WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic privacy

  1. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  2. Protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P A; Annas, G J

    2001-05-01

    This article outlines the arguments for and against new rules to protect genetic privacy. We explain why genetic information is different to other sensitive medical information, why researchers and biotechnology companies have opposed new rules to protect genetic privacy (and favour anti-discrimination laws instead), and discuss what can be done to protect privacy in relation to genetic-sequence information and to DNA samples themselves.

  3. Routes for breaching and protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Yaniv; Narayanan, Arvind

    2014-06-01

    We are entering an era of ubiquitous genetic information for research, clinical care and personal curiosity. Sharing these data sets is vital for progress in biomedical research. However, a growing concern is the ability to protect the genetic privacy of the data originators. Here, we present an overview of genetic privacy breaching strategies. We outline the principles of each technique, indicate the underlying assumptions, and assess their technological complexity and maturation. We then review potential mitigation methods for privacy-preserving dissemination of sensitive data and highlight different cases that are relevant to genetic applications.

  4. Routes for breaching and protecting genetic privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Erlich, Yaniv; Narayanan, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    We are entering an era of ubiquitous genetic information for research, clinical care and personal curiosity. Sharing these datasets is vital for progress in biomedical research. However, one growing concern is the ability to protect the genetic privacy of the data originators. Here, we present an overview of genetic privacy breaching strategies. We outline the principles of each technique, point to the underlying assumptions, and assess its technological complexity and maturati...

  5. The Genetic Privacy Act and commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annas, G.J.; Glantz, L.H.; Roche, P.A.

    1995-02-28

    The Genetic Privacy Act is a proposal for federal legislation. The Act is based on the premise that genetic information is different from other types of personal information in ways that require special protection. Therefore, to effectively protect genetic privacy unauthorized collection and analysis of individually identifiable DNA must be prohibited. As a result, the premise of the Act is that no stranger should have or control identifiable DNA samples or genetic information about an individual unless that individual specifically authorizes the collection of DNA samples for the purpose of genetic analysis, authorized the creation of that private information, and has access to and control over the dissemination of that information.

  6. An overview of human genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinghua; Wu, Xintao

    2017-01-01

    The study of human genomics is becoming a Big Data science, owing to recent biotechnological advances leading to availability of millions of personal genome sequences, which can be combined with biometric measurements from mobile apps and fitness trackers, and of human behavior data monitored from mobile devices and social media. With increasing research opportunities for integrative genomic studies through data sharing, genetic privacy emerges as a legitimate yet challenging concern that needs to be carefully addressed, not only for individuals but also for their families. In this paper, we present potential genetic privacy risks and relevant ethics and regulations for sharing and protecting human genomics data. We also describe the techniques for protecting human genetic privacy from three broad perspectives: controlled access, differential privacy, and cryptographic solutions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Privacy and policy for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCew, Judith Wagner

    2004-01-01

    I begin with a discussion of the value of privacy and what we lose without it. I then turn to the difficulties of preserving privacy for genetic information and other medical records in the face of advanced information technology. I suggest three alternative public policy approaches to the problem of protecting individual privacy and also preserving databases for genetic research: (1) governmental guidelines and centralized databases, (2) corporate self-regulation, and (3) my hybrid approach. None of these are unproblematic; I discuss strengths and drawbacks of each, emphasizing the importance of protecting the privacy of sensitive medical and genetic information as well as letting information technology flourish to aid patient care, public health and scientific research.

  8. An overview of human genetic privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinghua; Wu, Xintao

    2016-01-01

    The study of human genomics is becoming a Big Data science, owing to recent biotechnological advances leading to availability of millions of personal genome sequences, which can be combined with biometric measurements from mobile apps and fitness trackers, and of human behavior data monitored from mobile devices and social media. With increasing research opportunities for integrative genomic studies through data sharing, genetic privacy emerges as a legitimate yet challenging concern that needs to be carefully addressed, not only for individuals but also for their families. In this paper, we present potential genetic privacy risks and relevant ethics and regulations for sharing and protecting human genomics data. We also describe the techniques for protecting human genetic privacy from three broad perspectives: controlled access, differential privacy, and cryptographic solutions. PMID:27626905

  9. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  10. Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-04-01

    The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual's genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy.

  11. Genetic privacy and non-discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The UN Inter-Agency Committee on Bioethics met for its tenth meeting at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris on 4-5th March 2011. Member organisations such as the WHO and UNESCO were in attendance alongside associate members such as the Council for Europe, the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organisation. Discussion centred on the theme "genetic privacy and nondiscrimination". The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) had previously considered, from a legal and ethical perspective, the implications of increasingly sophisticated technologies for genetic privacy and non-discrimination in fields such as medicine, employment and insurance. Thus, the ECOSOC requested that UNESCO report on relevant developments in the field of genetic privacy and non-discrimination. In parallel with a consultation process with member states, UNESCO launched a consultation with the UN Interagency Committee on Bioethics. This article analyses the report presented by the author concerning the analysis of the current contentions in the field and illustrates attempts at responding on a normative level to a perceived threat to genetic privacy and non-discrimination.

  12. Genetic privacy in sports: clearing the hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa

    2012-12-01

    As genomic medicine continues to advance and inform clinical care, knowledge gained is likely to influence sports medicine and training practices. Susceptibility to injury, sudden cardiac failure, and other serious conditions may one day be tackled on a subclinical level through genetic testing programs. In addition, athletes may increasingly consider using genetic testing services to maximize their performance potential. This paper assesses the role of privacy and genetic discrimination laws that would apply to athletes who engage in genetic testing and the limits of these protections.

  13. Privacy and equality in diagnostic genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrhinen, Tarja; Hietala, Marja; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which the principles of privacy and equality were observed during diagnostic genetic testing according to views held by patients or child patients' parents (n = 106) and by staff (n = 162) from three Finnish university hospitals. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analysed using the SAS 8.1 statistical software. In general, the two principles were observed relatively satisfactorily in clinical practice. According to patients/parents, equality in the post-analytic phase and, according to staff, privacy in the pre-analytic phase, involved the greatest ethical problems. The two groups differed in their views concerning pre-analytic privacy. Although there were no major problems regarding the two principles, the differences between the testing phases require further clarification. To enhance privacy protection and equality, professionals need to be given more genetics/ethics training, and patients individual counselling by genetics units staff, giving more consideration to patients' world-view, the purpose of the test and the test result.

  14. The Genetic Privacy Act and commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annas, G.J.; Glantz, L.H.; Roche, P.A.

    1995-02-28

    The Genetic Privacy Act is a proposal for federal legislation. The Act is based on the premise that genetic information is different from other types of personal information in ways that require special protection. The DNA molecule holds an extensive amount of currently indecipherable information. The major goal of the Human Genome Project is to decipher this code so that the information it contains is accessible. The privacy question is, accessible to whom? The highly personal nature of the information contained in DNA can be illustrated by thinking of DNA as containing an individual`s {open_quotes}future diary.{close_quotes} A diary is perhaps the most personal and private document a person can create. It contains a person`s innermost thoughts and perceptions, and is usually hidden and locked to assure its secrecy. Diaries describe the past. The information in one`s genetic code can be thought of as a coded probabilistic future diary because it describes an important part of a unique and personal future. This document presents an introduction to the proposal for federal legislation `the Genetic Privacy Act`; a copy of the proposed act; and comment.

  15. An overview of human genetic privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xinghua; Wu, Xintao

    2016-01-01

    The study of human genomics is becoming a Big Data science, owing to recent biotechnological advances leading to availability of millions of personal genome sequences, which can be combined with biometric measurements from mobile apps and fitness trackers, and of human behavior data monitored from mobile devices and social media. With increasing research opportunities for integrative genomic studies through data sharing, genetic privacy emerges as a legitimate yet challenging concern that nee...

  16. Context trees for privacy-preserving modeling of genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, C.J.; Ignatenko, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use context trees for privacypreserving modeling of genetic sequences. The resulting estimated models are applied for functional comparison of genetic sequences in a privacy preserving way. Here we define privacy as uncertainty about the genetic source sequence given its model and

  17. Regulating genetic privacy in the online health information era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    As the clinical implications of the genetic components of disease come to be better understood, there is likely to be a significant increase in the volume of genetic information held within clinical records. As patient health care records, in turn, come on-line as part of broader health information networks, there is likely to be considerable pressure in favour of special laws protecting genetic privacy. This paper reviews some of the privacy challenges posed by electronic health records, some government initiatives in this area, and notes the impact that developments in genetic testing will have upon the 'genetic content' of e-health records. Despite the sensitivity of genetic information, the paper argues against a policy of 'genetic exceptionalism', and its implications for genetic privacy laws.

  18. Disentangling privacy from property: toward a deeper understanding of genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2004-04-01

    With the mapping of the human genome, genetic privacy has become a concern to many. People care about genetic privacy because genes play an important role in shaping us--our genetic information is about us, and it is deeply connected to our sense of ourselves. In addition, unwanted disclosure of our genetic information, like a great deal of other personal information, makes us vulnerable to unwanted exposure, stigmatization, and discrimination. One recent approach to protecting genetic privacy is to create property rights in genetic information. This Article argues against that approach. Privacy and property are fundamentally different concepts. At heart, the term "property" connotes control within the marketplace and over something that is disaggregated or alienable from the self. "Privacy," in contrast, connotes control over access to the self as well as things close to, intimately connected to, and about the self. Given these different meanings, a regime of property rights in genetic information would impoverish our understanding of that information, ourselves, and the relationships we hope will be built around and through its disclosure. This Article explores our interests in genetic information in order to deepen our understanding of the ongoing discourse about the distinction between property and privacy. It develops a conception of genetic privacy with a strong relational component. We ordinarily share genetic information in the context of relationships in which disclosure is important to the relationship--family, intimate, doctor-patient, researcher-participant, employer-employee, and insurer-insured relationships. Such disclosure makes us vulnerable to and dependent on the person to whom we disclose it. As a result, trust is essential to the integrity of these relationships and our sharing of genetic information. Genetic privacy can protect our vulnerability in these relationships and enhance the trust we hope to have in them. Property, in contrast, by

  19. Developing genetic privacy legislation: the South Carolina experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J G; Young, S R; Brooks, K A; Aiken, J H; Patterson, E D; Pritchett, S T

    1998-01-01

    The availability of presymptomatic and predisposition genetic testing has spawned the need for legislation prohibiting health insurance discrimination on the basis of genetic information. The federal effort, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, falls short by protecting only those who access insurance through group plans. A committee of University of South Carolina professionals convened in 1996 to develop legislation in support of genetic privacy for the state of South Carolina. The legislation prevents health insurance companies from denying coverage or setting insurance rates on the basis of genetic information. It also protects the privacy of genetic information and prohibits performance of genetic tests without specific informed consent. In preparing the bill, genetic privacy laws from other states were reviewed, and a modified version of the Virginia law adopted. The South Carolina Committee for the Protection of Genetic Privacy version went a step further by including enforcement language and excluding Virginia's sunset clause. The definition of genetic information encompassed genetic test results, and importantly, includes family history of genetic disease. Our experience in navigating through the state legislature and working through opposition from the health insurance lobby is detailed herein.

  20. Ensuring privacy in the study of pathogen genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Vinterbo, Staal A; Little, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    Rapid growth in the genetic sequencing of pathogens in recent years has led to the creation of large sequence databases. This aggregated sequence data can be very useful for tracking and predicting epidemics of infectious diseases. However, the balance between the potential public health benefit and the risk to personal privacy for individuals whose genetic data (personal or pathogen) are included in such work has been difficult to delineate, because neither the true benefit nor the actual risk to participants has been adequately defined. Existing approaches to minimise the risk of privacy loss to participants are based on de-identification of data by removal of a predefined set of identifiers. These approaches neither guarantee privacy nor protect the usefulness of the data. We propose a new approach to privacy protection that will quantify the risk to participants, while still maximising the usefulness of the data to researchers. This emerging standard in privacy protection and disclosure control, which is known as differential privacy, uses a process-driven rather than data-centred approach to protecting privacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Democracy and genetic privacy: the value of bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Ludvig

    2005-01-01

    The right to genetic privacy is presently being incorporated in legal systems all over the world. It remains largely unclear however what interests and values this right serves to protect. There are many different arguments made in the literature, yet none takes into account the problem of how particular values can be justified given the plurality of moral and religious doctrines in our societies. In this article theories of public reason are used in order to explore how genetic privacy could be justified in a way that is sensitive to the "fact of pluralism". The idea of public reason is specified as the idea that governments should appeal only to values and beliefs that are acceptable to all reasonable citizens in the justification of rights. In examining prevalent arguments for genetic privacy--based on the value of autonomy or on the value of intimacy--it is concluded that they do not meet this requirement. In dealing with this deficiency in the literature, an argument is developed that genetic privacy is fundamental to the democratic participation of all citizens. By referring to the preconditions of democratic citizenship, genetic privacy can be justified in a way that respects the plurality of comprehensive doctrines of morality and religion in contemporary societies.

  2. Using genetic information while protecting the privacy of the soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, J H

    1999-01-01

    Computing plays an important role in genetics (and vice versa). Theoretically, computing provides a conceptual model for the function and malfunction of our genetic machinery. Practically, contemporary computers and robots equipped with advanced algorithms make the revelation of the complete human genome imminent--computers are about to reveal our genetic souls for the first time. Ethically, computers help protect privacy by restricting access in sophisticated ways to genetic information. But the inexorable fact that computers will increasingly collect, analyze, and disseminate abundant amounts of genetic information made available through the genetic revolution, not to mention that inexpensive computing devices will make genetic information gathering easier, underscores the need for strong and immediate privacy legislation.

  3. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  4. Disclosure 'downunder': misadventures in Australian genetic privacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    Along with many jurisdictions, Australia is struggling with the unique issues raised by genetic information in the context of privacy laws and medical ethics. Although the consequences of disclosure of most private information are generally confined to individuals, disclosure of genetic information has far-reaching consequences, with a credible argument that genetic relatives have a right to know about potential medical conditions. In 2006, the Privacy Act was amended to permit disclosure of an individual's genetic information, without their consent, to genetic relatives, if it was to avoid or mitigate serious illness. Unfortunately, additional amendments required for operation of the disclosure amendment were overlooked. Public Interest Determinations (PIDs)-delegated legislation issued by the privacy commissioner-have, instead, been used to exempt healthcare providers from provisions which would otherwise make disclosure unlawful. This paper critiques the PIDs using documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act-specifically the impact of both the PIDs and the disclosure amendment on patients and relatives-and confidentiality and the procedural validity of subordinate laws regulating medical privacy.

  5. Privacy Threats and Practical Solutions for Genetic Risk Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Ludovic; El Graini, Mohammed-Taha; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several solutions have been proposed to address the complex challenge of protecting individuals’ genetic data during personalized medicine tests. In this short paper, we analyze different privacy threats and propose simple countermeasures for the generic architecture mainly used in the literature. In particular, we present and evaluate a new practical solution against a critical attack of a malicious medical center trying to actively infer raw genetic information of patients.

  6. Ensuring privacy in the study of pathogen genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Sanjay R.; Vinterbo, Staal A.; Little, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth in the genetic sequencing of pathogens in recent years has led to the creation of large sequence databases. This aggregated sequence data can be very useful for tracking and predicting epidemics of infectious diseases. However, the balance between the potential public health benefit and the risk to personal privacy for individuals whose genetic data (personal or pathogen) are included in such work has been difficult to delineate, because neither the true benefit nor the actual ri...

  7. Privacy, the individual and genetic information: a Buddhist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongladarom, Soraj

    2009-09-01

    Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with the ultimate conception of an individual self, it has to find a way to analyse and justify privacy that does not presuppose such a self. It does this through a pragmatic conception that does not depend on a positing of the substantial self, which is then found to be unnecessary for an effective protection of privacy. As it may be possible one day to link genetic data to individuals, the Buddhist conception perhaps offers a more flexible approach, as what is considered to be integral to an individual person is not fixed in objectivity but depends on convention.

  8. Privacy and Property? Multi-level Strategies for Protecting Personal Interests in Genetic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    The paper builds on earlier medico-legal work by Laurie on privacy in relation to genetic material. In this chapter, the author discusses not only Laurie's views as 'pro-privacy' but the limitations of privacy, particularly once information, genetic or otherwise, enters a public sphere. The article draws on cases and laws in the UK, continental Europe, and the US, to provide a comparative view in suggesting an alternative approach to privacy.

  9. Laboratory specimens and genetic privacy: evolution of legal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-03-01

    Although laboratory specimens are an important resource for biomedical research, controversy has arisen when research has been conducted without the knowledge or consent of the individuals who were the source of the specimens. This paper summarizes the most important litigation regarding the research use of laboratory specimens and traces the evolution of legal theory from property claims to claims related to genetic privacy interests. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Privacy of genetic information: a review of the laws in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B; Ip, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the privacy of genetic information and the laws in the United States designed to protect genetic privacy. While all 50 states have laws protecting the privacy of health information, there are many states that have additional laws that carve out additional protections specifically for genetic information. The majority of the individual states have enacted legislation to protect individuals from discrimination on the basis of genetic information, and most of this legislation also has provisions to protect the privacy of genetic information. On the Federal level, there has been no antidiscrimination or genetic privacy legislation. Secretary Donna Shalala of the Department of Health and Human Services has issued proposed regulations to protect the privacy of individually identifiable health information. These regulations encompass individually identifiable health information and do not make specific provisions for genetic information. The variety of laws regarding genetic privacy, some found in statutes to protect health information and some found in statutes to prevent genetic discrimination, presents challenges to those charged with administering and executing these laws.

  11. Genetic information, non-discrimination, and privacy protections in genetic counseling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Anya E R; Roche, Myra I

    2014-12-01

    The passage of the Genetic Information Non Discrimination Act (GINA) was hailed as a pivotal achievement that was expected to calm the fears of both patients and research participants about the potential misuse of genetic information. However, 6 years later, patient and provider awareness of legal protections at both the federal and state level remains discouragingly low, thereby, limiting their potential effectiveness. The increasing demand for genetic testing will expand the number of individuals and families who could benefit from obtaining accurate information about the privacy and anti-discriminatory protections that GINA and other laws extend. In this paper we describe legal protections that are applicable to individuals seeking genetic counseling, review the literature on patient and provider fears of genetic discrimination and examine their awareness and understandings of existing laws, and summarize how genetic counselors currently discuss genetic discrimination. We then present three genetic counseling cases to illustrate issues of genetic discrimination and provide relevant information on applicable legal protections. Genetic counselors have an unprecedented opportunity, as well as the professional responsibility, to disseminate accurate knowledge about existing legal protections to their patients. They can strengthen their effectiveness in this role by achieving a greater knowledge of current protections including being able to identify specific steps that can help protect genetic information.

  12. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity still elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2015-04-06

    There is growing understanding of the need for genetic information to be shared with genetic relatives in some circumstances. Since 2006, s 95AA of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth) has permitted the disclosure of genetic information to genetic relatives without the patient's consent, provided that the health practitioner reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to lessen or prevent a serious threat to the life, health or safety of the genetic relatives. Enabling guidelines were introduced in 2009. These were limited to the private sector, and excluded doctors working in the public sector at both Commonwealth and state and territory levels. Privacy legislation was amended in March 2014, and new Australian Privacy Principles, which replace the National Privacy Principles and Information Privacy Principles, now cover the collection and use of personal information. The Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles now extend to practitioners employed by the Commonwealth but not to health practitioners working in state and territory public hospitals. In this article, I review these legislative developments and highlight the implications of the lack of uniformity and the consequent need for a collaborative, uniform approach by states and territories.

  13. Genetic privacy and confidentiality: why they are so hard to protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, M A

    1998-01-01

    Author notes that widespread concerns have been raised about protecting genetic privacy and confidentiality in insurance and employment. He argues that effective protections are difficult because complicated issues, such as the right of access to health care, are invariably implicated.

  14. The social life of genes: privacy, property and the new genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of the Human Genome Project and widespread fears over human cloning and medical privacy, a number of states have moved to protect genetic privacy. Oregon's unique Genetic Privacy Act of 1995, which declared that an individual had property rights to their DNA, has provoked national and international interest and controversy. This paper critically reviews the literature on genetic privacy and gene patenting from law, philosophy, science and anthropology. The debate in Oregon, from 1995 to 2001, illustrates many of the key issues in this emerging area. Both sides of the debate invoke the property metaphor, reinforcing deterministic assumptions and avoiding more fundamental questions about the integrity of the body and self-identity. The anthropological critique of the commodification of the body, and the concept of 'embodiment' are useful in analyzing the debate over DNA as property.

  15. Reassessing insurers' access to genetic information: genetic privacy, ignorance, and injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Eli

    2009-06-01

    Many countries have imposed strict regulations on the genetic information to which insurers have access. Commentators have warned against the emerging body of legislation for different reasons. This paper demonstrates that, when confronted with the argument that genetic information should be available to insurers for health insurance underwriting purposes, one should avoid appeals to rights of genetic privacy and genetic ignorance. The principle of equality of opportunity may nevertheless warrant restrictions. A choice-based account of this principle implies that it is unfair to hold people responsible for the consequences of the genetic lottery, since we have no choice in selecting our genotype or the expression of it. However appealing, this view does not take us all the way to an adequate justification of inaccessibility of genetic information. A contractarian account, suggesting that health is a condition of opportunity and that healthcare is an essential good, seems more promising. I conclude that if or when predictive medical tests (such as genetic tests) are developed with significant actuarial value, individuals have less reason to accept as fair institutions that limit access to healthcare on the grounds of risk status. Given the assumption that a division of risk pools in accordance with a rough estimate of people's level of (genetic) risk will occur, fairness and justice favour universal health insurance based on solidarity.

  16. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Plis, Sergey M; Turner, Jessica A; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the "small N" problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries-the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  17. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Sarwate

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the ``small $N$'' problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries -- the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  18. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Plis, Sergey M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the “small N” problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries—the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy. PMID:24778614

  19. Privacy and ethics in pediatric environmental health research-part I: genetic and prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2006-10-01

    The pressing need for empirically informed public policies aimed at understanding and promoting children's health has challenged environmental scientists to modify traditional research paradigms and reevaluate their roles and obligations toward research participants. Methodologic approaches to children's environmental health research raise ethical challenges for which federal regulations may provide insufficient guidance. In this article I begin with a general discussion of privacy concerns and informed consent within pediatric environmental health research contexts. I then turn to specific ethical challenges associated with research on genetic determinants of environmental risk, prenatal studies and maternal privacy, and data causing inflicted insight or affecting the informational rights of third parties.

  20. Privacy preserving protocol for detecting genetic relatives using rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Guan, Feng; Ostrosky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-06-15

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have impacted many areas of genetic research. One such area is the identification of relatives from genetic data. The standard approach for the identification of genetic relatives collects the genomic data of all individuals and stores it in a database. Then, each pair of individuals is compared to detect the set of genetic relatives, and the matched individuals are informed. The main drawback of this approach is the requirement of sharing your genetic data with a trusted third party to perform the relatedness test. In this work, we propose a secure protocol to detect the genetic relatives from sequencing data while not exposing any information about their genomes. We assume that individuals have access to their genome sequences but do not want to share their genomes with anyone else. Unlike previous approaches, our approach uses both common and rare variants which provide the ability to detect much more distant relationships securely. We use a simulated data generated from the 1000 genomes data and illustrate that we can easily detect up to fifth degree cousins which was not possible using the existing methods. We also show in the 1000 genomes data with cryptic relationships that our method can detect these individuals. The software is freely available for download at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/crypto/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseim, Patricia; Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research.

