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Sample records for genetic polymorphism modifies

  1. Effects of endotoxin exposure on childhood asthma risk are modified by a genetic polymorphism in ACAA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sordillo Joanne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the endotoxin-mediated TLR4 pathway genes have been associated with asthma and atopy. We aimed to examine how genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity pathways interact with endotoxin to influence asthma risk in children. Methods In a previous analysis of 372 children from the Boston Home Allergens and the Connecticut Childhood Asthma studies, 7 SNPs in 6 genes (CARD15, TGFB1, LY96, ACAA1, DEFB1 and IFNG involved in innate immune pathways were associated with asthma, and 5 SNPs in 3 genes (CD80, STAT4, IRAK2 were associated with eczema. We tested these SNPs for interaction with early life endotoxin exposure (n = 291, in models for asthma and eczema by age 6. Results We found a significant interaction between endotoxin and a SNP (rs156265 in ACAA1 (p = 0.0013 for interaction. Increased endotoxin exposure (by quartile showed protective effects for asthma in individuals with at least one copy of the minor allele (OR = 0.39 per quartile increase in endotoxin, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.01. Endotoxin exposure did not reduce the risk of asthma in children homozygous for the major allele. Conclusion Our findings suggest that protective effects of endotoxin exposure on asthma may vary depending upon the presence or absence of a polymorphism in ACAA1.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism: associations with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer and the modifying effects of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bigler, Jeannette; Levin, Theodore R; Wolff, Roger K; Albertsen, Hans; Potter, John D; Samowitz, Wade S

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated associations between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) colon cancer and genetic polymorphisms relevant to one-carbon metabolism and thus, potentially the provision of methyl groups and risk of colon cancer. Data from a large, population-based case-control study (916 incident colon cancer cases and 1,972 matched controls) were used. Candidate polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS), transcobalamin II (TCNII), methionine synthase (MTR), reduced folate carrier (RFC), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) were evaluated. CIMP- or CIMP+ phenotype was based on five CpG island markers: MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and MLH1. The influence of specific dietary factors (folate, methionine, vitamin B(12) and alcohol) on these associations was also analyzed. We hypothesized that polymorphisms involved in the provision of methyl groups would be associated with CIMP+ tumors (two or more of five markers methylated), potentially modified by diet. Few associations specific to CIMP+ tumors were observed overall, which does not support the hypothesis that the provision of methyl groups is important in defining a methylator phenotype. However, our data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in MTHFR 1,298A > C, interacting with diet, may be involved in the development of highly CpG-methylated colon cancers. AC and CC genotypes in conjunction with a high-risk dietary pattern (low folate and methionine intake and high alcohol use) were associated with CIMP+ (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 versus AA/high risk; P-interaction = 0.03). These results provide only limited support for a role of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of CIMP colon cancer.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair and oxidative stress pathways may modify the association between body size and postmenopausal breast cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCullough, L. E.; Eng, S. M.; Bradshaw, P. T.; Cleveland, R. J.; Steck, S. E.; Terry, M. B.; Shen, J.; Crew, K.D.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Ahn, J.; Ambrosone, Ch.B.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Neugut, A. I.; Santella, R. M.; Gammon, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 263-269 ISSN 1047-2797 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : breast cancer * body mass index * oxidative stress * DNA repair * Epidemiology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2015

  4. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  5. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  7. Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization of four important species of Bamboo, found in Raigad district, Maharashtra State, India. ... Bambusoideae are differentiated from other members of the family by the presence of petiolate blades with parallel venation and stamens are three, four, six or more, ...

  8. Potential genetic polymorphisms predicting polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous endocrine disorder with typical symptoms of oligomenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Extensive evidence indicates that PCOS is a genetic disease and numerous biochemical pathways have been linked with its pathogenesis. A number of genes from these pathways have been investigated, which include those involved with steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, action of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones, folliculogenesis, obesity and energy regulation, insulin secretion and action and many others. In this review, we summarize the historical and recent findings in genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from the relevant publications and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment platforms for PCOS patients.

  9. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  10. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  11. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H.; Salazar-Arredondo, E.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure

  12. Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci MESERI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the “Green Revolution” was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO’s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460

  13. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

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    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  14. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  15. Genetically Modified Products – Contradictions and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development of genetically modified organisms, evolution which is presented by st...

  16. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms and lipid response to dietary changes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Ramos-Galluzzi, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the serum cholesterol response to dietary treatments were often inconsistent and frequently involved small numbers of subjects. We studied the effect of 10 genetic polymorphisms on the responses of serum cholesterol to saturated and trans

  18. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  19. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  20. Impact of genetic polymorphisms of four cytokine genes on treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many factors contribute for viral clearance and response to antiviral therapy. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors can alter the immune response against Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Aim of the study: The aim of the current study is to assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ...

  1. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... education on the subject to the public. Modern ... published were on the progress of GMF technology followed by attitude studies (such as perceptions ..... Genetically Modified Corn: Environmental Benefits and. Risks.

  2. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  3. Genetically Modified Organisms : Public Knowledge, Attitudes and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that genetically modified crops can contribute to food security in developing ... opponents maintain that their social and economic impacts are unknown and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  4. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  5. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  6. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  7. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  8. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...

  9. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  10. Haemochromatosis HFE gene polymorphisms as potential modifiers of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer risk and onset age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Johnstone, Daniel; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Spigelman, Allan D; Groombridge, Claire; Milward, Elizabeth A; Olynyk, John K; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Lubinski, Jan; Scott, Rodney J

    2009-07-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is characterized by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes; however, variation in disease expression suggests that there are potential modifying factors. Polymorphisms of the HFE gene, which cause the iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis, have been proposed as potential risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). To understand the relationship between HNPCC disease phenotype and polymorphisms of the HFE gene, a total of 362 individuals from Australia and Poland with confirmed causative MMR gene mutations were genotyped for the HFE C282Y and H63D polymorphisms. A significantly increased risk of developing CRC was observed for H63D homozygotes when compared with combined wild-type homozygotes and heterozygotes (hazard ratio = 2.93, p = 0.007). Evidence for earlier CRC onset was also observed in H63D homozygotes with a median age of onset 6 years earlier than wild type or heterozygous participants (44 vs. 50 years of age). This effect was significant by all tests used (log-rank test p = 0.026, Wilcoxon p = 0.044, Tarone-Ware p = 0.035). No association was identified for heterozygosity of either polymorphism and limitations on power-prevented investigation of C282Y homozygosity or compound C282Y/H63D heterozygosity. In the Australian sample only, women had a significantly reduced risk of developing CRC when compared with men (hazard ratio = 0.58, p = 0.012) independent of HFE genotype for either single nucleotide polymorphisms. In conclusion, homozygosity for the HFE H63D polymorphism seems to be a genetic modifier of disease expression in HNPCC. Understanding the mechanisms by which HFE interrelates with colorectal malignancies could lead to reduction of disease risk in HNPCC.

  11. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  12. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  13. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods......, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased...

  14. [Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    2015-01-01

    To present the main results of the literature on genetic polymorphisms in Turner Syndrome and their association with the clinical signs and the etiology of this chromosomal disorder. The review was conducted in the PubMed database without any time limit, using the terms Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism. A total of 116 articles were found, and based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 were selected for the review. The polymorphisms investigated in patients with Turner Syndrome were associated with growth deficit, causing short stature, low bone mineral density, autoimmunity and cardiac abnormalities, which are frequently found in patients with Turner Syndrome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the etiology of Turner syndrome, i.e., in chromosomal nondisjunction, was also confirmed. Genetic polymorphisms appear to be associated with Turner Syndrome. However, in view of the small number of published studies and their contradictory findings, further studies in different populations are needed in order to clarify the role of genetic variants in the clinical signs and etiology of the Turner Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The

  16. Addressing the Socioeconomic Impacts of Genetically Modified ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But despite rapid diffusion of genetically modified (GM) cotton - and ... Argentina, South America, Brazil, Paraguay, North and Central America, China, India, Pakistan ... A Expansão Da Cultura Do Algodão Transgênico Na Região Do Norte De ...

  17. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  18. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    2006-05-01

    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

  19. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  20. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genetic polymorphisms and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sensitivity analysis of the summary odds ratio coefficients on the association between TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism and AILD risk using a random effects model. (A allele vs G allele). Results were computed by omitting each study in turn. Error bars are 95% confidence interval. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 3, December ...

  1. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers reveal genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study evaluated genetic variability of superior bael genotypes collected from different parts of Andaman Islands, India using fruit characters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genomic DNA extracted from leaf material using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was ...

  2. Effect of genetic polymorphisms on development of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Wako; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sekita, Chieko; Ichikawa, Naomi; Koseki, Yumi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    To validate the association between genetic polymorphisms and gout in Japanese patients, and to investigate the cumulative effects of multiple genetic factors on the development of gout. Subjects were 153 Japanese male patients with gout and 532 male controls. The genotypes of 11 polymorphisms in the 10 genes that have been indicated to be associated with serum uric acid levels or gout were determined. The cumulative effects of the genetic polymorphisms were investigated using a weighted genotype risk score (wGRS) based on the number of risk alleles and the OR for gout. A model to discriminate between patients with gout and controls was constructed by incorporating the wGRS and clinical factors. C statistics method was applied to evaluate the capability of the model to discriminate gout patients from controls. Seven polymorphisms were shown to be associated with gout. The mean wGRS was significantly higher in patients with gout (15.2 ± 2.01) compared to controls (13.4 ± 2.10; p gout. A prediction model for gout that incorporates genetic and clinical factors may be useful for identifying individuals who are at risk of gout.

  3. Oxidative Stress Markers and Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we evaluated the serum levels of oxidative stress markers and investigated genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase associated with autism. Materials and Methods: Forty-two children clinically diagnosed with ASD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and a ...

  4. Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIRECTOR

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Electrophoresis) buffer, 2 µl of SYBR-safe (DNA staining dye) was added to it, mixed properly, ..... tools in plant genetic resources conservation: a guide to the technologies. IPGRI. Rome ... Creating Capital. Seethalakshmi KK ...

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg Henrik

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

  6. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  7. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...

  8. Globalisation, Powerty and Genetically Modified Agricultural Product

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and income equality have become to stand in the forefront of the world that globalised through neo-classical policies after 1980. Besides technological dependence, globalisation wave has also led to a commercial dependence of surrounding countries to the central countries as well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate globalisation process in the world through its results of technological development and poverty. Production of genetically modified products which were justified as a...

  9. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  10. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  11. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  12. Genetically modified trees: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified trees are the result of modern plant breeding. Its introduction into the environment for experimental purposes or wider cultivation is defined differently from country to country. Public opinion is divided! Conducted research are part of the activities within the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees”, which aims to collect information and define the scientific attitude on genetically modified trees as a basis for future European Union (EU policy in this field. The collected information refer to eight countries: four EU member states (Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria and four countries in the process of pre-accession (Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. A comparative analysis involved the state of forest resources (area of forest land and forest cover, forestry legislation, legislation relating to genetically modified organisms and the general public attitude on this issue. The collected information provide a good basis for understanding this issue in order to define a clear scientific attitude as a recommendation. [Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees” for assigned STSM and financial support, also special thanks to the Host institution (Tuscany Region - Directorate General in Florence for kind cooperation. The performed research was partially conducted within the Project „Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia“ TP 31041

  13. Risk assessment: the importance of genetic polymorphisms in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Loft, S H; Autrup, H

    2001-01-01

    and increased cancer risk, such results indicate effect modification regarding cancer risk. In risk assessment the safety 'factor' of 10 is generally accepted to allow for variation in individual susceptibility. Reviewing the literature justifies the factor of 10 when considering single polymorphisms. However......Many genetic polymorphisms in metabolism enzymes are important for the risk of cancer as shown in a large number of case-control studies. The relative risk estimates have shown large variations between such population studies. However, in most studies the relative risk estimates are in the range...

  14. Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIRECTOR

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Due to the unusually long sexual cycle and unavaila- bility of any other diagnostic tool, identification of bamboo .... To our knowledge, nothing along these lines has been done. Some approaches are use- .... (Dipterocarpaceae), in Malaysia: Implications for conservation of genetic resources and tree.

  15. Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to examine the situation of genetically modified products. According to various stu...

  16. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Analysis of genetic polymorphism and genetic distance among four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... The genomes of 4 sheep populations {Yuanqu white Tan sheep (YWT), Baozhongchang white Tan sheep. (BWT), black Tan sheep (BT) and small-tailed Han sheep (Han)} were screened using 10 microsatellite. DNA markers to estimate the genetic diversities and genetic distances among these ...

  18. Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ling; Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...

  19. Safety assessment of genetically modified crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Keith T.

    2002-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer

  20. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...... with risk assessment of these organisms in each Nordic country....

  1. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  2. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik O Vannberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa.A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803. Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n = 914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2 x 2 chi(2 = 7.47, P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.96. In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n = 557, Pearson's 2x2 chi(2 = 17.34, P = 0.00003, odds ratio = 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.65. This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele.This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased levels of the DC-SIGN receptor may therefore be

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  4. Biotechnology: Two Decades of Experimentation with Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Ajami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over the recent years, genetically modified food in varieties of corn, soybeans, canola and cotton have been introduced to the global market. This study reviews the health and nutritional value of genetically modified foods in the past two decades.Results and Conclusions: Contrary to the present biotechnological claims, transgenic products did not prove to be so flawless, and actually failed to maintain social satisfaction. Genetically modified foods could not gain an increase in the yield potential. Planting natural products and genetically modified products in parallel lines will absolutely result in genetic infection from the side of genetically modified foods. One of the major anxieties of the anti- genetically modified foods activism is the claim that genetically modified crops would alter the consumable parts of the plant quality and safety. Genetically modified foods have shown to have inadequate efficiency and potential adverse effects in both fields of health and biodiversity. This review has presented studies of genetically modified foods performances in the past two decades, and concludes that the wide application and the over generalization of genetically modified foods are not fundamentally recommended.Conflict of interest: Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  5. Medical Doctors Perceptions of Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Savas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recombinant DNA and with similar technical changes made on genes or transferred isolated gene the living organisms have been named genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Thanks to advances in genetic technology, the advancement of enzyme and fermentation techniques result obtained by the use of GMOs in food industry products of genetically modified (GM foods are named. In this study, GM foods about the possible harmful effects have information and community advice on this matter to be medical doctors on this issue perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors aimed to measure.Material and Method: The study was made on including 200 medical doctors aged 23-65, 118 men (59%, 82 women (41%. In the statistical analysis based on the responses of medical doctors, against GM food risk perception, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed. Results: 80.5% of the participants’ think that GM foods are harmful. 22% of the participants were expressed that their knowledge are ‘’good’’ and ‘’very good’’ about GM food. While 38% of the participants use internet and 23.5% of the participants  use media, only 4.5% of the participants use medical schools as a source of sufficient information about GM foods. Discussion: While the risk perception of medical doctors about GM foods is high, the knowledge on this issue is observed low. Though the consumption and the prevelance of GM foods are increasing, medical doctors should have more information about this issue to enlighten and guide the community.

  6. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  7. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of

  8. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barp

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4 also modify DCM onset.A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior; DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up.Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027.We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts.

  9. CYTOKINES GENETIC POLYMORPHISM: THE PAST AND THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Puzyryova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetics opens the new horizons in modern medicine, especially now when many diseases are given huge value in a type of their prevalence among various groups of population. Extremely high interleukin genes polymorphism degrees are studied well especially genetic polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor. Patients with HIV infection in the territory of Russia cause now the highest degree of mortality that is the most actual and socially significant problem of healthcare. This problems studying attracts many researchers. Works in respect of genetic immunity to a virus and influence of cytokines production on the disease forecast are especially interesting. One of the HIV replication influencing factors are cytokines, some of which, including the tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 can promote replication of HIV, raising an expression of virus regulatory genes. During disease progress in parallel of anti-inflammatory cytokines level increase (causing in this case rather ineffective antibodies level increase there is an T-helpers suppression stimulating a strong cellular component. Cytokine network functioning during HIV infection depends on many reasons which the individual variation in cytokine production caused by a number of genetic features, as well as an existence of opportunistic infection. Cytokines polymorphism determination in HIV infected patients is necessary in clinical practice for disease progression forecast to adverse fast transition to AIDS that it is important to consider in a choice of tactics of the supporting therapy of HIV-positive patients. Considering insufficient efficiency of modern methods of treatment, restoration and modulation of cytokines balance will increase anti-virus activity of immune system, influencing the factors blocking replication of a HIV.

  10. Genetic polymorphism of blood proteins in a population of shetland ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Genetic variation of proteins (protein polymorphism) is widespread among many animal species. The biological significance of protein polymorphism has been the subject of many studies. This variation has a supporting function for population genetic studies as a source of genetic markers. In

  11. Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa

    2002-08-01

    The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 addressees, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents and those with lower level of education. A majority of the consumers had moral and ethical doubts about eating GM foods and did not perceive attributes like better taste or lower price beneficial enough to persuade them to purchase GM foods. However, tangible benefits, like being better for the environment or healthier, seemed to increase willingness to purchase GM foods.

  12. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  13. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  14. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  15. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  16. Arsenic methylation capacity in relation to nutrient intake and genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Gandolfi, A Jay; Cebrián, Mariano E; Burguete-García, Ana; García-Martínez, Angélica; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2018-07-01

    Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c.66 A > G) and iAs methylation capacity; 2) To assess if previously reported associations between nutrient intake and iAs methylation capacity are modified by those polymorphisms. Women (n = 1027) exposed to iAs in Northern Mexico were interviewed. Blood and urine samples were collected. Nutrient dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. iAs methylation capacity was calculated from urinary iAs species (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid [MMA] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICP-MS). One polymorphism in each of the five genes evaluated was genotyped by allelic discrimination. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate if genetic polymorphisms modified the associations between iAs methylation capacity parameters and nutrient intake. The median (min-max) concentration of total arsenic (TAs) was 20.2 (1.3-2776.0) µg/g creatinine in the study population. Significant interactions for iAs metabolism were only found with FOLH1 c.223 T > C polymorphism and vitamin B12 intake, so that CT and CC genotype carriers had significantly lower %iAs, and higher DMA/iAs with an increased vitamin B12 intake, as compared to carriers of wild-type TT. Differences in dietary nutrient intake and genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism may jointly influence iAs methylation capacity. Confirmation of these interactions in other populations is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

    2007-01-01

    Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods are safe. On the other hand, intentions of consumers who decide not to buy ge...

  18. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  19. Meat, vegetables and genetic polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, Camilla F; Sæbø, Mona; Hjartåker, Anette; Grotmol, Tom; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Tveit, Kjell M; Hoff, Geir; Kure, Elin H

    2007-01-01

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is mainly associated with lifestyle factors, particularly dietary factors. Diets high in red meat and fat and low in fruit and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of CRC. The dietary effects may be modulated by genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of dietary factors in combination with genetic factors in the different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis in a Norwegian population. We used a case-control study design (234 carcinomas, 229 high-risk adenomas, 762 low-risk adenomas and 400 controls) to test the association between dietary factors (meat versus fruit, berries and vegetables) genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile 105 Val, EPHX1 Tyr 113 His and EPHX1 His 139 Arg), and risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. A higher ratio of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake was positively associated with both high and low-risk adenomas, with approximately twice the higher risk in the 2 nd quartile compared to the lowest quartile. For the high-risk adenomas this positive association was more obvious for the common allele (Tyr allele) of the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism. An association was also observed for the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism in the low-risk adenomas, although not as obvious. Although, the majority of the comparison groups are not significant, our results suggest an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in individuals for some of the higher ratios of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake. In addition the study supports the notion that the biotransformation enzymes GSTM1, GSTP1 and EPHX1 may modify the effect of dietary factors on the risk of developing colorectal carcinoma and adenoma

  20. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of stakeholders’ attitudes in GM crops’ release decisions. This article analyzes farmers’ attitudes and perceptions toward GM maize based on a survey of large-area Greek farmers in Northeastern Greece. ...

  1. Genetic maps of polymorphic DNA loci on rat chromosome 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yan-Ping; Remmers, E.F.; Longman, R.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Genetic linkage maps of loci defined by polymorphic DNA markers on rat chromosome 1 were constructed by genotyping F2 progeny of F344/N x LEW/N, BN/SsN x LEW/N, and DA/Bkl x F344/Hsd inbred rat strains. In total, 43 markers were mapped, of which 3 were restriction fragment length polymorphisms and the others were simple sequence length polymorphisms. Nineteen of these markers were associated with genes. Six markers for five genes, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}1 (Adrb1), carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 1 (Cgm1), and lipogenic protein S14 (Lpgp), and 20 anonymous loci were not previously reported. Thirteen gene loci (Myl2, Aldoa, Tnt, Igf2, Prkcg, Cgm4, Calm3, Cgm3, Psbp1, Sa, Hbb, Ins1, and Tcp1) were previously mapped. Comparative mapping analysis indicated that the large portion of rat chromosome 1 is homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologs of two rat genes are located on mouse chromosomes 17 and 19. Homologs of the rat chromosome 1 genes that we mapped are located on human chromosomes 6, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 19. 38 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase 3 in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Schlicht, Erik M.; Larson, Joseph J.; Ellinghaus, David; Franke, Andre; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The damaging cholestasis inherent to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) results from bile duct stricturing because of progressive fibrosis. The matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) degrades a wide range of matrix components and is expressed by activated liver stellate cells, and so is a candidate for involvement with the fibrotic processes underlying PSC. Moreover, the MMP3 gene harbours polymorphisms associated with variation in its activity directly impacting clinical phenotypes. Aims We aimed to examine the influence of MMP3 polymorphisms on PSC risk and progression. Methods Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the common genetic variation of MMP3 were genotyped in 266 PSC patients and 407 controls. SNPs and inferred haplotypes were assessed for PSC association by logistic regression and score tests. The effect of SNPs on survival to liver transplant or death was analysed using Cox regression, and Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed. Results No association of PSC with individual SNPs or haplotypes of MMP3 was detected. However, progression to death or liver transplant was significantly associated with homozygosity for minor alleles of rs522616, rs650108 and rs683878, particularly among PSC patients with concurrent ulcerative colitis (UC) (strongest in redundant SNPs rs650108/rs683878, hazard ratio = 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.45–7.25, P = 0.004). Conclusions Genetic variation in MMP3 influences PSC progression, possibly in the context of coexisting UC. While the functional variants and specific mechanisms remain unknown, this finding implicates the turnover of the extracellular matrix as an important and variable component of PSC pathogenesis. Efforts to understand this process could form the basis for developing effective treatments, which are currently lacking for PSC. PMID:21134112

  3. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Ahanchédé, A.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Agbicodo, E.; Struik, P.C.; Sanni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the

  4. Genetically modified plants and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw

    2008-06-01

    Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

  5. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Qaim

    Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  6. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  7. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  8. Health risks of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2009-02-01

    As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

  9. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  10. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  11. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  12. Genetic polymorphism and population structure of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, F; Wassermann, M; Banda, F; Mbaya, H; Aschenborn, J; Aschenborn, O; Koskei, P; Umhang, G; DE LA Rue, M; Elmahdi, I E; Mackenstedt, U; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2017-04-01

    The zoonotic cestode Echinococcus ortleppi (Lopez-Neyra and Soler Planas, 1943) is mainly transmitted between dogs and cattle. It occurs worldwide but is only found sporadically in most regions, with the notable exception of parts of southern Africa and South America. Its epidemiology is little understood and the extent of intraspecific variability is unknown. We have analysed in the present study the genetic diversity among 178 E. ortleppi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and South America using the complete mitochondrial cox1 (1608 bp) and nad1 (894 bp) DNA sequences. Genetic polymorphism within the loci revealed 15 cox1 and six nad1 haplotypes, respectively, and 20 haplotypes of the concatenated genes. Presence of most haplotypes was correlated to geographical regions, and only one haplotype had a wider spread in both eastern and southern Africa. Intraspecific microvariance was low in comparison with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, despite the wide geographic range of examined isolates. In addition, the various sub-populations showed only subtle deviation from neutrality and were mostly genetically differentiated. This is the first insight into the population genetics of the enigmatic cattle adapted Echinococcus ortleppi. It, therefore, provides baseline data for biogeographical comparison among E. ortleppi endemic regions and for tracing its translocation paths.

  13. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  14. Screening for genetically modified organisms sequences in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used the Allin 2.0 GMO screening system from Biosmart, Switzerland to screen for the presence of genetically modified food sequences in maize meal samples, fresh fruit and vegetables from some retailers around Gaborone, Botswana. The Allin 2.0 is a multiplex PCR system for the detection of genetically modified ...

  15. Proposal for a Test Protocol for Genetically Modified Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998......The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998...

  16. Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops is carried out according to the consensus approach of "substantial equivalence", in other words: the comparative safety assessment. Currently, the safety assessment of genetically modified foods is harmonized at the

  17. CCR5 gene polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for radiographic severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S W; Sa, K H; Kim, S I; Lee, S I; Park, Y W; Lee, S S; Yoo, W H; Soe, J S; Nam, E J; Lee, J; Park, J Y; Kang, Y M

    2012-11-01

    The chemokine receptor [C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)] is expressed on diverse immune effecter cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study sought to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCR5 gene and their haplotypes were associated with susceptibility to and severity of RA. Three hundred fifty-seven patients with RA and 383 healthy unrelated controls were recruited. Using a pyrosequencing assay, we examined four polymorphisms -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (rs10577983), 303 A>G (rs1799987), 927 C>T (rs1800024), and 4838 G>T (rs1800874) of the CCR5 gene, which were distributed over the promoter region as well as the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. No significant difference in the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of the four selected SNPs was observed between RA patients and controls. CCR5 polymorphisms of -1118 CTAT(del) (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) and 303 A>G (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) showed a significant association with radiographic severity in a recessive model, and, as a result of multivariate logistic regression analysis, were found to be an independent predictor of radiographic severity. When we separated the erosion score from the total Sharp score, the statistical significance of CCR5 polymorphisms showed an increase; -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028) and 303 A>G (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028). Neither SNPs nor haplotypes of the CCR5 gene showed a significant association with joint space narrowing score. These results indicate that genetic polymorphisms of CCR5 are an independent risk factor for radiographic severity denoted by modified Sharp score, particularly joint erosion in RA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  19. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  20. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on clinical response to antithrombotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kena J Lanham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Kena J Lanham1,2, Julie H Oestreich3, Steven P Dunn1,2, Steven R Steinhubl41Pharmacy Services, UK HealthCare, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 4The Medicines Company, Zurich, Switzerland and The Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Antithrombotic therapy, including anticoagulants as well as antiplatelet drugs, is an important component in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Variability in response to such medications, of which pharmacogenetic response is a major source, can decrease or enhance the benefits expected. This review is a comprehensive assessment of the literature published to date on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the actions of a variety of antithrombotic medications, including warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and aspirin. Literature evaluating surrogate markers in addition to the impact of pharmacogenetics on clinical outcomes has been reviewed. The results of the studies are conflicting as to what degree pharmacogenetics will affect medication management in cardiovascular disease. Additional research is necessary to discover, characterize, and prospectively evaluate genetic and non-genetic factors that impact antithrombotic treatment in order to maximize the effectiveness and limit the harmful effects of these valuable agents.Keywords: aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, pharmacogenetic, antithrombotic, antiplatelet

  1. Genetic polymorphism of horse serum protein 3 (SP3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, R K; Sandberg, K; Kuryl, J; Gahne, B

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis of horse serum samples, followed by general protein staining, revealed genetic polymorphism of an unidentified protein tentatively designated serum protein 3 (SP3). The SP3 fractions appeared distinctly when a 14% concentration of acrylamide was used in the separation gels. The 2-D mobilities of SP3 fractions were quite similar to that of albumin. Family data were consistent with the hypothesis that the observed SP3 phenotypes were controlled by four co-dominant, autosomal alleles (D, F, I, S). Evidence was provided that the F allele can be further divided into two alleles (F1 and F2); the mobilities of F1 and F2 variants were very similar. Each of the SP3 alleles gave rise to one fraction and each of the heterozygous types showed two fractions. More than 600 horses representing five different breeds (Swedish Trotter, North-Swedish Trotter, Thoroughbred, Arab and Polish Tarpan) were typed for SP3, and allele frequency estimates were calculated. SP3 was highly polymorphic in all breeds studied.

  2. Genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Loreto, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijar, Gisely; Padilla, Carlos; Marquiño, Wilmer; Falconi, Eduardo; Montoya, Ysabel

    2002-04-01

    Eight genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum were detected after analysing blood samples obtained from 30 Peruvian jungle-dwelling patients in Loreto, a high transmission area for P. falciparum, using amplification of the polymorphic marker gene GLURP (glutamate-rich protein). Genotypes I (GLURP450) and VIII (GLURP800) were the most common (15/30 and 13/30, respectively). This single copy gene showed 15 patients to be infected with a single genotype of P. falciparum; the other 15 were infected with mixed genotypes, one of them with 4 genotypes. These findings are compatible with a high genetic complexity of P. falciparum. Further investigations are needed, using this and other markers, in order to design malaria control measures in Peru.

  3. HAS-1 genetic polymorphism in sporadic abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Balbarini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS-1 gene encodes a plasma membrane protein that synthesizes hyaluronan (HA, an extracellular matrix molecule. Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of HA metabolism in an increasing number of processes of clinical interest, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. The existence of aberrant splicing variants of the HAS-1 gene could partly explain the altered extracellular matrix architecture and influence various biological functions, resulting in progressive arterial wall failure in the development of AAA. In the present study, we assessed the hypothesis that HAS-1 genetic 833A/G polymorphism could be associated with the risk of AAA by performing a case-control association study, involving AAA patients and healthy matched donors.

  4. Genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S

    2018-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 57: 6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  6. Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Rieben

    Full Text Available Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer

  7. Gene flow in genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene

  8. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on chemotherapy toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eGervasini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of chemotherapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients has significantly increased in the last twenty years; as a result, the focus of research is slowly shifting from trying to increase survival rates to reduce chemotherapy-related toxicity.At the present time, the cornerstone of therapy for ALL is still formed by a reduced number of drugs with a highly toxic profile. In recent years, a number of genetic polymorphisms have been identified that can play a significant role in modifying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs. The best example is that of the TPMT gene, whose genotyping is being incorporated to clinical practice in order to individualize doses of mercaptopurine. However, there are additional genes that are relevant for the metabolism, activity and/or transport of other chemotherapy drugs that are widely use in ALL, such as methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, L-asparaginase, etoposide, cytarabine or cytotoxic antibiotics. These genes can also be affected by genetic alterations that could therefore have clinical consequences.In this review we will discuss recent data on this field, with special focus on those polymorphisms that could be used in clinical practice to tailor chemotherapy for ALL in order to reduce the occurrence of serious adverse effects.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer in malaysian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Munretnam, Khamsigan; Samsudin, Nurulhafizah; Lye, Say Hean; Hashim, Nikman Adli Nor; Ramzi, Nurul Hanis; Velapasamy, Sharmila; Wee, Ler Lian; Alex, Livy

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have discovered multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of common diseases. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the replication of previously published SNPs that showed statistical significance for breast cancer in the Malaysian population. In this case-control study, 80 subjects for each group were recruited from various hospitals in Malaysia. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. A total of three SNPs were found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer while six SNPs showed protective effect. All nine were statistically significant SNPs (p ≤ 0.01), five SNPs from previous studies were successfully replicated in our study. Significant modifiable (diet) and non-modifiable (family history of breast cancer in first degree relative) risk factors were also observed. We identified nine SNPs from this study to be either conferring susceptibility or protection to breast cancer which may serve as potential markers in risk prediction.

  10. The V471A polymorphism in autophagy-related gene ATG7 modifies age at onset specifically in Italian Huntington disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, Silke; Walter, Carolin; Riess, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    The cause of Huntington disease (HD) is a polyglutamine repeat expansion of more than 36 units in the huntingtin protein, which is inversely correlated with the age at onset of the disease. However, additional genetic factors are believed to modify the course and the age at onset of HD. Recently......, we identified the V471A polymorphism in the autophagy-related gene ATG7, a key component of the autophagy pathway that plays an important role in HD pathogenesis, to be associated with the age at onset in a large group of European Huntington disease patients. To confirm this association in a second...... independent patient cohort, we analysed the ATG7 V471A polymorphism in additional 1,464 European HD patients of the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). In the entire REGISTRY cohort we could not confirm a modifying effect of the ATG7 V471A polymorphism. However, analysing...

  11. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ATHLETES: BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, GENE DOPING AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Miah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.

  12. Genetically Modified Athletes: Biomedical Ethics, Gene Doping and Sport

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.

  13. Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China). Since 1990, China's ... Country(s). China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open. In partnership ...

  14. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migheli, Q.

    2001-01-01

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it

  15. Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann; Nielsen, Chantal Pohl

    2004-01-01

    The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase producer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields, while the next generation of GM food research is focusing on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers. Golden Rice, for example, has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of po...

  16. Stress-induced evolution and the biosafety of genetically modified

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is focused on the problems of reduction of the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) into the environment. Special attention is given to overview the most probable physiological and genetic processes which could be induced in the released GMMs by adverse ...

  17. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... Farmers have rapidly adopted genetically modified organism (GMO) technology including GM maize crops. (Lawson et al., 2009). GMO technology involves the incorporation of genetic engineering to improve crop productivity since over one billion people in the world face starvation and two billion people ...

  18. Characterisation of genetic markers in Mungbean using direct amplification of length polymorphisms (DALP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Tan, S.G.; Quah, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    A newly developed technique, Direct Amplification of Length Polymorphisms (DALP), developed by Desmarais and co-workers in 1998 was successfully used to identify and characterise new genetic markers in mungbean (Vigyia radiata). DALP uses an arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) to produce genomic fingerprints and is specifically designed to enable direct sequencing of polymorphic bands. In this study, an oligonucleotide pair DALP235 and DAPLR were tested on four varieties of mungbean (V3476, P4281, V5973 and V5784) and produced, through PCR, specific multibanded fingerprints which showed polymorphisms. These polymorphic bands are the result of length polymorphisms as well as absence and presence of bands. Some of the polymorphic zones may be codominantly inherited and may be potential microsatellites. The success of DALP in characterising new polymorphic loci and its ability to discover microsatellites without the use of priori knowledge of the mungbean genome is revolutionary. This would greatly facilitate the breeding and improvement of the crop. (author)

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of T-1131C APOA5 and ALOX5AP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ischaemic stroke is a multifactorial disease. Genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid, inflammatory and thrombotic metabolisms play an important role in the development of ischaemic stroke. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between T1131C APOA5 and SG13S114 ALOX5AP polymorphisms and ...

  20. Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on ...

  1. ASPECTS ON CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARD GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina, SÎRBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in food biotechnology and food science in the early 1990s have opened the gates of new markets for genetically modified foods. A broad dispute over the use of foods derived from genetically modified organisms and other uses of genetic engineering in food production in terms of key scientific researches, their impact on health and eco-systems, food safety and food security, labelling and regulations, traceability is still lasting. Beside the scientifically, technical, ethical and regulators arguments, the economical aspects of the genetically modified food market is influenced by the social acceptance of it. Consumers' perception and their attitudes are different and depending on many factors. A survey of youth as undergraduate students of Constantin Brancoveanu University from Romania revealed certain differences in attitudes regarding the genetically modified foods that may be partially explained by the consumers' information. Referring the consumer behaviour, this study showed rather a tacit attitude of acceptance of the genetically modified food goods than a vehement rejection.

  2. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  3. Genetically Modified GMDH Method with Cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2007), s. 29-37 ISSN 1870-4069. [NNAM 2007. International Conference on Neural Networks and Associative Memories /2./. Mexico City, 04.11.2007-09.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMDH neural network * genetic selection * cloning * Machine Learning Repository Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  5. Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M

    2003-05-01

    Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.

  6. Association of genetic polymorphism in GH gene with milk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associations were analysed between polymorphisms of the growth hormone gene (GH-MspI) (localized in intron 3) and milk production traits of Beijing Holstein cows (a total of 543 cows). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was used for identification of various ...

  7. Hypothesis: SLC12A3 Polymorphism modifies thiazide hypersensitivity of antenatal Bartter syndrome to thiazide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Cherry; Rupps, Rosemarie; Trnka, Peter; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2012-02-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with thiazide-resistant Bartter syndrome. This is highly unusual since thiazide hypersensitivity is a common diagnostic finding in Bartter syndrome patients. Subsequent molecular testing identified compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations in KCNJ1, (c.556A > G and c.683G > A) which is associated with Bartter syndrome, and a paternally inherited polymorphism in SLC12A3 (c.791G > C). Mutations in SLC12A3 cause the thiazide-resistant tubulopathy Gitelman syndrome. Based on published studies of this polymorphism in SLC12A3 and the features of the proband's father, we postulate that this polymorphism modifies the phenotype of Bartter syndrome in the proband to thiazide resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Gidalevitz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  9. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda

    risk evaluation. The scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) considers seven specific areas of concern to be addressed by applicants and risk assessors during the ERA (1) persistence and invasiveness of the GM plant , or its compatible......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...... organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach...

  10. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...

  11. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  12. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  13. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical....

  15. Genetic polymorphisms of T-1131C APOA5 and ALOX5AP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 2. Genetic polymorphisms of T-1131C APOA5 and ALOX5AP SG13S114 with the susceptibility of ischemic stroke in Morocco. BREHIMA DIAKITE KHALIL HAMZI WIAM HMIMECH SELLAMA NADIFI GMRAVC. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 2 June 2016 pp ...

  16. Genetic polymorphism within the Leishmania donovani complex: correlation with geographic origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Eva; Jirků, Milan; Mauricio, I. L.; Miles, M. A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2004), s. 613-617 ISSN 0002-9637 Grant - others:European Community(XE) QLK2-CT-2001-01810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : genetic polymorphism * Leishmania donovani * RAPD Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.013, year: 2004

  17. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: short tandem repeat, repeat motif, genetic polymorphism, Han population, forensic genetics. INTRODUCTION. Short tandem repeat (STR) is widely .... Data analysis. The exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was conducted with. Arlequin version 3.5 software (Computational and Molecular.

  18. Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Conway

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other nutrients more efficiently. Over the past 10 years, in addition supporting ecological approaches, the Rockefeller Foundation has funded the training of some 400 developing-country scientists in the techniques of biotechnology. Most of the new crop varieties are the result of tissue culture and marker-aided selection. The Foundation also supports the production of genetically engineered rices, including a new rice engineered for beta carotene (the precursor of Vitamin A in the grain. Some specific steps can be taken by Monsanto that would improve acceptance of plant biotechnology in both the developing and the industrialized worlds: label; disavow gene protection (terminator systems; phase out the use of antibiotic resistance markers; agree (with big seed companies to use the plant variety protection system, rather than patents, in developing countries; establish an independently administered fellowship program to train developing-country scientists in crop biotechnology, biosafety, and intellectual property; donate useful technologies to developing countries; agree to share financial rewards from intellectual property rights on varieties such as basmati or jasmine rice with the countries of origin; and

  19. Early Prediction of Sepsis Incidence in Critically Ill Patients Using Specific Genetic Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vlad Laurentiu; Ercisli, Muhammed Furkan; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Boia, Eugen S; Horhat, Razvan; Nitu, Razvan; Diaconu, Mircea M; Pirtea, Laurentiu; Ciuca, Ioana; Horhat, Delia; Horhat, Florin George; Licker, Monica; Popovici, Sonia Elena; Tanasescu, Sonia; Tataru, Calin

    2017-06-01

    Several diagnostic methods for the evaluation and monitoring were used to find out the pro-inflammatory status, as well as incidence of sepsis in critically ill patients. One such recent method is based on investigating the genetic polymorphisms and determining the molecular and genetic links between them, as well as other sepsis-associated pathophysiologies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in critical patients with sepsis can become a revolutionary method for evaluating and monitoring these patients. Similarly, the complications, as well as the high costs associated with the management of patients with sepsis, can be significantly reduced by early initiation of intensive care.

  20. CLC-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as potential modifiers of cystic fibrosis disease severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Carol J; Howard, Timothy D; Stern, Augustus; Bamford, Penelope; Bleecker, Eugene R; Stine, O Colin

    2004-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease manifest by impaired chloride secretion leads to eventual respiratory failure. Candidate genes that may modify CF lung disease severity include alternative chloride channels. The objectives of this study are to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the airway epithelial chloride channel, CLC-2, and correlate these polymorphisms with CF lung disease. Methods The CLC-2 promoter, intron 1 and exon 20 were examined for SNPs in adult CF dF508/dF508 homozygotes with mild and severe lung disease (forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) > 70% and < 40%). Results PCR amplification of genomic CLC-2 and sequence analysis revealed 1 polymorphism in the hClC -2 promoter, 4 in intron 1, and none in exon 20. Fisher's analysis within this data set, did not demonstrate a significant relationship between the severity of lung disease and SNPs in the CLC-2 gene. Conclusions CLC-2 is not a key modifier gene of CF lung phenotype. Further studies evaluating other phenotypes associated with CF may be useful in the future to assess the ability of CLC-2 to modify CF disease severity. PMID:15507145

  1. CLC-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as potential modifiers of cystic fibrosis disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleecker Eugene R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease manifest by impaired chloride secretion leads to eventual respiratory failure. Candidate genes that may modify CF lung disease severity include alternative chloride channels. The objectives of this study are to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the airway epithelial chloride channel, CLC-2, and correlate these polymorphisms with CF lung disease. Methods The CLC-2 promoter, intron 1 and exon 20 were examined for SNPs in adult CF dF508/dF508 homozygotes with mild and severe lung disease (forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1 > 70% and Results PCR amplification of genomic CLC-2 and sequence analysis revealed 1 polymorphism in the hClC -2 promoter, 4 in intron 1, and none in exon 20. Fisher's analysis within this data set, did not demonstrate a significant relationship between the severity of lung disease and SNPs in the CLC-2 gene. Conclusions CLC-2 is not a key modifier gene of CF lung phenotype. Further studies evaluating other phenotypes associated with CF may be useful in the future to assess the ability of CLC-2 to modify CF disease severity.

  2. Huntingtin interacting proteins are genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Kaltenbach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to

  3. ADA genetic polymorphism and the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Magrini, A; Cozzoli, E; Bergamaschi, A; Bottini, E

    2008-11-01

    Genetic variability of metabolic enzymes may influence the effect of cigarette smoking on intrauterine development and on early neonatal events. To investigate the role of adenosine deaminase genetic polymorphism on the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters. Analysis of association between adenosine deaminase phenotypes and neonatal developmental parameters. Prospective study of serum bilirubin level in relation to adenosine deaminase phenotype. We have studied 360 consecutive newborn infants from the Caucasian population of Rome. Serum bilirubin concentration was determined at birth and every 24 h for the first five days. Overall maternal smoking is associated with a slight decrease in the incidence of phototherapy (13.4% in non smoking vs 11.7% in smoking mothers) and with a reduction of birth weight (3374 g in non smoking mothers vs 3133 g in smoking mothers). There is a significant interaction between smoke and adenosine deaminase. While in non smoking mothers the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is higher than in ADA 1 phenotype, in infants from smoking mothers the pattern is reversed and the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is lower than in infants with ADA 1 phenotype. Other neonatal bilirubin parameters follow a similar pattern of interaction between smoking and ADA. The negative effect of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in infant with ADA 1 phenotype than in those carrying the ADA 2 allele. The data suggest that ADA phenotype modifies the effect of smoking on developmental and bilirubin parameters.

  4. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Ghodsian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (P<0.05. Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population.

  5. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  6. Biodiversity analyses for risk assessment of genetically modified potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Dicke, Marcel; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the

  7. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social

  8. The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Phillips, P.W.B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected

  9. Investigating an Ethical Approach to Genetically Modified Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the context of broader debates about the struggle for food security and poverty alleviation to achieve sustainable development. The prospects of GM crops as a technological innovation have provoked numerous debates and environmental concern ...

  10. Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1990, China's agricultural biotechnology sector has experienced tremendous growth. A recent survey shows that the country is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside North America. Public investment in the sector, as well as the number of genetically modified (GM) crops commercialized, ...

  11. Detection of genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the second major cereal in Nepal; its food biosafety and ecological conservation is an important concern. To address this issue, it is necessary to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not have legal regulations or labeling directives ...

  12. Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the ...

  13. Identification of Genetically Modified Foods - problems and unsolved questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...

  14. Consumer Preference for Genetically Modified Halal Yogurt Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hasnah Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers worldwide have reacted negatively to food products made from genetically modified (GM ingredients. This study strives to understand the importance placed by consumers on the features of a product when purchasing halal yogurt drinks with GM or non GM ingredient along with the level of antioxidants, price, flavor and Halal certification from JAKIM. In addition, their attitudes towards genetically modified foods, in general, and their purchase intention towards genetically modified yo- gurt drinks, in particular, were also determined. Experimental design using a convenience sampling was used; 120 eligible responses were received from the study using three types of yogurt drinks. The research findings showed that nutrition was deemed as being the most important product feature that influenced the decision in purchasing yogurt drinks, followed by freshness, price, flavor, variety, and origin. Furthermore, it was found that respondents presented a neutral attitude and purchase intention towards genetically modified yogurt drinks. The recommendations to market practitioners, research limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also discussed.

  15. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...

  16. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are claims that fear towards new technology has been caused by the lack of information and education on the subject to the public. Modern biotechnology and its applications have been receiving the same criticism. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the trends and coverage of genetically modified food ...

  17. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries...

  18. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  19. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  20. Competition with mandatory labeling of genetically modified products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In April 2004, the European Union adopted a new legislative framework for genetically modified (GM) organisms. This framework regulates the placing on the market of GM products, and demands these products to be labeled as such. We present a duopoly model with vertical differentiation and mandatory

  1. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  2. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  3. Field testing genetically modified organisms: framework for decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1989-01-01

    ... on Scientific Evaluation of the Introduction of Genetically Modified Microoganisms and Plants into the Environment Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-s...

  4. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  5. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David J.; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Freeman, Christine M.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hersh, Craig P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kaner, Robert J.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10−392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  6. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750; COPDGene (N = 590] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs. PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs. Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392 explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC. Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER, surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD, and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis, but distant (trans pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2 for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  7. Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms modify the association between paroxetine serotonin transporter occupancy and clinical response in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Ooteman, Wendy; Booij, Jan; Michel, Martin C.; Moeton, Martina; Baas, Frank; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In major depressive disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors target the serotonin transporter (SERT). Their response rates (30-50%) are modified by SERT promotor polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between SERT occupancy and response, and whether

  8. Ecosensitivity and genetic polymorphism of somatic traits in the perinatal development of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Małgorzata; Cieślik, Krystyna; Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Wielgus, Karolina; Kempiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Grzegorz; Słomski, Ryszard

    2016-04-01

    In view of criticism regarding the usefulness of heritability coefficients, the aim of this study was to analyze separately the information on genetic and environmental variability. Such an approach, based on the normalization of trait's variability for its value, is determined by the coefficients of genetic polymorphism (Pg) and ecosensitivity (De). The studied material included 1263 twin pairs of both sexes (among them 424 pairs of monozygotic twins and 839 pairs of dizygotic twins) born between the 22nd and 41st week of gestation. Variability of six somatic traits was analyzed. The zygosity of same-sex twins was determined based on the polymorphism of DNA from lymphocytes of the umbilical cord blood, obtained at birth. The coefficients of genetic polymorphism and ecosensitivity for analyzed traits of male and female twins born at various months of gestation were calculated. Our study revealed that a contribution of the genetic component predominated over that of the environmental component in determining the phenotypic variability of somatic traits of newborns from twin pregnancies. The genetically determined phenotypic variability in male twins was greater than in the females. The genetic polymorphism and ecosensitivity of somatic traits were relatively stable during the period of fetal ontogeny analyzed in this study. Only in the case of body weight, a slight increase in the genetic contribution of polygenes to the phenotypic variance could be observed with gestational age, along with a slight decrease in the influence of environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  10. Genetic association between polymorphism of mdm2 gene and symptoms and pathological types of NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaolan; Wang Weili; Zhang Xueying; Hao Ming; Liu Linlin; Wu Zhenfeng; Jiang Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the genetic association between polymorphism of mdm2 gene and symptoms and pathological types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to identify mdm2 genotypes. The Pearson Chi square test and Woolf statistic method were used to analyze the relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to find the genetic association between polymorphism of mdm2 gene and symptoms and pathological types of NSCLC. Results: In the SNP rs1196337 (a G to A base change) AA genotype showed association with cough of NSCLC (P<0.05). Conclusion: The polymorphism of mdm2 gene may be associated with symptom as cough of NSCLC. (authors)

  11. [Genetically modified organisms in food--production, detection and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljezić, Davor

    2004-11-01

    The first genetically modified plant (GMP) was a tobacco resistant to antibiotics in 1983. In 1996, the first genetically altered crop, a delayed-ripening tomato was commercially released. In the year 2003, the estimated global area of GM crops for was 67.7 million hectares. To produce such a plant a gene of interest has to be isolated from the donor. Together with a promoter, terminator sequence and marker gene it has to be introduced into the plant cell which is then stimulated to generate a whole GMP expressing new characteristics (herbicide/insect resistance, delayed ripening). The last few months have seen a strong public debate over genetically modified organisms which has raised scientific, economic, political, and ethical issues. Some questions concerning the safety of GMPs are still to be answered, and decisions about their future should be based on scientifically validated information.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of vitamin D receptor determines its metabolism and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    O.A. Yakovleva; O.M. Nikolova; I.A. Doroshkevych; N.V. Shcherbeniuk

    2017-01-01

    The review represents the results of researches of vitamin D receptor characteristics and its genetic polymorphism, which is variable in different populations, and also depends on age and gender. This polymorphism determines the association of vitamin D different concentration with the probability of bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development, and therefore the different efficacy of drug correction of vitamin D deficiency. However, the scientific data are contradict...

  13. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  14. [Association between HRE-2 gene polymorphism at codon 655 and genetic susceptibility of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Zhang, Yong-jing; Liu, Bing; Ni, Qin; Jin, Ming-juan; Ma, Xin-yuan; Yao, Kai-yan; Li, Qi-long; Chen, Kun

    2009-06-01

    To explore the distribution of HER-2 genetic polymorphism at codon 655 and its association with susceptibility of colorectal cancer in Chinese. A population-based case-control study was carried out. 292 patients with colorectal cancer and 842 healthy controls were interviewed. Meanwhile, the genetic polymorphism of HRE-2 was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of Ile/Val+Val/Val genotypes and Val allele were both higher in cases (25.34% and 13.36%) than those in controls (18.41% and 9.74%) (P<0.05). Compared with Ile/Ile genotype, Ile/Val+Val/Val genotypes were significantly associated with colorectal cancer [ORadjusted=1.54, 95% CI: 1.11-2.14]. The adjusted odds ratio of interactions between this polymorphism and smoking, alcohol drinking were 1.43 (95%CI: 0.88-2.30) and 1.29 (95%CI: 0.73-2.29), respectively. The present findings suggest that HER-2 genetic polymorphism at codon 655 may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese. In addition, there are no interactions between this polymorphism and smoking, alcohol drinking, respectively.

  15. CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms in Ecuador, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Paz-y-Miño

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. The frequency of the val allele at codon 462 was 0.50, while the frequency of the Msp I restriction site, m2 allele at the T6235C position was 0.70. These polymorphisms in Ecuador have higher frequencies if we compare with others around the world, with the exception of some South American population in Brazil and Chile.

  16. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic studies of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Many wild animal species lack informative genetic markers for analysing genetic variation and ... which act as important buffer zones between human and wildlife. ..... amplification tests of ungulate primers in the endangered.

  17. [Genetic polymorphism of Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosula, M Z; Konvaliuk, I I; Mel'nyk, V M; Drobyk, N M; Tsaryk, I V; Nesteruk, Iu I; Kunakh, V A

    2014-01-01

    The features of genetic structure and level of diversity were investigated for G. lutea populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians using RAPD- and ISSR-PCR. We have shown a high level of genetic diversity for investigated populations. The differences between populations account for 59-72% of the total genetic variation, whereas intrapopulation polymorphism makes up 28-41%. The relationships among genetic variability level and ecological-geographical conditions as well as biological features of the species were assumed to be possible. The obtained results indicate the genetic isolation of G. lutea Chornohora populations from Ukrainian Carpathians. Pozhyzhevska agropopulation was characterized by a high level of polymorphism that means the possibility to use artificial plantings of the investigated species for its conservation.

  18. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in inflammatory…

  19. Analysis of three genetic polymorphisms in Malaysian essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... In addition, a large study of 933 Hong Kong Chinese with various aspects of the metabolic syndrome, the ... gene and C825T polymorphism of GNβ3 gene in Malay- sian essential hypertensive and type 2 ... Socio-demographic factors were assessed by both Malay and. English language questionnaires.

  20. Genetic polymorphism in postoperative sepsis after open heart surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Dicky; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Murni, Tri Wahyu; Rachmat, Jusuf; Harahap, Alida Roswita; Rahayuningsih, Sri Endah; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Santoso, Anwar

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis is one of the complications following open heart surgery. Toll-like receptor 2 and toll-interacting protein polymorphism influence the immune response after open heart surgery. This study aimed to assess the genetic distribution of toll-like receptor 2 N199N and toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism in the development of postoperative sepsis. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 108 children open heart surgery with a Basic Aristotle score ≥6. Patients with an accompanying congenital anomaly, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or history of previous open heart surgery were excluded. The patients' nutritional status and genetic polymorphism were assessed prior to surgery. The results of genetic polymorphism were obtained through genotyping. Patients' ages on the day of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass times were recorded. The diagnosis of sepsis was established according to Surviving Sepsis Campaign criteria. Postoperative sepsis was observed in 21% of patients. There were 92.6% patients with toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism and 52.8% with toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism. Toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism tends to increase the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 1.974; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-16.92; p = 0.504), while toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism tends to decrease the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 0.496; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.27; p = 0.139) in infants open heart surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Modify the Association between FTO Genetic Variations and Obesity Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet with FTO polymorphisms in relation to obesity phenotypes. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants. Each case was individually matched with a normal weight control (n = 1254. Selected polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939973, and rs3751812 were genotyped. Genetic risk score (GRS were calculated using the weighted method. The Mediterranean dietary score (MDS was computed. Individuals with minor allele carriers of rs9939973, rs8050136, rs1781749, and rs3751812 had lower risk of obesity when they had higher MDS, compared to wild-type homozygote genotype carriers. The obesity risk was decreased across quartiles of MDS in participants with high GRS (OR: 1, 0.8, 0.79, 0.67 compared to individuals with low GRS (OR: 1.33, 1.06, 0.97, 1.12 (Pinteraction < 0.05. No significant interaction between the GRS and MDS on abdominal obesity was found. A higher Med Diet adherence was associated with lower obesity risk in subjects with more genetic predisposition to obesity, compared to those with lower adherence to the Med Diet and lower GRS.

  2. Regulatory science requirements of labeling of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Jaeger, Lisa M; Shafei, Dania; Bloom, Lindsey L

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. Genetic diversity analysis of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) based on methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanaketu, T; Sangduen, N; Toojinda, T; Hongtrakul, V

    2012-04-13

    Genetic analysis of 56 samples of Jatropha curcas L. collected from Thailand and other countries was performed using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Nine primer combinations were used to generate MSAP fingerprints. When the data were interpreted as amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, 471 markers were scored. All 56 samples were classified into three major groups: γ-irradiated, non-toxic and toxic accessions. Genetic similarity among the samples was extremely high, ranging from 0.95 to 1.00, which indicated very low genetic diversity in this species. The MSAP fingerprint was further analyzed for DNA methylation polymorphisms. The results revealed differences in the DNA methylation level among the samples. However, the samples collected from saline areas and some species hybrids showed specific DNA methylation patterns. AFLP data were used, together with methylation-sensitive AFLP (MS-AFLP) data, to construct a phylogenetic tree, resulting in higher efficiency to distinguish the samples. This combined analysis separated samples previously grouped in the AFLP analysis. This analysis also distinguished some hybrids. Principal component analysis was also performed; the results confirmed the separation in the phylogenetic tree. Some polymorphic bands, involving both nucleotide and DNA methylation polymorphism, that differed between toxic and non-toxic samples were identified, cloned and sequenced. BLAST analysis of these fragments revealed differences in DNA methylation in some known genes and nucleotide polymorphism in chloroplast DNA. We conclude that MSAP is a powerful technique for the study of genetic diversity for organisms that have a narrow genetic base.

  5. Global Status of Genetically Modified Crops: Current Trends and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hautea, Randy A.

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology-facilitated crop improvement is undoubtedly one of the most significant technological developments in agriculture. The first wave of genetically-modified (GM) or transgenic crops include cultivars with important input traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. Future products are expected to provide benefits that could include tolerance to environmental stresses and enhanced nutritional content, which can be particularly valuable in crops that are important...

  6. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves

    2015-01-01

    Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...

  7. Examining consumer behaviour toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined behaviour towards genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioural influences in this domain. Here the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral no...

  8. Rejecting New Technology: The Case of Genetically Modified Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Berwald; Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère

    2006-01-01

    Canada has stringent regulations covering the release of new wheat varieties, but the United States has virtually no regulations in this area. Monsanto Co. developed genetically modified (GM) spring wheat for North America, and made a commitment to the U.S. industry to release this new technology simultaneously in both Canada and the United States, or not at all. The Canadian regulatory bias against new varieties acted as a veto against GM wheat and caused Monsanto to shelve the technology in...

  9. Farmers' understandings of genetically modified crops within local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew; Oreszczyn, Sue; Carr, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Much of the debate around the science and technology of genetically modified (GM) crops has focussed on the policies and practices of national governments and international organisations or on the acceptability of GM products with consumers. Little work had been done with the primary users of such technologies – farmers. Further, the management of knowledge has become a significant issue for all sectors of the economy and yet little attention had again been given to farmers ...

  10. Genetic diversity of edible mushroom pleurotus spp. revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic dna fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N. A.; Awan, F. S.; Khan, A. I.; Waseem, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) cultivation is a profitable agribusiness and having high significance due its nutritive and therapeutic value. Due to deficient knowledge on Pleurotus mushroom genetics seven strains of Oyster mushroom, two local and five exotic were studied for their genetic diversity through RAPD markers. It was clear from similarity matrix that similarity index ranges from 45 to 72%. The cluster analysis of combined data set of all the markers resulted in three major clades, while isolate P-17 remains ungrouped and shown to be the most diverse strain of the seven. During amplification of genomic DNA yielded 70 fragments that could be scored, of which 41 were polymorphic, with an average of 2.73 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with random primers ranged from three to six. Polymorphism ranged from 0% to 83.33%, with an overall 58% polymorphism. The allele frequency of RAPD primers ranged from 0.71 to 1.00 while the polymorphic information content highest for the primer GL-C-20 (0.29) followed by the primers GL A-20 and GL C-16 that is zero, indicating medium level of polymorphism among the strains of Oyster mushroom. The objective of the study was to characterize Pleurotus strains collected from different origins and to find out the variability at molecular level. (author)

  11. Genetic Polymorphism at Acaca Locus and Its Relationship With Productive Performances in Ettawa Crossbred Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucik Maylinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research with aim to estimate genetic polymorphism at ACACA (Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase locus in Ettawa Crossbred goat wan its relationship with production traits was done at goat population in Batu, Lawang and Ampel Gading. 46 female goats were taken it’s blood sample to isolate the DNA and continue with PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and RFLP (Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism. PCR was used to amplify ACACA gene fragment in intron 3’ about 200 bp with primer F : 5’ – AGT GTA GAA GGG ACA GCC CAG C – 3’ and R : 5’ – GTG GAA TGA CAC ATG GAG AGG G – 3’; RFLP was used to test mutation of that fragment in particular place (point using restriction enzyme RSA1. Variables were alelles and genotypes composition in population, milk and fat content, and birth weight of kid. Result showed that (a genetic polymorphism at locus ACACA in three location was high that is 44,22 %, with allele frequency of G (p = 33 % and allele T (q = 67 %; (b no relationship between the high polymorphism with productive performance of goat in fat and protein content, and birth weight of kid. It was concluded that in goat population there was a high polymorphism at ACACA gene, and that polymorphism was not related to production.

  12. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms in Huntington's disease are modified by polymorphisms in catecholamine regulating enzyme genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, T; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Budtz-Jørgensen, E

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene but the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Dopamine imbalance has......-described cohort of Danish HD gene-expansion carriers. We show that cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in HD are modified by polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes and by the 4p16.3 B haplotype. These results support the theory of dopamine imbalance...

  13. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  15. Paraoxonase1 Genetic Polymorphisms in a Mixed Ancestry African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity is markedly influenced by coding polymorphisms, Q/R at position 192 and M/L at position 55 of the PON1 gene. We investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their effects on PON1 and antioxidant activities in 844 South African mixed ancestry individuals. Genotyping was done using allele-specific TaqMan technology, PON1 activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate, oxidative status was determined by measuring the antioxidant activities of ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers included malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. The frequencies of Q192R and L55M were 47.6% and 28.8%, respectively, and the most common corresponding alleles were 192R (60.4% and 55M (82.6%. The Q192 was significantly associated with 5.8 units’ increase in PON1 concentration and 15.4 units’ decrease in PONase activity after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes, with suggestion of differential effects by diabetes status. The PON1 L55 variant was associated with none of the measured indices. In conclusion, we have shown that the Q192R polymorphism is a determinant of both PON1 concentration and activity and this association appeared to be enhanced in subjects with diabetes.

  16. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  17. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  18. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  19. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  20. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  1. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  2. Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; López, Ana García; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort design. We used an empirical and a statistical simulation approach. The stratification strategies were: no smoking stratification, stratification for smoking status and stratification......The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification...... for smoking duration. The study base was a prospective follow-up study with 57,053 participants. In the simulation approach the glutathione S-transferase T1 null polymorphism, as a model of any polymorphism, was added to simulated data in two different ways, assuming either absence or presence of association...

  3. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  4. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Araujo, M.M.; Baldasso, J.G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000 Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found

  5. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20 Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced with four primers to distinguish among the seven known ...

  9. AFLP genetic polymorphism in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) populations in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpeinen, T.; Vanhala, T.; Nevo, E.; Nissila, E.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity produced by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was studied in 94 genotypes of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., originating from ten ecologically and geographically different locations in Israel. Eight primer pairs produced 204 discernible

  10. Genotyping and genetic diversity of Arcobacter butzleri by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Amisu, K.O.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the potential of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiling for genotyping Arcobacter butzleri and to obtain further data on the genetic diversity of this organism. Methods and Results: Seventy-three isolates of Danish, British, Turkish, Swedish, Nigerian and Nor...

  11. New exome data question the pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza; Nielsen, Morten Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal, rare hereditary disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:10 000. The genetic variants that cause CPVT are usually highly penetrant. To date, about 189 variants in 5 genes (RYR2, CASQ2, CALM1, TRND, and KCNJ2) have been...

  12. Differential diagnosis of genetic disease by DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Defesche, J. C.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are used for diagnosis of genetic disease in families known to be affected by specific disorders, but RFLPs can be also useful for the differential diagnosis of hereditary disease. An RFLP pattern represents the inheritance of chromosomal markers

  13. Genetic analysis of glucosinolate variability in broccoli florets using genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Reid, Robert W; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Thomas, Aswathy; Krueger, Christopher; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Jackson, Eric; Juvik, John A

    2015-07-01

    The identification of genetic factors influencing the accumulation of individual glucosinolates in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of glucosinolate levels in Brassica vegetables and will accelerate the development of vegetables with glucosinolate profiles tailored to promote human health. Quantitative trait loci analysis of glucosinolate (GSL) variability was conducted with a B. oleracea (broccoli) mapping population, saturated with single nucleotide polymorphism markers from a high-density array designed for rapeseed (Brassica napus). In 4 years of analysis, 14 QTLs were associated with the accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, or aromatic GSLs in floret tissue. The accumulation of 3-carbon aliphatic GSLs (2-propenyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl) was primarily associated with a single QTL on C05, but common regulation of 4-carbon aliphatic GSLs was not observed. A single locus on C09, associated with up to 40 % of the phenotypic variability of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GSL over multiple years, was not associated with the variability of precursor compounds. Similarly, QTLs on C02, C04, and C09 were associated with 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL concentration over multiple years but were not significantly associated with downstream compounds. Genome-specific SNP markers were used to identify candidate genes that co-localized to marker intervals and previously sequenced Brassica oleracea BAC clones containing known GSL genes (GSL-ALK, GSL-PRO, and GSL-ELONG) were aligned to the genomic sequence, providing support that at least three of our 14 QTLs likely correspond to previously identified GSL loci. The results demonstrate that previously identified loci do not fully explain GSL variation in broccoli. The identification of additional genetic factors influencing the accumulation of GSL in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of GSL levels in Brassicaceae and will accelerate development of vegetables with modified or enhanced GSL

  14. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  15. Genetic Evidence for Modifying Oceanic Boundaries Relative to Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J

    2016-07-01

    We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.

  16. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Selma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

  17. The Analysis of Genetic Polymorphism. The Relationship between Interleukin – 4 Polymorphisms and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia

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    Florin STAMATIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin 4 plays a critical role in T helper 2 responses to HPV infection and angiogenesis. The present study aim to study the association between the IL4 promoter polymorphism – 590 C>T, respectively VNTR intron 2 polymorphism and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Material and method: We have realized a prospective case controls study that included 128 cases of intraepithelial neoplasia positive for HPV HR testing and 111 controls negative for intraepithelial lesion and also negative for HPV HR. Clinical examination was performed on each patient; blood and cervical sample were obtained. Cervical probes were analyzed regarding cytology and HPV HR testing. From peripheral blood DNA sample was obtain followed by genotype analysis for IL4 -590 C>T using PCR RFLP, respectively IL4 70 bp VNTR determined by PCR. Results: The absolute frequency of genotypes for IL4 -590 C>T was T/T-5, C/T-42, C/C-81 in the cases group respectively T/T-2, C/T-32, C/C-77 in the control group. The chi-square test had a value of 0.983 (p=0.321 while considering the presence of a minimum one single variant allele as a risk factor for cervical cancer, respectively 0.926 (p=0.336 for homozygous variant genotype. Odds ratio was 0.761 (95%CI [0.443-1.306] while considering C/T+T/T respectively 2R/3R, 2R/2R as a risk factor, and 0.451 (95%CI 95% [0.086-2.374] - TT respectively 2R/2R as a risk factor. Conclusion: No linear statistical significant association has been found between IL4 polymorphism and cervical neoplasia (p = 0.322.

  18. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.

  19. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of PPAR gamma, arsenic methylation capacity and breast cancer risk in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Belmontes, Cristina P; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Cebrián, Mariano E; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPARγ (