maize collections and also to develop new maize lines with higher level of pro-vitamin A content.

  16. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  17. Pathogenicity of two seed-borne fungi commonly involved in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nazar Hussain

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... deteriorate food grains by producing mycotoxins and aflotoxins during ... These species were tested to determine their pathogenicity to maize seed germination ..... genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain.

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  19. 利用QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR分析转基因玉米MON863含量%Quantification of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays) MON863 by QuantStudioTM 3D Digital PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳莹; 姜羽; 杨立桃

    2016-01-01

    QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR (QuantStudioTM 3D digital PCR,3D-dPCR)是一种基于超高密度亲疏水微孔芯片实现数字PCR分液原理的新型核酸绝对定量平台,在转基因生物定量领域具有极大的应用前景.本研究基于3D-dPCR平台,以转基因玉米(Zea mays)MON863混合样品为例,建立基于单重和双重数字PCR体系的转基因生物(genetically modified organisms,GMOs)含量分析方法.与传统qRT-PCR比较发现,在缺乏样品纯度、纯合度信息的情况下,数字PCR能够较好地排除这些因素的影响,测定准确的量值.研究结果表明,QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR是一种适用于转基因生物含量分析的精确定量方法,还可反映转基因玉米种子的基因型.本研究基于3D-dPCR建立的转基因玉米MON863单重和双重定量方法为转基因检测提供了新的方法和参考.

  20. Genetic, evoluntionary and plant breedinginsights from the domestication of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large pa...

  1. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  2. Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-UK-2008-53 for the placing on the market of herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize 98140 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Pioneer Overseas Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize 98140 contains a single insert consisting of the gat4621 and the Zm-hra expression cassettes, providing herbicide tolerance. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. The levels of the GAT and Zm-HRA protein in maize 98140 have been sufficiently analysed. The minimum standards for the design of field trials, set out in the EFSA GMO Panel guidance document, were not met. Therefore the EFSA GMO Panel was not in a position to conclude on the comparative assessment of the compositional, agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, on the basis of the data provided. In the absence of conclusions on the comparative assessment of composition, the risk assessment was restricted to the newly expressed proteins and to specific metabolites resulting from the acetylase activity of the GAT4621 protein. The EFSA GMO Panel has identified a gap in the data on the agronomic and phenotypic characterisation of GM maize 98140 and considers that uncertainty over these characteristics remains. However, considering the scope of this application, the available data and the poor survival capacity of maize outside cultivated land, the EFSA GMO Panel concluded that there is very little likelihood of environmental effects due to the accidental release into the environment of viable grains from maize 98140. Considering its intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment were not considered to be an issue. Risks associated with an unlikely but theoretically possible horizontal gene transfer from maize 98140 to bacteria have not been identified. The monitoring plan and reporting intervals were in line with the intended uses of maize 98140.

  3. Genetically modified food and international trade: The case of India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    "Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of introducing GM food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the presence of trade-related regulations of GM food in major importers. We focus on GM field crops (rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, and cotton) resistant to biotic and a...

  4. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  5. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  6. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  7. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  8. Construction and genetic analysis of mutator insertion mutant population in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenting; GAO Youjun; TENG Feng; SHI Qing; ZHENG Yonglian

    2006-01-01

    A total of 26718 M1 plants were obtained by crossing the active mutator transposon donor parents (Q105, WW51, 115F, V26-2 and 919J)with the recipient parents (Hz85,W328 with Bz gene and S-Mo17Rf3Rf3). The phenotypes of M1 plants were observed in the field. M1 plants were self-pollinated to develop the mutator insertion-mutagenized M2 seeds. The transposition frequency of the mutator in the genome was calculated based on the spotted aleurone phenotype of the M2 seeds. The results showed that: (1) the mutation frequency of M1 phenotypes in the field was 0.07 in the population of W328×Mu; (2) the mutation frequency of spotted aleurone seeds on the M2 ears was 0.122 in the population of W328×Mu; (3) five S-cytoplasm male-sterile plants were found among 22500 M1 plants of S-Mo17Rf3Rf3×Mu, with the transposition frequency about 2.2×10-4 per locus. 99 flanking sequences of mutator transposition were amplified by the modified MuTAIL-PCR, and 59 non-redundant sequences with length around 400 bp were obtained.After bioinformatic analysis, 27 sequences of them could be annotated, using non-redundant nucleotide database of maize, rice, and Arabidopsis. 36 sequences of them were located on the genetic map of maize by comparative genomics, and several flanking sequences of mutator insertion were mapped on the single marker locus. Hotspot sequences of mutator transposition were revealed by comparing the homologies between the 9-bp target site duplication of the mutator insertion. The putative functions of 8 flanking sequences of rnutator transposition had identity with the functions of their corresponding marker. The constructed mutator insertion mutant population in maize will facilitate the new gene discovery and functional genomics study in maize.

  9. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  10. Ssr analysis for genetic structure and diversity determination of maize local populations from former Yugoslavia territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović-Micić, D; Drinić, S Mladenović; Nikolić, A; Lazić-Jancić, V

    2008-11-01

    A collection of 2178 local populations from ex-Yugoslavia territories is maintained in Maize Research Institute (MRI) gene bank. These populations were characterized mainly by morphological markers. In this work 21 local populations belonging to seven different agro-ecological groups have been subjected to SSR analysis using a DNA-pooling strategy. The objective of this work was to develop genetic fingerprints for characterization, identification and classification of the populations, as well as for estimation of their genetic diversity. Also, a DNA-pooling strategy was employed with the aim to certify if it could be applied for population analysis with SSR markers. Statistical analysis of 25 informative SSR primers revealing 224 alleles (bands) showed that the average within-population mean number of alleles was 2.55, the average values for total and within-population diversity were 0.784 and 0.502, respectively and G(ST) value was 0.360. Genetic distance values calculated using Modified Rogers' Distance were in the range from 0.35 to 0.60. The silver staining method of DNA used for bulked samples showed some weakness that could be overcome with a more sensitive staining method. Nevertheless, the results in this work indicate that the SSR analysis of bulks could be used for characterizing a large number of populations in gene banks.

  11. Genetically modified plants in practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Říhová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    Genetic engineering (GI) of plants is a very current topic, and more and more controversial, since it is becoming an inseparable part of our lives. GI has, among other things, a great potential to help solve the current problem of hunger and malnutrition in certain parts of the world. The goal of this project is to clarify what genetically modified (GM) plants are, to present the possibilities of their practical use, to explain methods of preparation and to consider their advantages and event...

  12. 利用聚合酶链式反应方法检测转基因大豆和玉米中的基因修饰物质%Detection of the genetically modified organisms in genetically modified soybean and maize by polymerase chain reaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛德倩; 牟维鹏; 杨晓光

    2002-01-01

    采用聚合酶链式反应(Polymerase chain reaction PCR)来检测转基因大豆(RR大豆)和玉米(Bt-176玉米)中基因修饰物质(Genetically Modified Organisms GMOs)的方法.利用已知GMOs准确含量的转基因大豆和玉米对PCR检测方法进行了探讨,检测限可以达到0.1%,即,可以把食品中含量仅为0.1%的GMOs检测出来,检测为定性检测.检测的步骤包括:(1)大豆和玉米基因组DNA的提取;(2)对转入的CaMV35s启动子和NOS终止子利用PCR方法进行扩增;(3)对食品的house-keeping基因进行PCR扩增,以确定我们所检测的食品确实来自于大豆和玉米;(4)利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳及XmnI限制性内切酶方法对PCR产物进行描述与确认.RR大豆含有CaMV35s启动子和NOS终止子,而Bt-176玉米只含有CaMV35s启动子.由于玉米的淀粉含量较高,因此其基因组DNA的提取效果不如大豆,最终的电泳图谱也不如大豆的清晰.

  13. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  14. Role of genetic resources from different geographic and climatic regions in simultaneous breeding for high quality protein maize (HQPM and stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denic Miloje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low biological value of proteins of common maize, it was reinitiated breeding for high protein quality maize (HQPM using three genetic systems, namely: opaque-2 gene, endosperm modifier genes and enhancer genes, which are increasing lysine and tryptophan content in opaque-2 background In order to alleviate effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, the genotypes with tolerance to those factors were included. Genetic resources originating from North, Central and South America, then West, Central and Southern Africa and gene bank of Maize Research Institute “Zemun Polje” were used. Combining breeding approaches in selection of genetic resources, field plot techniques and laboratory analysis, it was created large number of early QPM varieties, inbred lines and hybrids with modified endosperm and high yield potential under poor and good growing conditions. Created lines exhibited high combining ability in conventional and non-conventional hybrids. Yield trials showed that QPM hybrids are competing with commercial hybrids of common maize.

  15. Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U.S. maize and soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Edward D.; Ciliberto, Federico; Hennessy, David A.; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has clearly led to changes in pesticide use, but the nature and extent of these impacts remain open questions. We study this issue with a unique, large, and representative sample of plot-level choices made by U.S. maize and soybean farmers from 1998 to 2011. On average, adopters of GE glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans used 28% (0.30 kg/ha) more herbicide than nonadopters, adopters of GT maize used 1.2% (0.03 kg/ha) less herbicide than nonadopters, and adopters of GE insect-resistant (IR) maize used 11.2% (0.013 kg/ha) less insecticide than nonadopters. When pesticides are weighted by the environmental impact quotient, however, we find that (relative to nonadopters) GE adopters used about the same amount of soybean herbicides, 9.8% less of maize herbicides, and 10.4% less of maize insecticides. In addition, the results indicate that the difference in pesticide use between GE and non-GE adopters has changed significantly over time. For both soybean and maize, GT adopters used increasingly more herbicides relative to nonadopters, whereas adopters of IR maize used increasingly less insecticides. The estimated pattern of change in herbicide use over time is consistent with the emergence of glyphosate weed resistance. PMID:27652335

  16. Genetically modified plants: public and scientific perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed.

  17. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The foo

  18. Unpacking attitudes towards genetically modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liver, Y. de; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive

  19. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    2006-05-01

    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

  20. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Maize Landraces from the South Maize Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-zhai; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu; GUO Rong-hua; ZHAO Jiu-ran; CAI Yi-lin; WANG Feng-ge; CAO Mo-ju; WANG Rong-huan; SHI Yun-su; SONG Yan-chun

    2010-01-01

    Understanding genetic diversity and population structure of landraces is important in utilization of these germplasm in breeding programs.In the present study,a total of 143 core maize landraces from the South Maize Region(SR)of China,which can represent the general profile of the genetic diversity in the landraces germplasm of SR,were genotyped by 54DNA microsatellite markers.Totally,517 alleles(ranging from 4 to 22)were detected among these iandraces,with an average of 9.57 alleles per locus.The total gene diversity of these core landraces was 0.61,suggesting a rather higher level of genetic diversity.Analysis of population structure based on Bayesian method obtained the samilar result as the phylogeny neighbor-joining(NJ)method.The results indicated that the whole set of 143 core landraces could be clustered into two distinct groups.All landraces from Guangdong,Hainan,and 15 landraces from Jiangxi were clustered into group 1,while those from the other regions of SR formed the group 2.The results from the analysis of genetic diversity showed that both of groups possessed a similar gene diversity,but group 1 possessed relatively lower mean alleles per locus(6.63)and distinet alleles(91)than group 2(7.94 and 110,respectively).The relatively high richness of total alleles and distinet alleles preserved in the core landraces from SR suggested that all these germplasm could be useful resources in germplasm enhancement and maize breeding in China.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Landraces of Waxy Maize from Yunnan and Guizhou Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-jian; HUANG Yu-bi; RONG Ting-zhao; TIAN Meng-liang; YANG Jun-pin

    2005-01-01

    Waxy maize landraces are abundant in Yunnan and Guizhou of China. Genetic diversity of waxy maize landraces from Yunnan and Guizhou were analyzed using SSR markers. We screened 38 landraces with 50 primers that generated 3 to 6 polymorphic bands, with an average of 4.13 bands. Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan varied from 4.9571 to 42.1138 and averaged 26.5252; Shannon's information indices for genetic diversity of the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou varied from 22.0066 to 40.6320 and averaged 32.3156. For the 14 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 45.40% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 54.60% of the total genetic diversity observed. For the 24 waxy maize landraces from Guizhou, the within-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 50.76% and the among-landrace genetic diversity accounted for 49.24% of the total observed. Some individual landraces possessed as much as 96.86% of the total genetic diversity occurring among landraces within origins. Differentiation between geographic origins accounted for only 3.14% of the total genetic diversity. Both Yunnan and Guizhou would be the diversity centers and the original centers of waxy maize.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Teosinte Alleles for Kernel Composition Traits in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Avinash; Gillman, Jason D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2017-02-10

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared to maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic lines (teosinte NILs) was previously developed to broaden the resources for genetic diversity of maize, and to discover novel alleles for agronomic and domestication traits. The 961 teosinte NILs were developed by backcrossing ten geographically diverse parviglumis accessions into the B73 (reference genome inbred) background. The NILs were grown in two replications in 2009 and 2010 in Columbia, Missouri and Aurora, New York, respectively, and Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) calibrations were developed and used to rapidly predict total kernel starch, protein and oil content on a dry matter basis in bulk whole grains of teosinte NILs. Our joint-linkage quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis identified two starch, three protein and six oil QTLs, which collectively explained 18%, 23% and 45% of the total variation, respectively. A range of strong additive allelic effects for kernel starch, protein and oil content were identified relative to the B73 allele. Our results support our hypothesis that teosinte harbors stronger alleles for kernel composition traits than maize, and that teosinte can be exploited for the improvement of kernel composition traits in modern maize germplasm.

  3. RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakora K. Williams

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum

  4. Maize tassel-modified carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Agyei, Nana M

    2014-08-01

    The preparation and application of a practical electrochemical sensor for environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metal ions in samples is a subject of considerable interest. In this paper, a carbon paste electrode modified with maize tassel for the determination of Cu(II) has been proposed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study morphology and identify the functional groups on the modified electrode, respectively. First, Cu(II) was adsorbed on the carbon paste electrode surface at open circuit and voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the sensor. The electrochemical sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards Cu(II) at pH 5.0 and by increasing the amount of maize tassel biomass, a maximum response at 1:2.5 (maize tassel:carbon paste; w/w) was obtained. The electrocatalytic redox current of Cu(II) showed a linear response in the range (1.23 μM to 0.4 mM) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9980. The limit of detection and current-concentration sensitivity were calculated to be 0.13 (±0.01) μM and 0.012 (±0.001) μA/μM, respectively. The sensor gave good recovery of Cu(II) in the range from 96.0 to 98.0 % when applied to water samples.

  5. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  6. The physical and genetic framework of the maize B73 genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Wei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a major cereal crop and an important model system for basic biological research. Knowledge gained from maize research can also be used to genetically improve its grass relatives such as sorghum, wheat, and rice. The primary objective of the Maize Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC was to generate a reference genome sequence that was integrated with both the physical and genetic maps. Using a previously published integrated genetic and physical map, combined with in-coming maize genomic sequence, new sequence-based genetic markers, and an optical map, we dynamically picked a minimum tiling path (MTP of 16,910 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC and fosmid clones that were used by the MGSC to sequence the maize genome. The final MTP resulted in a significantly improved physical map that reduced the number of contigs from 721 to 435, incorporated a total of 8,315 mapped markers, and ordered and oriented the majority of FPC contigs. The new integrated physical and genetic map covered 2,120 Mb (93% of the 2,300-Mb genome, of which 405 contigs were anchored to the genetic map, totaling 2,103.4 Mb (99.2% of the 2,120 Mb physical map. More importantly, 336 contigs, comprising 94.0% of the physical map ( approximately 1,993 Mb, were ordered and oriented. Finally we used all available physical, sequence, genetic, and optical data to generate a golden path (AGP of chromosome-based pseudomolecules, herein referred to as the B73 Reference Genome Sequence version 1 (B73 RefGen_v1.

  7. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  8. Genetically modified organisms : herbicide-resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Retuerta, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Pòster Due to the overgrowth of weeds, and the fact that herbicides cannot differentiate between crops and weeds, herbicide-resistant crops have been developed. This kind of genetically modified organisms (GMO) allows farmers to eliminate all weeds in a unique implementation of the herbicide meaning: less spraying, less “traffic” in the field and lower operating costs. However, this, like any other innovation, has generated much controversy

  9. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  10. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    TAYLOR Steve L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in ...

  11. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  12. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  13. Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from maize in Italy: fumonisin production, pathogenicity and genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, Lorenzo; Stifano, Simonetta; Beccari, Giovanni; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Albertini, Emidio

    2012-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is the main fungal agent of ear and kernel rot of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, including Italy. F.verticillioides is a highly toxigenic species since it is able to produce the carcinogenic mycotoxins fumonisins. In this study, 25 F. verticillioides strains, isolated from maize in different regions of Italy were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisins, their pathogenicity and their genetic variability. A further referenced strain of G. moniliformis isolated from maize in USA was also used as outgroup. The fumonisins B₁, B₂, and B₃ were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by symptom observation and determination of growth parameters after inoculation of maize seeds, seedlings and wounded detached leaves. Total genomic DNA was used for Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. About 20% of the analyzed strains were unable to produce fumonisins in in vitro experiments on inoculated maize flour, while, among fumonisin producers, a great variability was observed, with values ranging from 1 to 115 mg kg⁻¹. The different analyzed strains showed a wide range of pathogenicity in terms of effect on seed germination, seedling development and of symptoms produced on detached leaves, which were not correlated with the different in vitro fumonisin production. AFLP analysis indicated the presence of genetic diversity not only between the Italian strains and the American reference but also among the Italian isolates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of native maize populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Claudia A.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Hearne, Sarah; Franco, Jorge; Mir, Celine; Prasanna, Boddupalli M.; Taba, Suketoshi; Charcosset, Alain; Warburton, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 native maize populations from 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The germplasm, representing 131 distinct landraces, was genetically characterized as population bulks using 28 SSR markers. Three main groups of maize germplasm were identified. The first, the Mexico and Southern Andes group, highlights the Pre-Columbian and modern exchange of germplasm between North and South America. The second group, Mesoamerica lowland, supports the hypothesis that two separate human migration events could have contributed to Caribbean maize germplasm. The third, the Andean group, displayed early introduction of maize into the Andes, with little mixing since then, other than a regional interchange zone active in the past. Events and activities in the pre- and post-Columbian Americas including the development and expansion of pre-Columbian cultures and the arrival of Europeans to the Americas are discussed in relation to the history of maize migration from its point of domestication in Mesoamerica to South America and the Caribbean through sea and land routes. PMID:28403177

  15. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,

  16. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,

  17. Genetic mapping shows intraspecific variation and transgressive segregation for caterpillar-induced aphid resistance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in nature have inducible defenses that sometimes lead to targeted resistance against particular herbivores, but susceptibility to others. The metabolic diversity and genetic resources available for maize (Zea mays) make this a suitable system for a mechanistic study of within- species variati...

  18. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  19. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  20. Joint-linkage mapping and GWAS reveal extensive genetic loci that regulate male inflorescence size in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both insufficient and excessive male inflorescence size leads to a reduction in maize yield. Knowledge of the genetic architecture of male inflorescence is essential to achieve the optimum inflorescence size for maize breeding. In this study, we used approximately eight thousand inbreds, including b...

  1. Systems genetics reveals a transcriptional network associated with susceptibility in the maize-grey leaf spot pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have applied a systems genetics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms of maize responses to gray leaf spot (GLS) disease, caused by Cercospora zeina, a major threat to maize production globally. We conducted expression QTL (eQTL) analysis of gene expression variation measured in earleaf samp...

  2. An ultra-high-density map as a community resource for discerning the genetic basis of quantitative traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we generated a linkage map containing 1,151,856 high quality SNPs between Mo17 and B73, which were verified in the maize intermated B73'×'Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 population. This resource is an excellent complement to existing maize genetic maps available in an online database (iPlant, http:...

  3. Genetics of carotenoids for provitamin A biofortification in tropical-adapted maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan D. Halilu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yellow maize contains high levels of β-carotene (βC, making it an important crop for combating vitamin A deficiency through biofortification. In this study, nine maize inbred lines were selected at random from 31 provitamin A (PVA maize inbred lines and crossed in a partial diallel mating design to develop 36 crosses. The crosses were evaluated in the field in two locations (Samaru and Kerawa and their seed carotenoid content were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The modes of gene action, heritability, and correlations between agronomic traits and carotenoid content were estimated. Additive genetic variances (σ2a were lower than non-additive genetic variances (σ2d for all the carotenoids, plant height (PH, and grain yield (GY, suggesting a preponderance of non-additive gene action. Broad-sense heritability (H2 was high (H2 > 60% for zeaxanthin, days to anthesis, and PH, moderate (30% < H2 < 60% for lutein and GY, and low (H2 < 30% for alpha carotene, beta cryptoxanthin, βC, and PVA. Genetic advance as a percentage of mean, considered with H2, also suggests a preponderance of non-additive gene action for PVA carotenoids. Hybrid variety development is thus an appropriate approach to improving grain yield and PVA. GY showed no significant genotypic correlations with carotenoid content, suggesting that these traits can be improved concurrently. Thus, there is ample scope for improvement of PVA and GY in the sample of tropical-adapted maize.

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF S3 MAIZE GENOTYPES RESISTANT TO DOWNY MILDEW BASED ON SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Muis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compulsory requirement for releasing new high yielding maize varieties is resistance to downy mildew. The study aimed to determine the level of homozygosity, genetic diversity, and  genetic distance of 30 S3 genotypes of maize. Number of primers to be used were 30 polymorphic SSR loci which are distributed over the entire maize genomes. The S3 genotypes used were resistant to downy mildew with homozygosity level of >80%, genetic distance between the test and tester strains >0.7, and anthesis silking interval (ASI between inbred lines and tester lines was maximum 3 days. The results showed that 30 SSR primers used were spread evenly across the maize genomes which were manifested in the representation of SSR loci on each chromosome of a total of 10 chromosomes. The levels of polymorphism ranged from 0.13 to 0.78, an average of 0.51, and the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 8 alleles per SSR locus, an average of 4 alleles per SSR locus. The size of nucleotides in each locus also varied from 70 to 553 bp. Cophenetic correlation value (r at 0.67 indicated that the Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA was less reliable for differentiating genotypes in five groups. Of the total of 30 genotypes analyzed, 17 genotypes had homozygosity level of >80% so it can be included in the hybrid assembly program.

  5. Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Sher; Muhammad Iqbal; Kiramat Khan; Muhammad yasir; Hameed-ur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the pattern of inheritance and determine the relative magnitude of various genetic effects for maturity and flowering attributes in subtropical maize. Methods:Four white grain maize inbred lines from flint group of corn, two with late maturity and two with early maturity, were used. These contrasting inbred lines were crossed to form four crosses. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) were developed for each individual cross. These were evaluated in triplicate trial for two consecutive years. Results: Both dominance gene action and epistatic interaction played major role in governing inheritance of days to pollen shedding, 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and maturity. Conclusions: Preponderance of dominance gene action for these traits indicated their usefulness in hybrid programs of subtropical maize.

  6. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  8. What makes genetically modified organisms so distasteful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K G

    2001-10-01

    The debate concerning genetically modified organisms goes on unabated and reflects some genuine concerns. I suggest that a significantly large number of educated people believe that moving genes around between species is intuitively wrong and that this is based on an essentialist view of the world. This essentialist view has a long history that dates back to Plato and Aristotle and was eventually overthrown by the population thinking of Charles Darwin. The essentialist, who is antipathetic to population thinking, will naturally find the transfer of a gene from one organism to another distasteful, and this, I argue, is the result of Platonic thinking, which still remains and casts its spell over us today.

  9. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...

  10. Unpacking atitudes towards genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Liver, Yaël; van der Pligt, Joop; Wigboldus, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive components and a separate factor for perceived risk and worry best accounted for the data. Negative--but not positive--components directly affected behavioural intentions. Implications of these findings for our understanding of attitudes towards GM food and their impact on behaviour are discussed.

  11. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  12. Soil microbes and fauna under Bt maize or an isogenic control, with and without additional insecticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Birch, A. N. E.; Caul, S.

    The experiment described is a component of the EU-funded project entitled 'Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops' (ECOGEN, www.ecogen.dk). The overall project has an emphasis on maize genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt maize) and e...

  13. Soil microbes and fauna under Bt maize or an isogenic control, with and without additional insecticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Birch, A. N. E.; Caul, S.;

    The experiment described is a component of the EU-funded project entitled 'Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops' (ECOGEN, www.ecogen.dk). The overall project has an emphasis on maize genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt maize...

  14. Breeding maize as biogas substrate in Central Europe: I. Quantitative-genetic parameters for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Christoph; Dhillon, Baldev S; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2012-04-01

    Biofuels have gained importance recently and the use of maize biomass as substrate in biogas plants for production of methane has increased tremendously in Germany. The objectives of our research were to (1) estimate variance components and heritability for different traits relevant to biogas production in testcrosses (TCs) of maize, (2) study correlations among traits, and (3) discuss strategies to breed maize as a substrate for biogas fermenters. We evaluated 570 TCs of 285 diverse dent maize lines crossed with two flint single-cross testers in six environments. Data were recorded on agronomic and quality traits, including dry matter yield (DMY), methane fermentation yield (MFY), and methane yield (MY), the product of DMY and MFY, as the main target trait. Estimates of variance components showed general combining ability (GCA) to be the major source of variation. Estimates of heritability exceeded 0.67 for all traits and were even much greater in most instances. Methane yield was perfectly correlated with DMY but not with MFY, indicating that variation in MY is primarily determined by DMY. Further, DMY had a larger heritability and coefficient of genetic variation than MFY. Hence, for improving MY, selection should primarily focus on DMY rather than MFY. Further, maize breeding for biogas production may diverge from that for forage production because in the former case, quality traits seem to be of much lower importance.

  15. 转基因大豆、玉米、油菜和水稻品系特异性 检测质粒标准分子的快速构建及应用%Construction and Application of Standard ReferenceMolecule for Strain-specific Detection in GeneticallyModified Soybean, Maize, Rape and Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永彬; 肖维威; 张宝; 蔡翠霞; 康文杰; 周琳华; 刘唐书; 马文丽

    2011-01-01

    Using the overlap extension PCR method, four reference plasmids of genetically modified (GM) soybean GTS40-3-2, GM maize NK603, GM rape RT73, GM rice TT51-1 stains were constructed. After verified by PCR and sequencing, the standard curves were obtained for the quantification of the reference molecules by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the PCR efficiencies of the target sequence detection were within a normal range of 97. 434 - 101. 479% ( R2 ^ 0. 995 ) , and the limits were as low as 20 copies. These indicated that the standard reference molecules for the positive detection in the four GM crop stains were successfully validated and could be used as the reference materials ( RM ) .%本文采用重叠延伸PCR技术快速构建了转基因大豆GTS40-3-2、玉米NK603、油菜RT73和水稻TT51-1的4种品系作物的质粒标准分子.经快速PCR鉴定及测序分析验证后,将构建的阳性质粒标准分子应用于实时荧光定量PCR标准曲线的构建,并建立其相应的荧光定量PCR检测体系,同时对该体系的扩增效率、精确度、灵敏度等指标进行了评估.结果显示,建立的实时荧光定量PCR检测体系中,目标序列的扩增效率均在97.434%~101.479%正常范围内(R2≥0.995),定量极限为20 copies,表明我们已成功构建了这4种转基因作物的品系质粒标准分子,并能有效应用于实时荧光定量PCR标准曲线的构建.

  16. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Orlando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  17. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L; Lassen, J; Kettlitz, B; Scholderer, J; Beekman, V; Berdal, K G

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists, and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased public participation has been promoted as a way of increasing trust in institutional practices associated with the biosciences, although questions still arise as to how to best utilise the outputs of such exercises in policy development. This issue will become more of a priority as decision-making systems become more transparent and open to public scrutiny. The results are discussed in the context of risk assessment and risk management, and recommendations for future research are made. In particular, it is recommended that new methods are developed in order to integrate public values more efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general.

  18. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... micronutrient deficiencies, especially vitamin A, iodine and iron, often lumped as .... aims to explore the constraints, benefits, risk to human and animals‟ ... factors including climate change, limited arable land, water shortage ...

  19. Biotechnology: Two Decades of Experimentation with Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Ajami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over the recent years, genetically modified food in varieties of corn, soybeans, canola and cotton have been introduced to the global market. This study reviews the health and nutritional value of genetically modified foods in the past two decades.Results and Conclusions: Contrary to the present biotechnological claims, transgenic products did not prove to be so flawless, and actually failed to maintain social satisfaction. Genetically modified foods could not gain an increase in the yield potential. Planting natural products and genetically modified products in parallel lines will absolutely result in genetic infection from the side of genetically modified foods. One of the major anxieties of the anti- genetically modified foods activism is the claim that genetically modified crops would alter the consumable parts of the plant quality and safety. Genetically modified foods have shown to have inadequate efficiency and potential adverse effects in both fields of health and biodiversity. This review has presented studies of genetically modified foods performances in the past two decades, and concludes that the wide application and the over generalization of genetically modified foods are not fundamentally recommended.Conflict of interest: Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  20. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops (preface)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    to integrate the combined soil ecological and economic effects of introducing systems including genetically modified (GM) crops by performing data mining and building decision support systems. The project involved eight academic partners from five EU countries and an input from Monsanto. Maize expressing......The biodiversity of, and processes performed by soil organisms make up a crucial part of the natural basis for agricultural production and, therefore, have subsequent economic consequences. ECOGEN was a research initiative funded under the European Commission Framework 5 programme, designed...

  2. Medical Doctors Perceptions of Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Savas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recombinant DNA and with similar technical changes made on genes or transferred isolated gene the living organisms have been named genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Thanks to advances in genetic technology, the advancement of enzyme and fermentation techniques result obtained by the use of GMOs in food industry products of genetically modified (GM foods are named. In this study, GM foods about the possible harmful effects have information and community advice on this matter to be medical doctors on this issue perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors aimed to measure.Material and Method: The study was made on including 200 medical doctors aged 23-65, 118 men (59%, 82 women (41%. In the statistical analysis based on the responses of medical doctors, against GM food risk perception, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed. Results: 80.5% of the participants’ think that GM foods are harmful. 22% of the participants were expressed that their knowledge are ‘’good’’ and ‘’very good’’ about GM food. While 38% of the participants use internet and 23.5% of the participants  use media, only 4.5% of the participants use medical schools as a source of sufficient information about GM foods. Discussion: While the risk perception of medical doctors about GM foods is high, the knowledge on this issue is observed low. Though the consumption and the prevelance of GM foods are increasing, medical doctors should have more information about this issue to enlighten and guide the community.

  3. Expanding the genetic map of maize with the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Sharopova, Natalya; Beavis, William D; Grant, David; Katt, Maria; Blair, Deborah; Hallauer, Arnel

    2002-01-01

    The effects of intermating on recombination and the development of linkage maps were assessed in maize. Progeny derived from a common population (B73 x Mo17) before and after five generations of intermating were genotyped at the same set of 190 RFLP loci. Intermating resulted in nearly a four-fold increase in the genetic map distance and increased the potential for improved genetic resolution in 91% of the intervals evaluated. This mapping population and related information should connect research involving dense genetic maps, physical mapping, gene isolation, comparative genomics, analysis of quantitative trait loci and investigations of heterosis.

  4. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs.

  5. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries....... In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health and taste benefits....

  6. Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1a.105 and cry2ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinon, A.Z.; Prins, T.W.; Dijk, van J.P.; Arisi, C.M.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Kok, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific detectio

  7. Development and validation of real-time PCR screening methods for detection of cry1a.105 and cry2ab2 genes in genetically modified organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinon, A.Z.; Prins, T.W.; Dijk, van J.P.; Arisi, C.M.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Kok, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Primers and probes were developed for the element-specific detection of cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 genes, based on their DNA sequence as present in GM maize MON89034. Cry genes are present in many genetically modified (GM) plants and they are important targets for developing GMO element-specific

  8. Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa

    2002-08-01

    The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 addressees, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents and those with lower level of education. A majority of the consumers had moral and ethical doubts about eating GM foods and did not perceive attributes like better taste or lower price beneficial enough to persuade them to purchase GM foods. However, tangible benefits, like being better for the environment or healthier, seemed to increase willingness to purchase GM foods.

  9. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  10. Overview of genetically modified crops and their relevance for Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Marisser H. Álvarez-Guevara; Luvianca G. Gil-Moreno; Julio A. Gó - mez-Rodríguez; Huete-Pérez,Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    The first transgenic plants were created in Europe about three decades ago. In Nicaragua, however, there is not commercial cultivation of transgenic crops allowed yet, and the only history of transgenic grain imports occurred in 2005, when the introduction of 15 events of GM maize was first authorized. The Law on Prevention of Risks from Living Modified Organisms by Means of Molecular Biotechnology was published in 2010, and more recently, in September 2012, the Law on Conservation and Sustai...

  11. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  12. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  13. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  15. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  17. Quantitative genetic analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in maize in the field environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Domagojimi; Hrvoje Lepedu; Vlatka Jurkovi; Jasenka Antunovi; Vera Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyl fluorescence transient from initial to maximum fluorescence (“P”step) throughout two intermedi-ate steps (“J”and“I”) (JIP-test) is considered a reliable early quantitative indicator of stress in plants. The JIP-test is particularly useful for crop plants when applied in variable field environments. The aim of the present study was to conduct a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for nine JIP-test parameters in maize during flowering in four field environ-ments differing in weather conditions. QTL analysis and identification of putative candidate genes might help to explain the genetic relationship between photosynthesis and different field scenarios in maize plants. The JIP-test param-eters were analyzed in the intermated B73 ? Mo17 (IBM) maize population of 205 recombinant inbred lines. A set of 2,178 molecular markers across the whole maize genome was used for QTL analysis revealing 10 significant QTLs for seven JIP-test parameters, of which five were co-localized when combined over the four environments indicating polygenic inheritance and pleiotropy. Our results demonstrate that QTL analysis of chlorophyl fluorescence parameters was capable of detecting one pleiotropic locus on chromosome 7, coinciding with the gene gst23 that may be associated with efficient photosynthe-sis under different field scenarios.

  18. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt.

  19. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  20. Genetic relationship between yield and yield components of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and yield components, in S1 and HS progenies of one early synthetic maize population. Grain yield was in high significant, medium strong and strong association with all studied yield components, in both populations. The strongest correlation was recorded between grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (S1 progenies rg = 0.684; HS progenies rg = 0.633. Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic coefficient of correlations were found between 1000-kernel weight and kernel depth in S1 population, and 1000-kernel weight and ear length in HS population. Also, objective of this research was founding the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for 1000-kernel weight and kernel row number, and in S1 and HS progenies, and for ear length in population of S1 progenies. Kernel depth has undesirable direct effect on grain yield, in both populations.

  1. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  2. Genetic Diversity Evaluation of Maize Recurrent Selection Population with RAPD Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of maize populations Wuxi (W) from Southwest China, BSSS9(B) from America, Mohuangjiu (M) from Mexico, WBMC0 synthesized by W, B, M as main parents,WBMC1 one cycle selected from WBMC0 were evaluated by RAPD molecular marker. The results showed that :(1) Totally 89 fragments (loci) were amplified by 15 10-mar random primers, the proportion of polymorphic loci were W 76. 4%, B 75. 3%, M 79. 8%,WBMC0 85. 4% and WBMC1 92. 1% respectively; (2) The mean gene heterozygosity based on 89 loci was W 0. 285, B 0. 252, M 0. 296, WBMC0 0. 327 and WBMC1 0. 346; (3) The mean genetic distance based on 89 loci were W 0. 2533, B 0. 2246, M 0. 2481, WBMC0 0. 3006 and WBMC1 0. 3119; (4) The genotypic mean numbers amplified by 15 primers were W 9.1, B 7.8, M 8.5, WBMC0 10. 1 and WBMC1 10. All indexes indicated that the synthesized maize population were more polymorphic than the parent populations in DNA level. One cycle selection did not reduce the variation. The new conception of "genotypic diversity" (the number of genotypes in a population) was provided to describe the genetic diversity for any population being equilibrium or unequilibrium in genetics. The principle and technical system were discussed for evaluating genetic variation of recurrent selection population using RAPD molecular marker.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis. In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  4. [Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengbin; Garcia, Arturo; McMullen, Michael D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2016-08-09

    Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  6. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Qaim

    Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  7. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  8. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  9. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  10. Risk assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigmann E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s remit in the risk assessment of GMOs is very broad encompassing genetically modified plants, microorganisms and animals and assessing their safety for humans, animals and the environment. The legal frame for GMOs is set by Directive 2001/18/EC on their release into the environment, and Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 on GM food and feed. The main focus of EFSA’s GMO Panel and GMO Unit lies in the evaluation of the scientific risk assessment of new applications for market authorisation of GMOs, and in the development of corresponding guidelines for the applicants. The EFSA GMO Panel has elaborated comprehensive guidance documents on GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific aspects of risk assessment such as the selection of comparators. EFSA also provides special scientific advice upon request of the European Commission; examples are post-market environmental monitoring of GMOs, and consideration of potential risks of new plant breeding techniques. The GMO Panel regularly reviews its guidance documents in the light of experience gained with the evaluation of applications, technological progress in breeding technologies and scientific developments in the diverse areas of risk assessment.

  11. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  12. Proposal for a Test Protocol for Genetically Modified Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998......The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998...

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity of maize hybrids in the regional tests in Sichuan and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,analyses of phenotypic characters,SSR molecular markers and pedigrees were done to study the genetic diversity in 186 maize hybrids that were tested in regional trials in Sichuan and Southwest China.The results showed that there were differences in the variation coefficients of different characteristics,but all of the variation coefficients changed within a narrow range.Sixty pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer distributed on the ten chromosomes of maize produced stable amplified bands and 608 alleles were detected among the hybrids.The average number of alleles per locus was 10.1 ranging from 3 to 23.The values of polymorphism information content (PIC) for each SSR locus varied from 0.5179 to 0.9256 with an average of 0.7826.The genetic similarities of SSR marker pattern among the 186 hybrids ranged from 0.6067 to 0.9162,with an average of 0.7722.There were 16499 pairs of genetic similarity,in which 96.9% were 0.70000 to 0.9256.The cluster analysis showed that the hybrids could be classified into ten clusters,with 88.2% of the hybrids included in Cluster 4,Cluster 8 and Cluster 10.The analysis of pedigree sources of 51 hybrids showed that 36 hybrids had close genetic relationships with the hybrids developed by the Pioneer Company in the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States,such as Y78599,Y7865 and Y78698,accounting for 70.58%.Meanwhile,13 hybrids had close genetic relationships with Y78599,accounting for 8.66%.The genetic similarities of SSR marker pattern among the 51 hybrids ranged from 0.66192 to 0.8799,with an average of 0.7686.There were 1196 pairs of genetic similarity ranged between 0.7000 to 0.8796,accounting for 93.80% of all the genetic similarity pairs.The cluster analysis showed that 88.2% of the 51 hybrids were in Cluster 4,Cluster 8 and Cluster 10,which indicated that similarity was high and genetic diversity narrow among the 186 hybrids.This showed that it is necessary to broaden the genetic basis of breeding

  14. Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Prado, Santiago; Sadras, Víctor O; Borrás, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    Maize kernel weight (KW) is associated with the duration of the grain-filling period (GFD) and the rate of kernel biomass accumulation (KGR). It is also related to the dynamics of water and hence is physiologically linked to the maximum kernel water content (MWC), kernel desiccation rate (KDR), and moisture concentration at physiological maturity (MCPM). This work proposed that principles of phenotypic plasticity can help to consolidated the understanding of the environmental modulation and genetic control of these traits. For that purpose, a maize population of 245 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was grown under different environmental conditions. Trait plasticity was calculated as the ratio of the variance of each RIL to the overall phenotypic variance of the population of RILs. This work found a hierarchy of plasticities: KDR ≈ GFD > MCPM > KGR > KW > MWC. There was no phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits per se and trait plasticities. MWC, the trait with the lowest plasticity, was the exception because common quantitative trait loci were found for the trait and its plasticity. Independent genetic control of a trait per se and genetic control of its plasticity is a condition for the independent evolution of traits and their plasticities. This allows breeders potentially to select for high or low plasticity in combination with high or low values of economically relevant traits.

  15. ASPECTS ON CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARD GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AMONG YOUTH

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in food biotechnology and food science in the early 1990s have opened the gates of new markets for genetically modified foods. A broad dispute over the use of foods derived from genetically modified organisms and other uses of genetic engineering in food production in terms of key scientific researches, their impact on health and eco-systems, food safety and food security, labelling and regulations, traceability is still lasting. Beside the scientifically, technical, ethical and regu...

  16. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  17. Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-03-01

    The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological and genetic characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of different maize genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Bassani, Luciana Lange; Adamoski, Douglas; Stringari, Danyelle; Cordeiro, Vanessa Kava; Glienke, Chirlei; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Hungria, Mariangela; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitoria

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide, and in Brazil, the state of Paraná stands as its largest producer. The crop demands high inputs of N fertilizers, therefore all strategies aiming to optimize the grain production with lower inputs are very relevant. Endophytic bacteria have a high potential to increment maize grain yield by means of input via biological nitrogen fixation and/or plant growth promotion, in this last case increasing the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants. In this study, we established a collection of 217 endophytic bacteria, isolated from roots of four lineages and three hybrid genotypes of maize, and isolated in four different N-free culture media. Biochemical-comprising growth in different carbon sources, intrinsic tolerance to antibiotics, and biochemical tests for catalase, nitrate reductase, urease, and growth in N-free media in vitro-and genetic characterization by BOX-PCR revealed great variability among the isolates. Both commercial hybrids and homozygous lineages were broadly colonized by endophytes, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genera Pantoea, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Klebsiella. Qualitative differences in endophytic colonization were detected between lineages and hybrid genotypes.

  19. Use of Genetic Effects and Genotype by Environmental Interactions for the Classification of Mexican Races of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Tarcicio S.; Goodman, Major M.; Casas, Eduardo D.; Rawlings, John O.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the questions of whether the additive and dominance effects present for morphological characters in racial crosses are of sufficient consistency and magnitude to allow such genetic effects to be used for racial classification, we used a diallel experiment among the 25 well-defined Mexican races of maize, which include the ancestral stocks of most commercial and genetic maize types. With such an experiment, genetic effects and genotype by environmental interactions for one or more characters can be used to measure genetic and adaptational or environmental similarity. We used average parental effects (general combining abilities), specific effects, and genotype by environmental effects of 21 characters from the diallel (grown at three locations) to group the Mexican races of maize. The groupings based upon average genetic effects and upon genotype by environmental interactions are more satisfactory than groupings based upon specific effects. The standard errors for genetic distances based upon specific (largely dominance) effects seem to be too high for practical use. Principal components analyses of the same data suggest a similar conclusion.—The groupings based upon average genetic effects are in general agreement with previous studies, with the exception of Maíz Dulce, which is grouped with the Cónicos, rather than being isolated from the other Mexican races of maize. PMID:17248866

  20. Genetic Diversity of Chinese Temperate and Exotic Tropical,Subtropical Quality Protein Maize Inbreds by SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xing-ming; TAN Jing; LI Ming-shun; YANG Jun-yun; CHEN Hong-mei

    2004-01-01

    Information on genetic relationship is of great value to maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) to classify 22 quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds into different groups by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which included exotic tropical, subtropical and domestic temperate QPM and normal maize inbreds; 2) to examine the consistency of grouping results obtained from SSR, specific combining ability (SCA) analysis,and genetic backgrounds of these inbreds. A set of 39 polymorphic SSR primers was selected from 70 primer pairs, which detected 136 alleles among the 22 lines. The mean polymorphism information content was 0.55. Based on analysis of genetic similarities, five groups were identified including Luda Red Cob, Sipingtou, Reid, Lancaster and a miscellaneous group with several tropical inbreds which could not be classified into the above four groups. The results generally agreed with previous results based on analysis of yield combining ability and pedigree data.

  1. Genetic Variation of Inbred Lines of Maize Detected by SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-hai; FU Jun-hua; ZHANG Shi-huang; YUAN Li-xing; LI Ming-shun

    2001-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to detect genetic variation among 21 maize(Zea mays L. ) inbred lines. Forty-three SSR primers selected from 69 primers gave stable amplification profiles, which could be clearly resolved on 3% Metaphor agarose gel, and produced 127 polymorphic amplified fragments.The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 2.95 with a range from 2 to 7. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the SSR loci varied from 0.172 to 0.753 with an average of 0.511. Genetic similarities among the 21 lines ranged from 0.480 between the combination of Zhongzi451 vs. K12 up to 0.768 between CA156 vs. Ye478. The cluster analysis showed that 21 inbred lines could be classified into two distinct clusters with several subclusters, which corresponded to the heterotic groups determined by their pedigree information.Eight SSR primers, which had high level of polymorphism, could allow a rapid and efficient identification of 21 inbreds. Consequently, SSR markers could be used for measuring genetic variation of maize inbred lines and assigning them to heterotic groups.

  2. Genetic diversity of improved salt tolerant calli of maize (Zea mays L.) using RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, Triono Bagus; Dianawati, Siti; Sholihah, Nur Fadlillatus; Ermavitalini, Dini

    2017-06-01

    Maize is one of important cultivated plants in the world, in terms of production rates, utilization rates and demands. Unfortunately, the increment of demands were not followed by the increase of production rates since the cultivation area were significantly decrease. Coastal area is the marginal land that have a good potential to extend the cultivation area. The main challenge of this area is the high content of salt. The aims of this research were try to induce a new varian of local maize through in vitro culture and observe its genetic variation using RAPD. Bluto variety from Madura island was used as an explant in callus induction. Induction of callus were conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D under dark condition. While the selection stage was conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D with the addition of various concentration of NaCl (0 mg/L; 2500 mg/L; 5000 mg/L; and 7500 mg/L). The research were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The exposion of NaCl were significantly decrease the mass of maize callus. The highest addition of callus weight was 210 mgs in control treatment, while the lowest is in 7500 mg/L with 3 mgs. The RAPD technique was utilized to characterize the genotype of maize callus. Out of five primers, only three primers can produce polymorphic bands named OPA10, OPB07 and OPC02. Taken together, the surviving callus of Bluto varians can be further developed as potential somaclone that has high tolerance to salt stress.

  3. Genetic analysis of central carbon metabolism unveils an amino acid substitution that alters maize NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengyi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central carbon metabolism (CCM is a fundamental component of life. The participating genes and enzymes are thought to be structurally and functionally conserved across and within species. Association mapping utilizes a rich history of mutation and recombination to achieve high resolution mapping. Therefore, applying association mapping in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays, the most diverse model crop species, to study the genetics of CCM is a particularly attractive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a maize diversity panel to test the CCM functional conservation. We found heritable variation in enzyme activity for every enzyme tested. One of these enzymes was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41, in which we identified a novel amino-acid substitution in a phylogenetically conserved site. Using candidate gene association mapping, we identified that this non-synonymous polymorphism was associated with IDH activity variation. The proposed mechanism for the IDH activity variation includes additional components regulating protein level. With the comparison of sequences from maize and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. Parviglumis, the maize wild ancestor, we found that some CCM genes had also been targeted for selection during maize domestication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of association mapping for dissecting natural variation in primary metabolic pathways. The considerable genetic diversity observed in maize CCM genes underlies heritable phenotypic variation in enzyme activities and can be useful to identify putative functional sites.

  4. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  5. Genetic control of maize shoot apical meristem architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Addie M; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C P; Springer, Nathan M; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2014-05-22

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We measured meristem height, width, plastochron internode length, and associated traits from 86 individuals of the intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred line population. For meristem height-related traits, the parents exhibited markedly different phenotypes, with B73 being very tall, Mo17 short, and the population distributed between. In the outer cell layer, differences appeared to be related to number of cells rather than cell size. In contrast, B73 and Mo17 were similar in meristem width traits and plastochron internode length, with transgressive segregation in the population. Multiple loci (6-9 for each trait) were mapped, indicating meristem architecture is controlled by many regions; none of these coincided with previously described mutants impacting meristem development. Major loci for height and width explaining 16% and 19% of the variation were identified on chromosomes 5 and 8, respectively. Significant loci for related traits frequently coincided, whereas those for unrelated traits did not overlap. With the use of three near-isogenic lines, a locus explaining 16% of the parental variation in meristem height was validated. Published expression data were leveraged to identify candidate genes in significant regions. Copyright © 2014 Thompson et al.

  6. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  7. Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-70 for the placing on the market of genetically modified drought tolerant maize MON 87460 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize MON 87460 was developed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and expresses the cold shock protein B (CspB from Bacillus subtilis and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII from Escherichia coli to reduce yield loss under water-limited conditions. Maize MON 87460 contains a single copy of the cspB and nptII expression cassettes. Bioinformatic analysis of the flanking sequences and the open reading frames spanning the junctions created by the transformation did not raise safety issues. Comparative analyses established that, besides the expression of the CspB and NPTII proteins, some differences were observed in the composition of forage and grain produced from maize MON 87460 compared with its conventional counterpart, when grown under well-watered conditions. Given the magnitude of these changes and the characteristics of these endpoints, the EFSA GMO Panel concluded that the observed differences do not raise safety concerns for humans and animals. Under stressful conditions, maize MON 87460 can show enhanced agronomic performance characteristics and some differences in chemical composition in comparison with its conventional counterpart. Given the intended trait, the observed differences were not unexpected, and did indicate no safety concerns. The safety assessment identified no concerns regarding the potential toxicity and allergenicity of the CspB and NPTII proteins, or of maize MON 87460. Maize MON 87460 is as nutritious as any other maize and can be used in the same way. In cases of spillage, there are no indications of increased likelihood of the establishment or survival of feral maize plants MON 87460. Risks associated with a theoretically possible horizontal gene transfer from maize MON 87460 to bacteria have been analysed in detail, including different scenarios of integration, and did not raise safety concerns for the intended uses of maize MON 87460. The post-market environmental monitoring plan and reporting intervals

  8. A simple ssr analysis for genetic diversity estimation of maize landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatovic-Micic Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available collection of 2217 landraces from western Balkan (former Yugoslavia is maintained at Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje gene bank. Nine flint and nine dent accessions from six agro-ecological groups (races, chosen on the basis of diverse pedigrees, were analyzed for genetic relatedness using phenotypic and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. One of the aims was to establish a reliable set of SSR markers for a rapid diversity analysis using polyacrilamide gels and ethidium bromide staining. In the principal component analysis (PCA the first three principal components accounted for 80.86% of total variation and separated most of the flint from dent landraces. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 56 and 63 alleles in flint and dent landraces, respectively, with low stuttering and good allele resolution on the gels. High average PIC value (0.822 also supports informativeness and utility of the markers used in this study. Higher genetic variation was observed among flint genotypes, as genetic distances between flint landraces covered a larger range of values (0.11- 0.38 than between dent (0.22 - 0.33 genotypes. Both phenotypic and SSR analyses distinguished flint and dent landraces, but neither of them could abstract agro-ecological groups. The SSR method used gave clear, easy to read band patterns that could be used for reliable allele frequency determination. Genetic diversity revealed for both markers indicated that the landraces were highly adapted to specific environmental conditions and purposes and could be valuable sources of genetic variability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31028: Exploitation of maize diversity to improve grain quality and drought tolerance

  9. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  10. Sampling Strategies for Evaluating the Rate of Adventitious Transgene Presence in Non-Genetically Modified Crop Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Bancal, Rémi; Bensadoun, Arnaud; Monod, Hervé; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-02-23

    According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field. With the stratified sampling method, an auxiliary variable is used to define several strata with contrasting transgene presence rates, and grains are then sampled at random from each stratum. With the two methods involving reweighting, grains are first sampled at random from various locations within the field, and the observations are then reweighted according to the auxiliary variable. Data collected from three maize fields were used to compare the four sampling methods, and the results were used to determine the extent to which transgene presence rate estimation was improved by the use of stratified and reweighting sampling methods. We found that transgene rate estimates were more accurate and that substantially smaller samples could be used with sampling strategies based on an auxiliary variable derived from a gene-flow model.

  11. Investigating an Ethical Approach to Genetically Modified Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the ... cited in Webster, 1999:414) states that political institutions find themselves .... means that risks are socially invisible and must clearly be brought to consciousness, ...

  12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ATHLETES: BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, GENE DOPING AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Miah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.

  13. Genetics of Resistance and Pathogenicity in the Maize/Setosphaeria turcica Pathosystem and Implications for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Galiano-Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB, the most devastating leaf pathogen in maize (Zea mays L., is caused by the heterothallic ascomycete Setosphaeria turcica. The pathogen population shows an extremely high genetic diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Varietal resistance is the most efficient technique to control NCLB. Host resistance can be qualitative based on race-specific Ht genes or quantitative controlled by many genes with small effects. Quantitative resistance is moderately to highly effective and should be more durable combatting all races of the pathogen. Quantitative resistance must, however, be analyzed in many environments (= location × year combinations to select stable resistances. In the tropical and subtropical environments, quantitative resistance is the preferred option to manage NCLB epidemics. Resistance level can be increased in practical breeding programs by several recurrent selection cycles based on disease severity rating and/or by genomic selection. This review aims to address two important aspects of the NCLB pathosystem: the genetics of the fungus S. turcica and the modes of inheritance of the host plant maize, including successful breeding strategies regarding NCLB resistance. Both drivers of this pathosystem, pathogen, and host, must be taken into account to result in more durable resistance.

  14. Influence of Genetic Background on Anthocyanin and Copigment Composition and Behavior during Thermoalkaline Processing of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Amy; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Murray, Seth; Awika, Joseph M

    2015-06-10

    Visual color is a primary quality factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. Twenty-four genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) were used to investigate the effect of pigment and copigment composition on color stability during nixtamalization and tortilla chip processing. The red/blue and blue samples generally contained higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside)) than the red and purple color classes. Phenolic amides were the major extractable copigments in all samples (450-764 μg/g), with red samples containing the most putrescines and blue samples containing the most spermidines. Even though samples with higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins retained more pigments during processing, this did not relate to final product color quality. In general, the red/blue samples retained their color quality the best and thus are good candidates for genetic improvement for direct processing into alkalized products.

  15. Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; de Vries, Nanne K; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product.

  16. Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein γ-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quan...

  17. Modifier genes and the plasticity of genetic networks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include induced mutations and spontaneous or wild-derived variations captured in inbred strains. Identification of modifiers among wild-derived variants in particular should detect disease modifiers that have been shaped by selection and might therefore be compatible with high fitness and function. Here we review selected examples and argue that modifier genes derived from natural variation may provide a bias for nodes in genetic networks that have greater intrinsic plasticity and whose therapeutic manipulation may therefore be more resilient to side effects than conventional targets.

  18. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-23

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking of the EU member countries in relation to the prevalence of rejection of genetically modified food, 2) uncovering i...

  20. GENETICALLY MODIFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  1. ASPECTS ON CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARD GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina, SÎRBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in food biotechnology and food science in the early 1990s have opened the gates of new markets for genetically modified foods. A broad dispute over the use of foods derived from genetically modified organisms and other uses of genetic engineering in food production in terms of key scientific researches, their impact on health and eco-systems, food safety and food security, labelling and regulations, traceability is still lasting. Beside the scientifically, technical, ethical and regulators arguments, the economical aspects of the genetically modified food market is influenced by the social acceptance of it. Consumers' perception and their attitudes are different and depending on many factors. A survey of youth as undergraduate students of Constantin Brancoveanu University from Romania revealed certain differences in attitudes regarding the genetically modified foods that may be partially explained by the consumers' information. Referring the consumer behaviour, this study showed rather a tacit attitude of acceptance of the genetically modified food goods than a vehement rejection.

  2. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  3. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-08-16

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%.

  4. Screening genetically modified organisms using multiplex-PCR coupled with oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Miao, Haizhen; Wu, Houfei; Huang, Wensheng; Tang, Rong; Qiu, Minyan; Wen, Jianguo; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Yao

    2006-07-15

    In this research, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR) coupled with a DNA microarray system simultaneously aiming at many targets in a consecutive reaction to detect a genetically modified organism (GMO). There are a total of 20 probes for detecting a GMO in a DNA microarray which can be classified into three categories according to their purpose: the first for screening GMO from un-transgenic plants based on the common elements such as promoter, reporter and terminator genes; the second for specific gene confirmation based on the target gene sequences such as herbicide-resistance or insect-resistance genes; the third for species-specific genes which the sequences are unique for different plant species. To ensure the reliability of this method, different kinds of positive and negative controls were used in DNA microarray. Commercial GM soybean, maize, rapeseed and cotton were identified by means of this method and further confirmed by PCR analysis and sequencing. The results indicate that this method discriminates between the GMOs very quickly and in a cost-saving and more time efficient way. It can detect more than 95% of currently commercial GMO plants and the limits of detection are 0.5% for soybean and 1% for maize. This method is proved to be a new method for routine analysis of GMOs.

  5. [Identification of genetically modified vegetable sources in food and feed using hydrogel oligonucleotide microchip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griadunov, D A; Getman, I A; Chizhova, S I; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Romanov, G A

    2011-01-01

    A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the hybridization on a hydrogel oligonucleotide biochip was developed for simultaneous identification of ten different transgenic elements of plant DNA in feed and food products. The biochip contained 22 immobilized probes intended for (i) detection of plant DNA; (ii) plant species determination (soybean, maize, potato, rice); (iii) identification of transgenic elements, including 35S CaMV, 35S FMV, rice actine gene promoters, nos, 35S CaMV, ocs, pea rbcS1 gene terminators, and bar, gus, nptII marker genes. The limit of detection was 0.5% of genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize in analyzed samples. Identification of transgenic DNA in food and feed products using either the developed approach or real-time PCR led to virtually identical results. The assay can be used for selection of GM samples by screening food and feed products for subsequent quantitative determination of the GM component based on the identified transgene.

  6. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Skoková Habuštová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM of genetically modified (GM crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn.

  7. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Skoková Habuštová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM of genetically modified (GM crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn.

  8. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  9. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  10. Determination of Genetic Coefficients of Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars of Iran for Application in Crop Simulation Models

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimi Moghaddam; R. Deihimfard; S Soufizadeh; J Kambouzia; F Nazariyan Firuzabadi; H Eyni Nargeseh

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the research field of the University of Lorestan in 2011 as a randomized complete block design with three replications to estimate genetic coefficients of some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Treatments include six maize cultivars (T.V.C.767 and S.C.704 from late maturing group, T N.S640 and Maxima from mid-maturing group, and Koppany and D.C.370 from early maturing group). Results showed that there were significant differences among cultivars in terms of st...

  11. [A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances, NIR Spectra Distances, and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Jia, Shi-qiang; Wang, Chun-ying; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-cheng; Zhai, Wei; Li, Shao-ming; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Zhu, De-hai; Huang, Hua-jun; An, Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances, NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines. Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs) of maize inbred lines whose genetic distaches are different as experimental materials, we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines and the identification accuracy is used as a measure of model identification performance. The results showed that, the correlation of genetic distance and spectra distancesis 0.9868, and it has a correlation of 0.9110 with the identification accuracy, which is highly correlated. This means near-Infrared spectrum of seedscan reflect genetic relationship of maize inbred lines. The smaller the genetic distance, the smaller the distance of spectrum, the poorer ability of model to identify. In practical application, near infrared spectrum analysis technology has the potential to be used to analyze maize inbred genetic relations, contributing much to genetic breeding, identification of species, purity sorting and so on. What's more, when creating a NIR-based identification model, the impact of the maize inbred lines which have closer genetic relationship should be fully considered.

  12. The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project: A Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to increase genetic diversity in US maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project is a mission-oriented, cooperative research effort of the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), land grant universities, private industry, and international agricultural research centers to broaden the ger...

  13. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins and as a result, threaten human health, food security, and farmers’ income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of B Chromosomes and Genetic Diversity in Maize (Zea mays L.) Landraces from Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qi-lun; YANG Ke-cheng; PAN Guang-tang; RONG Ting-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The number of B chromosomes (Bs) in 54 maize landraces from Southwest China was tested by means of cytological observations. Nine landraces with Bs were observed. A map, showing the geographic distribution of the landraces with Bs, was plotted. It was found that southeastern Sichuan Province in China was the main distribution area of the landraces with Bs in Southwest China. In order to obtain information on relationships between Bs and genetic variation, genetic diversity both among and within 11 landraces was evaluated. For each SSR marker, the number of alleles ranged from 3 to 12 with an average of 7.86, which revealed a high level of genetic diversity among maize landraces in Southwest China.Based on SSRs data, higher genetic variation was found in the landraces with 2B, and the genetic distance between the landraces with and without Bs was higher. The results together with the principal component analysis (PCA) supported the hypothesis that maize landraces in Southwest China were first introduced to the middle part of southwest Sichuan, China. At the same time, the effect of Bs on genetic variation was discussed.

  15. PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer's decision to purchase GM foods.

  16. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population.

  17. Broadening Our Portfolio in the Genetic Improvement of Maize Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Weiwei; Brotman, Yariv; Willmitzer, Lothar; Yan, Jianbing; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-08-01

    The adoption of recombinant inbred line and introgression line populations, as well as the study of association mapping panels, has greatly accelerated our ability to identify the genes underlying plant phenotypic variance. In tandem, the development of metabolomics approaches has greatly enhanced our ability to comprehensively define cellular chemical composition. As a consequence, breeding for chemical composition is being extended beyond our traditional targets of oil and protein to include components such as essential amino acids, vitamins, and antioxidant secondary metabolites with considerable purported consequences for human health. Here, we review the above-mentioned developments paying particular attention to the genetic architecture of metabolic traits as well as updating the perspective for utilizing metabolomics in maize improvement.

  18. Genetic Improvement of Root Growth Contributes to Efficient Phosphorus Acquisition in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-kai; CHEN Fan-jun; CHEN Xiao-chao; LONG Li-zhi; GAO Kun; YUAN Li-xing; ZHANG Fu-suo; MI Guo-hua

    2013-01-01

    Maize plants adapt to low phosphorus (P) stress by increasing root growth. It is of importance to know the extent to which genetic improvement of root growth can enhance P acquisiton. In the present study, the contribution of root growth improvement to efficient P acquisition was evaluated in two soils using T149 and T222, a pair of near isogenic maize testcrosses which were derived from a backcross BC4F3 population. T149 and T222 showed no difference in shoot biomass and leaf area under normal growth conditions, but differed greatly in root growth. T149 had longer lateral roots and a larger root surface area compared to T222. In calcareous soil, when P was insufficient, i.e., when P was either supplied as KH2PO4 at a concentration of 50 mg P kg-1 soil, or in the form of Phy-P, Ca3-P or Ca10-P, a 43%increase in root length in T149 compared to T222 resulted in an increase in P uptake by 53%, and shoot biomass by 48%. In acid soil, however, when P supply was insufficient, i.e., when P was supplied as KH2PO4 at a concentration of 100 mg P kg-1 soil, or in the form of Phy-P, Fe-P or Al-P, a 32%increase in root length in T149 compared to T222 resulted in an increase in P uptake by only 12%, and shoot biomass by 7%. No significant differences in the exudation of organic acids and APase activity were found between the two genotypes. It is concluded that genetic improvement of root growth can efficiently increase P acquisition in calcareous soils. In acid soils, however, improvements in the physiological traits of roots, in addition to their size, seem to be required for efficient P acquisition.

  19. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzal Billy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.

  20. Genetic diversity of the floury race of maize Avati Morotî from the Guaraní tribe in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Noldin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Avati Morotî is a race of floury maize widely used by the Guarani people in South America, whose variability and potential value for breeding has been neglected so far. The objective of this research was to explore the genetic variability within the main Paraguayan race Avati Morotî. We studied the genetic variability available in the 20 accessions of Paraguayan Avati Morotî included in the South American core collection made by CIMMYT. Thirty individuals per accession were genotyped with 30 SSR (simple sequence repeat; we determined genetic diversity and made a cluster analysis in order to define genetic relationships among accessions. Mean of polymorphic loci (0.96, alleles per locus (3.57, alleles per polymorphic locus (3.65, expected (0.48 and observed (0.43 heterozygosity, and coefficient of consanguinity (0.12 revealed that Avati Morotî contains a genetic diversity comparable to the most variable maize races of maize. The cluster analysis classified the 20 populations in eight groups, five of them with a single accession, and a large group representing a central pool of germplasm. These results indicate that there is a large variability available in this race, and encourage the collection of more samples of Avati Morotî, particularly in marginal areas that were scarcely sampled.

  1. Genetic diversity of the floury race of maize Avati Morotî from the Guaraní tribe in Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando Noldin, O.; Revilla, P.; Ordás, B.

    2016-11-01

    Avati Morotî is a race of floury maize widely used by the Guarani people in South America, whose variability and potential value for breeding has been neglected so far. The objective of this research was to explore the genetic variability within the main Paraguayan race Avati Morotî. We studied the genetic variability available in the 20 accessions of Paraguayan Avati Morotî included in the South American core collection made by CIMMYT. Thirty individuals per accession were genotyped with 30 SSR (simple sequence repeat); we determined genetic diversity and made a cluster analysis in order to define genetic relationships among accessions. Mean of polymorphic loci (0.96), alleles per locus (3.57), alleles per polymorphic locus (3.65), expected (0.48) and observed (0.43) heterozygosity, and coefficient of consanguinity (0.12) revealed that Avati Morotî contains a genetic diversity comparable to the most variable maize races of maize. The cluster analysis classified the 20 populations in eight groups, five of them with a single accession, and a large group representing a central pool of germplasm. These results indicate that there is a large variability available in this race, and encourage the collection of more samples of Avati Morotî, particularly in marginal areas that were scarcely sampled. (Author)

  2. Thumbs down for genetically modified foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Many researchers and food companies strain at the leash to use genetic modification. Consumers, on the other hand, reject GM food products. This is one of many results of a EU funded project about consumers' attitudes and decisionmaking with regard to GM food products. Consumers' scepticism towards...... their general attitudes. The group of consumers that do not like new and different products, are relatively more averse to GM food products. This also goes for consumers who are concerned about nature and who in general believe that man has no right to rule over plants and animals as well as for consumers who...... have a negative attitudes towards technology in general. Much points to the fact that consumers' aversion towards GM food products is quite stable. In the study, increased information on GM did not increase consumers' acceptance of GM food products. Furthermore there is evidence that consumers reject...

  3. Safety Assessment and Countermeasures of Genetically Modified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science-biotechnology, the safety of genetically modified organisms has become some of the most controversial issues in our society. This study aims to review the safety assessment and countermeasures of Genetically Modified (GM foods. Firstly, the research status and the main contents of GM foods safety assessment are discussed. What’s more, the countermeasures of GM foods safety assessment are proposed. This study tries to summarize and discuss the safety assessment of GM foods.

  4. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes......European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product...

  5. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart.

  6. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  7. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Zorica; Milošević Mirjana; Vujaković Milka; Ignjatov Maja

    2007-01-01

    At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others lab...

  8. Modeling evolution of insect resistance to genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control have been planted on more than 200 million ha worldwide since 1996 [1]. Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the continued success of Bt crops [2, 3]. To delay pest resistance, refuges of non-Bt crops are planted near Bt crops to allow survival of susceptible pests [4, 5]. We used computer simulations of a population genetic model to determine if predictions from the the...

  9. New Genes in Traditional Seed Systems: Diffusion, Detectability and Persistence of Transgenes in a Maize Metapopulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Vecchyo, Del D.O.; Alvarez-Buylla, E.R.; Bellon, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow of transgenes into non-target populations is an important biosafety concern. The case of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mexico has been of particular interest because of the country’s status as center of origin and landrace diversity. In contrast to maize in the U.S. and Europe, Mexica

  10. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents.

  11. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  12. Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2010-12-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

  13. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant'Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio

    2016-01-01

    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  14. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  15. Huntingtin interacting proteins are genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Kaltenbach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to

  16. Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Conway

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other nutrients more efficiently. Over the past 10 years, in addition supporting ecological approaches, the Rockefeller Foundation has funded the training of some 400 developing-country scientists in the techniques of biotechnology. Most of the new crop varieties are the result of tissue culture and marker-aided selection. The Foundation also supports the production of genetically engineered rices, including a new rice engineered for beta carotene (the precursor of Vitamin A in the grain. Some specific steps can be taken by Monsanto that would improve acceptance of plant biotechnology in both the developing and the industrialized worlds: label; disavow gene protection (terminator systems; phase out the use of antibiotic resistance markers; agree (with big seed companies to use the plant variety protection system, rather than patents, in developing countries; establish an independently administered fellowship program to train developing-country scientists in crop biotechnology, biosafety, and intellectual property; donate useful technologies to developing countries; agree to share financial rewards from intellectual property rights on varieties such as basmati or jasmine rice with the countries of origin; and

  17. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social welf

  18. The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Phillips, P.W.B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected t

  19. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  20. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J.; Dijk, van Jeroen P.; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J.

    2016-01-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will gener

  1. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social welf

  2. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms

  3. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  4. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des

  5. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  6. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  7. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  8. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms tha

  9. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (

  10. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  11. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  12. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des

  13. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms tha

  14. Competition with mandatory labeling of genetically modified products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In April 2004, the European Union adopted a new legislative framework for genetically modified (GM) organisms. This framework regulates the placing on the market of GM products, and demands these products to be labeled as such. We present a duopoly model with vertical differentiation and mandatory l

  15. Components of genetic variability and heritability of grain yield of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters for the grain yield of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and components of genetic variability and heritability on the basis of the diallel set. The two-year four-replicate trial was set up according to the randomized complete-block design at Zemun Polje. It was determined that a genotype, year and their interaction significantly affected variability of this trait. The highest. i.e. the lowest grain yield, on the average for both investigation years. was recorded in the silage maize inbred lines ZPLB402 and ZPLB405. respectively. The analysis of components of genetic variance for grain yield shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variance, while a positive component F and the frequency of dominant (u and recessive (v genes for this observed trait point to prevalence of dominant genes over recessive ones. Furthermore. this is confirmed by the ratio of dominant to recessive genes in parental genotypes for grain yield (Kd/Kr> 1 that is greater than unity in both years of investigation. The estimated value of the average degree of dominance (H1/D1/2 exceeds unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation. Results of Vr/Vr regression analysis indicate superdominance in inheritance of grain yield. Moreover. a registered presence of non-allelic interaction points out to the need to study effects of epistasis, as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high values of broad-sense heritability for grain yield in both investigation years (98.71%, i.e. 97.19% in 1997, i.e. 1998, respectively. and low values of narrow-sense heritability (11.9% in 1997 and 12.2% in 1998.

  16. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  17. Genetically engineered plants, endangered species, and risk: a temporal and spatial exposure assessment for Karner blue butterfly larvae and Bt maize pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert K D; Meyer, Steven J; Wolf, Amy T; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Davis, Paula M

    2006-06-01

    Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin proteins has been adopted widely in the Midwestern United States. The proteins are toxic to several lepidopteran species and because a variety of maize tissues, including pollen, may express the endotoxins, the probability of exposure to nontarget species, including endangered species, needs to be understood. The objective of this study was to assess the potential temporal and spatial exposure of endangered Karner blue butterfly larvae (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bt maize pollen in Wisconsin using probabilistic exposure techniques and geographic information systems analysis. Based on degree-day modeling of butterfly phenology and maize pollen shed, there is some potential for temporal exposure of larvae to maize pollen. However, in the majority of years and locations, maize pollen shed most likely will occur after the majority of larval feeding on wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). The spatial analysis indicates that some Karner blue butterfly populations occur in close proximity to maize fields, but in the vast majority of cases the butterfly's host plant and maize fields are separated by more than 500 m. A small number of potential or existing Karner blue butterfly sites are located near maize fields, including sites in two of the four counties where temporal overlap is most likely. The exposure assessment indicates that these two counties should receive the highest priority to determine if Karner blue butterfly larvae are actually at risk and then, if needed, to reduce or prevent exposure.

  18. Effects of open- and self-pollination treatments on genetic estimations in maize diallel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahriman, F.; Egesel, C.O.; Zorlu, E.

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of open- and self-pollination treatments on genetic estimations and kernel biochemical content in a maize diallel experiment. A 7×7 complete reciprocal diallel set (7 parents and 42 hybrids) was used as plant material. Measured traits were: kernel weight per plant, protein content, oil content and carbohydrate content. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), maternal effects (MAT), non-maternal effects (NMAT) and heterosis values were compared in open- and self-pollination treatments for measured traits. Results showed that the pollination treatments had a significant effect on all investigated traits. Parental lines and hybrid combinations gave different responses. Parents had relatively higher protein and oil content in self-pollination but hybrids had lower values in self-pollination compared with open-pollination. A considerable number of genotypes showed significant differences for genetic estimations (GCA, SCA, MAT, NMAT) and heterosis between open- and self-pollination treatments. Overall, findings suggest that evaluation of kernel quality traits should be made on selfed ear samples; however, evaluation for yield should be carried out on open-pollinated samples. (Author)

  19. Effects of open- and self-pollination treatments on genetic estimations in maize diallel experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kahriman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of open- and self-pollination treatments on genetic estimations and kernel biochemical content in a maize diallel experiment. A 7×7 complete reciprocal diallel set (7 parents and 42 hybrids was used as plant material. Measured traits were: kernel weight per plant, protein content, oil content and carbohydrate content. General combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA, maternal effects (MAT, non-maternal effects (NMAT and heterosis values were compared in open- and self-pollination treatments for measured traits. Results showed that the pollination treatments had a significant effect on all investigated traits. Parental lines and hybrid combinations gave different responses. Parents had relatively higher protein and oil content in self-pollination but hybrids had lower values in self-pollination compared with open-pollination. A considerable number of genotypes showed significant differences for genetic estimations (GCA, SCA, MAT, NMAT and heterosis between open- and self-pollination treatments. Overall, findings suggest that evaluation of kernel quality traits should be made on selfed ear samples; however, evaluation for yield should be carried out on open-pollinated samples.

  20. Pollen movement between native maize Yucatán and maintenance of genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Canul Ku

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Yucatan, Mexico, the cultivation of different native maize populations in the system milpa, promote the interchange of pollen. To evaluate the relationship between the flow of pollen and the dynamics of genetic diversity in 2005 and 2006, a white kernel population and another yellow, both of the Xmejen-nal and Xnuc-nal types, were grown associated with squash. The yellow kernel variety was planted surrounded by the white kernel variety, 540 ears were harvested in 8 directions, from the periphery to the center, and the percentage of yellow grain in the white variety was used as indicator of out crossing rate. For each direction, regression analysis was performed between distance and yellow kernel percentage. The largest out crossing rates in Xmejen-nal (44 % and Xnuc-nal (42 % were obtained in the direction northeast-southwest in 2005; and indirection southeast-northwest in Xmejen-nal (37 % and Xnuc-nal (41 % in 2006. Both direction and intensity of dominant wind determined trajectories of pollen, and the out crossing rate was reduced with the distance to the source of pollen. Genetic interchange is promoted by management and genotype distribution in both time and space, and gene flow among populations promotes intrapopulation diversity.

  1. Genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation recurrent selection in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Carlos Alberto Arrabal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available New genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulational recurrent selection methods have been theoretically developed by Souza Jr. (Rev. Bras. Genet. 16: 91-105, 1993 to explain the failure of these methods to concomitantly develop hybrid and per se populations. Intra- and interpopulation half-sib progenies of 100 genotypes were sampled from maize (Zea mays L. populations BR-106 and BR-105 to estimate variance and covariance components and to compare the expected responses to reciprocal (RRS, intrapopulational (HSS, and modified (MRS recurrent selection in interpopulation hybrid, populations per se, and to determine heterosis. Four sets of 100 progenies, two intra- and two interpopulational, were evaluated in partially balanced 10 x 10 lattices arranged in split-blocks with two replications in two years (1991/92 and 1992/93 and two locations in Piracicaba, SP. Data for ear weight, plant and ear height, and ear by plant height ratio were recorded. Populations and interpopulation crosses were high yielding and showed high breeding potential for production of hybrids from inbred lines. Mid parent and the highest parent heterosis were relatively high, but lower than values reported for these populations under other environmental conditions. Additive variance estimates of populations per se and interpopulation crosses confirmed the high potential of these materials. The magnitude of the variance estimates for the deviations from intra- and interpopulation additive effects ( for BR-106 and for BR-105 and covariance between additive effects with these deviations ( for BR-106 and for BR-105 indicated that these new components can significantly influence the effectiveness of breeding methods. Genetic component estimates for BR-105 had relatively small errors, with negative for all traits. Estimates of and had relatively larger errors for BR-106. The MRS method was more effective than the RRS and HSS methods in producing

  2. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  3. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  4. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II.

  5. Application of Modified Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Supporting Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rui-zhong; PAN Shi-wei

    2003-01-01

    The modified genetic algorithm was used for the optimal design of supporting structure in deep pits.Based on the common genetic algorithm, using niche technique and reserving the optimum individual the modified genetic algorithm was presented. By means of the practical engineering, the modified genetic algorithm not only has more expedient convergence, but also can enhance security and operation efficiency.

  6. Modified Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm for Yeast Fed-batch Cultivation Parameter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelova M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a modified multi-population genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of parameter identification of fermentation process model. Modified multi-population genetic algorithm is similar to the multi-population one and its development is instigated by modified genetic algorithm, similar to simple one. A comparison of four types of genetic algorithms, namely simple, modified, multipopulation and modified multi-population is presented for parameter identification of a fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  7. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance.

  8. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  9. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter

    2017-08-30

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Melhoramento genético do cultivar de milho IAC-1 Genetic improvement of the maize cultivars IAC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Torres de Miranda

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados obtidos no melhoramento do cultivar de milho IAC-1 pela introdução de linhagens prolíficas nesta população, que já vinha sendo melhorada há oito ciclos pelo método de seleção entre e dentro de famílias de meios irmãos. Para produção de grãos foi observado um progresso genético médio de 3,3% por ciclo, comparado com um progresso genético esperado de 7,2% por ciclo. Para índice-de-espigas foi observado um progresso genético de 8,9% e um progresso genético espe-rado de 1,9% por ciclo. Com a introdução de fatores de prolificidade, o índice-de-espigas aumentou consideravelmente superando inclusive o do híbrido duplo comercial utilizado como controle. Houve pequeno aumento da porcentagem de plantas acamadas e quebra-das, com o decorrer dos ciclos de seleção. Computando-se os ganhos obtidos inicialmente neste cultivar, houve em 10 ciclos de seleção um progresso acumulado de 28% para produção de grãos e de 10% para índice-de-espigas, sendo este último obtido quase exclusivamente após a introdução das linha-gens prolíficas.There are presented results of the improvement of the maize (Zea mays, L. cultivars IAC-1, after the introduction of prolificacy in a population formerly improved for eight cycles by the modified ear-to-row procedure. It was obtained an average progress of 3.3% per cycle in grain yield, against an expected genetic progress of 7.2% per cycle. For the ear index a genetic progress of 8.9% per cycle was observed and an expected genetic progress of 1.9% per cycle was estimated. With the introduction of prolificacy factors, ear index increased considerably outyielding the commercial double hybrid control Lodging changed 'very little with the cycles of selection. The IAC-1 cultivars showed an accumulated progress of 28% for grain yield and 10% for ear index. The gain in ear index is mainly due to the prolific inbred lines introduced in the synthetic.

  11. Dosage effect of high-amylose modifier gene(s) on the starch structure of maize amylose-extender mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Campbell, Mark; Wu, Yusheng; Du, Shuangkui; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2015-01-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate how dosages of high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) affected the structure of maize amylose extender (ae) mutant starch. GEMS-0067 (G), a homozygous mutant of ae and the HAM gene(s), and H99ae (H), an ae single mutant, were self-pollinated or inter-crossed to produce maize endosperms of G/G, G/H, H/G, and H/H with 3, 2, 1, and 0 doses of HAM gene(s), respectively. Endosperm starch was fractionated into amylopectin, amylose, and intermediate component (IC) of large and small molecular weights using 1-butanol precipitation of amylose followed by gel-permeation chromatography. Increases in the dosage of HAM gene(s) from 0 to 3 decreased the amylopectin content. The HAM-gene dosage significantly changed the branch chain-length of small-molecular-weight IC, but had little effect on the branch chain-length distributions of amylopectin and large-molecular-weight IC and the molecular structure of amylose.

  12. Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Grillo, Agata; Sciacca, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    The possible transfer and accumulation of novel DNA and/or proteins in food for human consumption derived from animals receiving genetically modified (GM) feed is at present the object of scientific dispute. A number of studies failed to identify GM DNA in milk, meat, or eggs derived from livestock receiving GM feed ingredients. The present study was performed in order to: (i) develop a valid protocol by PCR and multicomponent analysis for the detection of specific DNA sequences in milk, focused on GM maize and GM soybean; (ii) assess the stability of transgenic DNA after pasteurization treatment and (iii) determine the presence of GM DNA sequences in milk samples collected from the Italian market. Results from the screening of 60 samples of 12 different milk brands demonstrated the presence of GM maize sequences in 15 (25%) and of GM soybean sequences in 7 samples (11.7%). Our screening methodology shows a very high sensitivity and the use of an automatic identification of the amplified products increases its specificity and reliability. Moreover, we demonstrated that the pasteurization process is not able to degrade the DNA sequences in spiked milk samples. The detection of GM DNA in milk can be interpreted as an indicator of fecal or airborne contamination, respectively, with feed DNA or feed particles, although an alternative source of contamination, possibly recognizable in the natural environment can be suggested. Further studies, performed on a larger number of milk samples, are needed to understand the likely source of contamination of milk collected from the Italian market.

  13. Outcrossing potential between 11 important genetically modified crops and the Chilean vascular flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Cid, Pablo; Navarrete, Humberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Chacón, Gustavo; Salazar, Erika; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on biodiversity is one of the main concerns in an environmental risk assessment (ERA). The likelihood of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow from GM crops and non-GM crops are explained by the same principles and depend primarily on the biology of the species. We conducted a national-scale study of the likelihood of outcrossing between 11 GM crops and vascular plants in Chile by use of a systematized database that included cultivated, introduced and native plant species in Chile. The database included geographical distributions and key biological and agronomical characteristics for 3505 introduced, 4993 native and 257 cultivated (of which 11 were native and 246 were introduced) plant species. Out of the considered GM crops (cotton, soya bean, maize, grape, wheat, rice, sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato), only potato and tomato presented native relatives (66 species total). Introduced relative species showed that three GM groups were formed having: a) up to one introduced relative (cotton and soya bean), b) up to two (rice, grape, maize and wheat) and c) from two to seven (sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato). In particular, GM crops presenting introduced noncultivated relative species were canola (1 relative species), alfalfa (up to 4), rice (1), tomato (up to 2) and potato (up to 2). The outcrossing potential between species [OP; scaled from 'very low' (1) to 'very high' (5)] was developed, showing medium OPs (3) for GM-native relative interactions when they occurred, low (2) for GMs and introduced noncultivated and high (4) for the grape-Vitis vinifera GM-introduced cultivated interaction. This analytical tool might be useful for future ERA for unconfined GM crop release in Chile.

  14. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  15. Evaluation of plasmid and genomic DNA calibrants used for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioara-Buda, M; Meyer, W; Jeynov, B; Corbisier, P; Trapmann, S; Emons, H

    2012-07-01

    The reliable quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by real-time PCR requires, besides thoroughly validated quantitative detection methods, sustainable calibration systems. The latter establishes the anchor points for the measured value and the measurement unit, respectively. In this paper, the suitability of two types of DNA calibrants, i.e. plasmid DNA and genomic DNA extracted from plant leaves, for the certification of the GMO content in reference materials as copy number ratio between two targeted DNA sequences was investigated. The PCR efficiencies and coefficients of determination of the calibration curves as well as the measured copy number ratios for three powder certified reference materials (CRMs), namely ERM-BF415e (NK603 maize), ERM-BF425c (356043 soya), and ERM-BF427c (98140 maize), originally certified for their mass fraction of GMO, were compared for both types of calibrants. In all three systems investigated, the PCR efficiencies of plasmid DNA were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the genomic DNA extracted from seed powders rather than those of the genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although the mean DNA copy number ratios for each CRM overlapped within their uncertainties, the DNA copy number ratios were significantly different using the two types of calibrants. Based on these observations, both plasmid and leaf genomic DNA calibrants would be technically suitable as anchor points for the calibration of the real-time PCR methods applied in this study. However, the most suitable approach to establish a sustainable traceability chain is to fix a reference system based on plasmid DNA.

  16. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP... on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for...

  17. Genetic Diversity of Maize Populations Developed by Two Kinds of Recurrent Selection Methods Investigated with SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lu-jiang; YANG Ke-cheng; PAN Guang-tang; RONG Ting-zhao

    2008-01-01

    Two cycles of biparental mass selection (MS) and one cycle of half-sib-S3 family combining selection (HS-S3) for yield were carried out in 2 synthetic maize populations P4C0 and P5C0 synchronously.The genetic diversity of 8 maize populations,including both the basic populations and their developed populations,were evaluated by 30 SSR primers.On the 30 SSR loci,a total of 184 alleles had been detected in these populations.At each locus,the number of alleles varied from 2 to 14,with an average of 6.13.The number and ratio of polymorphic loci in both the basic populations were higher than those of their developed populations,respectively.There was nearly no difference after MS but decreased after HS-S3 in both the basic populations in the mean gene heterozygosity.The mean genetic distance changed slightly after MS but decreased in a bigger degree after HS-S3 in both the basic populations.Analyses on the distribution of genetic distances showed that the ranges of the genetic distance were wider after MS and most of the genetic distances in populations developed by HS-S3 were smaller than those in both the basic populations.The number of genotypes increased after MS but decreased after HS-S3 in both the basic populations.The genetic diversity of intra-population was much more than genetic diversity of inter-population in both the basic populations.All these indexes demonstrated that the genetic diversity of populations after MS was similar to their basic populations,and the genetic diversity was maintained during MS,whereas the genetic diversity of populations decreased after HS-S3.This result indicated that heterogeneity between some of the individuals in the developed populations increased after MS,whereas the populations become more homozygotic after HS-S3.

  18. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

  19. Analysis of genetic and epigenetic effects of maize seeds in response to heavy metal (Zn) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Agar, Guleray; Arslan, Esra; Nardemir, Gokce

    2015-07-01

    Conditions of environmental stress are known to lead genetic and epigenetic variability in plants. DNA methylation is one of the important epigenetic mechanisms and plays a critical role in epigenetic control of gene expression. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the alteration of genome methylation induced by zinc stress by using coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) technique in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. In addition, to determine the effect of zinc on mitotic activity and phytohormone level, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mitotic index analysis were utilized. According to the results, mitotic index decreased in all concentrations of zinc except for 5 mM dose and chromosome aberrations such as c-mitosis, stickiness, and anaphase bridges were determined. It was also observed that increasing concentrations of zinc caused an increase in methylation patterns and decrease in gibberellic acid (GA), zeatin (ZA), and indole acetic acid (IAA) levels in contrast to abscisic acid (ABA) level. Especially increasing of ABA levels under zinc stress may be a part of the defense system against heavy metal accumulation in plants.

  20. Phenotypic, genetic and molecular characterization of a maize low phytic acid mutant (lpa241).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilu, R; Panzeri, D; Gavazzi, G; Rasmussen, S K; Consonni, G; Nielsen, E

    2003-10-01

    Phytic acid, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate, is the major storage compound of phosphorous (P) in plants, predominantly accumulating in seeds (up to 4-5% of dry weight) and pollen. In cereals, phytic acid is deposited in embryo and aleurone grain tissues as a mixed "phytate" salt of potassium and magnesium, although phytates contain other mineral cations such as iron and zinc. During germination, phytates are broken down by the action of phytases, releasing their P, minerals and myo-inositol which become available to the growing seedling. Phytic acid represents an anti-nutritional factor for animals, and isolation of maize low phytic acid ( lpa) mutants provides a novel approach to study its biochemical pathway and to tackle the nutritional problems associated with it. Following chemical mutagenesis of pollen, we have isolated a viable recessive mutant named lpa 241 showing about 90% reduction of phytic acid and about a tenfold increase in seed-free phosphate content. Although germination rate was decreased by about 30% compared to wild-type, developement of mutant plants was apparentely unaffected. The results of the genetic, biochemical and molecular characterization experiments carried out by SSR mapping, MDD-HPLC and RT-PCR are consistent with a mutation affecting the MIPS1S gene, coding for the first enzyme of the phytic acid biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda

    . This document describes the six steps for the ERA of GM plants, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC, starting with (1) problem formulation including hazard identification; (2) hazard characterisation; (3) exposure characterisation; (4) risk characterisation; (5) risk management strategies; and (6) an overall...... assessment; (5) impact of the specific cultivation, management and harvesting techniques; including consideration of the production systems and the receiving environment(s); (6) effects on biogeochemical processes; and (7) effects on human and animal health. Each specific area of concern is considered......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...

  2. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. Overview of genetically modified crops and their relevance for Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisser H. Álvarez-Guevara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first transgenic plants were created in Europe about three decades ago. In Nicaragua, however, there is not commercial cultivation of transgenic crops allowed yet, and the only history of transgenic grain imports occurred in 2005, when the introduction of 15 events of GM maize was first authorized. The Law on Prevention of Risks from Living Modified Organisms by Means of Molecular Biotechnology was published in 2010, and more recently, in September 2012, the Law on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity came into force. In line with the resulting requirements from these laws, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR currently works in coordination with the Molecular Biology Center at the University of Central America to ensure that grains imported in the country correspond to events legally authorized. This article begins by presenting an overview of transgenic crops (GMO, their history and their implications for the economy and human health. Next, we describe the current status of GMO in Nicaragua. We conclude that MAGFOR has been successful in fulfilling the law in regards to sampling of imports related to the introduction of GMO grains. It is recommended, however, that for better monitoring of compliance with these laws, it will be necessary to establish a systematic monitoring plan nationwide, aimed at the appropriate screening and detection of transgenic material both in crop seeds as well as in imported grains.

  5. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  6. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, William D.; Hussein, Hany M.; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009–2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G) and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86). Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017) and non-Bt (DK315) untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability. PMID:26083254

  7. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kramkowska; Teresa Grzelak; Krystyna Czyżewska; Ewa Mierzejewska; Renata Welc-Faleciak; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Lanocha; Rafał Celiński; Agata Bielawska-Drózd; Justyna Joniec; Marcin Kołodziej; Grzegorz Graniak; Mariusz Goniewicz; Leszek Kubiak

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumpt...

  8. Aphid–parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and it...

  9. Global Status of Genetically Modified Crops: Current Trends and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hautea, Randy A.

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology-facilitated crop improvement is undoubtedly one of the most significant technological developments in agriculture. The first wave of genetically-modified (GM) or transgenic crops include cultivars with important input traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. Future products are expected to provide benefits that could include tolerance to environmental stresses and enhanced nutritional content, which can be particularly valuable in crops that are important...

  10. Identification of Genetically Modified Foods - problems and unsolved questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...... it is difficult to keep GM and non-GM plants materials fully separated during growing, transport etc., a threshold for labelling of GM foods was introduced....

  11. The Genetic Architecture of Flowering Time and Photoperiod Sensitivity in Maize as Revealed by QTL Review and Meta Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xu; Tingzhao Rong; Yaxi Liu; Jian Liu; Moju Cao; Jing Wang; Hai Lan; Yunbi Xu; Yanli Lu; Guangtang Pan

    2012-01-01

    The control of flowering is not only important for reproduction,but also plays a key role in the processes of domestication and adaptation.To reveal the genetic architecture for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity,a comprehensive evaluation of the relevant literature was performed and followed by meta analysis.A total of 25 synthetic consensus quantitative trait loci (QTL) and four hot-spot genomic regions were identified for photoperiod sensitivity including 11 genes related to photoperiod response or flower morphogenesis and development.Besides,a comparative analysis of the QTL for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity highlighted the regions containing shared and unique QTL for the two traits.Candidate genes associated with maize flowering were identified through integrated analysis of the homologous genes for flowering time in plants and the consensus QTL regions for photoperiod sensitivity in maize (Zea mays L.).Our results suggest that the combination of literature review,meta-analysis and homologous blast is an efficient approach to identify new candidate genes and create a global view of the genetic architecture for maize photoperiodic flowering.Sequences of candidate genes can be used to develop molecular markers for various models of marker-assisted selection,such as marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection that can contribute significantly to crop environmental adaptation.

  12. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  13. Low phytic acid 1 mutation in maize modifies density, starch properties, cations, and fiber contents in the seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Michela; Cerino Badone, Francesco; Haman, Nabil; Schiraldi, Alberto; Fessas, Dimitrios; Cesari, Valentina; Toschi, Ivan; Cremona, Roberta; Delogu, Chiara; Villa, Daniela; Cassani, Elena; Pilu, Roberto

    2013-05-15

    Monogastric animals are unable to digest phytic acid, so it represents an antinutritional factor and also an environmental problem. One strategy to solve this problem is the utilization of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants that accumulate low levels of phytic P and high levels of free phosphate in the seeds; among the lpa maize mutants lpa1 exhibited the highest reduction of phytic acid in the seed. This study indicated that the low phytic acid mutations exerted pleiotropic effects not directly connected to the phytic acid pathway, such as on seed density, content of ions, and the antioxidant compounds present in the kernels. Furthermore some nutritional properties of the flour were altered by the lpa1 mutations, in particular lignin and protein content, while the starch does not seem to be modified as to the total amount and in the amylose/amylopectin ratio, but alterations were noticed in the structure and size of granules.

  14. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

    2004-02-01

    One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a

  15. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  16. Molecular genetics of the R complex of maize. Final technical report DE-FG02-86ER13627

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellaporta, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    A molecular genetic characterization of the maize R-r complex of maize was completed during the period of support. The complex was shown to consist of two main regions: the P region, containing the r-p gene which controlled pigmentation of plant parts, and the S subcomplex, containing two rl-s genes in head-to-head orientation and a nonfunctional component termed rl-q. By examining the DNA sequences at the junction of the rl genes, the complex was shown to be derived by a series of abortive transposition events. The transposable element involved in the gene duplication and rearrangements was characterized and called doppia. Meiotic instability of the R-r complex was also characterized. Loss of P or S function was associated with several structural changes including intrachromosomal recombination and excision of a novel transposable element that appears to show instability only during meiosis.

  17. Equilibrium sorption isotherm studies of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions detoxification from waste water using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk

    OpenAIRE

    Igwe,Jude C; Abia,Augustin A

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of heavy metals in the environment due to industrial activities is of serious concern due to the toxicity of these metals in humans and other forms of life. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions, detoxification from waste water using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk have been studied. Maize husk was found to be an excellent adsorbent for the removal of these metal ions. The amount of these metal ions adsorbed increased as the initial co...

  18. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kateřina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  19. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  20. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  1. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  2. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  3. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  4. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  5. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Toxicity assessment of modified Cry1Ac1 proteins and genetically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Agb0101 rice demonstrate no adverse effects in these tests when applied via gavage and feed, respectively. ... Genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an ... corn was the first genetically modified by introducing the.

  7. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  9. Effect of Genetics, Environment, and Phenotype on the Metabolome of Maize Hybrids Using GC/MS and LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weijuan; Hazebroek, Jan; Zhong, Cathy; Harp, Teresa; Vlahakis, Chris; Baumhover, Brian; Asiago, Vincent

    2017-06-28

    We evaluated the variability of metabolites in various maize hybrids due to the effect of environment, genotype, phenotype as well as the interaction of the first two factors. We analyzed 480 forage and the same number of grain samples from 21 genetically diverse non-GM Pioneer brand maize hybrids, including some with drought tolerance and viral resistance phenotypes, grown at eight North American locations. As complementary platforms, both GC/MS and LC/MS were utilized to detect a wide diversity of metabolites. GC/MS revealed 166 and 137 metabolites in forage and grain samples, respectively, while LC/MS captured 1341 and 635 metabolites in forage and grain samples, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to investigate the response of the maize metabolome to the environment, genotype, phenotype, and their interaction. Based on combined percentages from GC/MS and LC/MS datasets, the environment affected 36% to 84% of forage metabolites, while less than 7% were affected by genotype. The environment affected 12% to 90% of grain metabolites, whereas less than 27% were affected by genotype. Less than 10% and 11% of the metabolites were affected by phenotype in forage and grain, respectively. Unsupervised PCA and HCA analyses revealed similar trends, i.e., environmental effect was much stronger than genotype or phenotype effects. On the basis of comparisons of disease tolerant and disease susceptible hybrids, neither forage nor grain samples originating from different locations showed obvious phenotype effects. Our findings demonstrate that the combination of GC/MS and LC/MS based metabolite profiling followed by broad statistical analysis is an effective approach to identify the relative impact of environmental, genetic and phenotypic effects on the forage and grain composition of maize hybrids.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  11. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  12. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  13. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification.

  14. Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John J

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, asthma continues to be a significant health and economic burden. Although asthma cannot be cured, several drugs, including beta2 agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene (LT) modifiers, are well tolerated and effective in minimizing symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. However, inter-patient variability in response to asthma drugs limits their effectiveness. It has been estimated that 60-80% of this inter-patient variability may be attributable to genetic variation. LT modifiers, in particular, have been associated with heterogeneity in response. These drugs exert their action by inhibiting the activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent bronchoconstrictors and pro-inflammatory agents. Two classes of LT modifiers are 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) inhibitors (zileuton) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) [montelukast, pranlukast, and zarfirlukast]. LT modifiers can be used as alternatives to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in mild persistent asthma, as add-on therapy to low- to medium-dose ICS in moderate persistent asthma, and as add-on to high-dose ICS and a long-acting ss2 agonist in severe persistent asthma. At least six genes encode key proteins in the LT pathway: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), ALOX5 activating protein (ALOX5AP [FLAP]), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), the ATP-binding cassette family member ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 [MRP1]), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1). Studies have reported that genetic variation in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, and ABCC1 influences response to LT modifiers. Plasma concentrations of LTRAs vary considerably among patients. Physio-chemical characteristics make it likely that membrane efflux and uptake transporters mediate the absorption of LTRAs into the systemic circulation following oral administration. Genes that encode efflux and uptake transport proteins harbor many variants that could

  15. Therapeutic drug delivery by genetically modified Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidler, Lothar; Rottiers, Pieter

    2006-08-01

    Food-grade bacteria have been consumed throughout history without associated pathologies and are, therefore, absolutely safe to ingest. Unexpectedly, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), known from cheese production, can be genetically engineered to constantly secrete satisfactory amounts of bioactive cytokines. Both of these features enabled the development of a new kind of topical delivery system: topical and active delivery of therapeutic proteins by genetically modified micro-organisms. The host organism's record inspired the development of applications that target intestinal diseases. In a variety of mouse models, chronic colon inflammation can be successfully treated with (interleukin) IL-10-secreting L. lactis. Trefoil factor (TFF) producer strains have also been shown to be very effective in the treatment of acute colitis. Such novel therapeutic strains are textbook examples of genetically modified (GM) organisms. There are legitimate concerns with regard to the deliberate release of GM micro-organisms. On development of these applications, therefore, we have engineered these bacteria in such a way that biological containment is guaranteed. The essential gene thyA, encoding thymidylate synthase, has been exchanged for IL-10. This makes the GM strain critically dependent on thymidine. Lack of thymidine, for example, resulting from thymidine consumption by thyA-deficient strains-will irreversibly lead to induced "thymidine-less death." This accomplishment has created the possibility of using this strategy for application in human medicine.

  16. Genetically Modified T-Cell Therapy for Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRenzo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    T-cell immunotherapy may offer an approach to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, who fail current therapies. In addition, it has the potential to reduce treatment-related complications for all patients. Generating tumor-specific T cells with conventional antigen presenting cells ex vivo is time consuming and often results in T-cell products with a low frequency of tumor-specific T cells. In addition, the generated T cells remain sensitive to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Genetic modification of T cells is one strategy to overcome these limitations. For example, T cells can be genetically modified to render them antigen specific, resistant to inhibitory factors, or increase their ability to home to tumor sites. Most genetic modification strategies have only been evaluated in preclinical models, however early phase clinical trials are in progress. In this chapter we review the current status of gene-modified T-cell therapy with special focus on osteosarcoma, highlighting potential antigenic targets, preclinical and clinical studies, and strategies to improve current T-cell therapy approaches. PMID:24924183

  17. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.

  18. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  19. Tapping the genetic diversity of landraces in allogamous crops with doubled haploid lines: a case study from European flint maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Juliane; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2017-05-01

    Using landraces for broadening the genetic base of elite maize germplasm is hampered by heterogeneity and high genetic load. Production of DH line libraries can help to overcome these problems. Landraces of maize (Zea mays L.) represent a huge reservoir of genetic diversity largely untapped by breeders. Genetic heterogeneity and a high genetic load hamper their use in hybrid breeding. Production of doubled haploid line libraries (DHL) by the in vivo haploid induction method promises to overcome these problems. To test this hypothesis, we compared the line per se performance of 389 doubled haploid (DH) lines across six DHL produced from European flint landraces with that of four flint founder lines (FFL) and 53 elite flint lines (EFL) for 16 agronomic traits evaluated in four locations. The genotypic variance ([Formula: see text]) within DHL was generally much larger than that among DHL and exceeded also [Formula: see text] of the EFL. For most traits, the means and [Formula: see text] differed considerably among the DHL, resulting in different expected selection gains. Mean grain yield of the EFL was 25 and 62% higher than for the FFL and DHL, respectively, indicating considerable breeding progress in the EFL and a remnant genetic load in the DHL. Usefulness of the best 20% lines was for individual DHL comparable to the EFL and grain yield (GY) in the top lines from both groups was similar. Our results corroborate the tremendous potential of landraces for broadening the narrow genetic base of elite germplasm. To make best use of these "gold reserves", we propose a multi-stage selection approach with optimal allocation of resources to (1) choose the most promising landraces for DHL production and (2) identify the top DH lines for further breeding.

  20. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis.

  1. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  2. Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Sergej; Podgornik, Ales; Cankar, Katarina; Cadet, Neza; Skrt, Mihaela; Zel, Jana; Raspor, Peter

    2005-02-11

    The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pretreated corn meal were chosen as model food. Two commercially available CIM disk columns were tested: DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) and QA (quaternary amine). Preliminary separations were performed with standard solution of salmon DNA at different pH values and different NaCl concentrations in mobile phase. DEAE groups and pH 8 were chosen for further isolations of DNA from a complex matrix-food extract. The quality and quantity of isolated DNA were tested on agarose gel electrophoresis, with UV-scanning spectrophotometry, and by amplification with real-time PCR. DNA isolated in this way was of suitable quality for further PCR analyses. The described method is also applicable for DNA isolation from processed foods with decreased DNA content. Furthermore, it is more effective and less time-consuming in comparison with the existing proposed methods for isolation of DNA from plant-derived foods.

  3. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  4. Genetic variability of the phloem sap metabolite content of maize (Zea mays L.) during the kernel-filling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesbergenova-Cuny, Zhazira; Dinant, Sylvie; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Quilleré, Isabelle; Armengaud, Patrick; Monfalet, Priscilla; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Using a metabolomic approach, we have quantified the metabolite composition of the phloem sap exudate of seventeen European and American lines of maize that had been previously classified into five main groups on the basis of molecular marker polymorphisms. In addition to sucrose, glutamate and aspartate, which are abundant in the phloem sap of many plant species, large quantities of aconitate and alanine were also found in the phloem sap exudates of maize. Genetic variability of the phloem sap composition was observed in the different maize lines, although there was no obvious relationship between the phloem sap composition and the five previously classified groups. However, following hierarchical clustering analysis there was a clear relationship between two of the subclusters of lines defined on the basis of the composition of the phloem sap exudate and the earliness of silking date. A comparison between the metabolite contents of the ear leaves and the phloem sap exudates of each genotype, revealed that the relative content of most of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing metabolites was similar. Correlation studies performed between the metabolite content of the phloem sap exudates and yield-related traits also revealed that for some carbohydrates such as arabitol and sucrose there was a negative or positive correlation with kernel yield and kernel weight respectively. A posititive correlation was also found between kernel number and soluble histidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bartholomaeus, A.; Bregitzer, P.; Doerrer, N.G.; Gray, A.; Holzhauzer, T.; Jordan, M.; Keese, P.; Kok, E.J.; Macdonald, P.; Parrott, W.; Privalle, L.; Raybould, A.; Rhee, S.Y.; Rice, E.; Romeis, J.; Vaughn, J.; Wal, J.M.; Glenn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s

  6. Can health benefits break down Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    In general, Nordic consumers perceive foods that are processed in traditional ways as more healthy than novel foods including genetically modified and functional foods. But because the use of genetic modification in the production of pharmaceuticals is readily accepted, the food industry believes......' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...... as across countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  7. The level of consumer knowledge of genetically modified food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Practically application of genetically modified organisms poses a relatively new issue which causes a lot of controversies because of potential opportunities and risks. They are also subject of discussion, both among experts and general public. Therefore it is necessary to provide reliable information about modified organisms and about favourable and unfavourable consequences (environmental, health, economic and social of they ap-plication. It is also important to recognise state of knowledge among potential and actual GM consumers. It was a goal of questionnaire research carried out on the group of 80 people. They revealed that in many aspects knowledge about GMO is relatively limited and depended on the level of education. Respondents with higher level of education have usually more information and simultaneously reveal more criticism in relation to their knowledge. There was no relationship between the knowledge of GM food and the place of residence.

  8. Unintended effects in genetically modified crops: revealed by metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischer, Heiko; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2006-03-01

    In Europe the commercialization of food derived from genetically modified plants has been slow because of the complex regulatory process and the concerns of consumers. Risk assessment is focused on potential adverse effects on humans and the environment, which could result from unintended effects of genetic modifications: unintended effects are connected to changes in metabolite levels in the plants. One of the major challenges is how to analyze the overall metabolite composition of GM plants in comparison to conventional cultivars, and one possible solution is offered by metabolomics. The ultimate aim of metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all small molecules in an organism; however, a single method enabling complete metabolome analysis does not exist. Given a comprehensive extraction method, a hierarchical strategy--starting with global fingerprinting and followed by complementary profiling attempts--is the most logical and economic approach to detect unintended effects in GM crops.

  9. Determination of Genetic Coefficients of Some Maize (Zea mays L. Cultivars of Iran for Application in Crop Simulation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the research field of the University of Lorestan in 2011 as a randomized complete block design with three replications to estimate genetic coefficients of some maize (Zea mays L. cultivars. Treatments include six maize cultivars (T.V.C.767 and S.C.704 from late maturing group, T N.S640 and Maxima from mid-maturing group, and Koppany and D.C.370 from early maturing group. Results showed that there were significant differences among cultivars in terms of stem dry weight, maximum number of kernel per ear, thermal time from the flag leaf appearance to flowering, thermal time from flowering to maturity, phyllochron interval, grain weight, maximum plant height and minimum growth degree days during vegetative period. The highest (649.2 and lowest (350.6 maximum number of kernel per ear belonged to cultivars S.C.704 and D.C.370, respectively. Also, the highest and lowest stem dry weight, phyllochron interval and maximum plant height belonged to cultivars S.C.704 and D.C.370, respectively. Among genetic coefficients, the minimum growth degree days required for vegetative growth and the maximum number of kernel per ear had the greatest correlation with grain yield (r=0.72 and r=0.84, respectively. Overall, the results portrayed that the estimated genetic coefficients of the cultivars are not identical in different models and varied in a defined range.

  10. Systems genetics reveals a transcriptional network associated with susceptibility in the maize-grey leaf spot pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Nanette; Myburg, Alexander A; Joubert, Fourie; Murray, Shane L; Carstens, Maryke; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Meyer, Jacqueline; Crampton, Bridget G; Christensen, Shawn A; Ntuli, Jean F; Wighard, Sara S; Van de Peer, Yves; Berger, Dave K

    2017-02-01

    We used a systems genetics approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the responses of maize to grey leaf spot (GLS) disease caused by Cercospora zeina, a threat to maize production globally. Expression analysis of earleaf samples in a subtropical maize recombinant inbred line population (CML444 × SC Malawi) subjected in the field to C. zeina infection allowed detection of 20 206 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Four trans-eQTL hotspots coincided with GLS disease QTLs mapped in the same field experiment. Co-expression network analysis identified three expression modules correlated with GLS disease scores. The module (GY-s) most highly correlated with susceptibility (r = 0.71; 179 genes) was enriched for the glyoxylate pathway, lipid metabolism, diterpenoid biosynthesis and responses to pathogen molecules such as chitin. The GY-s module was enriched for genes with trans-eQTLs in hotspots on chromosomes 9 and 10, which also coincided with phenotypic QTLs for susceptibility to GLS. This transcriptional network has significant overlap with the GLS susceptibility response of maize line B73, and may reflect pathogen manipulation for nutrient acquisition and/or unsuccessful defence responses, such as kauralexin production by the diterpenoid biosynthesis pathway. The co-expression module that correlated best with resistance (TQ-r; 1498 genes) was enriched for genes with trans-eQTLs in hotspots coinciding with GLS resistance QTLs on chromosome 9. Jasmonate responses were implicated in resistance to GLS through co-expression of COI1 and enrichment of genes with the Gene Ontology term 'cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complex' in the TQ-r module. Consistent with this, JAZ repressor expression was highly correlated with the severity of GLS disease in the GY-s susceptibility network.

  11. Assessing ecological risks and benefits of genetically modified crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Jelena V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide in ensuring environmental safety and sustainability. In this paper are discussed some of the most important problems related to the GM crops into the environment such as: plant protection, hybridisation, ecological effects of HRCs, gene flow, biodiversity, stress, ecological risks (ERA, effects on the soil ecosystem etc.

  12. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  13. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  14. An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have...... systematically analysed the challenges of the development and marketing of GM crops in Europe. A life-cycle inventory was used together with established technology foresight techniques in an interdisciplinary and empirical framework. The approach taken in this study established a dialogue between stakeholders...... and provided a framework for discussions about the future direction of GM crops....

  15. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  16. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  17. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  18. Detection of Genetically Modified Crops by Combination of Multiplex PCR and Low-density DNA Microarray1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING-PING ZHOU; JIAN-ZHONG ZHANG; YUAN-HAI YOU; YONG-NING WU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a technique for simultaneous detection of various target genes in Roundup Ready soybean by combining multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray.Methods Two sets of the multiplex PCR system were used to amplify the target genes in genetically modified(GM)soybean.Seventeen capture probes(PCR products)and 17 pairs of corresponding primers were designed according to the genetic characteristies of Rroundup Ready soybean(GTS40-3-2),maize (Mort810,Nk603,GA21),canola(T45,MS1/RF1),and rice(SCK)in many identified GM crops.All of the probes were categorized and identified as species-specific probes.One negative probe and one positive control probe were uscd to assess the efficiency of all reactions,and therefore eliminate any false positive and negative results.After multiplex PCR reaction,amplicons were adulterated with Cy5-dUTP and hvbridized with DNA microarray.The array was then scanned to display the specific hybridization signals of target genes.The assay was applied to the analysis of sample of ccrtified transgenic soybean (Roundup Ready GTS40-3-2)and canola(MS1/RF1). Results A combination technique of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray was successfully developed to identify multi-target genes in Roundup Ready soybean and MS1/RF1 canola with a great specificity and reliability.Reliable identification of genetic characteristics of Roundup Ready of GM soybean from genetically modified crops was achieved at 0.5% transgenic events,indicating a high sensitivity. Conclusion A combination technique of multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray can reliably detect and identify the genetically modified crops.

  19. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  20. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  1. Consumers’ Awareness of Genetically Modified Food and Their Willingness to Buy in Yanbian Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Kui-xiu; YANG Xing-long; YANG Xiao-wei; WANG Lin

    2012-01-01

    Having a clear understanding of consumers’ awareness of genetically modified food and their willingness to buy, plays a very important role in formulating the regulatory policy of genetically modified food and regulating the market of genetically modified food. This paper takes the supermarket consumers as the study object. Through on-site questionnaire survey, we find that consumers’ awareness of genetically modified food is not high in Yanbian Prefecture, and their willingness to buy is also low; the prices of genetically modified food, consumers’ income, educational level and so on, are the main factors that affect the willingness to buy. Based on this, we put forth the relevant recommendations: increasing publicity efforts to safeguard consumers’ right to know and choose; increasing supervision efforts to improve the existing regulatory system of genetically modified food; actively organizing forces to carry out the study on safety of genetically modified food.

  2. Tanaman Genetically Modified Organism (GMO dan Perspektif Hukumnya di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwono Prianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Genetically modified organism (GMO merupakan organisme yang gen-gennya telah diubah dengan menggunakan teknik rekayasa genetika. Produk rekayasa genetika diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu generasi pertama: satu sifat; generasi kedua: kumpulan sifat; generasi ketiga dan keempat: near-intragenic, intragenic, dan cisgenic. Adapun produk rekayasa genetika pada tanaman di Indonesia di antaranya adalah padi, tomat, tebu, singkong, dan kentang. Regulasi tanaman hasil rekayasa genetika diatur oleh beberapa lembaga, di antaranya Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Pertanian, Komisi Keamanan Hayati, Tim Teknis Keamanan Hayati, dan Biosafety Clearing House, berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah No. 21 tahun 2005. Pengujian yang dilakukan pada produk rekayasa genetika meliputi analisis sumber gen penyebab alergi, sekuens homolog asam amino, resistensi pepsin, skrining serum, serta penggunaan hewan uji. Berbagai produk GMO di Indonesia sejauh ini merupakan produk yang dibutuhkan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari, yang perlu diawasi secara ketat dari segi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan melalui ketentuan hukum yang berlaku, yang diwakili oleh instansi-instansi terkait tersebut.Abstract Genetically modified organism (GMO is an organism whose genes that have been altered by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering products are classified into 4 types, which are the first generation: one trait; the second generation: a collection of properties; the third and fourth generation: near-intragenic, intragenic, and cisgenic. The genetic engineering products in plants in Indonesia include rice, tomatoes, sugar cane, cassava, and potatoes. The application of the genetically engineered crops is regulated by several institutions, including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Biosafety Commission, the Biosafety Technical Team and the Biosafety Clearing House, under government regulation No. 21 of the year

  3. Population genetics of traditionally managed maize : farming practice as a determinant of genetic structure and identity of maize landraces in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of crop genetic diversity is being maintained in farmers' fields worldwide. The population genetics of traditionally managed landraces is therefore of interest to the conservation of genetic resources. The growing trend towards agricultural modernization and the prospect of introducin

  4. Population genetics of traditionally managed maize : farming practice as a determinant of genetic structure and identity of maize landraces in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of crop genetic diversity is being maintained in farmers' fields worldwide. The population genetics of traditionally managed landraces is therefore of interest to the conservation of genetic resources. The growing trend towards agricultural modernization and the prospect of introducin

  5. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mandula Borjigin*, Chris Eskridge*, Rohina Niamat, Bryan Strouse, Pawel Bialk, Eric B KmiecDepartment of Chemistry, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Polycaprolactone (PCL and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher. Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. Keywords: nanofibers, PCL-biomaterial blends, miscibility, gene editing, cell proliferation

  6. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Fish – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satimehin, F.P.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of current research into the use of modern biotechnology in aquaculture. It is directed to policy and decision makers to give an indication of issues relevant to research into and the potential for commercialisation of genetically modified (GM organisms in the seafood industry. Application of gene technology in fish to improve production efficiency has many potential benefits. Research on GM fish has primarily focused on producing fish with increased growth rates, increased temperature tolerance, and improved disease resistance. Fish have been modified to grow six times faster than normal, survive in colder climates, and possess natural disease resistance so important to high-density aquaculture. Whilst the potential benefits of GM fish are plenty, there are some associated risks to consider prior to their use in commercial production. Ecological risks would arise if GM fish escaped from aquaculture facilities and into the wild. These genetically enhanced fish could potentially interact with the local wild population and produce reduced fitness, decline in other species in the community, transfer of disease and parasites, and a decrease in prey species. Preventative measures include sterilisation of all transgenic fish, and better aquaculture infrastructure to ensure secure containment of fish, neither of which yet is fully effective.

  7. Maximum hydrogen production from genetically modified microalgae biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jose; Kava, Vanessa; Ordonez, Juan

    A transient mathematical model for managing microalgae derived H2 production as a source of renewable energy is developed for a well stirred photobioreactor, PBR. The model allows for the determination of microalgae and H2 mass fractions produced by the PBR in time. A Michaelis-Menten expression is proposed for modeling the rate of H2 production, which introduces an expression to calculate the resulting effect on H2 production rate after genetically modifying the microalgae. The indirect biophotolysis process was used. Therefore, an opportunity was found to optimize the aerobic to anaerobic stages time ratio of the cycle for maximum H2 production rate, i.e., the process rhythm. A system thermodynamic optimization is conducted with the model equations to find accurately the optimal system operating rhythm for maximum H2 production rate, and how wild and genetically modified species compare to each other. The maxima found are sharp, showing up to a ~60% variation in hydrogen production rate within 2 days around the optimal rhythm, which highlights the importance of system operation in such condition. Therefore, the model is expected to be useful for design, control and optimization of H2 production. Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq (project 482336/2012-9).

  8. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Genetic transformation of calli from maize and regen-eration of herbicide-resistant plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant gene als of Arabidopsis thaliana has been transferred into embryonic calli of maize by microprojectile bombardment. We have obtained chlor-sulfuron-resistant calli and regenerated plantlets through selection by herbicide chlorsulfuron. The results of PCR analysis and Southern blotting indicate that gene als has been transferred into some plantlets. The test of spraying chlorsulfuron indicated that the transgenic plantlets had favorable herbicide-resistant trait. The purpose of the re-search was to obtain chlorsulfuron-resistant transgenic ma-ize and hope that this kind of high efficient herbicide could be widely used in rotation soil of wheat and maize. In addi-tion, through spraying herbicide, we could eliminate the hybrid plants and thereby increase the purity of F1 seeds.

  10. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barp

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4 also modify DCM onset.A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior; DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up.Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027.We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts.

  11. Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Borjigin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

  12. Environmental Considerations Concerning the Release of Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANDEY P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews on genetically modified crops and its impact on environment. The need forscreening and testing increases as more changes are made, and "second-generation" GMs will require more testing. Todate no adverse health effects caused by products approved for sale have been documented, although two productsfailed initial safety testing and were discontinued, due to allergic reactions. Most feeding trials have observed no toxiceffects and saw that GM foods were equivalent in nutrition to unmodified foods, although a few reports attributephysiological changes to GM food. However, some scientists and advocacy groups such as Greenpeace and WorldWildlife Fund consider that the available data do not prove that GM food does not pose risks to health, and call foradditional and more rigorous testing before marketing genetically engineered food [3]. Therefore, before a crop isdeclared environment friendly safety assessment is recommended. If any safety concern is identified, the risk associatedwith it should be characterized to determine effect on human health. Subsequent assessments should consider factorssuch as toxicity, allergenicitY, antinutrients and metabolites, the stability of the inserted gene and nutritionalmodification associated with genetic modification. If the entire assessment of these factors concludes that the GM foodin question is as safe as its conventional counterpart, the food is then considered safe to eat.

  13. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M.; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Knight, Jonathan D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students’ conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. We developed a novel written assessment tool and administered it to 120 non–biology majors, 154 entering biology majors, 120 advanced biology majors (ABM), and nine biology faculty. Results indicated that undergraduate biology majors rarely included molecular and cellular rationales in their initial explanations of GMOs. Despite ABM demonstrating that they have much of the biology knowledge necessary to understand genetic modification, they did not appear to apply this knowledge to explaining GMOs. Further, this study showed that all undergraduate student populations exhibited evidence of essentialist thinking while explaining GMOs, regardless of their level of biology training. Finally, our results suggest an association between scientifically accurate ideas and the application of molecular and cellular rationales, as well as an association between misconceptions and essentialist rationales. PMID:28821537

  14. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  15. Genetic characterization of early maturing maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) obtained by protein and RAPD markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Iva; Mladenovic-Drinic, Snezana; Filipovic, Milomir; Konstantinov, Kosana

    2005-01-01

    .... The objective of our study was to characterize set of early maturing maize hybrids with protein and RAPD markers and to compare this clasification with their pedigree information. RAPD markers gave significantly higher rate of polymorphism than protein markers. Better corelation was found among pedigree information and protein markers.

  16. Genetic characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumuation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop. It is prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a secondary carcinogenic metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to combat the accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to infection...

  17. Genetic diversity of Talaromyces species isolated from maize in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaromyces species isolated from maize in the U.S., primarily between 1970 and 2014 were grown up from lyophilized storage to identify potential seed endophytes. These isolates had been predominantly identified as Penicillium funiculosum following the taxonomic system of Raper & Thom (1949), althou...

  18. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  19. Genetic Dissection High Temperature Tolerance Traits in Maize-a QTL Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature (HT) stress severely limits plant productivity and causes extensive economic loss to US agriculture. Understanding HT adaptation mechanisms in crop plants is crucial to the success of developing HT tolerant varieties. Maize inbred lines vary greatly in HT tolerance based on field ...

  20. Outcrossing and coexistence of genetically modified with (genetically) unmodified crops: a case study of the situation in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops the EU has demanded that individual member states enact measures to prevent inadvertent admixture ¿ through outcrossing ¿ of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with products from conventional and organic farming. A literature review on outc

  1. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  2. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  3. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  4. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods.

  5. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  6. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-03

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... assessment of GM plants when application for placing on the market is made. It is our hope that both the scientific community, the biotechnological industry and the regulatory bodies will participate in the process of improving the present draft, so that it can develop into a useful tool for both...... the industry as well as the national regulatory bodies. Furthermore, we hope that these efforts will improve the transparency of risk assessment and harmonisation of the requirements for data. The report suggests a structured way to identify the data need for risk assessment of GMHPs. It does not discuss...

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... the actual risk assessment procedures and the risk evaluation, which must proceed the data collection. The report use the terminology ecological risk assessment rather than environmental risk assessment because at present this work does not include bio-geochemical effects and environmental impacts from...... for uncertainties in the extrapolation from limited laboratory studies to the species rich field environment. The relationship between the size of the safety factor and the number of species is therefore an issue of the risk assessment. Some of the issues raised in this report overlap with data needs...

  9. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  10. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2006-12-01

    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  11. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  12. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed.

  13. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  14. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA of living genetically modified (GM animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU market in accordance with Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18/EC. It provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM animals on animal and human health and the environment and the rationales for data requirements for a comprehensive ERA. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach. This document describes the six sequential steps for the ERA of GM animals, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC: (1 problem formulation including hazard and exposure identification; (2 hazard characterisation; (3 exposure characterisation; (4 risk characterisation; (5 risk management strategies; and (6 an overall risk evaluation. The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority follows Annex II of Directive 2001/18/EC, considering specific areas of risk to be addressed by applicants and risk assessors during the ERA of GM fish, GM insects and GM mammals and birds. Each specific area of risk is considered in a structured and systematic way following the aforementioned six steps. In addition, this Guidance Document describes several generic cross-cutting considerations (e.g. choice of comparators, use of non-GM surrogates, experimental design and statistics, long-term effects, uncertainty analysis that need to be accounted for throughout the whole ERA.

  15. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  16. Genetically modified laboratory mice with sebaceous glands abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Carmen; Schneider, Marlon R

    2016-12-01

    Sebaceous glands (SG) are exocrine glands that release their product by holocrine secretion, meaning that the whole cell becomes a secretion following disruption of the membrane. SG may be found in association with a hair follicle, forming the pilosebaceous unit, or as modified SG at different body sites such as the eyelids (Meibomian glands) or the preputial glands. Depending on their location, SG fulfill a number of functions, including protection of the skin and fur, thermoregulation, formation of the tear lipid film, and pheromone-based communication. Accordingly, SG abnormalities are associated with several diseases such as acne, cicatricial alopecia, and dry eye disease. An increasing number of genetically modified laboratory mouse lines develop SG abnormalities, and their study may provide important clues regarding the molecular pathways regulating SG development, physiology, and pathology. Here, we summarize in tabulated form the available mouse lines with SG abnormalities and, focusing on selected examples, discuss the insights they provide into SG biology and pathology. We hope this survey will become a helpful information source for researchers with a primary interest in SG but also as for researchers from unrelated fields that are unexpectedly confronted with a SG phenotype in newly generated mouse lines.

  17. Genetically modified foods, science, consumers and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, I R

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to the situation in the USA, where a wide range of genetically modified (GM) foods is available, in Europe very few GM products have been approved for marketing as foods, and there is widespread public concern about their safety and environmental impact. The marketing of a GM crop for food use in Europe falls under the EC novel foods regulations, and applications require the submission of an extensive dossier of information. The safety evaluation of GM foods presents considerable problems both in the conduct and interpretation of experimental studies, because conventional toxicity tests used in the evaluation of simple chemicals may not be appropriate for whole foods. To rationalise the safety evaluation process and to circumvent the difficulties in toxicological assessment of food materials, the concept of substantial equivalence has been developed. The concept is that if it can be demonstrated that the novel food is essentially similar to its conventional counterpart in terms of critical nutritional or anutritional components, then it is likely to be no more or less toxic than the latter. The possible introduction of unintended effects by the genetic modification process is particularly problematic for the safety evaluation process. The new genomic and post-genomic techniques are potentially valuable in the safety evaluation of GM foods, although they are as yet in their infancy.

  18. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  19. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .

  20. A systematic review of the use of genetically modified food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao,Rong; 高溶

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Genetically Modified (GM) food, which is one of the fruit of the modern biotechnology, is closely related to people's lives. GM food, specifically, GM crops, also known as biotech food, are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO), which use genetic engineering techniques to introduce, recombine and modify DNA. The safety of GM food still do not have final conclusion at present. Although GM food has been introduced into China for over 15 years, many of the surveys ...

  1. Characterization of modified high-amylose maize starch-α-naphthol complexes and their influence on rheological properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-05-01

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with diverse small molecules. Modified starch has different and unique properties compared with its native counterpart. In this study, chemically/enzymatically modified high-amylose maize starches were used to make inclusion complexes with α-naphthol, and the physical properties of complexes and their influences on the rheology of wheat starch were characterized. The results showed that modification of starch had little influence on the wide angle X-ray diffraction pattern of complex (eightfold single helix), but did so on the complexation index and precipitation yield. Inclusion complexes with chemically modified starch showed a lower range of thermostability and recrystallization temperatures. Addition of complex considerably influenced the rheological properties of wheat starch, and the effect was dependent on the type of modified starch used. It may be concluded that starch inclusion complexes, with a range of properties and potential food applications, may be feasibly prepared by using diverse modified high-amylose maize starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mathematical modeling of the spatial distribution of the pollen produced by genetically modified crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvinskiĭ, A B; Rusakov, A V; Chakraborty, A; Li, B- L-; Marchenko, A I; Sokolov, M S

    2009-01-01

    We represent and analyze the results of mathematical simulation of pollen dispersion from the origin, a field sowed by genetically modified plants. Factors responsible for the genetic isolation of such fields are discussed.

  3. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    Combining ability estimates are important genetic attributes ina maize breeding ... Twenty-nine early generation maize inbred lines were crossed to two ...... agronomic traits in quality protein maize under stress and non stress environments.

  4. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Fangneng; Ghimire, Mukti N; Leonard, B Rogers; Siegfried, Blair D; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Yang, Yajun; Wu, Yidong; Gahan, Linda J; Heckel, David G; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2011-10-09

    Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains.

  5. Association of specific expansins with growth in maize leaves is maintained under environmental, genetic, and developmental sources of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bertrand; Bourdais, Gildas; Reidy, Beat; Bencivenni, Christelle; Massonneau, Agnès; Condamine, Pascal; Rolland, Gaëlle; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Rogowsky, Peter; Tardieu, François

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether changes in maize (Zea mays) leaf expansion rate in response to environmental stimuli or developmental gradients are mediated by common or specific expansins, a class of proteins known to enhance cell wall extensibility. Among the 33 maize expansin or putative expansin genes analyzed, 19 were preferentially expressed at some point of the leaf elongation zone and these expansins could be organized into three clusters related to cell division, maximal leaf expansion, and cell wall differentiation. Further analysis of the spatial distribution of expression was carried out for three expansins in leaves displaying a large range of expansion rates due to water deficit, genotype, and leaf developmental stage. With most sources of variation, the three genes showed similar changes in expression and consistent association with changes in leaf expansion. Moreover, our analysis also suggested preferential association of each expansin with elongation, widening, or both of these processes. Finally, using in situ hybridization, expression of two of these genes was increased in load-bearing tissues such as the epidermis and differentiating xylem. Together, these results suggest that some expansins may be preferentially related to elongation and widening after integrating several spatial, environmental, genetic, and developmental cues.

  6. Do Organic Consumers Oppose Genetically Modified Food Stronger than Others? Results of a Consumer Research in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthgen, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi-cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety regulations. Thus, even organic production, which is ...

  7. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I(2)). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  8. The Genetics of Leaf Flecking in Maize and Its Relationship to Plant Defense and Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukolu, Bode A; Bian, Yang; De Vries, Brian; Tracy, William F; Wisser, Randall J; Holland, James B; Balint-Kurti, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Physiological leaf spotting, or flecking, is a mild-lesion phenotype observed on the leaves of several commonly used maize (Zea mays) inbred lines and has been anecdotally linked to enhanced broad-spectrum disease resistance. Flecking was assessed in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) population, comprising 4,998 recombinant inbred lines from 25 biparental families, and in an association population, comprising 279 diverse maize inbreds. Joint family linkage analysis was conducted with 7,386 markers in the NAM population. Genome-wide association tests were performed with 26.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NAM population and with 246,497 SNPs in the association population, resulting in the identification of 18 and three loci associated with variation in flecking, respectively. Many of the candidate genes colocalizing with associated SNPs are similar to genes that function in plant defense response via cell wall modification, salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent pathways, redox homeostasis, stress response, and vesicle trafficking/remodeling. Significant positive correlations were found between increased flecking, stronger defense response, increased disease resistance, and increased pest resistance. A nonlinear relationship with total kernel weight also was observed whereby lines with relatively high levels of flecking had, on average, lower total kernel weight. We present evidence suggesting that mild flecking could be used as a selection criterion for breeding programs trying to incorporate broad-spectrum disease resistance. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1.

  10. Simultaneous detection of genetically modified organisms by multiplex ligation-dependent genome amplification and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Mondello, Monica; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    In this work, an innovative method useful to simultaneously analyze multiple genetically modified organisms is described. The developed method consists in the combination of multiplex ligation-dependent genome dependent amplification (MLGA) with CGE and LIF detection using bare-fused silica capillaries. The MLGA process is based on oligonucleotide constructs, formed by a universal sequence (vector) and long specific oligonucleotides (selectors) that facilitate the circularization of specific DNA target regions. Subsequently, the circularized target sequences are simultaneously amplified with the same couple of primers and analyzed by CGE-LIF using a bare-fused silica capillary and a run electrolyte containing 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose acting as both sieving matrix and dynamic capillary coating. CGE-LIF is shown to be very useful and informative for optimizing MLGA parameters such as annealing temperature, number of ligation cycles, and selector probes concentration. We demonstrate the specificity of the method in detecting the presence of transgenic DNA in certified reference and raw commercial samples. The method developed is sensitive and allows the simultaneous detection in a single run of percentages of transgenic maize as low as 1% of GA21, 1% of MON863, and 1% of MON810 in maize samples with signal-to-noise ratios for the corresponding DNA peaks of 15, 12, and 26, respectively. These results demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, the great possibilities of MLGA techniques for genetically modified organisms analysis.

  11. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics.

  12. Forecasting the Feasibility of Implementing Isolation Perimeters Between GM and non-GM Maize Fields Under Agricultural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Thas, Olivier; De Clercq, Eva M.; Cordemans, Karl; Reheul, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    Although spatially isolating genetically modified (GM) maize fields from non-GM maize fields is a robust on-farm strategy to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in the harvests of neighboring non-GM maize fields due to cross-fertilizations below established labeling thresholds (and thus to ensure the spatial co-existence between maize cropping systems), the practical implementation of isolation perimeters attracted little research efforts. In this study, the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters around GM maize fields is investigated. Using Geographic Information System datasets and Monte Carlo simulations, various scenarios differing in shares and spatial distributions of GM maize were tested for various isolation perimeters in six agricultural areas in Flanders. Factors that affect the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters are discussed.

  13. 西双版纳糯玉米地方品种遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity of Waxy Maize Landraces in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌; 李建; 柯洁; 熊志文; 胡美玲; 胡坤; 刘坚

    2013-01-01

    利用SSR标记对西双版纳的36个小糯玉米地方品种和2个对照品种进行遗传多样性研究.从800余对SSR引物中筛选出100对多态性好、稳定性高的SSR引物.结果表明,这100对SSR引物在36个糯玉米地方品种中共检测出353个等位基因,每对引物检测出2~8个,平均为3.53个,平均多态性息量(PIC)为0.53,平均标记索引系数(MI)为2.00.聚类分析表明,糯玉米地方品种聚为6个类群,与对照品种相比,地方品种独立成群.%The genetic diversity of waxy maize landraces in Xishuangbanna were analyzed by SSR markers. Thirty-six waxy maize landraces and two control cultivars were applied in the study, a hundred SSR primers were screened from 800 SSRs, which could produce stable and polymorphic bands. The results showed that 353 alleles were detected in 36 waxy maize landraces. The average number of alleles per SSR primer was 3.53, ranging from 2 to 8. The average polymorphism information content was 0.53, average marker indices 2.00. Cluster analysis showed that the 36 waxy maize landraces divided into 6 groups, and compared with CK, the local varieties of independent communities. This study provided a basis for the protection the waxy maize landraces genetic resources in Xishuangbanna and waxy maize cultivar selection.

  14. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  15. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation.

  16. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  17. Stakeholders’ Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.

  18. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  19. Genetically modified organisms: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.

  20. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  1. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

    2002-02-28

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools.

  2. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  3. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  4. Accretion stream mapping with genetically modified "fire-flies"

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, C M; Cropper, M; Ramsay, G

    2004-01-01

    We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fire-flies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVR_c band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find fire-fly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aq...

  5. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  6. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  7. Genetically modified crops: success, safety assessment, and public concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om V; Ghai, Shivani; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-08-01

    With the emergence of transgenic technologies, new ways to improve the agronomic performance of crops for food, feed, and processing applications have been devised. In addition, ability to express foreign genes using transgenic technologies has opened up options for producing large quantities of commercially important industrial or pharmaceutical products in plants. Despite this high adoption rate and future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the environment. Potential contamination of the environment and food chains has prompted detailed consideration of how such crops and the molecules that they produce can be effectively isolated and contained. One of the reasonable steps after creating a transgenic plant is to evaluate its potential benefits and risks to the environment and these should be compared to those generated by traditional agricultural practices. The precautionary approach in risk management of GM plants may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Effective risk assessment and monitoring mechanisms are the basic prerequisites of any legal framework to adequately address the risks and watch out for new risks. Several agencies in different countries monitor the release of GM organisms or frame guidelines for the appropriate application of recombinant organisms in agro-industries so as to assure the safe use of recombinant organisms and to achieve sound overall development. We feel that it is important to establish an internationally harmonized framework for the safe handling of recombinant DNA organisms within a few years.

  8. Genetically modified crops for biomass increase. Genes and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Cristian Antonio; Hemerly, Adrianna Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been developed to accelerate the creation of new varieties with improved characteristics such as disease resistance, stress tolerance and higher quality composition. However, agriculture, without minimizing its role in food, feed and fiber source, has become important for the energy matrix of many countries. GMCs are also attractive systems that could fulfill the requirements for these new necessities. An increase of crop yields in an environmental friendly system is a new goal for plant biology research in the twenty-first century. In particular, biomass yield improvement is needed to render the use of biofuels economically feasible. In this context, research directed toward increasing biomass production has attracted much attention and a considerable effort is being made to reach new goals. Nonetheless, in some cases differentiated strategies are needed, as biomass improvement requires approaches other than those employed with traditional crops. This review summarizes the various approaches applied so far to modulate plant growth applying molecular biology-based strategies and increase biomass production, and it highlights several outstanding issues about the developmental constraints that must be addressed.

  9. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  10. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended.

  11. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods.

  12. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  13. Novel surface display system for proteins on non-genetically modified gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T; Kanninga, R; Neef, J; Audouy, SAL; van Roosmalen, ML; Steen, A; Buist, G; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    2006-01-01

    A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial

  14. Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics o

  15. A review of animal models used to evaluate potential allergenicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...... of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)....

  16. The effect of modifying rooting depths and nitrification inhibitors on nutrient uptake from organic biogas residues in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Charlotte C.; Koller, Robert; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Schickling, Anke; Schrey, Silvia D.; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    Optimizing the application of and nutrient uptake from organic nutrient sources, such as the nutrient-rich residues ("digestates") from the biogas industry, is becoming a viable option in remediating fertility on previously unsuitable soils for agricultural utilization. Proposedly, concurrent changes in root system architecture and functioning could also serve as the basis of future phytomining approaches. Herein, we evaluate the effect of spatial nutrient availability and nitrification on maize root architecture and nutrient uptake. We test these effects by applying maize-based digestate at a rate of 170 kg/ha in layers of varying depths (10, 25 and 40 cm) and through either the presence or absence of nitrification inhibitors. In order to regularly monitor above- and below-ground plant biomass production, we used the noninvasive phenotyping platform, GROWSCREEN-Rhizo at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, using rhizotrons (Nagel et al., 2012). Measured parameters included projected plant height and leaf area, as well as root length and spatial distribution. Additionally, root diameters were quantified after the destructive harvest, 21 days after sowing (DAS). Spatial nutrient availability significantly affected root system architecture, as for example root system size -the area occupied by roots- increased alongside nutrient layer depths. Fertilization also positively affected root length density (RLD). Within fertilized layers, the presence of nitrification inhibitors increased RLD by up to 30% and was most pronounced in the fine root biomass fraction (0.1 to 0.5mm). Generally, nitrification inhibitors promoted early plant growth by up to 45% across treatments. However, their effect varied in dependence of layer depths, leading to a time-delayed response in deeper layers, accounting for plants having to grow significantly longer roots in order to reach fertilized substrate. Nitrification inhibitors also initiated the comparatively early on-set of growth differences in

  17. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm.

  18. [Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.

  19. The influence of tasting experience and health benefits on Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Nor-wegian and Finnish consumers' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across co...... countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  20. Genetic Analyses of Tolerance to Low Nitrogen in Tropical Maize Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ze-hui; Carpena A.L.; Salazar A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Six tropical maize inbred lines were crossed in a half diallel fashion and evaluated along with their F1 hybrids under iow N (0 kg/ha) and high N(170 kg/ha), for grain yield, ear diameter, ear length,number of rows per ear, 100-kernel weight, ear leaf area, shoot dry weight, ear leaf chlorophyll content and plant height to determine their response to different level of N. Grain yield and ear leaf chlorophyll content measured by 48% lower under -N than under + N, and were most affected by -N. Ear length had the highest reduction under -N of 22%. Plant height and shoot dry weight were both reduced by 28%. Diallel analysis indicated significant additive as well as dominance variance for grain yield under -N. The same results were shown when one tolerant × nontolerant cross from the diallel hybrids was subjected to generation mean analysis which also indicated significant epistatic effects. These results suggest that S1 or S2 progeny selection may be an effective means of improving grain yield of tropical maize under low soil N.