  2. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. Discussion A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. Conclusion The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research. PMID

  3. SecureMA: protecting participant privacy in genetic association meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Bush, William S; Crawford, Dana; Denny, Joshua C; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-12-01

    Sharing genomic data is crucial to support scientific investigation such as genome-wide association studies. However, recent investigations suggest the privacy of the individual participants in these studies can be compromised, leading to serious concerns and consequences, such as overly restricted access to data. We introduce a novel cryptographic strategy to securely perform meta-analysis for genetic association studies in large consortia. Our methodology is useful for supporting joint studies among disparate data sites, where privacy or confidentiality is of concern. We validate our method using three multisite association studies. Our research shows that genetic associations can be analyzed efficiently and accurately across substudy sites, without leaking information on individual participants and site-level association summaries. Our software for secure meta-analysis of genetic association studies, SecureMA, is publicly available at http://github.com/XieConnect/SecureMA. Our customized secure computation framework is also publicly available at http://github.com/XieConnect/CircuitService. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Owning genetic information and gene enhancement techniques: why privacy and property rights may undermine social control of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A D

    2000-04-01

    In this article I argue that the proper subjects of intangible property claims include medical records, genetic profiles, and gene enhancement techniques. Coupled with a right to privacy these intangible property rights allow individuals a zone of control that will, in most cases, justifiably exclude governmental or societal invasions into private domains. I argue that the threshold for overriding privacy rights and intangible property rights is higher, in relation to genetic enhancement techniques and sensitive personal information, than is commonly suggested. Once the bar is raised, so-to-speak, the burden of overriding it is formidable. Thus many policy decisions that have been recently proposed or enacted--citywide audio and video surveillance, law enforcement DNA sweeps, genetic profiling, national bans on genetic testing and enhancement of humans, to name a few--will have to be backed by very strong arguments.

  5. PRESAGE: PRivacy-preserving gEnetic testing via SoftwAre Guard Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Chenghong; Dai, Wenrui; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mohammed, Noman; Al Aziz, Md Momin; Sadat, Md Nazmus; Sahinalp, Cenk; Lauter, Kristin; Wang, Shuang

    2017-07-26

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted a wide range of genomic applications to improve healthcare and facilitate biomedical research. However, privacy and security concerns have emerged as a challenge for utilizing cloud computing to handle sensitive genomic data. We present one of the first implementations of Software Guard Extension (SGX) based securely outsourced genetic testing framework, which leverages multiple cryptographic protocols and minimal perfect hash scheme to enable efficient and secure data storage and computation outsourcing. We compared the performance of the proposed PRESAGE framework with the state-of-the-art homomorphic encryption scheme, as well as the plaintext implementation. The experimental results demonstrated significant performance over the homomorphic encryption methods and a small computational overhead in comparison to plaintext implementation. The proposed PRESAGE provides an alternative solution for secure and efficient genomic data outsourcing in an untrusted cloud by using a hybrid framework that combines secure hardware and multiple crypto protocols.

  6. The "GeneTrustee": a universal identification system that ensures privacy and confidentiality for human genetic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Leslie; Barlow-Stewart, Kris; Proos, Anné L; Aizenberg, Harry

    2003-05-01

    This article describes a generic model for access to samples and information in human genetic databases. The model utilises a "GeneTrustee", a third-party intermediary independent of the subjects and of the investigators or database custodians. The GeneTrustee model has been implemented successfully in various community genetics screening programs and has facilitated research access to genetic databases while protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research subjects. The GeneTrustee model could also be applied to various types of non-conventional genetic databases, including neonatal screening Guthrie card collections, and to forensic DNA samples.

  7. The medical examination in United States immigration applications: the potential use of genetic testing leads to heightened privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A Maxwell

    2005-01-01

    The medical examination has been an integral part of the immigration application process since the passing of the Immigration Act of 1891. Failing the medical examination can result in denial of the application. Over the years the medical examination has been expanded to include questioning about diseases that are scientifically shown to be rooted in an individual's genetic makeup. Recent advances in the fields of genomics and bioinformatics are making accurate and precise screening for these conditions a reality. Government policymakers will soon be faced with decisions regarding whether or not to sanction the use of these newly-developed genetic tests in the immigration application procedure. The terror threat currently facing the United States may ultimately bolster the argument in favor of genetic testing and/or DNA collection of applicants. However, the possibility of a government mandate requiring genetic testing raises a host of ethical issues; including the threat of eugenics and privacy concerns. Genetic testing has the ability to uncover a wealth of sensitive medical information about an individual and currently there are no medical information privacy protections afforded to immigration applicants. This article examines the potential for genetic testing in the immigration application process and the ethical issues surrounding this testing. In particular, this article explores the existing framework of privacy protections afforded to individuals living in the United States and how this and newly-erected standards like those released by the Health and Human Services (HHS) might apply to individuals seeking to immigrate to the United States.

  8. Privacy and confidentiality measures in genetic testing and counselling: arguing on genetic exceptionalism again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Magdalena M; Witt, Michał P

    2016-11-01

    Medical confidentiality in clinical genetics poses an important question about its scope, which would be in line with professional ethics and simple honesty. It is already known that the maintenance of absolute anonymity, bearing in mind the current progress of genetic techniques, is virtually impossible. On the other hand, our insight into the information contained in the human genome is increasing. This mini-review presents the authors' standpoint regarding this complex and difficult issue.

  9. Medical privacy and the disclosure of personal medical information: the beliefs and experiences of those with genetic and other clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Natowicz, Marvin R; Faden, Ruth R; Plantinga, Laura; Gostin, Lawrence O; Slutsman, Julia

    2004-07-30

    There has been heightened legislative attention to medical privacy and to protections from genetic discrimination, without large-scale studies to document privacy concerns or analysis of whether experiences differ by whether the condition is genetic (defined here as a single-gene disorder) or non-genetic. To determine whether experiences regarding privacy, disclosure, and consequences of disclosure differ by whether one's medical condition is genetic, we conducted a descriptive study with one-time, structured quantitative and qualitative interviews. We interviewed approximately 100 adults or parents of children with each of the following medical conditions: sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and HIV, and 200 adults with or at risk for breast cancer or colon cancer. The percentages of the total 597 respondents experiencing positive or negative consequences of disclosure and the degree to which experiences differed by whether the condition was genetic were the outcomes of interest. Seventy-four percent were glad and 13% regretted others knew about their condition; these findings did not differ significantly by genetic vs. non-genetic condition. Reports of job and health insurance discrimination were not uncommon for the overall study population (19 and 27%, respectively) but were more likely among those with genetic conditions (30 and 37%, respectively). Legislation and other policy-making should target the needs of persons with all conditions and not focus exclusively on genetic discrimination, given that experiences and concerns generally do not differ based on the genetic etiology of the condition. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. SecureMA: protecting participant privacy in genetic association meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Wei; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Bush, William S.; Crawford, Dana; Denny, Joshua C.; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Sharing genomic data is crucial to support scientific investigation such as genome-wide association studies. However, recent investigations suggest the privacy of the individual participants in these studies can be compromised, leading to serious concerns and consequences, such as overly restricted access to data.

  11. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  12. Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification rules under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; other modifications to the HIPAA rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or ``the Department'') is issuing this final rule to: Modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy, Security, and Enforcement Rules to implement statutory amendments under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (``the HITECH Act'' or ``the Act'') to strengthen the privacy and security protection for individuals' health information; modify the rule for Breach Notification for Unsecured Protected Health Information (Breach Notification Rule) under the HITECH Act to address public comment received on the interim final rule; modify the HIPAA Privacy Rule to strengthen the privacy protections for genetic information by implementing section 105 of Title I of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA); and make certain other modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules (the HIPAA Rules) to improve their workability and effectiveness and to increase flexibility for and decrease burden on the regulated entities.

  13. Sharing extended summary data from contemporary genetics studies is unlikely to threaten subject privacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Alin Bacanu

    Full Text Available Starting from a forensic problem, Homer et al. showed that it was possible to detect if an individual contributes only 0.5% of the DNA in a pool. The finding was extended to prove the possibility of detecting whether a subject participated in a small homogeneous GWAS. We denote this as the detection of a subject belonging to a certain cohort (SBCC. Subsequently, Visscher and Hill showed that the power to detect SBCC signal for an ethnically homogeneous cohort depends roughly on the ratio of the number of independent markers and total sample size. However, it is not clear if the same holds for more ethnically diverse cohorts. Later, Masca et al. propose running as SBCC test a regression of departure from assumed population frequency of i subject genotype on ii cohort of interest frequency. They use simulations to show that the approach has better SBCC detection power than the original Homer method but is impeded by population stratification.To investigate the possibility of SBCC detection in multi-ethnic cohorts, we generalize the Masca et al. approach by theoretically deriving the correlation between a subject genotype and the cohort reference allele frequencies (RAFs for stratified cohorts. Based on the derived formula, we theoretically show that, due to background stratification noise, SBCC detection is unlikely even for mildly stratified cohorts of size greater than around a thousand subjects. Thus, for the vast majority of contemporary cohorts, the fear of compromising privacy via SBCC detection is unfounded.

  14. Sharing extended summary data from contemporary genetics studies is unlikely to threaten subject privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a forensic problem, Homer et al. showed that it was possible to detect if an individual contributes only 0.5% of the DNA in a pool. The finding was extended to prove the possibility of detecting whether a subject participated in a small homogeneous GWAS. We denote this as the detection of a subject belonging to a certain cohort (SBCC). Subsequently, Visscher and Hill showed that the power to detect SBCC signal for an ethnically homogeneous cohort depends roughly on the ratio of the number of independent markers and total sample size. However, it is not clear if the same holds for more ethnically diverse cohorts. Later, Masca et al. propose running as SBCC test a regression of departure from assumed population frequency of i) subject genotype on ii) cohort of interest frequency. They use simulations to show that the approach has better SBCC detection power than the original Homer method but is impeded by population stratification. To investigate the possibility of SBCC detection in multi-ethnic cohorts, we generalize the Masca et al. approach by theoretically deriving the correlation between a subject genotype and the cohort reference allele frequencies (RAFs) for stratified cohorts. Based on the derived formula, we theoretically show that, due to background stratification noise, SBCC detection is unlikely even for mildly stratified cohorts of size greater than around a thousand subjects. Thus, for the vast majority of contemporary cohorts, the fear of compromising privacy via SBCC detection is unfounded.

  15. Mandatory Submission to The Identification of Genetic Profile for Criminal Purpose: A Broach Pursuant to the Right to Privacy and Dignity of the Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maia Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate that the mandatory submission convicted of a crime committed, intentionally, with serious violence against person or heinous crime, to identify the genetic profile by DNA extraction - deoxyribonucleic acid, although by proper and painless technique is offensive to fundamental rights. For this purpose, it is part of the overall concept of the right to privacy, which is configured as a negative right or protection against unlawful state mismanagement, in order to protect a need or a basic right to the free individual self-determination. Then genetic intimacy is defined as an asset able to reveal the physical, psychological, behavioral and disease features, which, if disclosed or accessed without the consent of the accused, may generate stigmatization and discrimination of the subject involved, violating in this way, therefore, the right to privacy. In conclusion, we move towards emphasizing besides the right to privacy, compulsory provision of biological material to identify the genetic profile is offensive to fundamental rights to physical liberty or outpatient; physical integrity; to the freedom of religion or conscience; non-discrimination; the silence and non-production of evidences against himself, and in last instance, the biggest vector of all fundamental rights: the dignity of the human person.

  16. Privacy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today’s information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website, processes

  17. Privacy Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  18. When public health and genetic privacy collide: positive and normative theories explaining how ACA's expansion of corporate wellness programs conflicts with GINA's privacy rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite ACA's specific alteration of three different statues which had in the past shielded employees from having to contribute to the cost of their health insurance based on their achieving employer-designated health markers, it chose to leave alone recently enacted rules implementing the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), which prohibits employers from asking employees about their family health history in any context, including assessing their risk for setting wellness targets. This article reviews how both the changes made by ACA and the restrictions recently put place by GINA will affect the way employers are likely to structure Wellness Programs. It also considers how these changes reflect the competing social goals of both ACA, which seeks to expand access to the population by lowering costs, and GINA, which seeks to protect individuals from discrimination. It does so by analyzing both positive theories about how these new laws will function and normative theories explaining the likelihood of future friction between the interests of the population of the United States as a whole who are in need of increased and affordable access to health care, and of the individuals living in this country who risk discrimination, as science and medicine continue to make advances in linking genetic make-up to risk of future illness. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. What was privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line.

  20. Fundamental right to freedom of genetic research and the protection of personal data: the principles of prevention and precaution to guarantee the right to privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linden Ruaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews fundamental rights of freedom of research and protection of personal data in the field of human genetics, it proposes the application of the precautionary principle of prevention. Evaluates the Brazilian legislation on the subject matter of research as to guarantee privacy measure of personal data and information collected in scientific research, a situation that worsens in the middle in digital and virtual world because it is a space virtually rapid development. Focuses on the limitation of fundamental rights, based on the conception that are not absolute. It proposes the principles of precaution and prevention among virtual environment. The deductive and dialectical methods are adopted, having premised most fundamental rights related and under Brazilian law; the dialectical method was used because the issue is the subject of constant debate is necessary confrontation of doctrinal currents and the Brazilian legislation.

  1. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  2. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  3. Confidentiality, privacy, and security of genetic and genomic test information in electronic health records: points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amy L; Fisher, Rebecca; Cusenza, Paul; Hudson, Kathy; Rothstein, Mark A; McGraw, Deven; Matteson, Stephen; Glaser, John; Henley, Douglas E

    2008-07-01

    As clinical genetics evolves, and we embark down the path toward more personalized and effective health care, the amount, detail, and complexity of genetic/genomic test information within the electronic health record will increase. This information should be appropriately protected to secure the trust of patients and to support interoperable electronic health information exchange. This article discusses characteristics of genetic/genomic test information, including predictive capability, immutability, and uniqueness, which should be considered when developing policies about information protection. Issues related to "genetic exceptionalism"; i.e., whether genetic/genomic test information should be treated differently from other medical information for purposes of data access and permissible use, are also considered. These discussions can help guide policy that will facilitate the biological and clinical resource development to support the introduction of this information into health care.

  4. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  5. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  6. Privacy Challenges of Genomic Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Ma, Jian

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid advancement of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, genomics has become a big data discipline where large-scale genetic information of human individuals can be obtained efficiently with low cost. However, such massive amount of personal genomic data creates tremendous challenge for privacy, especially given the emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that provides genetic testing services. Here we review the recent development in genomic big data and its implications on privacy. We also discuss the current dilemmas and future challenges of genomic privacy.

  7. From Data Privacy to Location Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Ling

    Over the past decade, the research on data privacy has achieved considerable advancement in the following two aspects: First, a variety of privacy threat models and privacy principles have been proposed, aiming at providing sufficient protection against different types of inference attacks; Second, a plethora of algorithms and methods have been developed to implement the proposed privacy principles, while attempting to optimize the utility of the resulting data. The first part of the chapter presents an overview of data privacy research by taking a close examination at the achievements from the above two aspects, with the objective of pinpointing individual research efforts on the grand map of data privacy protection. As a special form of data privacy, location privacy possesses its unique characteristics. In the second part of the chapter, we examine the research challenges and opportunities of location privacy protection, in a perspective analogous to data privacy. Our discussion attempts to answer the following three questions: (1) Is it sufficient to apply the data privacy models and algorithms developed to date for protecting location privacy? (2) What is the current state of the research on location privacy? (3) What are the open issues and technical challenges that demand further investigation? Through answering these questions, we intend to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art in location privacy research.

  8. Thinking ethically about genetic inheritance: liberal rights, communitarianism and the right to privacy for parents of donor insemination children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, J; Reynolds, P

    2008-04-01

    The issue of genetic inheritance, and particularly the contradictory rights of donors, recipients and donor offspring as to the disclosure of donor identities, is ethically complicated. Donors, donor offspring and parents of donor offspring may appeal to individual rights for confidentiality or disclosure within legal systems based on liberal rights discourse. This paper explores the ethical issues of non-disclosure of genetic inheritance by contrasting two principle models used to articulate the problem--liberal and communitarian ethical models. It argues that whilst the latter provides a more constructive avenue to providing an ethics for donation than the competing and contradictory positions represented in a liberal rights approach, it raises issues of ethical judgement and authority that remain problematic. This ethical discussion is supported by a field study, funded by the Wellcome Trust, exploring the perceptions and experiences of recipients of donor sperm and their partners towards donor anonymity. The field study provides the empirical basis of an argument for making ethical judgements on the grounds of the community good rather than individual rights, that nevertheless recognises that both are inherently problematic.

  9. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  10. Privacy og selvbeskrivelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse......En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse...

  11. Privacy vs security

    CERN Document Server

    Stalla-Bourdillon, Sophie; Ryan, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Securing privacy in the current environment is one of the great challenges of today's democracies. Privacy vs. Security explores the issues of privacy and security and their complicated interplay, from a legal and a technical point of view. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon provides a thorough account of the legal underpinnings of the European approach to privacy and examines their implementation through privacy, data protection and data retention laws. Joshua Philips and Mark D. Ryan focus on the technological aspects of privacy, in particular, on today's attacks on privacy by the simple use of today'

  12. Blood rights: the body and information privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    Genetic and other medical technology makes blood, human tissue and other bodily samples an immediate and accessible source of comprehensive personal and health information about individuals. Yet, unlike medical records, bodily samples are not subject to effective privacy protection or other regulation to ensure that individuals have rights to control the collection, use and transfer of such samples. This article examines the existing coverage of privacy legislation, arguments in favour of baseline protection for bodily samples as sources of information and possible approaches to new regulation protecting individual privacy rights in bodily samples.

  13. Reconciling Utility with Privacy in Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert, Mathias; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Telenti, Amalio

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing makes it possible for everyone to learn their genome sequences. In order to contribute to medical research, a growing number of people publish their genomic data on the Web, sometimes under their real identities. However, this is at odds not only with their own privacy but also with the privacy of their relatives. The genomes of relatives being highly correlated, some family members might be opposed to revealing any of the family's genomic data. In this pape...

  14. Is Electronic Privacy Achievable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E

    2000-01-01

    ... individuals. The purpose of this panel was to focus on how new technologies are affecting privacy. Technologies that might adversely affect privacy were identified by Rein Turn at previous symposia...

  15. Privacy and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology now enables firms to collect detailed and potentially intrusive data about their customers both easily and cheaply. This means that privacy concerns are no longer limited to government surveillance and public figures' private lives. The empirical literature on privacy regulation shows that privacy regulation may affect the extent and direction of data-based innovation. We also show that the impact of privacy regulation can be extremely heterogeneous. T...

  16. Neuroethics and Brain Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology.......An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology....

  17. Privacy and internet services

    OpenAIRE

    Samec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internet services user privacy. Goal of this thesis is to determine level of user awareness of how is their privacy approached while using internet services. Then suggest procedure to improve this awareness, or that will lead to better control of individual privacy. In theoretical part I analyze general and legislative approach to privacy, followed by analysis of behaviour of internet service users and providers. Part of this analysis deals with usage of web cookies ...

  18. Internet and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fadhli, Meshal Shehab

    2007-01-01

    The concept of privacy is hard to understand and is not easy to define, because this concept is linked with several dimensions. Internet Privacy is associated with the use of the Internet and most likely appointed under communications privacy, involving the user of the Internet’s personal information and activities, and the disclosure of them online. This essay is going to present the meaning of privacy and the implications of it for Internet users. Also, this essay will demonstrate some of t...

  19. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  20. Privacy Verification Using Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, Martin; Freytag, Johann-Christoph; Kargl, Frank; Kung, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    As information systems extensively exchange information between participants, privacy concerns may arise from its potential misuse. A Privacy by Design (PbD) approach considers privacy requirements of different stakeholders during the design and the implementation of a system. Currently, a

  1. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  2. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  3. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  4. A Taxonomy of Privacy Constructs for Privacy-Sensitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rueben, Matthew; Grimm, Cindy M.; Bernieri, Frank J.; Smart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Future work in operationalizing privacy constructs for HRI studies is also discussed.

  5. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Erlich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  6. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  7. Designing Privacy for You : A User Centric Approach For Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Senarath, Awanthika; Arachchilage, Nalin A. G.; Slay, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Privacy directly concerns the user as the data owner (data- subject) and hence privacy in systems should be implemented in a manner which concerns the user (user-centered). There are many concepts and guidelines that support development of privacy and embedding privacy into systems. However, none of them approaches privacy in a user- centered manner. Through this research we propose a framework that would enable developers and designers to grasp privacy in a user-centered manner and implement...

  8. Regulating Online Data Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Reid

    2004-01-01

    With existing data protection laws proving inadequate in the fight to protect online data privacy and with the offline law of privacy in a state of change and uncertainty, the search for an alternative solution to the important problem of online data privacy should commence. With the inherent problem of jurisdiction that the Internet presents, such a solution is best coming from a multi-national body with the power to approximate laws in as many jurisdictions as possible, with a recognised au...

  9. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  10. Challenging Medical-Legal Norms: The Role of Autonomy, Confidentiality and Privacy in Protecting Individual and Familial Group Rights in Genetic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, Graeme

    2001-01-01

    In this article, Laurie discusses the impact of generating genetic information, and what the consequences are of this for individuals, and family members, whose familial genetic information is shared. The authors considers who controls access to such information, the rights and interests that arise from a group claim to familial data. The competing "right to know" versus "the right not to know" are examined in relation to genetic data, along with the role of confidentiality and autonomy. Fi...

  11. Privacy in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Radics, Peter J; Gracanin, Denis

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed While there is a growing body of research on privacy,most of the work puts the focus on information privacy. Physical and psychological privacy issues receive little to no attention. However, the introduction of technology into our lives can cause problems with regard to these aspects of privacy. This is especially true when it comes to our homes, both as nodes of our social life and places for relaxation. This paper presents the results of a study intended to captu...

  12. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  13. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  14. Privacy rules for DNA databanks. Protecting coded 'future diaries'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1993-11-17

    In privacy terms, genetic information is like medical information. But the information contained in the DNA molecule itself is more sensitive because it contains an individual's probabilistic "future diary," is written in a code that has only partially been broken, and contains information about an individual's parents, siblings, and children. Current rules for protecting the privacy of medical information cannot protect either genetic information or identifiable DNA samples stored in DNA databanks. A review of the legal and public policy rationales for protecting genetic privacy suggests that specific enforceable privacy rules for DNA databanks are needed. Four preliminary rules are proposed to govern the creation of DNA databanks, the collection of DNA samples for storage, limits on the use of information derived from the samples, and continuing obligations to those whose DNA samples are in the databanks.

  15. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  16. Information Privacy Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  17. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  18. Privacy under construction : A developmental perspective on privacy perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, W.M.P.; Vedder, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a developmental perspective regarding the difference in perceptions toward privacy between young and old. Here, we introduce the notion of privacy conceptions, that is, the specific ideas that individuals have regarding what privacy actually is. The differences in privacy concerns often

  19. Scalable privacy-preserving data sharing methodology for genome-wide association studies: an application to iDASH healthcare privacy protection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Ji, Zhanglong

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in genome-wide association study (GWAS) data privacy, the Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring (iDASH) center organized the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge, with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of applying privacy-preserving methodologies to human genetic data. This paper is based on a submission to the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge. We apply privacy-preserving methods that are adapted from Uhler et al. 2013 and Yu et al. 2014 to the challenge's data and analyze the data utility after the data are perturbed by the privacy-preserving methods. Major contributions of this paper include new interpretation of the χ2 statistic in a GWAS setting and new results about the Hamming distance score, a key component for one of the privacy-preserving methods.

  20. 77 FR 67348 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Center Case Tracking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ....S.C. 791 et seq.; the Equal Pay Act, 29 U.S.C. 206(d); the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Alternative Dispute Resolution... with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a (Privacy Act), the Department of Education...

  1. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  2. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  3. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  4. Public Opinion about the Importance of Privacy in Biobank Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David J.; Murphy-Bollinger, Juli; Scott, Joan; Hudson, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about privacy may deter people from participating in genetic research. Recruitment and retention of biobank participants requires understanding the nature and magnitude of these concerns. Potential participants in a proposed biobank were asked about their willingness to participate, their privacy concerns, informed consent, and data sharing. A representative survey of 4659 U.S. adults was conducted. Ninety percent of respondents would be concerned about privacy, 56% would be concerned about researchers having their information, and 37% would worry that study data could be used against them. However, 60% would participate in the biobank if asked. Nearly half (48%) would prefer to provide consent once for all research approved by an oversight panel, whereas 42% would prefer to provide consent for each project separately. Although 92% would allow academic researchers to use study data, 80% and 75%, respectively, would grant access to government and industry researchers. Concern about privacy was related to lower willingness to participate only when respondents were told that they would receive $50 for participation and would not receive individual research results back. Among respondents who were told that they would receive $200 or individual research results, privacy concerns were not related to willingness. Survey respondents valued both privacy and participation in biomedical research. Despite pervasive privacy concerns, 60% would participate in a biobank. Assuring research participants that their privacy will be protected to the best of researchers' abilities may increase participants' acceptance of consent for broad research uses of biobank data by a wide range of researchers. PMID:19878915

  5. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  6. Cybersecurity and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    he huge potential in future connected services has as a precondition that privacy and security needs are dealt with in order for new services to be accepted. This issue is increasingly on the agenda both at the company and at individual level. Cybersecurity and Privacy – bridging the gap addresses...... two very complex fields of the digital world, i.e., Cybersecurity and Privacy. These multifaceted, multidisciplinary and complex issues are usually understood and valued differently by different individuals, data holders and legal bodies. But a change in one field immediately affects the others....... Policies, frameworks, strategies, laws, tools, techniques, and technologies – all of these are tightly interwoven when it comes to security and privacy. This book is another attempt to bridge the gap between the industry and academia. The book addresses the views from academia and industry on the subject...

  7. Privacy for Sale?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Khajuria, Samant

    Data brokers have become central players in the collection online of private user data. Data brokers’ activities are however not very transparent or even known by users. Many users regard privacy a central element when they use online services. Based on 12 short interviews with users, this paper...... analyses how users perceive the concept of online privacy in respect to data brokers col- lection of private data, and particularly novel services that offer users the possi- bility to sell their private data. Two groups of users are identified: Those who are considering selling their data under specific...... conditions, and those who reject the idea completely. Based on the literature we identify two positions to privacy either as an instrumental good, or as an intrinsic good. The paper positions vari- ous user perceptions on privacy that are relevant for future service develop- ment....

  8. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  9. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  10. Genetics Home Reference: sialuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inheritance of sialuria, an inborn error of feedback inhibition. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6): ... Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players ...

  11. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  12. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  13. Redefining Genomic Privacy: Trust and Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B.; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D.; Witkowski, Jan A.; Kain, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we int...

  14. An informational theory of privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schottmuller, C.; Jann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory that explains how and when privacy can increase welfare. Without privacy, some individuals misrepresent their preferences, because they will otherwise be statistically discriminated against. This "chilling effect" hurts them individually, and impairs information aggregation. The

  15. Privacy in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Λεονάρδος, Γεώργιος; Leonardos, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of privacy over the use of social networks web sites. More specific, we will show the types of social networks, their privacy mechanisms that are different in each social network site, their privacy options that are offered to users. We will report some serious privacy violations incidents of the most popular social networks sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Also, we will report some important surveys about social networks and pr...

  16. 77 FR 31371 - Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... presentations, including the privacy compliance fundamentals, privacy and data security, and the privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance... Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Privacy Compliance Workshop.'' DATES: The...

  17. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  18. Privacy preserving processing of genomic data: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Mete; Bayrak, A Osman; Ozer, Bugra; Sağıroğlu, M Şamil

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the rapid advance in genome sequencing technology has led to production of huge amount of sensitive genomic data. However, a serious privacy challenge is confronted with increasing number of genetic tests as genomic data is the ultimate source of identity for humans. Lately, privacy threats and possible solutions regarding the undesired access to genomic data are discussed, however it is challenging to apply proposed solutions to real life problems due to the complex nature of security definitions. In this review, we have categorized pre-existing problems and corresponding solutions in more understandable and convenient way. Additionally, we have also included open privacy problems coming with each genomic data processing procedure. We believe our classification of genome associated privacy problems will pave the way for linking of real-life problems with previously proposed methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  20. Privacy in an Ambient World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  1. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency...-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and...

  2. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  3. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  4. Privacy Bridges: EU and US Privacy Experts In Search of Transatlantic Privacy Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramatic, J.-F.; Bellamy, B.; Callahan, M.E.; Cate, F.; van Eecke, P.; van Eijk, N.; Guild, E.; de Hert, P.; Hustinx, P.; Kuner, C.; Mulligan, D.; O'Connor, N.; Reidenberg, J.; Rubinstein, I.; Schaar, P.; Shadbolt, N.; Spiekermann, S.; Vladeck, D.; Weitzner, D.J.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Hagenauw, D.; Hijmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The EU and US share a common commitment to privacy protection as a cornerstone of democracy. Following the Treaty of Lisbon, data privacy is a fundamental right that the European Union must proactively guarantee. In the United States, data privacy derives from constitutional protections in the

  5. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  6. Reconciling privacy and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Friedewald, M.; Wright, D.; Gutwirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional "trade-off" paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental

  7. Privacy Policy | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  8. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  9. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  10. Towards Territorial Privacy in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Bastian; Schaub, Florian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Territorial privacy is an old concept for privacy of the personal space dating back to the 19th century. Despite its former relevance, territorial privacy has been neglected in recent years, while privacy research and legislation mainly focused on the issue of information privacy. However, with the

  11. Privacy Awareness: A Means to Solve the Privacy Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzsch, Stefanie

    People are limited in their resources, i.e. they have limited memory capabilities, cannot pay attention to too many things at the same time, and forget much information after a while; computers do not suffer from these limitations. Thus, revealing personal data in electronic communication environments and being completely unaware of the impact of privacy might cause a lot of privacy issues later. Even if people are privacy aware in general, the so-called privacy paradox shows that they do not behave according to their stated attitudes. This paper discusses explanations for the existing dichotomy between the intentions of people towards disclosure of personal data and their behaviour. We present requirements on tools for privacy-awareness support in order to counteract the privacy paradox.

  12. Gaussian operations and privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states

  13. Privacy 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Papathanassopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the era of change. In this world, privacy is not a static concept, but instead has a dynamic component. Overall, it becomes clear that the public and private are not defined in the same manner as in the past and as in the actual world, while our personal information has become a commodity that can raise our visibility in the social media driven world.

  14. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  15. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy remains both contentious and ever more pertinent in contemporary society. Yet it persists as an ill-defined term, not only within specific fields but in its various uses and implications between and across technical, legal and political contexts. This article offers a new critical review of the history of privacy in terms of two dominant strands of thinking: freedom and property. These two conceptions of privacy can be seen as successive historical epochs brought together under digital technologies, yielding increasingly complex socio-technical dilemmas. By simplifying the taxonomy to its socio-cultural function, the article provides a generalisable, interdisciplinary approach to privacy. Drawing on new technologies, historical trends, sociological studies and political philosophy, the article presents a discussion of the value of privacy as a term, before proposing a defense of the term cyber security as a mode of scalable cognitive privacy that integrates the relative needs of individuals, governments and corporations.

  16. The privacy implications of Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermor...

  17. From genetic privacy to open consent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunshof, J.; Chadwick, R.; Vorhaus, D.B.; Church, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput genomic technologies are showing concrete results in the form of an increasing number of genome-wide association studies and in the publication of comprehensive individual genome-phenome data sets. As a consequence of this flood of information the established

  18. Cognitive Privacy for Personal Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Cognitive Privacy (CogPriv framework that improves privacy of data sharing between Personal Clouds for different application types and across heterogeneous networks. Depending on the behaviour of neighbouring network nodes, their estimated privacy levels, resource availability, and social network connectivity, each Personal Cloud may decide to use different transmission network for different types of data and privacy requirements. CogPriv is fully distributed, uses complex graph contacts analytics and multiple implicit novel heuristics, and combines these with smart probing to identify presence and behaviour of privacy compromising nodes in the network. Based on sensed local context and through cooperation with remote nodes in the network, CogPriv is able to transparently and on-the-fly change the network in order to avoid transmissions when privacy may be compromised. We show that CogPriv achieves higher end-to-end privacy levels compared to both noncognitive cellular network communication and state-of-the-art strategies based on privacy-aware adaptive social mobile networks routing for a range of experiment scenarios based on real-world user and network traces. CogPriv is able to adapt to varying network connectivity and maintain high quality of service while managing to keep low data exposure for a wide range of privacy leakage levels in the infrastructure.

  19. Biomedical databases: protecting privacy and promoting research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Jean E; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2003-03-01

    When combined with medical information, large electronic databases of information that identify individuals provide superlative resources for genetic, epidemiology and other biomedical research. Such research resources increasingly need to balance the protection of privacy and confidentiality with the promotion of research. Models that do not allow the use of such individual-identifying information constrain research; models that involve commercial interests raise concerns about what type of access is acceptable. Researchers, individuals representing the public interest and those developing regulatory guidelines must be involved in an ongoing dialogue to identify practical models.

  20. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  1. A Survey of Privacy on Data Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Do Son, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This survey is an integrated view of other surveys on privacy preserving for data integration. First, we review the database context and challenges and research questions. Second, we formulate the privacy problems for schema matching and data matching. Next, we introduce the elements of privacy models. Then, we summarize the existing privacy techniques and the analysis (proofs) of privacy guarantees. Finally, we describe the privacy frameworks and their applications.

  2. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, n...

  3. The Privacy Coach: Supporting customer privacy in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Broenink, Gerben; Hoepman, Jaap-Henk; Hof, Christian van 't; van Kranenburg, Rob; Smits, David; Wisman, Tijmen

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing technologies on the RFID tags themselves. Instead the Privacy Coach functions as a mediator between customer privacy preferences and corporate privacy policies, trying to find a match between the ...

  4. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  5. Story Lab: Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Student data privacy is an increasingly high-profile--and controversial--issue that touches schools and families across the country. There are stories to tell in virtually every community. About three dozen states have passed legislation addressing student data privacy in the past two years, and eight different proposals were floating around…

  6. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  7. Speech Privacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-08-18

    eondwious, «ach AnvoWnc either one or tiro staple m^aSattoa processes. The British teo -dimensioaai privacy system eUiissd both ire- oasaay ana time...of the 884 gas tube and ground showed that the tubs did not re- main fired throughout the duration of the 4- kc puls.e. Instead, the tube fired on...ouri’ent through the relay circuit was not sufficient to: permit its firm operation, especially when the amplitude of the 4~ kc pulse was low. This

  8. Forensic DNA phenotyping: Developing a model privacy impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Nathan; McNevin, Dennis; Kelty, Sally F; Walsh, Simon J; Robertson, James

    2018-05-01

    Forensic scientists around the world are adopting new technology platforms capable of efficiently analysing a larger proportion of the human genome. Undertaking this analysis could provide significant operational benefits, particularly in giving investigators more information about the donor of genetic material, a particularly useful investigative lead. Such information could include predicting externally visible characteristics such as eye and hair colour, as well as biogeographical ancestry. This article looks at the adoption of this new technology from a privacy perspective, using this to inform and critique the application of a Privacy Impact Assessment to this emerging technology. Noting the benefits and limitations, the article develops a number of themes that would influence a model Privacy Impact Assessment as a contextual framework for forensic laboratories and law enforcement agencies considering implementing forensic DNA phenotyping for operational use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  10. Privacy enhancing techniques - the key to secure communication and management of clinical and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, G J E; Claerhout, B; De Meyer, F

    2003-01-01

    To introduce some of the privacy protection problems related to genomics based medicine and to highlight the relevance of Trusted Third Parties (TTPs) and of Privacy Enhancing Techniques (PETs) in the restricted context of clinical research and statistics. Practical approaches based on two different pseudonymisation models, both for batch and interactive data collection and exchange, are described and analysed. The growing need of managing both clinical and genetic data raises important legal and ethical challenges. Protecting human rights in the realm of privacy, while optimising research potential and other statistical activities is a challenge that can easily be overcome with the assistance of a trust service provider offering advanced privacy enabling/enhancing solutions. As such, the use of pseudonymisation and other innovative Privacy Enhancing Techniques can unlock valuable data sources.

  11. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  12. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-092)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to cancel the following Privacy Act system of records notice...

  13. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C...

  14. Advanced research in data privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the research work on data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies carried by the participants of the ARES project. ARES (Advanced Research in Privacy an Security, CSD2007-00004) has been one of the most important research projects funded by the Spanish Government in the fields of computer security and privacy. It is part of the now extinct CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010 program, a highly competitive program which aimed to advance knowledge and open new research lines among top Spanish research groups. The project started in 2007 and will finish this 2014. Composed by 6 research groups from 6 different institutions, it has gathered an important number of researchers during its lifetime. Among the work produced by the ARES project, one specific work package has been related to privacy. This books gathers works produced by members of the project related to data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies. The presented works not only summarize important research carried in the proje...

  15. Towards Privacy Managment of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drageide, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    This masters thesis provides insight into the concept of privacy. It argues why privacy is important, and why developers and system owners should keep privacy in mind when developing and maintaining systems containing personal information. Following this, a strategy for evaluating the overall level of privacy in a system is defined. The strategy is then applied to parts of the cellphone system in an attempt to evaluate the privacy of traffic and location data in this system.

  16. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy ...

  17. Effective online privacy mechanisms with persuasive communication

    OpenAIRE

    Coopamootoo, P L

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contributes to research by taking a social psychological perspective to managing privacy online. The thesis proposes to support the effort to form a mental model that is required to evaluate a context with regards to privacy attitudes or to ease the effort by biasing activation of privacy attitudes. Privacy being a behavioural concept, the human-computer interaction design plays a major role in supporting and contributing to end users’ ability to manage their privacy online. Howev...

  18. Adding query privacy to robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2012-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity...

  19. Trajectory data privacy protection based on differential privacy mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ke; Yang, Lihao; Liu, Yongzhi; Liao, Niandong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a trajectory data privacy protection scheme based on differential privacy mechanism. In the proposed scheme, the algorithm first selects the protected points from the user’s trajectory data; secondly, the algorithm forms the polygon according to the protected points and the adjacent and high frequent accessed points that are selected from the accessing point database, then the algorithm calculates the polygon centroids; finally, the noises are added to the polygon centroids by the differential privacy method, and the polygon centroids replace the protected points, and then the algorithm constructs and issues the new trajectory data. The experiments show that the running time of the proposed algorithms is fast, the privacy protection of the scheme is effective and the data usability of the scheme is higher.

  20. Privacy and CHI : methodologies for studying privacy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Romero, N.A.; Karat, J.

    2006-01-01

    This workshop aims to reflect on methodologies to empirically study privacy issues related to advanced technology. The goal is to address methodological concerns by drawing upon both theoretical perspectives as well as practical experiences.

  1. When Differential Privacy Meets Randomized Perturbation: A Hybrid Approach for Privacy-Preserving Recommender System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, An; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, Zhixu; Liu, Guanfeng; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2017-01-01

    result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP

  2. Performing privacy in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom; Andersen, Lars Bo

    with technologies is carried out as well as observation is conducted. We obtain and present new knowledge about how surveillance is practiced in the interpersonal relations of students and teachers. References: Monahan, T., & Torres, R. D. (2009). Schools Under Surveillance: Cultures of Control in Public Education....... Rutgers University Press. Selwyn, N. (2010). Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age: A Critical Analysis. Routledge. Taylor, E. (2013). Surveillance Schools: Security, Discipline and Control in Contemporary Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Taylor, E., & Rooney, T. (2016). Surveillance Futures: Social......In this presentation we pursue the question: How is privacy performed and perceived in schools by children? Our aim is to investigate how the boundaries between public and private spheres are continuously performed in the formal setting of the classroom as well as in the social lives of students...

  3. Parasiteware: Unlocking Personal Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Garrie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.

  4. Protecting and Evaluating Genomic Privacy in Medical Tests and Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ayday, Erman; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Rougemont, Jacques; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose privacy-enhancing technologies for medical tests and personalized medicine methods that use patients' genomic data. Focusing on genetic disease-susceptibility tests, we develop a new architecture (between the patient and the medical unit) and propose a "privacy-preserving disease susceptibility test" (PDS) by using homomorphic encryption and proxy re-encryption. Assuming the whole genome sequencing to be done by a certified institution, we propose to store patients' ...

  5. Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed data mining from privacy-sensitive multi-party data is likely to play an important role in the next generation of integrated vehicle health monitoring...

  6. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang; Papadimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Raï ssi, Chedy; Kalnis, Panos; Pung, Hungkeng

    2011-01-01

    an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data

  7. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  8. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  9. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  10. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumer genetic testing. Additional information about direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests and related research questions are ... for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  11. Privacy-preserving Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Milutinovic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    With the technological advances and the evolution of online services, user privacy is becoming a crucial issue in the modern day society. Privacy in the general sense refers to individuals’ ability to protect information about themselves and selectively present it to other entities. This concept is nowadays strongly affected by everyday practices that assume personal data disclosure, such as online shopping and participation in loyalty schemes. This makes it difficult for an individual to con...

  12. PRIVACY CONCERNS IN FACEBOOK SITE

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Singh

    2014-01-01

    Today social networking sites play an important role and inexpensive way to maintain existing relationships and present oneself. However, the increasing use of online sites give rise to privacy concerns and risks. All Internet sites are also under attack from phishers, fraudsters, and spammers. They aim to steal user information and expose users to unwanted spam. They have so many resources at their disposal.This paper studies the awareness of college students regarding the privacy in Faceboo...

  13. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  14. Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    REPORT Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: When people talk about hacking and social networks , they’re...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Facebook , Privacy, Security, Social Network Dr. Jeff Duffany (Advisor), Omar Galban...transmit personal information that many people that they dare not do it personally. FACEBOOK PLATFORM Facebook is a popular social networking

  15. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  16. Privacy in the Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ayday, Erman; Clayton, Ellen W; Fellay, Jacques; Gunter, Carl A; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Malin, Bradley A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward.

  17. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  18. The privacy coach: Supporting customer privacy in the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, E.G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Hof, C. van 't; Kranenburg, R. van; Smits, D.; Wisman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing

  19. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records... two Privacy Act Systems of Records entitled ``Information on Persons Disqualified from the...

  20. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-109)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  1. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-093)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  2. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-091)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act...: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NASA is... Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those amendments as set forth below under the caption...

  3. 78 FR 40515 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-071] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Each Federal agency is required by the Privacy Act of 1974 to publish...

  4. 78 FR 77503 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-149] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to existing Privacy Act systems of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  5. 77 FR 69898 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-100] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  6. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  7. Privacy in Pharmacogenetics: An End-to-End Case Study of Personalized Warfarin Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, Matthew; Lantz, Eric; Jha, Somesh; Lin, Simon; Page, David; Ristenpart, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We initiate the study of privacy in pharmacogenetics, wherein machine learning models are used to guide medical treatments based on a patient's genotype and background. Performing an in-depth case study on privacy in personalized warfarin dosing, we show that suggested models carry privacy risks, in particular because attackers can perform what we call model inversion : an attacker, given the model and some demographic information about a patient, can predict the patient's genetic markers. As differential privacy (DP) is an oft-proposed solution for medical settings such as this, we evaluate its effectiveness for building private versions of pharmacogenetic models. We show that DP mechanisms prevent our model inversion attacks when the privacy budget is carefully selected . We go on to analyze the impact on utility by performing simulated clinical trials with DP dosing models. We find that for privacy budgets effective at preventing attacks, patients would be exposed to increased risk of stroke, bleeding events, and mortality . We conclude that current DP mechanisms do not simultaneously improve genomic privacy while retaining desirable clinical efficacy, highlighting the need for new mechanisms that should be evaluated in situ using the general methodology introduced by our work.

  8. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  9. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampigethaya, Krishna; Huang, Leping; Li, Mingyan; Poovendran, Radha; Matsuura, Kanta; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    .... This type of tracking leads to threats on the location privacy of the vehicle's user. In this paper, we study the problem of providing location privacy in VANET by allowing vehicles to prevent tracking of their broadcast communications...

  10. SIED, a Data Privacy Engineering Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mivule, Kato

    2013-01-01

    While a number of data privacy techniques have been proposed in the recent years, a few frameworks have been suggested for the implementation of the data privacy process. Most of the proposed approaches are tailored towards implementing a specific data privacy algorithm but not the overall data privacy engineering and design process. Therefore, as a contribution, this study proposes SIED (Specification, Implementation, Evaluation, and Dissemination), a conceptual framework that takes a holist...

  11. Privacy and Data-Based Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ori Heffetz; Katrina Ligett

    2013-01-01

    What can we, as users of microdata, formally guarantee to the individuals (or firms) in our dataset, regarding their privacy? We retell a few stories, well-known in data-privacy circles, of failed anonymization attempts in publicly released datasets. We then provide a mostly informal introduction to several ideas from the literature on differential privacy, an active literature in computer science that studies formal approaches to preserving the privacy of individuals in statistical databases...

  12. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  13. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a...

  14. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  15. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  16. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...... is a literature review on the topic of privacy. It addresses key privacy challenges for different stakeholders in the sharing economy. Throughout, we use the term "consumers" to refer to users on the receiving end (e.g., Airbnb guests, Uber passengers), "providers" to refer to users on the providing end (e.......g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) and "platforms" to refer to the mediating sites, apps and infrastructures matching consumers and providers (e.g., Airbnb, Uber)....

  17. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP. GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals’ private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP’s performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical statistical dataset models: (a the binary data model; and (b the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  18. Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition…

  19. 31 CFR 0.216 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act. 0.216 Section 0.216... RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.216 Privacy Act. Employees involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records or in maintaining records subject to the Privacy Act of...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...

  1. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong; Kairouz, Peter; Chen, Xiao; Sankar, Lalitha; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP). GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs) to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals' private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP's performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical) statistical dataset models: (a) the binary data model, and (b) the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion) match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  2. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title Privacy... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13...

  3. Enhancing Privacy for Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Conrado, C.; Schrijen, G.J.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter addresses privacy issues in DRM systems. These systems provide a means of protecting digital content, but may violate the privacy of users in that the content they purchase and their actions in the system can be linked to specific users. The chapter proposes a privacy-preserving DRM

  4. Access to Information and Privacy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Crown corporation, IDRC is subject to Canada's laws on access to information and privacy protection. The following resources will help you learn more about IDRC and the access to information and privacy acts, including instructions for submitting an access to information or privacy act (ATIP) request. IDRC and ATIP ...

  5. Perspectives of Australian adults about protecting the privacy of their health information in statistical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tatiana; Brankovic, Ljiljana; Gillard, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the public's attitude and views towards privacy in health care. This is a part of a larger project which aims to gain an insight into what kind of privacy is needed and develop technical measures to provide such privacy. The study was a two-stage process which combined qualitative and quantitative research. Stage One of the study comprised arranging and facilitating focus groups while in Stage Two we conducted a social survey. We measured attitudes towards privacy, medical research and consent; privacy concern about sharing one's health information for research; privacy concern about the possibility that some specific information from medical records could be linked to the patient's name in a situation that was not related to medical treatment. The results of the study revealed both great support for medical research (98%), and concern about privacy of health information (66%). Participants prefer to be asked for their permission before their health information is used for any purpose other than medical treatment (92%), and they would like to know the organisation and details of the research before allowing the use of their health records (83%). Age, level of education, place of birth and employment status are most strongly associated with privacy concerns. The study showed that there are some particularly sensitive issues and there is a concern (42-60%) about any possibility of linking these kinds of data to the patient's name in a situation that is not related to medical treatment. Such issues include sexually transmitted diseases, abortions and infertility, family medical history/genetic disorders, mental illness, drug/alcohol related incidents, lists of previous operations/procedures/dates and current medications. Participants believe they should be asked for permission before their health information is used for any purpose other than medical treatment. However, consent and privacy concerns are not necessary related

  6. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George

    2013-01-01

    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  7. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  8. Privacy context model for dynamic privacy adaptation in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Koenings, Bastian; Dietzel, Stefan; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Ubiquitous computing is characterized by the merger of physical and virtual worlds as physical artifacts gain digital sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. Maintaining an appropriate level of privacy in the face of such complex and often highly dynamic systems is challenging. We argue

  9. Online Privacy as a Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollach, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Information technology and the Internet have added a new stakeholder concern to the corporate social responsibility agenda: online privacy. While theory suggests that online privacy is a corporate social responsibility, only very few studies in the business ethics literature have connected...... of the companies have comprehensive privacy programs, although more than half of them voice moral or relational motives for addressing online privacy. The privacy measures they have taken are primarily compliance measures, while measures that stimulate a stakeholder dialogue are rare. Overall, a wide variety...

  10. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  11. Adding Query Privacy to Robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2011-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... of obtaining query privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity and only a small overhead in the computational complexity....

  12. Student Data Privacy Communications Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Excellence in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Parents expect school districts and schools to keep their children safe while they are in school. That expectation of safety and security also extends to the protection of their children's learning data. Therefore, it is critical that school districts and schools are open and transparent about their student data privacy practices, and that those…

  13. Privacy proof in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessen, Veerle; Weigand, Hans; Mouratidis, Haris

    Cloud computing has been a frequently researched subject as it brings many advantages, such as the ability to store data remotely and scale rapidly, but also comes with several issues, including privacy, trust and security. The decision whether it is best to go `into the cloud' or to `stay inside'

  14. Patient privacy and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, Amy L; Brown, Evan D

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare providers using social media must remain mindful of professional boundaries and patients' privacy rights. Facebook and other online postings must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), applicable facility policy, state law, and AANA's Code of Ethics.

  15. Facebook: When Education Meets Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Steven; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has become commonplace amongst students. In this research, we aim to shed light upon the educational use and privacy issues on Facebook from the perspective of role theory and reference group theory. 15 bachelor students of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) in Flanders, Belgium, were interviewed in…

  16. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  17. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, Michael; Jeckmans, Arjan; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Abraham, A.

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become part of daily life for millions of users. Users building explicit networks that represent their social relationships and often share a wealth of personal information to their own benefit. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated

  18. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  19. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  20. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  1. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  2. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Up With Kids' Apps infographic Kids and Computer Security Kids and Mobile Phones Kids and Socializing Online ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  3. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  4. The benefits, risks and costs of privacy: patient preferences and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenbarg, David E; Asche, Carl; Ramsahai, Shweta; Duling, Joy; Ren, Jinma

    2017-05-01

    Multiple surveys show that patients want medical privacy; however, there are costs to maintaining privacy. There are also risks if information is not shared. A review of previous surveys found that most surveys asked questions about patient's privacy concerns and willingness to share their medical information. We found only one study that asked about sharing medical information for better care and no survey that asked patients about the risk, cost or comparison between medical privacy and privacy in other areas. To fill this gap, we designed a survey to: (1) compare medical privacy preferences to privacy preferences in other areas; (2) measure willingness to pay the cost of additional privacy measures; and (3) measure willingness to accept the risks of not sharing information. A total of 834 patients attending physician offices at 14 sites completed all or part of an anonymous questionnaire. Over 95% of patients were willing to share all their medical information with their treating physicians. There was no difference in willingness to share between primary care and specialty sites including psychiatry and an HIV clinic. In our survey, there was no difference in sharing preference between standard medical information and information with additional legal protections including genetic testing, drug/alcohol treatment and HIV results. Medical privacy was ranked lower than sharing social security and credit card numbers, but was deemed more private than other information including tax returns and handgun purchases. There was no statistical difference for any questions by site except for HIV/AIDS clinic patients ranking privacy of the medical record more important than reducing high medical costs and risk of medical errors (p risks to keep medical information hidden. Patients were very willing to share medical information with their providers. They were able to see the importance of sharing medical information to provide the best possible care. They were unwilling to

  5. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  6. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  7. Information privacy fundamentals for librarians and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, Cherie L

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces library and information professionals to information privacy, provides an overview of information privacy in the library and information science context, U.S. privacy laws by sector, information privacy policy, and key considerations when planning and creating a privacy program.

  8. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  9. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  10. Location-Related Privacy in Geo-Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Vicente, Carmen; Freni, Dario; Bettini, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    -ins." However, this ability to reveal users' locations causes new privacy threats, which in turn call for new privacy-protection methods. The authors study four privacy aspects central to these social networks - location, absence, co-location, and identity privacy - and describe possible means of protecting...... privacy in these circumstances....

  11. 32 CFR 701.101 - Privacy program terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from a project on privacy issues, identifying and resolving the privacy risks, and approval by a... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy program terms and definitions. 701.101... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.101 Privacy program terms and...

  12. Genomics and privacy: implications of the new reality of closed data for the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dov; Sboner, Andrea; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Gerstein, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Open source and open data have been driving forces in bioinformatics in the past. However, privacy concerns may soon change the landscape, limiting future access to important data sets, including personal genomics data. Here we survey this situation in some detail, describing, in particular, how the large scale of the data from personal genomic sequencing makes it especially hard to share data, exacerbating the privacy problem. We also go over various aspects of genomic privacy: first, there is basic identifiability of subjects having their genome sequenced. However, even for individuals who have consented to be identified, there is the prospect of very detailed future characterization of their genotype, which, unanticipated at the time of their consent, may be more personal and invasive than the release of their medical records. We go over various computational strategies for dealing with the issue of genomic privacy. One can "slice" and reformat datasets to allow them to be partially shared while securing the most private variants. This is particularly applicable to functional genomics information, which can be largely processed without variant information. For handling the most private data there are a number of legal and technological approaches-for example, modifying the informed consent procedure to acknowledge that privacy cannot be guaranteed, and/or employing a secure cloud computing environment. Cloud computing in particular may allow access to the data in a more controlled fashion than the current practice of downloading and computing on large datasets. Furthermore, it may be particularly advantageous for small labs, given that the burden of many privacy issues falls disproportionately on them in comparison to large corporations and genome centers. Finally, we discuss how education of future genetics researchers will be important, with curriculums emphasizing privacy and data security. However, teaching personal genomics with identifiable subjects in the

  13. Genomics and privacy: implications of the new reality of closed data for the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Greenbaum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Open source and open data have been driving forces in bioinformatics in the past. However, privacy concerns may soon change the landscape, limiting future access to important data sets, including personal genomics data. Here we survey this situation in some detail, describing, in particular, how the large scale of the data from personal genomic sequencing makes it especially hard to share data, exacerbating the privacy problem. We also go over various aspects of genomic privacy: first, there is basic identifiability of subjects having their genome sequenced. However, even for individuals who have consented to be identified, there is the prospect of very detailed future characterization of their genotype, which, unanticipated at the time of their consent, may be more personal and invasive than the release of their medical records. We go over various computational strategies for dealing with the issue of genomic privacy. One can "slice" and reformat datasets to allow them to be partially shared while securing the most private variants. This is particularly applicable to functional genomics information, which can be largely processed without variant information. For handling the most private data there are a number of legal and technological approaches-for example, modifying the informed consent procedure to acknowledge that privacy cannot be guaranteed, and/or employing a secure cloud computing environment. Cloud computing in particular may allow access to the data in a more controlled fashion than the current practice of downloading and computing on large datasets. Furthermore, it may be particularly advantageous for small labs, given that the burden of many privacy issues falls disproportionately on them in comparison to large corporations and genome centers. Finally, we discuss how education of future genetics researchers will be important, with curriculums emphasizing privacy and data security. However, teaching personal genomics with

  14. Tales from the dark side: Privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bösch, Christoph; Erb, Benjamin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Privacy strategies and privacy patterns are fundamental concepts of the privacy-by-design engineering approach. While they support a privacy-aware development process for IT systems, the concepts used by malicious, privacy-threatening parties are generally less understood and known. We argue...... that understanding the “dark side”, namely how personal data is abused, is of equal importance. In this paper, we introduce the concept of privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns and present a framework that collects, documents, and analyzes such malicious concepts. In addition, we investigate from...... a psychological perspective why privacy dark strategies are effective. The resulting framework allows for a better understanding of these dark concepts, fosters awareness, and supports the development of countermeasures. We aim to contribute to an easier detection and successive removal of such approaches from...

  15. Privacy Protection: Mandating New Arrangements to Implement and Assess Federal Privacy Policy and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C

    2004-01-01

    When Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974, it established a temporary national study commission to conduct a comprehensive assessment of privacy policy and practice in both the public and private...

  16. Privacy and security in teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper.

  17. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  18. Privacy and security in teleradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: pekka.ruotsalainen@THL.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Fictional privacy among Facebook users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The current study involved the creation of a fictional Facebook account with limited information and was designed to assess whether participants would accept the friendship of an ambiguous, unknown person. Results indicated that 325 Facebook members (72% of the sample) willingly accepted the friendship of the unknown individual. Results are discussed in relation to privacy concerns, norms of reciprocity, and allowing access to potentially embarrassing information and/or pictures.

  20. Privacy and security in teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Online Tracking Technologies and Web Privacy:Technologieën voor Online volgen en Web Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Mustafa Gunes Can

    2017-01-01

    In my PhD thesis, I would like to study the problem of online privacy with a focus on Web and mobile applications. Key research questions to be addressed by my study are the following: How can we formalize and quantify web tracking? What are the threats presented against privacy by different tracking techniques such as browser fingerprinting and cookie based tracking? What kind of privacy enhancing technologies (PET) can be used to ensure privacy without degrading service quality? The stud...

  2. Gender and online privacy among teens: risk perception, privacy concerns, and protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seounmi; Hall, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Survey data from 395 high school students revealed that girls perceive more privacy risks and have a higher level of privacy concerns than boys. Regarding privacy protection behaviors, boys tended to read unsolicited e-mail and register for Web sites while directly sending complaints in response to unsolicited e-mail. This study found girls to provide inaccurate information as their privacy concerns increased. Boys, however, refrained from registering to Web sites as their concerns increased.

  3. Portrait of a Privacy Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshitaishvili Yan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online social networks has changed the way in which we share personal thoughts, political views, and pictures. Pictures have a particularly important role in the privacy of users, as they can convey substantial information (e.g., a person was attending an event, or has met with another person. Moreover, because of the nature of social networks, it has become increasingly difficult to control who has access to which content. Therefore, when a substantial amount of pictures are accessible to one party, there is a very serious potential for violations of the privacy of users. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technique that, given a large corpus of pictures shared on a social network, automatically determines who is dating whom, with reasonable precision. More specifically, our approach combines facial recognition, spatial analysis, and machine learning techniques to determine pairs that are dating. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first privacy attack of this kind performed on social networks. We implemented our approach in a tool, called Creepic, and evaluated it on two real-world datasets. The results show that it is possible to automatically extract non-obvious, and nondisclosed, relationships between people represented in a group of pictures, even when the people involved are not directly part of a connected social clique.

  4. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...

  6. Facebook: Personality and privacy on profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Riera, Carla; Oberst, Ursula; Carbonell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the possible relationship between the privacy settings in Facebook profiles and two personality dimensions, extraversion and neuroticism, in relation to gender. The Privacy on Facebook Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Inventory was applied to a sample of 92 womenand 70 men, all users of Facebook. No significant relationship was found between extraversion or neuroticism and the privacy settings of Facebook profiles, but the results showed significant...

  7. Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet

    2017-01-01

    Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...

  8. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy tends to ignore the political economy of privacy in capitalism that can mask socio-economic inequality and protect capital and the rich from public accountability. Facebook is in this paper analyzed with the help of an approach, in which privacy for dominant groups, in regard to the ability of keeping wealth and power secret from the public, is seen as problematic, whereas privacy at the bottom of the power pyramid for consumers and normal citizens is seen as a protection from dominant interests. Facebook’s privacy concept is based on an understanding that stresses self-regulation and on an individualistic understanding of privacy. The theoretical analysis of the political economy of privacy on Facebook in this paper is based on the political theories of Karl Marx, Hannah Arendt and Jürgen Habermas. Based on the political economist Dallas Smythe’s concept of audience commodification, the process of prosumer commodification on Facebook is analyzed. The political economy of privacy on Facebook is analyzed with the help of a theory of drives that is grounded in Herbert Marcuse’s interpretation of Sigmund Freud, which allows to analyze Facebook based on the concept of play labor (= the convergence of play and labor.

  9. Security measures required for HIPAA privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul, M

    2000-01-01

    HIPAA security requirements include administrative, physical, and technical services and mechanisms to safeguard confidentiality, availability, and integrity of health information. Security measures, however, must be implemented in the context of an organization's privacy policies. Because HIPAA's proposed privacy rules are flexible and scalable to account for the nature of each organization's business, size, and resources, each organization will be determining its own privacy policies within the context of the HIPAA requirements and its security capabilities. Security measures cannot be implemented in a vacuum.

  10. A Model-Based Privacy Compliance Checker

    OpenAIRE

    Siani Pearson; Damien Allison

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, e-business organisations are coming under pressure to be compliant to a range of privacy legislation, policies and best practice. There is a clear need for high-level management and administrators to be able to assess in a dynamic, customisable way the degree to which their enterprise complies with these. We outline a solution to this problem in the form of a model-driven automated privacy process analysis and configuration checking system. This system models privacy compliance ...

  11. Privacy Preservation in Distributed Subgradient Optimization Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Youcheng; Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in data mining and machine learning. In this paper, we consider the privacy preserving features of distributed subgradient optimization algorithms. We first show that a well-known distributed subgradient synchronous optimization algorithm, in which all agents make their optimization updates simultaneously at all times, is not privacy preserving in the sense that the malicious agent can learn other agents' subgradients asymptotic...

  12. PRIVACY PRESERVING DATA MINING USING MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shyamala Susan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy preservation is that the most targeted issue in information publication, because the sensitive data shouldn't be leaked. For this sake, several privacy preservation data mining algorithms are proposed. In this work, feature selection using evolutionary algorithm and data masking coupled with slicing is treated as a multiple objective optimisation to preserve privacy. To start with, Genetic Algorithm (GA is carried out over the datasets to perceive the sensitive attributes and prioritise the attributes for treatment as per their determined sensitive level. In the next phase, to distort the data, noise is added to the higher level sensitive value using Hybrid Data Transformation (HDT method. In the following phase slicing algorithm groups the correlated attributes organized and by this means reduces the dimensionality by retaining the Advanced Clustering Algorithm (ACA. With the aim of getting the optimal dimensions of buckets, tuple segregating is accomplished by Metaheuristic Firefly Algorithm (MFA. The investigational consequences imply that the anticipated technique can reserve confidentiality and therefore the information utility is additionally high. Slicing algorithm allows the protection of association and usefulness in which effects in decreasing the information dimensionality and information loss. Performance analysis is created over OCC 7 and OCC 15 and our optimization method proves its effectiveness over two totally different datasets by showing 92.98% and 96.92% respectively.

  13. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    . However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...... notion of privacy are discussed in relation to both research- and public debates on surveillance in a welfare setting....

  14. Analysis of Privacy on Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tomandl, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with a question of privacy in a context of social networks. The main substance of these services is the users' option to share an information about their lives. This alone can be a problem for privacy. In the first part of this thesis concentrates on the meaning of privacy as well as its value for both individuals and the society. In the next part the privacy threats on social networks, namely Facebook, are discussed. These threats are disclosed on four levels according to f...

  15. Privacy Protection Research of Mobile RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification is one of the most controversial technologies at present.It is very difficult to detect who reads a tag incorporated into products owned by a person,a significant concern to privacy threats in RFID system arises from this reason.User privacy problem is prior considersion for mobile RFID service,because most mobile RFID service based on end-user service.Propose a solution for user privacy protection,which is a modification of EPC Class 1 Generation 2 protocol,and introduce a privacy protection scenario for mobile RFID service using this method.

  16. Location privacy protection in mobile networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief analyzes the potential privacy threats in wireless and mobile network environments, and reviews some existing works. It proposes multiple privacy preserving techniques against several types of privacy threats that are targeting users in a mobile network environment. Depending on the network architecture, different approaches can be adopted. The first proposed approach considers a three-party system architecture where there is a trusted central authority that can be used to protect users? privacy. The second approach considers a totally distributed environment where users per

  17. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  18. Extending SQL to Support Privacy Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinour, Kambiz; Pun, Sampson; Majedi, Maryam; Chinaci, Amir H.; Barker, Ken

    Increasing concerns over Internet applications that violate user privacy by exploiting (back-end) database vulnerabilities must be addressed to protect both customer privacy and to ensure corporate strategic assets remain trustworthy. This chapter describes an extension onto database catalogues and Structured Query Language (SQL) for supporting privacy in Internet applications, such as in social networks, e-health, e-governmcnt, etc. The idea is to introduce new predicates to SQL commands to capture common privacy requirements, such as purpose, visibility, generalization, and retention for both mandatory and discretionary access control policies. The contribution is that corporations, when creating the underlying databases, will be able to define what their mandatory privacy policies arc with which all application users have to comply. Furthermore, each application user, when providing their own data, will be able to define their own privacy policies with which other users have to comply. The extension is supported with underlying catalogues and algorithms. The experiments demonstrate a very reasonable overhead for the extension. The result is a low-cost mechanism to create new systems that arc privacy aware and also to transform legacy databases to their privacy-preserving equivalents. Although the examples arc from social networks, one can apply the results to data security and user privacy of other enterprises as well.

  19. Toward Privacy-Preserving Personalized Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation systems are crucially important for the delivery of personalized services to users. With personalized recommendation services, users can enjoy a variety of targeted recommendations such as movies, books, ads, restaurants, and more. In addition, personalized recommendation services have become extremely effective revenue drivers for online business. Despite the great benefits, deploying personalized recommendation services typically requires the collection of users’ personal data for processing and analytics, which undesirably makes users susceptible to serious privacy violation issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop practical privacy-preserving techniques to maintain the intelligence of personalized recommendation services while respecting user privacy. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the literature related to personalized recommendation services with privacy protection. We present the general architecture of personalized recommendation systems, the privacy issues therein, and existing works that focus on privacy-preserving personalized recommendation services. We classify the existing works according to their underlying techniques for personalized recommendation and privacy protection, and thoroughly discuss and compare their merits and demerits, especially in terms of privacy and recommendation accuracy. We also identity some future research directions. Keywords: Privacy protection, Personalized recommendation services, Targeted delivery, Collaborative filtering, Machine learning

  20. Do Privacy Concerns Matter for Millennials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fodor, Mark; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    data have raised the question, if location data are considered as sensitive data by users. Thus, we use two privacy concern models, namely Concern for Information Privacy (CFIP) and Internet Users’ Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC) to find out. Our sample comprises of 235 individuals between 18...... and 34 years (Generation C) from Germany. The results of this study indicate that the second-order factor IUIPC showed better fit for the underlying data than CFIP did. Overall privacy concerns have been found to have an impact on behavioral intentions of users for LBS adoption. Furthermore, other risk...

  1. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  2. Digital privacy in the marketplace perspectives on the information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, George

    2015-01-01

    Digital Privacy in the Marketplace focuses on the data ex-changes between marketers and consumers, with special ttention to the privacy challenges that are brought about by new information technologies. The purpose of this book is to provide a background source to help the reader think more deeply about the impact of privacy issues on both consumers and marketers. It covers topics such as: why privacy is needed, the technological, historical and academic theories of privacy, how market exchange af-fects privacy, what are the privacy harms and protections available, and what is the likely future of privacy.

  3. Privacy and Psychosomatic Stress: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the supposition that insufficient privacy is stressful to the individual. Data were obtained from urban centers in New Zealand. Findings support the hypothesis that a percieved lack of privacy is associated with psychosomatic stress. The relationship is specified by measures of stress and sex of respondents. (Author)

  4. 76 FR 51869 - Privacy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... permanent residence. Maintain includes collect, use, disseminate, or control. Privacy Act means the Privacy... announces the creation, deletion, or amendment of one or more system of records. System of records notices... reference and university libraries or electronically at the [[Page 51873

  5. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  6. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with

  7. Online privacy: overview and preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mekovec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last decade using the Internet for online shopping, information browsing and searching as well as for online communication has become part of everyday life. Although the Internet technology has a lot of benefits for users, one of the most important disadvantages is related to the increasing capacity for users’ online activity surveillance. However, the users are increasingly becoming aware of online surveillance methods, which results in their increased concern for privacy protection. Numerous factors influence the way in which individuals perceive the level of privacy protection when they are online. This article provides a review of factors that influence the privacy perception of Internet users. Previous online privacy research related to e-business was predominantly focused on the dimension of information privacy and concerned with the way users’ personal information is collected, saved and used by an online company. This article’s main aim is to provide an overview of numerous Internet users’ privacy perception elements across various privacy dimensions as well as their potential categorization. In addition, considering that e-banking and online shopping are one of the most widely used e-services, an examination of online privacy perception of e-banking/online shopping users was performed. 

  8. Privacy een grondrecht, maar ook handelswaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Snoeihard uit journalist Brenno de Winter zijn commentaar op sprekers over privacy tijdens het NLIGF congres 2015. Hij zet Bart Schermer, adviseur van bedrijven en organisaties in de hoek. Die heeft net betoogd dat privacy geen juk (‘korvee’) mag vormen maar inzet moet zijn van innovatie door

  9. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  10. Revocable privacy: Principles, use cases, and technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lueks, W.; Everts, M.H.; Hoepman, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Security and privacy often seem to be at odds with one another. In this paper, we revisit the design principle of revocable privacy which guides the creation of systems that offer anonymity for people who do not violate a predefined rule, but can still have consequences for people who do violate the

  11. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  12. Privacy and Ethics in Undergraduate GIS Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Peter; Burnett, Adam; Dolfi, Emmalee; Goldfarb, Ali; Baum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The development of location-aware technologies, such as smartphones, raises serious questions regarding locational privacy and the ethical use of geographic data. The degree to which these concepts are taught in undergraduate geographic information science (GISci) courses is unknown. A survey of GISci educators shows that issues of privacy and…

  13. Towards quantum-based privacy and voting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir; Bielikova, Martina

    2006-01-01

    The privacy of communicating participants is often of paramount importance, but in some situations it is an essential condition. A typical example is a fair (secret) voting. We analyze in detail communication privacy based on quantum resources, and we propose new quantum protocols. Possible generalizations that would lead to voting schemes are discussed

  14. Contemporary Privacy Theory Contributions to Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    With the continued adoption of learning analytics in higher education institutions, vast volumes of data are generated and "big data" related issues, including privacy, emerge. Privacy is an ill-defined concept and subject to various interpretations and perspectives, including those of philosophers, lawyers, and information systems…

  15. Privacy-preserving digital rights management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrado, C.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    DRM systems provide a means for protecting digital content, but at the same time they violate the privacy of users in a number of ways. This paper addresses privacy issues in DRM systems. The main challenge is how to allow a user to interact with the system in an anonymous/pseudonymous way, while

  16. Measuring privacy compliance using fitness metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banescu, S.; Petkovic, M.; Zannone, N.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, repurposing of personal data is a major privacy issue. Detection of data repurposing requires posteriori mechanisms able to determine how data have been processed. However, current a posteriori solutions for privacy compliance are often manual, leading infringements to remain undetected.

  17. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  18. Enforcing Privacy in Cloud Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam, Somayeh Sobati; Darmont, Jérôme; Gavin, Gérald

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Outsourcing databases, i.e., resorting to Database-as-a-Service (DBaaS), is nowadays a popular choice due to the elasticity, availability, scalability and pay-as-you-go features of cloud computing. However, most data are sensitive to some extent, and data privacy remains one of the top concerns to DBaaS users, for obvious legal and competitive reasons.In this paper, we survey the mechanisms that aim at making databases secure in a cloud environment, and discuss current...

  19. A Framework for Privacy-preserving Classification of Next-generation PHR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Malamateniou, Flora; Prentza, Andriana; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs), integrated with data from various sources, such as social care data, Electronic Health Record data and genetic information, are envisaged as having a pivotal role in transforming healthcare. These data, lumped under the term 'big data', are usually complex, noisy, heterogeneous, longitudinal and voluminous thus prohibiting their meaningful use by clinicians. Deriving value from these data requires the utilization of innovative data analysis techniques, which, however, may be hindered due to potential security and privacy breaches that may arise from improper release of personal health information. This paper presents a HIPAA-compliant machine learning framework that enables privacy-preserving classification of next-generation PHR data. The predictive models acquired can act as supporting tools to clinical practice by enabling more effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment of new incidents. The proposed framework has a huge potential for complementing medical staff expertise as it outperforms the manual inspection of PHR data while protecting patient privacy.

  20. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Efficient Dynamic Searchable Encryption with Forward Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etemad Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE enables a client to perform searches over its outsourced encrypted files while preserving privacy of the files and queries. Dynamic schemes, where files can be added or removed, leak more information than static schemes. For dynamic schemes, forward privacy requires that a newly added file cannot be linked to previous searches. We present a new dynamic SSE scheme that achieves forward privacy by replacing the keys revealed to the server on each search. Our scheme is efficient and parallelizable and outperforms the best previous schemes providing forward privacy, and achieves competitive performance with dynamic schemes without forward privacy. We provide a full security proof in the random oracle model. In our experiments on the Wikipedia archive of about four million pages, the server takes one second to perform a search with 100,000 results.

  2. Virtue, Privacy and Self-Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    The ethical problem of privacy lies at the core of computer ethics and cyber ethics discussions. The extensive use of personal data in digital networks poses a serious threat to the user’s right of privacy not only at the level of a user’s data integrity and security but also at the level of a user......’s identity and freedom. In normative ethical theory the need for an informational self-deterministic approach of privacy is stressed with greater emphasis on the control over personal data. However, scant attention has been paid on a virtue ethics approach of information privacy. Plotinus’ discussion of self......-determination is related to ethical virtue, human freedom and intellectual autonomy. The Plotinian virtue ethics approach of self-determination is not primarily related to the sphere of moral action, but to the quality of the self prior to moral practice. In this paper, it is argued that the problem of information privacy...

  3. Defining Privacy Is Supposed to Be Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Gross, Thomas; Viganò, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Formally specifying privacy goals is not trivial. The most widely used approach in formal methods is based on the static equivalence of frames in the applied pi-calculus, basically asking whether or not the intruder is able to distinguish two given worlds. A subtle question is how we can be sure...... that we have specified all pairs of worlds to properly reflect our intuitive privacy goal. To address this problem, we introduce in this paper a novel and declarative way to specify privacy goals, called α-β privacy, and relate it to static equivalence. This new approach is based on specifying two...... formulae α and β in first-order logic with Herbrand universes, where α reflects the intentionally released information and β includes the actual cryptographic (“technical”) messages the intruder can see. Then α-β privacy means that the intruder cannot derive any “non-technical” statement from β that he...

  4. Social Media Users’ Legal Consciousness About Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Sarikakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.

  5. Public privacy: Reciprocity and Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kennedy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his 1958 poem 'Dedication to my Wife' TS Eliot proclaims "these are private words addressed to you in public". Simultaneously written for his wife, Valerie Fletcher, and to the implied you of a discourse network, Eliot's poem helps to illustrate the narrative voices and silences that are constitutive of an intimate public sphere. This paper situates reciprocity as a condition of possibility for public privacy. It shows how reciprocity is enabled by systems of code operating through material and symbolic registers. Code promises to control communication, to produce neutral, systemic forms of meaning. Yet such automation is challenged by uneven and fragmented patterns of reciprocity. Moreover, examining the media of public privacy reveals historical trajectories important for understanding contemporary socio­technical platforms of reciprocity. To explore the implicit requirement of reciprocity in publicly private practices, three sites of communication are investigated framed by a media archaeology perspective: postal networks, the mail­art project PostSecret and the anonymous zine 'You'.

  6. Anonymising the Sparse Dataset: A New Privacy Preservation Approach while Predicting Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shyamala Susan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques analyze the medical dataset with the intention of enhancing patient’s health and privacy. Most of the existing techniques are properly suited for low dimensional medical dataset. The proposed methodology designs a model for the representation of sparse high dimensional medical dataset with the attitude of protecting the patient’s privacy from an adversary and additionally to predict the disease’s threat degree. In a sparse data set many non-zero values are randomly spread in the entire data space. Hence, the challenge is to cluster the correlated patient’s record to predict the risk degree of the disease earlier than they occur in patients and to keep privacy. The first phase converts the sparse dataset right into a band matrix through the Genetic algorithm along with Cuckoo Search (GCS.This groups the correlated patient’s record together and arranges them close to the diagonal. The next segment dissociates the patient’s disease, which is a sensitive value (SA with the parameters that determine the disease normally Quasi Identifier (QI.Finally, density based clustering technique is used over the underlying data to  create anonymized groups to maintain privacy and to predict the risk level of disease. Empirical assessments on actual health care data corresponding to V.A.Medical Centre heart disease dataset reveal the efficiency of this model pertaining to information loss, utility and privacy.

  7. 76 FR 30952 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... the Department. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between..., 2011 and March 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published sixteen Privacy...

  8. 76 FR 58814 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... DHS. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between June 1... 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published twenty-six Privacy Impact...

  9. 76 FR 78934 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on.... These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between September 1, 2011... November 30, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published seven Privacy Impact...

  10. 77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be... approved and published fifteen Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs) on the DHS Privacy Office Web site, www...

  11. 76 FR 37823 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... Department. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 31... 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published ten Privacy Impact Assessments...

  12. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  13. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with...

  14. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examples. 160.2 Section 160.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  15. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model... this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this...

  16. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a... of this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in...

  17. 45 CFR 503.1 - Definitions-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-Privacy Act. 503.1 Section 503.1... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.1 Definitions—Privacy Act. For the purpose of this part: Agency...

  18. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  19. 75 FR 28051 - Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice announcing public workshop. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Pieces of Privacy.'' DATES: The workshop will be...

  20. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.224-2 Privacy... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act of...

  1. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  2. Data privacy foundations, new developments and the big data challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a broad, cohesive overview of the field of data privacy. It discusses, from a technological perspective, the problems and solutions of the three main communities working on data privacy: statistical disclosure control (those with a statistical background), privacy-preserving data mining (those working with data bases and data mining), and privacy-enhancing technologies (those involved in communications and security) communities. Presenting different approaches, the book describes alternative privacy models and disclosure risk measures as well as data protection procedures for respondent, holder and user privacy. It also discusses specific data privacy problems and solutions for readers who need to deal with big data.

  3. Kids Sell: Celebrity Kids’ Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Choul Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.

  4. Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-05-01

    Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ε-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ε-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ε-differential privacy. We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis.

  5. New threats to health data privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjun; Zou, Xukai; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jake Y

    2011-11-24

    Along with the rapid digitalization of health data (e.g. Electronic Health Records), there is an increasing concern on maintaining data privacy while garnering the benefits, especially when the data are required to be published for secondary use. Most of the current research on protecting health data privacy is centered around data de-identification and data anonymization, which removes the identifiable information from the published health data to prevent an adversary from reasoning about the privacy of the patients. However, published health data is not the only source that the adversaries can count on: with a large amount of information that people voluntarily share on the Web, sophisticated attacks that join disparate information pieces from multiple sources against health data privacy become practical. Limited efforts have been devoted to studying these attacks yet. We study how patient privacy could be compromised with the help of today's information technologies. In particular, we show that private healthcare information could be collected by aggregating and associating disparate pieces of information from multiple online data sources including online social networks, public records and search engine results. We demonstrate a real-world case study to show user identity and privacy are highly vulnerable to the attribution, inference and aggregation attacks. We also show that people are highly identifiable to adversaries even with inaccurate information pieces about the target, with real data analysis. We claim that too much information has been made available electronic and available online that people are very vulnerable without effective privacy protection.

  6. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  7. Human Rights, Privacy and Medical Research; Analysing UK Policy on Tissue and Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillott, John

    2006-01-01

    This report is one outcome of a study into privacy and human genetics initiated by John Gillott and staff and trustees of the Genetic Interest Group. \\ud \\ud The initial focus was on genetics and human rights, with an emphasis on legal aspects and policy decisions informed by law and rights ideology. Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the right to respect for private and family life,1 is of most relevance to this study, though other Articles are considered.\\ud \\ud The study as a whole co...

  8. 77 FR 33761 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, “Grievance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... of a data breach. (See also on HUD's privacy Web site, Appendix I for other ways that the Privacy Act... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5613-N-04] Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, ``Grievance Records'' AGENCY: Office of the...

  9. Privacy is an essentially contested concept: a multi-dimensional analytic for mapping privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Colin; Doty, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of privacy has been much disputed throughout its history in response to wave after wave of new technological capabilities and social configurations. The current round of disputes over privacy fuelled by data science has been a cause of despair for many commentators and a death knell for privacy itself for others. We argue that privacy’s disputes are neither an accidental feature of the concept nor a lamentable condition of its applicability. Privacy is essentially contested. Because it is, privacy is transformable according to changing technological and social conditions. To make productive use of privacy’s essential contestability, we argue for a new approach to privacy research and practical design, focused on the development of conceptual analytics that facilitate dissecting privacy’s multiple uses across multiple contexts. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’. PMID:28336797

  10. Privacy Preserving Association Rule Mining Revisited: Privacy Enhancement and Resources Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaisen, Abedelaziz; Jho, Nam-Su; Hong, Dowon; Nyang, Daehun

    Privacy preserving association rule mining algorithms have been designed for discovering the relations between variables in data while maintaining the data privacy. In this article we revise one of the recently introduced schemes for association rule mining using fake transactions (FS). In particular, our analysis shows that the FS scheme has exhaustive storage and high computation requirements for guaranteeing a reasonable level of privacy. We introduce a realistic definition of privacy that benefits from the average case privacy and motivates the study of a weakness in the structure of FS by fake transactions filtering. In order to overcome this problem, we improve the FS scheme by presenting a hybrid scheme that considers both privacy and resources as two concurrent guidelines. Analytical and empirical results show the efficiency and applicability of our proposed scheme.

  11. The study on privacy preserving data mining for information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Privacy preserving data mining have a rapid development in a short year. But it still faces many challenges in the future. Firstly, the level of privacy has different definitions in different filed. Therefore, the measure of privacy preserving data mining technology protecting private information is not the same. So, it's an urgent issue to present a unified privacy definition and measure. Secondly, the most of research in privacy preserving data mining is presently confined to the theory study.

  12. Privacy Breach Analysis in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Frank

    This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in social networks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in social networks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing social network data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.

  13. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  14. Privacy in Online Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    M.Ida Evones

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 192 act ive social networking websites. Bringing every kind of social group together in one place and letting them interact is really a big thing indeed .Huge amount of information process in the sites each day, end up making it vulnerable to attack. There is no systematic framework taking into account the importance of privacy. Increased privacy settings don’t always guarantee privacy when there is a loop hole in the applications. Lack of user education results is over sh...

  15. 5G Visions of User Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the discussions are going on the elements and definition of 5G networks. One of the elements in this discussion is how to provide for user controlled privacy for securing users' digital interaction. The purpose of this paper is to present elements of user controlled privacy needed...... for the future 5G networks. The paper concludes that an ecosystem consisting of Trusted Third Party between the end user and the service providers as a distributed system could be integrated to secure the perspective of user controlled privacy for future systems...

  16. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Myssior, Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo; Silva, Luís Eduardo Gomes

    2016-01-01

    This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a resu...

  17. A privacy protection model to support personal privacy in relational databases.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The individual of today incessantly insists on more protection of his/her personal privacy than a few years ago. During the last few years, rapid technological advances, especially in the field of information technology, directed most attention and energy to the privacy protection of the Internet user. Research was done and is still being done covering a vast area to protect the privacy of transactions performed on the Internet. However, it was established that almost no research has been don...

  18. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  19. Identity management and privacy languages technologies: Improving user control of data privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José Enrique López; García, Carlos Alberto Gil; Pacheco, Álvaro Armenteros; Organero, Pedro Luis Muñoz

    The identity management solutions have the capability to bring confidence to internet services, but this confidence could be improved if user has more control over the privacy policy of its attributes. Privacy languages could help to this task due to its capability to define privacy policies for data in a very flexible way. So, an integration problem arises: making work together both identity management and privacy languages. Despite several proposals for accomplishing this have already been defined, this paper suggests some topics and improvements that could be considered.

  20. A Model for Calculated Privacy and Trust in pHealth Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    A pHealth ecosystem is a community of service users and providers. It is also a dynamic socio-technical system. One of its main goals is to help users to maintain their personal health status. Another goal is to give economic benefit to stakeholders which use personal health information existing in the ecosystem. In pHealth ecosystems, a huge amount of health related data is collected and used by service providers such as data extracted from the regulated health record and information related to personal characteristics, genetics, lifestyle and environment. In pHealth ecosystems, there are different kinds of service providers such as regulated health care service providers, unregulated health service providers, ICT service providers, researchers and industrial organizations. This fact together with the multidimensional personal health data used raises serious privacy concerns. Privacy is a necessary enabler for successful pHealth, but it is also an elastic concept without any universally agreed definition. Regardless of what kind of privacy model is used in dynamic socio-technical systems, it is difficult for a service user to know the privacy level of services in real life situations. As privacy and trust are interrelated concepts, the authors have developed a hybrid solution where knowledge got from regulatory privacy requirements and publicly available privacy related documents is used for calculation of service providers' specific initial privacy value. This value is then used as an estimate for the initial trust score. In this solution, total trust score is a combination of recommended trust, proposed trust and initial trust. Initial privacy level is a weighted arithmetic mean of knowledge and user selected weights. The total trust score for any service provider in the ecosystem can be calculated deploying either a beta trust model or the Fuzzy trust calculation method. The prosed solution is easy to use and to understand, and it can be also automated. It is

  1. Privacy-preserving Kruskal-Wallis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suxin; Zhong, Sheng; Zhang, Aidong

    2013-10-01

    Statistical tests are powerful tools for data analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric statistical test that evaluates whether two or more samples are drawn from the same distribution. It is commonly used in various areas. But sometimes, the use of the method is impeded by privacy issues raised in fields such as biomedical research and clinical data analysis because of the confidential information contained in the data. In this work, we give a privacy-preserving solution for the Kruskal-Wallis test which enables two or more parties to coordinately perform the test on the union of their data without compromising their data privacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that solves the privacy issues in the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test on distributed data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Sequential Pattern Mining

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhan, Justin Z; Chang, LiWu; Matwin, Stan

    2004-01-01

    .... During the collaboration, each party of the collaboration needs to share its data with other parties. If the parties don't care about their data privacy, the collaboration can be easily achieved...

  3. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  4. Guaranteeing Privacy-Observing Data Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern in large of parts of the world when exchanging information. Ideally, we would like to be able to have fine-grained control about how information that we deem sensitive can be propagated and used. While privacy policy languages exist, it is not possible to control whether...... the entity that receives data is living up to its own policy specification. In this work we present our initial work on an approach that empowers data owners to specify their privacy preferences, and data consumers to specify their data needs. Using a static analysis of the two specifications, our approach...... then finds a communication scheme that complies with these preferences and needs. While applicable to online transactions, the same techniques can be used in development of IT systems dealing with sensitive data. To the best of our knowledge, no existing privacy policy languages supports negotiation...

  5. Millennials sex differences on Snapchat perceived privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Rauzzino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snapchat offers a distinctive feature from other social networks in that its users control the visibility of the contents they share with others by defining how long these contents may be available. Snapchat is changing the way men and women perceive online information privacy and content management. This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of social representation theory to evaluate perceived privacy in Snapchat users, with a sample of 268 young adults residing in Bogotá. A survey method was employed for data collection purposes. The results reveal that Snapchat users are concerned about their networks’ privacy, with no significant sex differences, although men's perception of Snapchat privacy is safer than that of women. Finally, a discussion is presented as to the limitations and implications of these results for further studies.

  6. Privacy Protection in Cloud Using Rsa Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Kaur; Manpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    The cloud computing architecture has been on high demand nowadays. The cloud has been successful over grid and distributed environment due to its cost and high reliability along with high security. However in the area of research it is observed that cloud computing still has some issues in security regarding privacy. The cloud broker provide services of cloud to general public and ensures that data is protected however they sometimes lag security and privacy. Thus in this work...

  7. Privacy: The Small and Large of It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSBAUM, ANNA W.

    1999-01-01

    The topic of Privacy is complex, multi-faceted, and often emotionally laden. This paper will cover the following topics, in an effort to further understanding of federal regulations and activities, the balancing act that necessarily occurs in business, and what role a records manager can play. The topics are: Definitions; The Privacy Act; ''Private'' companies; Potential areas of concern; Expectations; Corporate responsibilities; Case studies; and Records Manager's role

  8. Security and Privacy in Fog Computing: Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun; Matam, Rakesh; Shu, Lei; Maglaras, Leandros; Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Choudhry, Nikumani; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    open access article Fog computing paradigm extends the storage, networking, and computing facilities of the cloud computing toward the edge of the networks while offloading the cloud data centers and reducing service latency to the end users. However, the characteristics of fog computing arise new security and privacy challenges. The existing security and privacy measurements for cloud computing cannot be directly applied to the fog computing due to its features, such as mobility, heteroge...

  9. Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Yunchuan Sun; Junsheng Zhang; Yongping Xiong; Guangyu Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Data security has consistently been a major issue in information technology. In the cloud computing environment, it becomes particularly serious because the data is located in different places even in all the globe. Data security and privacy protection are the two main factors of user’s concerns about the cloud technology. Though many techniques on the topics in cloud computing have been investigated in both academics and industries, data security and privacy protection are becoming more impo...

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shah; Desmedt, Yvo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  11. Undoing of Privacy Policies on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Patil , Vishwas ,; Shyamasundar , R. ,

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Privacy; International audience; Facebook has a very flexible privacy and security policy specification that is based on intensional and extensional categories of user relationships. The former is fixed by Facebook but controlled by users whereas the latter is facilitated by Facebook with limited control to users. Relations and flows among categories is through a well-defined set of protocols and is subjected to the topology of underlying social graph that continuously evolves by cons...

  12. Android Watchdog - A Privacy Preserving Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Stenbro, Fredrik; Falk, Sigurd Hagen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores issues related to privacy, both in general, and especially on Android smartphones. Previous research indicates that people often are irrational when it comes to privacy. They state that they are in control of their digitally stored personal information, but their actions show the opposite. On Android devices, permissions are intended to provide users with information about the critical functionality an application can implement by requesting it on install-time. This vision...

  13. Privacy on Hypothesis Testing in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zuxing; Oechtering, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of privacy information leakage in a smart grid. The privacy risk is assumed to be caused by an unauthorized binary hypothesis testing of the consumer's behaviour based on the smart meter readings of energy supplies from the energy provider. Another energy supplies are produced by an alternative energy source. A controller equipped with an energy storage device manages the energy inflows to satisfy the energy demand of the consumer. We study the optimal ener...

  14. Privacy: The Small and Large of It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NUSBAUM,ANNA W.

    1999-10-22

    The topic of Privacy is complex, multi-faceted, and often emotionally laden. This paper will cover the following topics, in an effort to further understanding of federal regulations and activities, the balancing act that necessarily occurs in business, and what role a records manager can play. The topics are: Definitions; The Privacy Act; ''Private'' companies; Potential areas of concern; Expectations; Corporate responsibilities; Case studies; and Records Manager's role.

  15. A Case Study on Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Asseffa, Samrawit; Seleshi, Bihil

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the ages, human beings prefer to keep most things secret and brand this overall state with the title of privacy. Like most significant terms, privacy tends to create controversy regarding the extent of its flexible boundaries, since various technological advancements are slowly leaching away the power people have over their own information. Even as cell phone brands release new upgrades, the ways in which information is communicated has drastically increased, in turn facilitating t...

  16. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  17. Users or Students? Privacy in University MOOCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Regner, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    Two terms, student privacy and Massive Open Online Courses, have received a significant amount of attention recently. Both represent interesting sites of change in entrenched structures, one educational and one legal. MOOCs represent something college courses have never been able to provide: universal access. Universities not wanting to miss the MOOC wave have started to build MOOC courses and integrate them into the university system in various ways. However, the design and scale of university MOOCs create tension for privacy laws intended to regulate information practices exercised by educational institutions. Are MOOCs part of the educational institutions these laws and policies aim to regulate? Are MOOC users students whose data are protected by aforementioned laws and policies? Many university researchers and faculty members are asked to participate as designers and instructors in MOOCs but may not know how to approach the issues proposed. While recent scholarship has addressed the disruptive nature of MOOCs, student privacy generally, and data privacy in the K-12 system, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of the MOOC phenomenon and the privacy laws and policies that guide and regulate educational institutions today. We offer privacy case studies of three major MOOC providers active in the market today to reveal inconsistencies among MOOC platform and the level and type of legal uncertainty surrounding them. Finally, we provide a list of organizational questions to pose internally to navigate the uncertainty presented to university MOOC teams.

  18. Comparative Approaches to Biobanks and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Harrell, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    Laws in the 20 jurisdictions studied for this project display many similar approaches to protecting privacy in biobank research. Although few have enacted biobank-specific legislation, many countries address biobanking within other laws. All provide for some oversight mechanisms for biobank research, even though the nature of that oversight varies between jurisdictions. Most have some sort of controlled access system in place for research with biobank specimens. While broad consent models facilitate biobanking, countries without national or federated biobanks have been slow to adopt broad consent. International guidelines have facilitated sharing and generally take a proportional risk approach, but many countries have provisions guiding international sharing and a few even limit international sharing. Although privacy laws may not prohibit international collaborations, the multi-prong approach to privacy unique to each jurisdiction can complicate international sharing. These symposium issues can serve as a resource for explaining the sometimes intricate privacy laws in each studied jurisdiction, outlining the key issues with regards to privacy and biobanking, and serving to describe a framework for the process of harmonization of privacy laws. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  19. "Genetic exceptionalism" in medicine: clarifying the differences between genetic and nongenetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2003-04-01

    Predictive genetic tests are now available for assessing susceptibility to a variety of conditions, including breast and colon cancer, hemochromatosis, and Alzheimer and Huntington disease. Much controversy surrounds the application of these tests, stemming from their similarities to and differences from other tests commonly used in asymptomatic persons. Some have argued that genetic tests are unique and therefore justify special consideration with regard to informed consent and privacy. This paper examines the arguments for such "genetic exceptionalism" and concludes that no clear, significant distinctions between genetic and nongenetic tests justify a different approach to testing by clinicians. Nevertheless, with many genetic tests, the results may cause stigmatization, family discord, and psychological distress. Regardless of whether a test is genetic, when this combination of characteristics is present and when health care providers are not specifically trained to interpret results, testing should be performed with particular caution and the highest standards of informed consent and privacy protection should be applied.

  20. Privacy-invading technologies : safeguarding privacy, liberty & security in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klitou, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    With a focus on the growing development and deployment of the latest technologies that threaten privacy, the PhD dissertation argues that the US and UK legal frameworks, in their present form, are inadequate to defend privacy and other civil liberties against the intrusive capabilities of body

  1. Privacy as virtue: searching for a new privacy paradigm in the age of Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.; Beyvers, E.; Helm, P.; Hennig, M.; Keckeis, C.; Kreknin, I.; Püschel, F.

    2017-01-01

    Originally, privacy was conceived primarily as a duty of the state not to abuse its powers It could not, for example, enter a private house without legitimate reason or reasonable suspicion that the owner of the house had engaged in, for example, criminal conduct Gradually, however, privacy has been

  2. Privacy Issues: Journalists Should Balance Need for Privacy with Need to Cover News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Notes that journalists have to balance their desire to print the news with personal rights to privacy. Argues that a working knowledge of ethics and law helps journalism students resolve such issues. Discusses ethical issues; legal aspects of privacy; and "training" administrators. Offers a list of questions to ask, six notable court…

  3. The Privacy Problem: Although School Librarians Seldom Discuss It, Students' Privacy Rights Are under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    Every day in school libraries nationwide, students' privacy rights are under attack, but many principals, teachers, parents, and community members do not know much about these rights. Even though school librarians are among the strongest proponents of privacy, the subject is rarely discussed, probably because state and federal laws can be…

  4. Privacy concerns, dead or misunderstood? : The perceptions of privacy amongst the young and old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, Wouter; Vedder, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘privacy’ has become an important topic for academics and policy-makers. Ubiquitous computing and internet access raise new questions in relation to privacy in the virtual world, including individuals’ appreciation of privacy and how this can be safeguarded. This article contributes

  5. Electronic Mail, Privacy, and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986: Technology in Search of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoriski, Jan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the status of e-mail privacy under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA). Examines current law and the paucity of definitive case law. A review of cases and literature suggests there is a gap in the existing ECPA that allows for potentially abusive electronic monitoring and interception of e-mail,…

  6. Privacy-Enhanced and Multifunctional Health Data Aggregation under Differential Privacy Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Li, Hongwei; Liang, Xiaohui; He, Shibo; Dai, Yuanshun; Zhao, Lian

    2016-09-10

    With the rapid growth of the health data scale, the limited storage and computation resources of wireless body area sensor networks (WBANs) is becoming a barrier to their development. Therefore, outsourcing the encrypted health data to the cloud has been an appealing strategy. However, date aggregation will become difficult. Some recently-proposed schemes try to address this problem. However, there are still some functions and privacy issues that are not discussed. In this paper, we propose a privacy-enhanced and multifunctional health data aggregation scheme (PMHA-DP) under differential privacy. Specifically, we achieve a new aggregation function, weighted average (WAAS), and design a privacy-enhanced aggregation scheme (PAAS) to protect the aggregated data from cloud servers. Besides, a histogram aggregation scheme with high accuracy is proposed. PMHA-DP supports fault tolerance while preserving data privacy. The performance evaluation shows that the proposal leads to less communication overhead than the existing one.

  7. Privacy-Enhanced and Multifunctional Health Data Aggregation under Differential Privacy Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Li, Hongwei; Liang, Xiaohui; He, Shibo; Dai, Yuanshun; Zhao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the health data scale, the limited storage and computation resources of wireless body area sensor networks (WBANs) is becoming a barrier to their development. Therefore, outsourcing the encrypted health data to the cloud has been an appealing strategy. However, date aggregation will become difficult. Some recently-proposed schemes try to address this problem. However, there are still some functions and privacy issues that are not discussed. In this paper, we propose a privacy-enhanced and multifunctional health data aggregation scheme (PMHA-DP) under differential privacy. Specifically, we achieve a new aggregation function, weighted average (WAAS), and design a privacy-enhanced aggregation scheme (PAAS) to protect the aggregated data from cloud servers. Besides, a histogram aggregation scheme with high accuracy is proposed. PMHA-DP supports fault tolerance while preserving data privacy. The performance evaluation shows that the proposal leads to less communication overhead than the existing one. PMID:27626417

  8. Privacy Information Security Classification for Internet of Things Based on Internet Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Qu, Zhaowei; Li, Qi; Hui, Pan

    2015-01-01

    A lot of privacy protection technologies have been proposed, but most of them are independent and aim at protecting some specific privacy. There is hardly enough deep study into the attributes of privacy. To minimize the damage and influence of the privacy disclosure, the important and sensitive privacy should be a priori preserved if all privacy pieces cannot be preserved. This paper focuses on studying the attributes of the privacy and proposes privacy information security classification (P...

  9. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  10. New threats to health data privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with the rapid digitalization of health data (e.g. Electronic Health Records, there is an increasing concern on maintaining data privacy while garnering the benefits, especially when the data are required to be published for secondary use. Most of the current research on protecting health data privacy is centered around data de-identification and data anonymization, which removes the identifiable information from the published health data to prevent an adversary from reasoning about the privacy of the patients. However, published health data is not the only source that the adversaries can count on: with a large amount of information that people voluntarily share on the Web, sophisticated attacks that join disparate information pieces from multiple sources against health data privacy become practical. Limited efforts have been devoted to studying these attacks yet. Results We study how patient privacy could be compromised with the help of today’s information technologies. In particular, we show that private healthcare information could be collected by aggregating and associating disparate pieces of information from multiple online data sources including online social networks, public records and search engine results. We demonstrate a real-world case study to show user identity and privacy are highly vulnerable to the attribution, inference and aggregation attacks. We also show that people are highly identifiable to adversaries even with inaccurate information pieces about the target, with real data analysis. Conclusion We claim that too much information has been made available electronic and available online that people are very vulnerable without effective privacy protection.

  11. Privacy, Personhood, and Property in the Age of Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Bonython

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Revolutions in genetic technology have heralded the age of population-scale genomic metadata. This article analyzes the tensions and gaps between traditional conceptions of personhood and international legal responses to a person’s right over disembodied data obtained from his/her body. The opportunities for breakthroughs in healthcare by interrogating population-scale genomic databases are accompanied by questions about privacy, property, dignity, and the nature of information regulation in a global economy. This article highlights instances where law and policy makers have grappled with these challenges, and foreshadows some emerging future challenges. It also highlights differences between jurisdictions, and calls for greater global participation in the development of a coherent framework, rather than continued reliance on a small number of stakeholders, to develop that framework.

  12. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell

  13. Smart Grid Privacy through Distributed Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Benjamin

    Though the smart electrical grid promises many advantages in efficiency and reliability, the risks to consumer privacy have impeded its deployment. Researchers have proposed protecting privacy by aggregating user data before it reaches the utility, using techniques of homomorphic encryption to prevent exposure of unaggregated values. However, such schemes generally require users to trust in the correct operation of a single aggregation server. We propose two alternative systems based on secret sharing techniques that distribute this trust among multiple service providers, protecting user privacy against a misbehaving server. We also provide an extensive evaluation of the systems considered, comparing their robustness to privacy compromise, error handling, computational performance, and data transmission costs. We conclude that while all the systems should be computationally feasible on smart meters, the two methods based on secret sharing require much less computation while also providing better protection against corrupted aggregators. Building systems using these techniques could help defend the privacy of electricity customers, as well as customers of other utilities as they move to a more data-driven architecture.

  14. Privacy and confidentiality in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Deven; Greene, Sarah M; Miner, Caroline S; Staman, Karen L; Welch, Mary Jane; Rubel, Alan

    2015-10-01

    With pragmatic clinical trials, an opportunity exists to answer important questions about the relative risks, burdens, and benefits of therapeutic interventions. However, concerns about protecting the privacy of this information are significant and must be balanced with the imperative to learn from the data gathered in routine clinical practice. Traditional privacy protections for research uses of identifiable information rely disproportionately on informed consent or authorizations, based on a presumption that this is necessary to fulfill ethical principles of respect for persons. But frequently, the ideal of informed consent is not realized in its implementation. Moreover, the principle of respect for persons—which encompasses their interests in health information privacy—can be honored through other mechanisms. Data anonymization also plays a role in protecting privacy but is not suitable for all research, particularly pragmatic clinical trials. In this article, we explore both the ethical foundation and regulatory framework intended to protect privacy in pragmatic clinical trials. We then review examples of novel approaches to respecting persons in research that may have the added benefit of honoring patient privacy considerations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. HIPPA privacy regulations: practical information for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, E B; Lee-Huber, T

    2001-07-01

    After much debate and controversy, the Bush administration announced on April 12, 2001, that it would implement the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations issued by the Clinton administration in December of 2000. The privacy regulations became effective on April 14, 2001. Although the regulations are considered final, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services has the power to modify the regulations at any time during the first year of implementation. These regulations affect how a patient's health information is used and disclosed, as well as how patients are informed of their privacy rights. As "covered entities," physicians have until April 14, 2003, to comply fully with the HIPAA privacy regulations, which are more than 1,500 pages in length. This article presents a basic overview of the new and complex regulations and highlights practical information about physicians' compliance with the regulations. However, this summary of the HIPAA privacy regulations should not be construed as legal advice or an opinion on specific situations. Please consult an attorney concerning your compliance with HIPAA and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

  16. Are Data Sharing and Privacy Protection Mutually Exclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Knoppers, Bartha M; Pastinen, Tomi

    2016-11-17

    We review emerging strategies to protect the privacy of research participants in international epigenome research: open consent, genome donation, registered access, automated procedures, and privacy-enhancing technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anonymity versus privacy: Selective information sharing in online cancer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, J.H.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Beekers, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient

  18. Big data privacy: The datafication of personal information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    . This broadened approach will take our thinking beyond current preoccupation with whether or not individuals’ consent was secured for data collection to privacy issues arising from the development of new information on individuals' likely behavior through analysis of already collected data—this new information......In the age of big data we need to think differently about privacy. We need to shift our thinking from definitions of privacy (characteristics of privacy) to models of privacy (how privacy works). Moreover, in addition to the existing models of privacy—the surveillance model and capture model......—we need to also consider a new model: the datafication model presented in this article, wherein new personal information is deduced by employing predictive analytics on already-gathered data. These three models of privacy supplement each other; they are not competing understandings of privacy...

  19. Fuzzy Privacy Decision for Context-Aware Access Personal Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingsheng; QI Yong; ZHAO Jizhong; HOU Di; NIU Yujie

    2007-01-01

    A context-aware privacy protection framework was designed for context-aware services and privacy control methods about access personal information in pervasive environment. In the process of user's privacy decision, it can produce fuzzy privacy decision as the change of personal information sensitivity and personal information receiver trust. The uncertain privacy decision model was proposed about personal information disclosure based on the change of personal information receiver trust and personal information sensitivity. A fuzzy privacy decision information system was designed according to this model. Personal privacy control policies can be extracted from this information system by using rough set theory. It also solves the problem about learning privacy control policies of personal information disclosure.

  20. How socially aware are social media privacy controls?

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Gaurav; Such Aparicio, Jose Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Social media sites are key mediators of online communication. Yet the privacy controls for these sites are not fully socially aware, even when privacy management is known to be fundamental to successful social relationships.

  1. Report from Dagstuhl Seminar 12331 Mobility Data Mining and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Christopher W.; Kuijpers, Bart; Morik, Katharina; Saygin, Yucel

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 12331 “Mobility Data Mining and Privacy”. Mobility data mining aims to extract knowledge from movement behaviour of people, but this data also poses novel privacy risks. This seminar gathered a multidisciplinary team for a conversation on how to balance the value in mining mobility data with privacy issues. The seminar focused on four key issues: Privacy in vehicular data, in cellular data, context- dependent privacy, and ...

  2. Understanding Engagement with the Privacy Domain Through Design Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasalou, A.; Oostveen, A.; Bowers, Christopher; Beale, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from participatory design research aimed at uncovering how technological interventions can engage users in the domain of privacy. Our work was undertaken in the context of a new design concept “Privacy Trends” whose aspiration is to foster technology users’ digital literacy regarding ongoing privacy risks and elucidate how such risks fit within existing social, organizational and political systems, leading to a longer term privacy concern. Our study reveals two cha...

  3. Patient Privacy in the Era of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kayaalp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Protecting patient privacy requires various technical tools. It involves regulations for sharing, de-identifying, securely storing, transmitting and handling protected health information (PHI. It involves privacy laws and legal agreements. It requires establishing rules for monitoring privacy leaks, determining actions when they occur, and handling de-identified clinical narrative reports. Deidentification is one such indispensable instrument in this set of privacy tools

  4. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Targeted Ad-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven M.

    Thanks to its low product-promotion cost and its efficiency, targeted online advertising has become very popular. Unfortunately, being profile-based, online advertising methods violate consumers' privacy, which has engendered resistance to the ads. However, protecting privacy through anonymity seems to encourage click-fraud. In this paper, we define consumer's privacy and present a privacy-preserving, targeted ad system (PPOAd) which is resistant towards click fraud. Our scheme is structured to provide financial incentives to all entities involved.

  5. The Privacy Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ): Initial Development and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, Mark H.; Quan-Haase, Anabel; Gwizdka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Privacy has been identified as a key issue in a variety of domains, including electronic commerce and public policy. While there are many discussions of privacy issues from a legal and policy perspective, there is little information on the structure of privacy as a psychometric construct. Our goal is to develop a method for measuring attitudes towards privacy that can guide the design and personalization of services. This paper reports on the development of an initial version of the PAQ. Four...

  6. Privacy & Social Media in the Context of the Arab Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Abokhodair, Norah; Vieweg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Theories of privacy and how it relates to the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) have been a topic of research for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the perception of privacy from the perspective of technology users in the Middle East. In this paper, we delve into interpretations of privacy from the approach of Arab Gulf citizens. We consider how privacy is practiced and understood in technology-mediated environments among this population, paying particular at...

  7. Health in exchange for privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezowska, A.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent disease and optimise health, nutrition advice is personalised based on an individuals’ lifestyle, health status and/or genetics. Although due to its high degree of personal relevance personalised nutrition advice is highly beneficial, the adoption of such advice may be hindered by the

  8. Control use of data to protect privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Susan

    2015-01-30

    Massive data collection by businesses and governments calls into question traditional methods for protecting privacy, underpinned by two core principles: (i) notice, that there should be no data collection system whose existence is secret, and (ii) consent, that data collected for one purpose not be used for another without user permission. But notice, designated as a fundamental privacy principle in a different era, makes little sense in situations where collection consists of lots and lots of small amounts of information, whereas consent is no longer realistic, given the complexity and number of decisions that must be made. Thus, efforts to protect privacy by controlling use of data are gaining more attention. I discuss relevant technology, policy, and law, as well as some examples that can illuminate the way. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  10. Exercising privacy rights in medical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2007-12-04

    Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our methods to snoop on celebrities, link to outside databases and uncover refusal to participate. Throughout our study, we evaded capture and public humiliation despite violating these 6 privacy fundamentals. We suggest that the legitimate principle of safeguarding personal privacy is undermined by the natural human tendency toward showing off.

  11. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  12. Toward privacy-preserving JPEG image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Wang, Jingyue; Wang, Meiqing; Zhong, Shangping

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a privacy-preserving retrieval scheme for JPEG images based on local variance. Three parties are involved in the scheme: the content owner, the server, and the authorized user. The content owner encrypts JPEG images for privacy protection by jointly using permutation cipher and stream cipher, and then, the encrypted versions are uploaded to the server. With an encrypted query image provided by an authorized user, the server may extract blockwise local variances in different directions without knowing the plaintext content. After that, it can calculate the similarity between the encrypted query image and each encrypted database image by a local variance-based feature comparison mechanism. The authorized user with the encryption key can decrypt the returned encrypted images with plaintext content similar to the query image. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only provides effective privacy-preserving retrieval service but also ensures both format compliance and file size preservation for encrypted JPEG images.

  13. Effective Privacy-Preserving Online Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    An online Route Planning Service (RPS) computes a route from one location to another. Current RPSs such as Google Maps require the use of precise locations. However, some users may not want to disclose their source and destination locations due to privacy concerns. An approach that supplies fake...... privacy. The solution re-uses a standard online RPS rather than replicate this functionality, and it needs no trusted third party. The solution is able to compute the exact results without leaking of the exact locations to the RPS or un-trusted parties. In addition, we provide heuristics that reduce...... the number of times that the RPS needs to be queried, and we also describe how the accuracy and privacy requirements can be relaxed to achieve better performance. An empirical study offers insight into key properties of the approach....

  14. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data.

  15. Transnational Saudi Arabian Youth and Facebook: Enacting Privacy and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokhodair, Norah Abdulwahab

    2017-01-01

    Theories of privacy and identity in relationship to the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) have been a topic of research for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the perception of privacy and identity from the perspective of Muslim Arab technology users. Privacy and identity in the context of the Arab world is highly…

  16. 75 FR 20346 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of an altered system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), 5 United States Code (U.S.C.) 552a, the Chief Operating...

  17. 32 CFR 701.109 - Privacy Act (PA) appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals. (a... commence when the appeal reaches the office of the review authority having jurisdiction over the record...

  18. 77 FR 32111 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... contacted in order to obtain that office's advice regarding obligations under the Privacy Act; 8. Breach... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice; one new Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to subsection (e)(4) of...

  19. Through Patients' Eyes: Regulation, Technology, Privacy, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2018-04-22

    Privacy is commonly regarded as a regulatory requirement achieved via technical and organizational management practices. Those working in the field of informatics often play a role in privacy preservation as a result of their expertise in information technology, workflow analysis, implementation science, or related skills. Viewing privacy from the perspective of patients whose protected health information is at risk broadens the considerations to include the perceived duality of privacy; the existence of privacy within a context unique to each patient; the competing needs inherent within privacy management; the need for particular consideration when data are shared; and the need for patients to control health information in a global setting. With precision medicine, artificial intelligence, and other treatment innovations on the horizon, health care professionals need to think more broadly about how to preserve privacy in a health care environment driven by data sharing. Patient-reported privacy preferences, privacy portability, and greater transparency around privacy-preserving functionalities are potential strategies for ensuring that privacy regulations are met and privacy is preserved. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  20. 10 CFR 1304.103 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing may be sent to: Privacy Act Officer, U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, 2300 Clarendon... NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.103 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Requests... contains a record pertaining to him or her may file a request in person or in writing, via the internet, or...

  1. 77 FR 61275 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... (FBI) Privacy Act system of records titled FBI Data Warehouse System, JUSTICE/FBI- 022. This system is...)(G), (H), and (I), (5), and (8); (f); and (g) of the Privacy Act: (1) FBI Data Warehouse System... security; disclose information that would constitute an unwarranted invasion of another's personal privacy...

  2. 32 CFR 505.3 - Privacy Act systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of data, which could result in substantial harm... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privacy Act systems of records. 505.3 Section 505... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.3 Privacy Act systems of records. (a) Systems of...

  3. 75 FR 53262 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... a new Privacy Act system of records, JUSTICE/FBI- 021, the Data Integration and Visualization System... provisions of the Privacy Act in order to avoid interference with the national security and criminal law...)(G), (H) and (I); (e)(5) and (8); (f) and (g) of the Privacy Act: (1) Data Integration and...

  4. 77 FR 56676 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... of records to account for the previous omission of an accounting of disclosure when records may be.... Accounting of disclosure records: The date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a Privacy Act covered..., including FOIA and Privacy Act requests, and to comply with FOIA and Privacy Act disclosure accounting and...

  5. 32 CFR 701.118 - Privacy, IT, and PIAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Development. Privacy must be considered when requirements are being analyzed and decisions are being made...-347) directs agencies to conduct reviews of how privacy issues are considered when purchasing or... a PIA to effectively address privacy factors. Guidance is provided at http://www.doncio.navy.mil. (f...

  6. 77 FR 74851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice to Delete a System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Federal Deposit Insurance...

  7. Privacy Management Contracts And Economics, Using Service Level Agreements (Sla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRecognizing the importance of privacy management as a business process and a business support process, this paper proposes the use of service level agreements around privacy features, including qualitative and quantitative ones. It also casts privacy management into a business

  8. Information Privacy, the Right to Receive Information and (Mobile) ICTs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, L.

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper is about the notion of (information) privacy and its grounding in law. It discusses the tension between the right to privacy and the right to receive information. The second part of this paper explores how (mobile) ICTs challenge and complicate privacy claims and satisfy

  9. Towards context adaptive privacy decisions in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Könings, Bastian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In ubiquitous systems control of privacy settings will be increasingly difficult due to the pervasive nature of sensing and communication capabilities. We identify challenges for privacy decisions in ubiquitous systems and propose a system for in situ privacy decision support. When context changes

  10. Footprints near the Surf: Individual Privacy Decisions in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aleecia M.

    2010-01-01

    As more people seek the benefits of going online, more people are exposed to privacy risks from their time online. With a largely unregulated Internet, self-determination about privacy risks must be feasible for people from all walks of life. Yet in many cases decisions are either not obvious or not accessible. As one example, privacy policies are…

  11. The Secret Life of Your Classmates: Understanding Communication Privacy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an activity that combines this popular website, Postsecret.com, with college students' love for the internet, and course content on privacy boundaries and theory, disclosure, communicative control, and privacy rule development. By taking part in this activity, students practice privacy disclosure and are able to examine their…

  12. 49 CFR 801.56 - Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. 801.56... Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6), any personal, medical, or similar... a clearly unwarranted invasion of the person's personal privacy. ...

  13. 22 CFR 212.22 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of personal privacy. 212.22 Section... Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.22 Protection of personal privacy. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, USAID may delete identifying details...

  14. 37 CFR 251.23 - FOIA and Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FOIA and Privacy Act. 251.23 Section 251.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.23 FOIA and Privacy Act. Freedom of Information Act and Privacy...

  15. 48 CFR 352.224-70 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 352.224-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.224-70 Privacy Act. As prescribed in 324.103(b)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Privacy Act (January...

  16. Privacy na Babel : de vermeende ongrijpbaarheid van het privacybegrip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    De veel voorkomende en onlangs weer door Serge Gutwirth naar voren gebrachte opvatting dat privacy principieel ondefinieerbaar is, is onjuist. Voor de verdediging van privacy als waarde moet men aannemen dat privacy weliswaar een vaag complex begrip is, dat voor een deel contextueel bepaald wordt,

  17. 36 CFR 902.56 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy. 902.56 Section 902.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Protection of personal privacy. (a) Any of the following personnel, medical, or similar records is within the... invasion of his personal privacy: (1) Personnel and background records personal to any officer or employee...

  18. 20 CFR 401.30 - Privacy Act and other responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information privacy issues, including those relating to the collection, use, sharing, and disclosure of... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Privacy Act and other responsibilities. 401.30 Section 401.30 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF...

  19. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be identified, the local Privacy Act officer will assume these duties. Issues that cannot be resolved... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT...

  20. Privacy Concerns: The Effects of the Latest FERPA Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossler, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Privacy, something once taken for granted, has again become top-of-mind for public school districts thanks to technology's increasing reach, as well as new changes to privacy laws governing student information. Recently, educators have had to face important changes to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), originally signed into…

  1. 78 FR 15732 - Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... 1974; Computer Matching Program AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503) and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Amendments of 1990 (Pub. L. 101...

  2. 76 FR 11435 - Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Security Administration. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, Public Law 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protections Amendments of 1990, Pub. L. 101-508... Interpreting the Provisions of Public Law 100-503, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  3. 32 CFR 701.119 - Privacy and the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy and the web. 701.119 Section 701.119... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.119 Privacy and the web. DON activities shall consult SECNAVINST 5720.47B for guidance on what may be posted on a Navy Web site. ...

  4. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. For example, in medical data, sensitive information can be the fact that a particular patient suffers from HIV. In spatial data, sensitive information can be a specific location of an individual. In web surfing data, the information that a user browses certain websites may be considered sensitive. Consider a dataset conta

  5. Internet of Cloud: Security and Privacy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Allan; Robinson, Michael; Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Maglaras, Leandros A.; He, Ying; Jones, Kevin; Janicke, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The synergy between the cloud and the IoT has emerged largely due to the cloud having attributes which directly benefit the IoT and enable its continued growth. IoT adopting Cloud services has brought new security challenges. In this book chapter, we pursue two main goals: 1) to analyse the different components of Cloud computing and the IoT and 2) to present security and privacy problems that these systems face. We thoroughly investigate current security and privacy preservation solutions th...

  6. Privacy in the Internet: Myth or reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikarić Bratislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present time, unthinkable without using Internet - from e-mail, through social networks, cloud services, GPS, to YouTube and mobile computing in business, as well as on a private level, poses a question: Is there a way to protect data and their privacy on the Internet? What are the ways to control what personal information we will publicly share with others and is there a safe way to protect privacy on the world's global computer network? The paper gives an overview of the situation in the field, as well as tips for achieving the desired level of data protection.

  7. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  8. Data security breaches and privacy in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Data Security Breaches and Privacy in Europe aims to consider data protection and cybersecurity issues; more specifically, it aims to provide a fruitful discussion on data security breaches. A detailed analysis of the European Data Protection framework will be examined. In particular, the Data Protection Directive 95/45/EC, the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications and the proposed changes under the Data Protection Regulation (data breach notifications) and its implications are considered. This is followed by an examination of the Directive on Attacks against information systems a

  9. Privacy for location-based services

    CERN Document Server

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Sharing of location data enables numerous exciting applications, such as location-based queries, location-based social recommendations, monitoring of traffic and air pollution levels, etc. Disclosing exact user locations raises serious privacy concerns, as locations may give away sensitive information about individuals' health status, alternative lifestyles, political and religious affiliations, etc. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based applications. These lecture notes provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in locatio

  10. Governing the internet in the privacy arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Ochs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The surveillance disclosures triggered by Snowden have fueled the public re-negotiation of privacy. To follow resulting controversies we present a methodology that links social worlds theory to approaches asking for the democratic governance character of issue-centred arenas. After having outlined this approach it is put to the test. We analyse and compare two cases: the Schengen/National Routing, and the Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA surveillance disclosures. The analysis reveals two oscillating governance modes at work in the privacy arena; their interplay results in an obstruction. Based on this observation we finally provide a diagnosis of possible future arena trajectories.

  11. Security, privacy and trust in cloud systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepal, Surya

    2013-01-01

    The book compiles technologies for enhancing and provisioning security, privacy and trust in cloud systems based on Quality of Service requirements. It is a timely contribution to a field that is gaining considerable research interest, momentum, and provides a comprehensive coverage of technologies related to cloud security, privacy and trust. In particular, the book includes - Cloud security fundamentals and related technologies to-date, with a comprehensive coverage of evolution, current landscape, and future roadmap. - A smooth organization with introductory, advanced and specialist content

  12. Couldn't or wouldn't? The influence of privacy concerns and self-efficacy in privacy management on privacy protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Chen, Wenghong

    2015-01-01

    Sampling 515 college students, this study investigates how privacy protection, including profile visibility, self-disclosure, and friending, are influenced by privacy concerns and efficacy regarding one's own ability to manage privacy settings, a factor that researchers have yet to give a great deal of attention to in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). The results of this study indicate an inconsistency in adopting strategies to protect privacy, a disconnect from limiting profile visibility and friending to self-disclosure. More specifically, privacy concerns lead SNS users to limit their profile visibility and discourage them from expanding their network. However, they do not constrain self-disclosure. Similarly, while self-efficacy in privacy management encourages SNS users to limit their profile visibility, it facilitates self-disclosure. This suggests that if users are limiting their profile visibility and constraining their friending behaviors, it does not necessarily mean they will reduce self-disclosure on SNSs because these behaviors are predicted by different factors. In addition, the study finds an interaction effect between privacy concerns and self-efficacy in privacy management on friending. It points to the potential problem of increased risk-taking behaviors resulting from high self-efficacy in privacy management and low privacy concerns.

  13. Older and Wiser? Facebook Use, Privacy Concern, and Privacy Protection in the Life Stages of Emerging, Young, and Middle Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Van den Broeck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A large part of research conducted on privacy concern and protection on social networking sites (SNSs concentrates on children and adolescents. Individuals in these developmental stages are often described as vulnerable Internet users. But how vulnerable are adults in terms of online informational privacy? This study applied a privacy boundary management approach and investigated Facebook use, privacy concern, and the application of privacy settings on Facebook by linking the results to Erikson’s three stages of adulthood: emerging, young, and middle adulthood. An online survey was distributed among 18- to 65-year-old Dutch-speaking adults ( N  = 508, 51.8% females. Analyses revealed clear differences between the three adult age groups in terms of privacy concern, Facebook use, and privacy protection. Results indicated that respondents in young adulthood and middle adulthood were more vulnerable in terms of privacy protection than emerging adults. Clear discrepancies were found between privacy concern and protection for these age groups. More particularly, the middle adulthood group was more concerned about their privacy in comparison to the emerging adulthood and young adulthood group. Yet, they reported to use privacy settings less frequently than the younger age groups. Emerging adults were found to be pragmatic and privacy conscious SNS users. Young adults occupied the intermediate position, suggesting a developmental shift. The impact of generational differences is discussed, as well as implications for education and governmental action.

  14. Clinical genomics, big data, and electronic medical records: reconciling patient rights with research when privacy and science collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulynych, Jennifer; Greely, Henry T

    2017-04-01

    Widespread use of medical records for research, without consent, attracts little scrutiny compared to biospecimen research, where concerns about genomic privacy prompted recent federal proposals to mandate consent. This paper explores an important consequence of the proliferation of electronic health records (EHRs) in this permissive atmosphere: with the advent of clinical gene sequencing, EHR-based secondary research poses genetic privacy risks akin to those of biospecimen research, yet regulators still permit researchers to call gene sequence data 'de-identified', removing such data from the protection of the federal Privacy Rule and federal human subjects regulations. Medical centers and other providers seeking to offer genomic 'personalized medicine' now confront the problem of governing the secondary use of clinical genomic data as privacy risks escalate. We argue that regulators should no longer permit HIPAA-covered entities to treat dense genomic data as de-identified health information. Even with this step, the Privacy Rule would still permit disclosure of clinical genomic data for research, without consent, under a data use agreement, so we also urge that providers give patients specific notice before disclosing clinical genomic data for research, permitting (where possible) some degree of choice and control. To aid providers who offer clinical gene sequencing, we suggest both general approaches and specific actions to reconcile patients' rights and interests with genomic research.

  15. Clinical genomics, big data, and electronic medical records: reconciling patient rights with research when privacy and science collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, Henry T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Widespread use of medical records for research, without consent, attracts little scrutiny compared to biospecimen research, where concerns about genomic privacy prompted recent federal proposals to mandate consent. This paper explores an important consequence of the proliferation of electronic health records (EHRs) in this permissive atmosphere: with the advent of clinical gene sequencing, EHR-based secondary research poses genetic privacy risks akin to those of biospecimen research, yet regulators still permit researchers to call gene sequence data ‘de-identified’, removing such data from the protection of the federal Privacy Rule and federal human subjects regulations. Medical centers and other providers seeking to offer genomic ‘personalized medicine’ now confront the problem of governing the secondary use of clinical genomic data as privacy risks escalate. We argue that regulators should no longer permit HIPAA-covered entities to treat dense genomic data as de-identified health information. Even with this step, the Privacy Rule would still permit disclosure of clinical genomic data for research, without consent, under a data use agreement, so we also urge that providers give patients specific notice before disclosing clinical genomic data for research, permitting (where possible) some degree of choice and control. To aid providers who offer clinical gene sequencing, we suggest both general approaches and specific actions to reconcile patients’ rights and interests with genomic research. PMID:28852559

  16. 77 FR 38363 - Office of Privacy, Records, and Disclosure; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... delinquencies; final determinations of appeals; name/ title of officials responsible for denial of records; and... FOIA and the Privacy Act. Also used to produce statistical reports; and as a data source for management...

  17. SmartPrivacy for the smart grid : embedding privacy into the design of electricity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoukian, A. [Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner, Toronto, ON (Canada); Polonetsky, J.; Wolf, C. [Future of Privacy Forum, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Modernization efforts are underway to make the current electrical grid smarter. The future of the Smart Grid will be capable of informing consumers of their day-to-day energy use, curbing greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing consumers' energy bills. However, the Smart Grid also brings with it the possibility of collecting detailed information on individual energy consumption use and patterns within peoples' homes. This paper discussed the Smart Grid and its benefits, as well as the questions that should be examined regarding privacy. The paper also outlined the concept of SmartPrivacy and discussed its application to the Smart Grid scenario. Privacy by design foundational principles and Smart Grid components were also presented in an appendix. It was concluded that the information collected on a Smart Grid will form a library of personal information. The mishandling of this information could be extremely invasive of consumer privacy. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  18. Enhancing Privacy Education with a Technical Emphasis in IT Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Peltsverger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of four learning modules that focus on technical details of how a person’s privacy might be compromised in real-world scenarios. The paper shows how students benefited from the addition of hands-on learning experiences of privacy and data protection to the existing information technology courses. These learning modules raised students’ awareness of potential breaches of privacy as a user as well as a developer. The demonstration of a privacy breach in action helped students to design, configure, and implement technical solutions to prevent privacy violations. The assessment results demonstrate the strength of the technical approach.

  19. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Biohistorical materials and contemporary privacy concerns-the forensic case of King Albert I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Bekaert, Bram; Baumers, Maarten; Wenseleers, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; Borry, Pascal; Decorte, Ronny

    2016-09-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomic analysis increasingly allows researchers to study human biohistorical materials. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the privacy of the donor's living relatives and the negative impact they might experience from the (public) availability of genetic results, even in cases of scientific, forensic or historical relevance. This issue has become clear during a cold case investigation of a relic attributed to Belgian King and World War I-hero Albert I who died, according to the official version, in a solo climbing accident in 1934. Authentication of the relic with blood stains assigned to the King and collected on the place where his body was discovered is recognised as one of the final opportunities to test the plausibility of various conspiracy theories on the King's demise. While the historical value and current technological developments allow the genomic analysis of this relic, publication of genetic data would immediately lead to privacy concerns for living descendants and relatives of the King, including the Belgian and British royal families, even after more than 80 years. Therefore, the authentication study of the relic of King Albert I has been a difficult exercise towards balancing public research interests and privacy interests. The identification of the relic was realised by using a strict genetic genealogical approach including Y-chromosome and mitochondrial genome comparison with living relatives, thereby limiting the analysis to genomic regions relevant for identification. The genetic results combined with all available historical elements concerning the relic, provide strong evidence that King Albert I was indeed the donor of the blood stains, which is in line with the official climbing accident hypothesis and contradicts widespread 'mise-en-scène' scenarios. Since publication of the haploid data of the blood stains has the potential to violate the privacy of living relatives, we opted for

  1. Culture, Privacy Conception and Privacy Concern: Evidence from Europe before PRISM

    OpenAIRE

    Omrani, Nessrine; Soulié, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses individuals’ online privacy concerns between cultural country groups. We use a dataset of more than 14 000 Internet users collected by the European Union in 2010 in 26 EU countries. We use a probit model to examine the variables associated with the probability of being concerned about privacy, in order to draw policy and regulatory implications. The results show that women and poor people are more concerned than their counterparts. People who often use Internet are not p...

  2. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  3. Predicting user concerns about online privacy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Zhang, Jinguang

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies on people's online privacy concerns have largely been conducted in the West. The global threat of privacy violations on the Internet calls for similar studies to be done in non-Western regions. To fill this void, the current study develops a path model to investigate the influence of people's Internet use-related factors, their beliefs in the right to privacy, and psychological need for privacy on Hong Kong people's concerns about online privacy. Survey responses from 332 university students were analyzed. Results from this study show that people's belief in the right to privacy was the most important predictor of their online privacy concerns. It also significantly mediated the relationship between people's psychological need for privacy and their concerns with privacy violations online. Moreover, while frequent use of the Internet may increase concerns about online privacy issues, Internet use diversity may actually reduce such worries. The final model, well supported by the observed data, successfully explained 25% of the variability in user concerns about online privacy.

  4. Ethical aspects of information security and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance of computer security, the relation between

  5. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  6. New Technology "Clouds" Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Keith R.; Moore, Bob

    2015-01-01

    As technology has leaped forward to provide valuable learning tools, parents and policy makers have begun raising concerns about the privacy of student data that schools and systems have. Federal laws are intended to protect students and their families but they have not and will never be able to keep up with rapidly evolving technology. School…

  7. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  8. ‘Regulating’ Online Data Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Reid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With existing data protection laws proving inadequate in the fight to protect online data privacy and with the offline law of privacy in a state of change and uncertainty, the search for an alternative solution to the important problem of online data privacy should commence. With the inherent problem of jurisdiction that the Internet presents, such a solution is best coming from a multi-national body with the power to approximate laws in as many jurisdictions as possible, with a recognised authority and a functioning enforcement mechanism. The European Union is such a body and while existing data protection laws stem from the EU, they were neither tailored specifically for the Internet and the online world, nor do they fully harmonise the laws of the member states – an essential element in Internet regulation. Current laws face further problems with the ease and frequency of data transfers outwith the EU. An Internet specific online data privacy regulation would fully approximate the laws of the twenty five member states and, if suitably drafted, could perhaps, drawing upon EC competition jurisprudence, achieve a degree of extraterritoriality, thus combating the problem posed by transfers outwith the EU. Any solution, however, is dependant upon our political leaders having the political will and courage to reach and agreement upon any new law.

  9. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  10. Recommendations for the Sharing Economy: Safeguarding Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranzini, G.; Kusber, Nina; Vermeulen, I.E.; Etter, Michael

    2018-01-01

    his report, ‘Recommendations: Privacy’, forms one element of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: Ps2Share ‘Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy’. The study is undertaken within the scope of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and

  11. Surveillance, Privacy and Trans-Atlantic Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recent revelations, by Edward Snowden and others, of the vast network of government spying enabled by modern technology have raised major concerns both in the European Union and the United States on how to protect privacy in the face of increasing governmental surveillance. This book brings...

  12. Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Security, Privacy and Applied Cryptography Engineering held in Chennai, India, in November 2012. The 11 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. The papers are organized...... and applications, high-performance computing in cryptology and cryptography in ubiquitous devices....

  13. Freedom and privacy in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient

  14. Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    has been done to investigate the privacy implications of stylometry, however. Several researchers have considered whether the author of an academic ...Interface and Classification Society of North America, 2005. [66] H. Maurer, F. Kappe, and B. Zaka. Plagiarism —a survey. Journal of Universal Com- puter

  15. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video. There is a...

  16. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse and perform its other authorized duties and activities relating...--RATB Investigative Files'' and ``RATB--12--RATB Fraud Hotline Program Files,'' pursuant to the Privacy... 5 U.S.C. 552a: (1) From subsection (c)(3) because the release of accounting of disclosure would...

  17. Privacy and security disclosures on telecardiology websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses telemedicine providers¿ online privacy and security disclosures. It presents the results of an exploratory study of a number of telecardiology companies¿ Web sites, providing insight in some of the current strategies towards data protection and information security in the

  18. Randomization Based Privacy Preserving Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling

    2010-01-01

    The success of data mining relies on the availability of high quality data. To ensure quality data mining, effective information sharing between organizations becomes a vital requirement in today's society. Since data mining often involves sensitive information of individuals, the public has expressed a deep concern about their privacy.…

  19. Stratospheric Transparency: Perspectives on Internet Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Rita M.

    2009-01-01

    As a parent of teenagers in the 1980s, I recall a concern of the intrusion by MTV into our home. After futile attempts to block the program, my spouse and I set out to convince our sons of its intrusion. Our challenge was miniscule when compared to the Internet privacy issues of today. This paper addresses such challenges and proposes some…

  20. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  1. Towards Practical Privacy-Preserving Internet Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet offers people a vast selection of data centric services, such as online query services, the cloud, and location-based services, etc. These internet services bring people a lot of convenience, but at the same time raise privacy concerns, e.g., sensitive information revealed by the queries, sensitive data being stored and…

  2. 78 FR 32554 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., or intelligence efforts by putting the subject of an investigation, study or analysis on notice of...] Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is proposing to update the NGA...

  3. A Deontological View of the Privacy Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan

    The mass media are at odds with the public on issues concerning privacy, i.e., issues concerning whether private information about a person should be printed in a newspaper or magazine. In a 1982 survey, one journalist/respondent said his or her newspaper "almost always" favored the public's right to know over a person's right to…

  4. When Differential Privacy Meets Randomized Perturbation: A Hybrid Approach for Privacy-Preserving Recommender System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiao

    2017-03-21

    Privacy risks of recommender systems have caused increasing attention. Users’ private data is often collected by probably untrusted recommender system in order to provide high-quality recommendation. Meanwhile, malicious attackers may utilize recommendation results to make inferences about other users’ private data. Existing approaches focus either on keeping users’ private data protected during recommendation computation or on preventing the inference of any single user’s data from the recommendation result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP) with randomized perturbation (RP). We theoretically show the noise added by RP has limited effect on recommendation accuracy and the noise added by DP can be well controlled based on the sensitivity analysis of functions on the perturbed data. Extensive experiments on three large-scale real world datasets show that the hybrid approach generally provides more privacy protection with acceptable recommendation accuracy loss, and surprisingly sometimes achieves better privacy without sacrificing accuracy, thus validating its feasibility in practice.

  5. Personalized privacy-preserving frequent itemset mining using randomized response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Junlin; Gao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining is the important first step of association rule mining, which discovers interesting patterns from the massive data. There are increasing concerns about the privacy problem in the frequent itemset mining. Some works have been proposed to handle this kind of problem. In this paper, we introduce a personalized privacy problem, in which different attributes may need different privacy levels protection. To solve this problem, we give a personalized privacy-preserving method by using the randomized response technique. By providing different privacy levels for different attributes, this method can get a higher accuracy on frequent itemset mining than the traditional method providing the same privacy level. Finally, our experimental results show that our method can have better results on the frequent itemset mining while preserving personalized privacy.

  6. Pre-Capture Privacy for Small Vision Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaluga, Francesco; Koppal, Sanjeev Jagannatha

    2017-11-01

    The next wave of micro and nano devices will create a world with trillions of small networked cameras. This will lead to increased concerns about privacy and security. Most privacy preserving algorithms for computer vision are applied after image/video data has been captured. We propose to use privacy preserving optics that filter or block sensitive information directly from the incident light-field before sensor measurements are made, adding a new layer of privacy. In addition to balancing the privacy and utility of the captured data, we address trade-offs unique to miniature vision sensors, such as achieving high-quality field-of-view and resolution within the constraints of mass and volume. Our privacy preserving optics enable applications such as depth sensing, full-body motion tracking, people counting, blob detection and privacy preserving face recognition. While we demonstrate applications on macro-scale devices (smartphones, webcams, etc.) our theory has impact for smaller devices.

  7. Interpretation and Analysis of Privacy Policies of Websites in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2016-01-01

    the conditions specified in the policy document. So, ideally the privacy policies should be readable and provide sufficient information to empower users to make knowledgeable decisions. Thus, we have examined more than 50 privacy policies and discussed the content analysis in this paper. We discovered...... on information collection methods, purpose, sharing entities names and data transit. In this study, the 11 % privacy policies are compliance with privacy standards which denotes other privacy policies are less committed to support transparency, choice, and accountability in the process of information collection...... that the policies are not only unstructured but also described in complicated language. Our analysis shows that the user data security measures are nonspecific and unsatisfactory in 57% privacy policies. In spite of huge amount of information collection, the privacy policies does not have clear description...

  8. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human-machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human-machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility.

  9. Community Genetics: a new discipline and its application in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Ramalho

    Full Text Available Community genetics is a new discipline which aims to provide genetic services to the community as a whole. As a science, community genetics encompasses all research needed to develop and evaluate its application. There is no question that the development of community genetics is necessary in Brazil. The implementation of such programs in our country, especially for hemoglobinopathies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization and other international organizations. Apart from the need for and appeal of community genetics programs, some aspects require serious review. This article discusses various cultural, social, psychological, and economic factors that can make genetic screening an invasion of individual privacy

  10. Community Genetics: a new discipline and its application in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalho Antonio Sérgio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community genetics is a new discipline which aims to provide genetic services to the community as a whole. As a science, community genetics encompasses all research needed to develop and evaluate its application. There is no question that the development of community genetics is necessary in Brazil. The implementation of such programs in our country, especially for hemoglobinopathies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization and other international organizations. Apart from the need for and appeal of community genetics programs, some aspects require serious review. This article discusses various cultural, social, psychological, and economic factors that can make genetic screening an invasion of individual privacy

  11. 32 CFR 311.7 - OSD/JS Privacy Office Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false OSD/JS Privacy Office Processes. 311.7 Section...) PRIVACY PROGRAM OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE AND JOINT STAFF PRIVACY PROGRAM § 311.7 OSD/JS Privacy Office Processes. The OSD/JS Privacy Office shall: (a) Exercise oversight and administrative control of...

  12. Consumer Responses to the Introduction of Privacy Protection Measures: An Exploratory Research Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Xu

    2009-01-01

    Information privacy is at the center of discussion and controversy among multiple stakeholders including business leaders, privacy activists, and government regulators. However, conceptualizations of information privacy have been somewhat patchy in current privacy literature. In this article, we review the conceptualizations of information privacy through three different lenses (information exchange, social contract and information control), and then try to build upon previous literature from...

  13. 32 CFR 806b.30 - Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy issues are unchanged. (d) The depth and content of the Privacy Impact Assessment should be... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act... FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Privacy Impact Assessments § 806b.30 Evaluating information...

  14. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... privacy issues, please contact: Jonathan Cantor, (202-343-1717), Acting Chief Privacy Officer, Privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy...

  15. Comparison of two speech privacy measurements, articulation index (AI) and speech privacy noise isolation class (NIC'), in open workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heakyung C.; Loftness, Vivian

    2002-05-01

    Lack of speech privacy has been reported to be the main dissatisfaction among occupants in open workplaces, according to workplace surveys. Two speech privacy measurements, Articulation Index (AI), standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1969, and Speech Privacy Noise Isolation Class (NIC', Noise Isolation Class Prime), adapted from Noise Isolation Class (NIC) by U. S. General Services Administration (GSA) in 1979, have been claimed as objective tools to measure speech privacy in open offices. To evaluate which of them, normal privacy for AI or satisfied privacy for NIC', is a better tool in terms of speech privacy in a dynamic open office environment, measurements were taken in the field. AIs and NIC's in the different partition heights and workplace configurations have been measured following ASTM E1130 (Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Offices Using Articulation Index) and GSA test PBS-C.1 (Method for the Direct Measurement of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Subjective Judgments) and PBS-C.2 (Public Building Service Standard Method of Test Method for the Sufficient Verification of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Objective Measurements Including Methods for the Rating of Functional Interzone Attenuation and NC-Background), respectively.

  16. Privacy problems in the small sample selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Cerbara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The side of social research that uses small samples for the production of micro data, today finds some operating difficulties due to the privacy law. The privacy code is a really important and necessary law because it guarantees the Italian citizen’s rights, as already happens in other Countries of the world. However it does not seem appropriate to limit once more the possibilities of the data production of the national centres of research. That possibilities are already moreover compromised due to insufficient founds is a common problem becoming more and more frequent in the research field. It would be necessary, therefore, to include in the law the possibility to use telephonic lists to select samples useful for activities directly of interest and importance to the citizen, such as the collection of the data carried out on the basis of opinion polls by the centres of research of the Italian CNR and some universities.

  17. Simple Peer-to-Peer SIP Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Joakim; Tarkoma, Sasu

    In this paper, we introduce a model for enhancing privacy in peer-to-peer communication systems. The model is based on data obfuscation, preventing intermediate nodes from tracking calls, while still utilizing the shared resources of the peer network. This increases security when moving between untrusted, limited and ad-hoc networks, when the user is forced to rely on peer-to-peer schemes. The model is evaluated using a Host Identity Protocol-based prototype on mobile devices, and is found to provide good privacy, especially when combined with a source address hiding scheme. The contribution of this paper is to present the model and results obtained from its use, including usability considerations.

  18. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  19. Privacy and medical information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven B

    2006-02-01

    Health-care consumers are beginning to realize the presence and value of health-care information available on the Internet, but they need to be aware of risks that may be involved. In addition to delivering information, some Web sites collect information. Though not all of the information might be classified as protected health information, consumers need to realize what is collected and how it might be used. Consumers should know a Web site\\'s privacy policy before divulging any personal information. Health-care providers have a responsibility to know what information they are collecting and why. Web servers may collect large amounts of visitor information by default, and they should be modified to limit data collection to only what is necessary. Providers need to be cognizant of the many regulations concerning collection and disclosure of information obtained from consumers. Providers should also provide an easily understood privacy policy for users.

  20. Privacy, Liveliness and Fairness for Reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Stefan; Clauß, Sebastian; Steinbrecher, Sandra

    In various Internet applications, reputation systems are typical means to collect experiences users make with each other. We present a reputation system that balances the security and privacy requirements of all users involed. Our system provides privacy in the form of information theoretic relationship anonymity w.r.t. users and the reputation provider. Furthermore, it preserves liveliness, i.e., all past ratings can influence the current reputation profile of a user. In addition, mutual ratings are forced to be simultaneous and self rating is prevented, which enforces fairness. What is more, without performing mock interactions - even if all users are colluding - users cannot forge ratings. As far as we know, this is the first protocol proposed that fulfills all these properties simultaneously.

  1. Security and privacy for implantable medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2014-01-01

     This book presents a systematic approach to analyzing the challenging engineering problems posed by the need for security and privacy in implantable medical devices (IMD).  It describes in detail new issues termed as lightweight security, due to the associated constraints on metrics such as available power, energy, computing ability, area, execution time, and memory requirements. Coverage includes vulnerabilities and defense across multiple levels, with basic abstractions of cryptographic services and primitives such as public key cryptography, block ciphers and digital signatures. Experts from engineering introduce to some IMD systems that have  recently been proposed and developed. Experts from Computer Security and Cryptography present new research, which shows vulnerabilities in existing IMDs and proposes solutions. Experts from Privacy Technology and Policy will discuss the societal, legal and ethical challenges surrounding IMD security as well as technological solutions that build on the latest in C...

  2. Second thoughts about privacy, safety and deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tom; Draper, Heather

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we point out some difficulties with interpreting three of five principles formulated at a retreat on robot ethics sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. We also attempt to iron out some conflicts between the principles. Some of the difficulties arise from the way that the autonomy of robot users - their capacity to live by their own choices - can be a goal in the design of care robots. We discuss (a) problems for Principle 2 that arise from competing legal and philosophical understandings of privacy; (b) a tension between privacy and safety (Principles 2 and 3) and (c) some scepticism about the application of Principle 4, which addresses robot design that might result in the deception of vulnerable users.

  3. Privacy-preserving Network Functionality Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Junjie; Zhang, Yuan; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of software defined networks ({SDN}), there have been many attempts to outsource the complex and costly local network functionality, i.e. the middlebox, to the cloud in the same way as outsourcing computation and storage. The privacy issues, however, may thwart the enterprises' willingness to adopt this innovation since the underlying configurations of these middleboxes may leak crucial and confidential information which can be utilized by attackers. To address this new probl...

  4. Online privacy: overview and preliminary research

    OpenAIRE

    Mekovec, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade using the Internet for online shopping, information browsing and searching as well as for online communication has become part of everyday life. Although the Internet technology has a lot of benefits for users, one of the most important disadvantages is related to the increasing capacity for users’ online activity surveillance. However, the users are increasingly becoming aware of online surveillance methods, which results in their increased concern for privacy ...

  5. Privacy-preserving efficient searchable encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Bernardo Luís da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Data storage and computation outsourcing to third-party managed data centers, in environments such as Cloud Computing, is increasingly being adopted by individuals, organizations, and governments. However, as cloud-based outsourcing models expand to society-critical data and services, the lack of effective and independent control over security and privacy conditions in such settings presents significant challenges. An interesting solution to these issues is to perform comput...

  6. Security and privacy preserving in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.

  7. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrows, R C; Clayton, P D

    1996-01-01

    The enhanced availability of health information in an electronic format is strategic for industry-wide efforts to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care, yet it brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among health care participants. The authors review the conflicting goals of accessibility and security for electronic medical records and discuss nontechnical and technical aspects that constitute a reasonable security solution. It is argued that with gui...

  8. Social networking and privacy attitudes among

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen A. Carruth; Harvey J. Ginsburg

    2014-01-01

    Daily use of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook has become routine for millions of Internet users. Facebook is currently still the most popular social media site. Social networking has been rapidly adopted by societies around the world. In particular, social media like Facebook provide sites where users can personalize a profile with their information, pictures, and videos that can be shared with other users. This information can be used in ways that may violate users’ privacy ...

  9. STeP : Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Organizzazione del corso di formazione sulla sicurezza dei dati e l'applicazione del 'Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali - D.lgs. 196/2003', 'STeP: Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy'. Il corso, suddiviso in due giornate (di 4 ore) ? stato rivolto principalmente ai respondabili del trattamento dei dati personali, agli addetti al trattamento ed ai responsabili della sicurezza dei sistemi informatici. Il corso si prefigge di fornire un quadro completo della normativa ( D.Lgs. 196/2003) ...

  10. Exercising privacy rights in medical science

    OpenAIRE

    Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our metho...

  11. Quantum privacy and Schur product channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W.; Pereira, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the quantum privacy properties of an important class of quantum channels, by making use of a connection with Schur product matrix operations and associated correlation matrix structures. For channels implemented by mutually commuting unitaries, which cannot privatise qubits encoded directly into subspaces, we nevertheless identify private algebras and subsystems that can be privatised by the channels. We also obtain further results by combining our analysis with tools from the theory of quasi-orthogonal operator algebras and graph theory.

  12. PRIVACY IN CLOUD COMPUTING: A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Arockiam L; Parthasarathy G; Monikandan S

    2012-01-01

    Various cloud computing models are used to increase the profit of an organization. Cloud provides a convenient environment and more advantages to business organizations to run their business. But, it has some issues related to the privacy of data. User’s data are stored and maintained out of user’s premises. The failure of data protection causes many issues like data theft which affects the individual organization. The cloud users may be satisfied, if their data are protected p...

  13. FCJ-195 Privacy, Responsibility, and Human Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Kazansky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that many difficulties associated with the protection of digital privacy are rooted in the framing of privacy as a predominantly individual responsibility. We examine how models of privacy protection, such as Notice and Choice, contribute to the ‘responsibilisation’ of human rights activists who rely on the use of technologies for their work. We also consider how a group of human rights activists countered technology-mediated threats that this ‘responsibilisation’ causes by developing a collective approach to address their digital privacy and security needs. We conclude this article by discussing how technological tools used to maintain or counter the loss of privacy can be improved in order to support the privacy and digital security of human rights activists.

  14. Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d’Auriol, Brian J.; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power), sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology) and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness). In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks. PMID:22294881

  15. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  16. Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power, sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness. In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks.

  17. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  18. Preserving location and absence privacy in geo-social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freni, Dario; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Mascetti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    accessible to multiple users. This renders it difficult for GeoSN users to control which information about them is available and to whom it is available. This paper addresses two privacy threats that occur in GeoSNs: location privacy and absence privacy. The former concerns the availability of information...... about the presence of users in specific locations at given times, while the latter concerns the availability of information about the absence of an individual from specific locations during given periods of time. The challenge addressed is that of supporting privacy while still enabling useful services....... The resulting geo-aware social networks (GeoSNs) pose privacy threats beyond those found in location-based services. Content published in a GeoSN is often associated with references to multiple users, without the publisher being aware of the privacy preferences of those users. Moreover, this content is often...

  19. Unveiling consumer's privacy paradox behaviour in an economic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiwalla, Luvai F; Li, Xiao-Bai

    2016-01-01

    Privacy paradox is of great interest to IS researchers and firms gathering personal information. It has been studied from social, behavioural, and economic perspectives independently. However, prior research has not examined the degrees of influence these perspectives contribute to the privacy paradox problem. We combine both economic and behavioural perspectives in our study of the privacy paradox with a price valuation of personal information through an economic experiment combined with a behavioural study on privacy paradox. Our goal is to reveal more insights on the privacy paradox through economic valuation on personal information. Results indicate that general privacy concerns or individual disclosure concerns do not have a significant influence on the price valuation of personal information. Instead, prior disclosure behaviour in specific scenario, like with healthcare providers or social networks, is a better indicator of consumer price valuations.

  20. Privacy enhanced group communication in clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyan; Narayanan, Sreeram; Poovendran, Radha

    2005-04-01

    Privacy protection of medical records has always been an important issue and is mandated by the recent Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) standards. In this paper, we propose security architectures for a tele-referring system that allows electronic group communication among professionals for better quality treatments, while protecting patient privacy against unauthorized access. Although DICOM defines the much-needed guidelines for confidentiality of medical data during transmission, there is no provision in the existing medical security systems to guarantee patient privacy once the data has been received. In our design, we address this issue by enabling tracing back to the recipient whose received data is disclosed to outsiders, using watermarking technique. We present security architecture design of a tele-referring system using a distributed approach and a centralized web-based approach. The resulting tele-referring system (i) provides confidentiality during the transmission and ensures integrity and authenticity of the received data, (ii) allows tracing of the recipient who has either distributed the data to outsiders or whose system has been compromised, (iii) provides proof of receipt or origin, and (iv) can be easy to use and low-cost to employ in clinical environment.

  1. Sperm Donation and the Right to Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallich, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.

  2. Commodification and privacy: a Lockean perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Richard

    2010-09-01

    This paper defends the thesis that privacy as a right is derived from fundamental rights to life, liberty, and property and does not permit restricting the commodification of bodily material; however, privacy as life, liberty, property does require conventions that ensure a robust and just market in bodily material. The analysis proceeds by defending a general commitment to liberty and markets, but not in the manner one might expect from a 'doctrinaire' libertarian. Ethical concerns about commodification are legitimate in the context of new medical and information technologies, but these concerns are not sufficiently well defined to justify political conclusions, since not every ethical concern is in itself a political concern, and the best way to resolve certain ethical difficulties is to draw up political boundaries that facilitate the discovery and testing of various solutions to our ethical puzzles. To illustrate the point, I will indicate how privacy as life, liberty, property defines such a dynamic solution to the problems of commodification of human bodily material and slippery information in insurance markets.

  3. Information Privacy: The Attitudes and Behaviours of Internet Users

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The rise of electronic commerce and the Internet have created new technologies and capabilities, which increase concern for privacy online. This study reports on the results of an investigation of Internet users attitudes towards concern for privacy online, online behaviours adopted under varying levels of concern for privacy (high, moderate and low) and the types of information Internet users are protective of. Methodological triangulation was used, whereby both quantitative and qualitative ...

  4. Social Networks’ Benefits, Privacy, and Identity Theft: KSA Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Afnan S. Al-Joudi; Hanan B. Al-Gahtani; Maha S. Al-Qahtani

    2014-01-01

    Privacy breaches and Identity Theft cases are increasing at an alarming rate. Social Networking Sites (SN’s) are making it worse. Facebook (FB), Twitter and other SN’s offer attackers a wide and easily accessible platform. Privacy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is extremely important due to cultural beliefs besides the other typical reasons. In this research we comprehensively cover Privacy and Identity Theft in SNs from many aspects; such as, methods of stealing, contributing factors, ...

  5. Privacy preserving surveillance and the tracking-paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, S.; Birnstill, Pascal; Krempel, Erik; Beckert, B.; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing capabilities of intelligent video surveillance systems impose new threats to privacy while, at the same time, offering opportunities for reducing the privacy invasiveness of surveillance measures as well as their selectivity. We show that aggregating more data about observed people does not necessarily lead to less privacy, but can increase the selectivity of surveillance measures. In case of video surveillance in a company environment, if we enable the system to authenticate emplo...

  6. A Survey Paper on Privacy Issue in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Yousra Abdul Alsahib S. Aldeen; Mazleena Salleh; Mohammad Abdur Razzaque

    2015-01-01

    In past few years, cloud computing is one of the popular paradigm to host and deliver services over Internet. It is having popularity by offering multiple computing services as cloud storage, cloud hosting and cloud servers etc., for various types of businesses as well as in academics. Though there are several benefits of cloud computing, it suffers from security and privacy challenges. Privacy of cloud system is a serious concern for the customers. Considering the privacy within the cloud th...

  7. Because we care: Privacy Dashboard on Firefox OS

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarska, Marta; Zhou, Yun; Strohmeier, Dominik; Raake, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the Privacy Dashboard -- a tool designed to inform and empower the people using mobile devices, by introducing features such as Remote Privacy Protection, Backup, Adjustable Location Accuracy, Permission Control and Secondary-User Mode. We have implemented our solution on FirefoxOS and conducted user studies to verify the usefulness and usability of our tool. The paper starts with a discussion of different aspects of mobile privacy, how users perceive it and how much ...

  8. Millennial dissonance: an analysis of the privacy generational gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sher, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The young Millennial generation has adopted social media and internet technology to an unprecedented degree. But this generation’s extensive usage of online services leaves Millennials open to various privacy vulnerabilities that have emerged with the new technology. Older generations hold concern that Millennials are ignoring the value of privacy when disclosing their personal information in exchange for online connectivity. This paper investigates the generational privacy concern through di...

  9. Anonymity versus privacy: Selective information sharing in online cancer communities

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, J.H.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Beekers, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients ap...

  10. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  11. Privacy and technology challenges for ubiquitous social networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Seet, Boon-Chong

    2015-01-01

    towards important challenges such as social sensing, enabling social networking and privacy protection. In this paper we firstly investigate the methods and technologies for acquisition of the relevant context for promotion of sociability among inhabitants of USN environments. Afterwards, we review...... architectures and techniques for enabling social interactions between participants. Finally, we identify privacy as the major challenge for networking in USN environments. Consequently, we depict design guidelines and review privacy protection models for facilitating personal information disclosure....

  12. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  13. Privacy-preserving genome-wide association studies on cloud environment using fully homomorphic encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Jie; Yamada, Yoshiji; Sakuma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Developed sequencing techniques are yielding large-scale genomic data at low cost. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) targeting genetic variations that are significantly associated with a particular disease offers great potential for medical improvement. However, subjects who volunteer their genomic data expose themselves to the risk of privacy invasion; these privacy concerns prevent efficient genomic data sharing. Our goal is to presents a cryptographic solution to this problem. To maintain the privacy of subjects, we propose encryption of all genotype and phenotype data. To allow the cloud to perform meaningful computation in relation to the encrypted data, we use a fully homomorphic encryption scheme. Noting that we can evaluate typical statistics for GWAS from a frequency table, our solution evaluates frequency tables with encrypted genomic and clinical data as input. We propose to use a packing technique for efficient evaluation of these frequency tables. Our solution supports evaluation of the D' measure of linkage disequilibrium, the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, the χ2 test, etc. In this paper, we take χ2 test and linkage disequilibrium as examples and demonstrate how we can conduct these algorithms securely and efficiently in an outsourcing setting. We demonstrate with experimentation that secure outsourcing computation of one χ2 test with 10, 000 subjects requires about 35 ms and evaluation of one linkage disequilibrium with 10, 000 subjects requires about 80 ms. With appropriate encoding and packing technique, cryptographic solutions based on fully homomorphic encryption for secure computations of GWAS can be practical.

  14. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo Myssior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a result, elucidate how such discrimination affects individuals, it is possible to conclude that regardless of the type of discrimination, all should be restrained by law.

  15. Protecting Privacy in the Global South (Phase 2) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The absence of appropriate privacy protections can lead to grave problems. Privacy ... Developing countries are home to the greatest number of Internet and mobile users, but such privacy protection is scarce. ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  16. Development of measures of online privacy concern and protection for use on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, T; Paine, C; Joinson, A; Reips, U D

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet grows in importance, concerns about online privacy have arisen. We describe the development and validation of three short Internet-administered scales measuring privacy related attitudes ('Privacy Concern') and behaviors ('General Caution' and 'Technical Protection').

  17. 78 FR 54454 - Open Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... security and privacy issues pertaining to federal computer systems. Details regarding the ISPAB's... Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB) will meet...

  18. 78 FR 72063 - Open Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... NIST on information security and privacy issues pertaining to federal computer systems. Details... Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB) will meet...

  19. 77 FR 58980 - Announcing an Open Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... privacy issues pertaining to federal computer systems. Details regarding the ISPAB's activities are... of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB...

  20. Are privacy-enhancing technologies for genomic data ready for the clinic? A survey of medical experts of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisaro, Jean-Louis; McLaren, Paul J; Fellay, Jacques; Cavassini, Matthias; Klersy, Catherine; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Protecting patient privacy is a major obstacle for the implementation of genomic-based medicine. Emerging privacy-enhancing technologies can become key enablers for managing sensitive genetic data. We studied physicians' attitude toward this kind of technology in order to derive insights that might foster their future adoption for clinical care. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 55 physicians of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study who tested the first implementation of a privacy-preserving model for delivering genomic test results. We evaluated their feedback on three different aspects of our model: clinical utility, ability to address privacy concerns and system usability. 38/55 (69%) physicians participated in the study. Two thirds of them acknowledged genetic privacy as a key aspect that needs to be protected to help building patient trust and deploy new-generation medical information systems. All of them successfully used the tool for evaluating their patients' pharmacogenomics risk and 90% were happy with the user experience and the efficiency of the tool. Only 8% of physicians were unsatisfied with the level of information and wanted to have access to the patient's actual DNA sequence. This survey, although limited in size, represents the first evaluation of privacy-preserving models for genomic-based medicine. It has allowed us to derive unique insights that will improve the design of these new systems in the future. In particular, we have observed that a clinical information system that uses homomorphic encryption to provide clinicians with risk information based on sensitive genetic test results can offer information that clinicians feel sufficient for their needs and appropriately respectful of patients' privacy. The ability of this kind of systems to ensure strong security and privacy guarantees and to provide some analytics on encrypted data has been assessed as a key enabler for the management of sensitive medical information in the near future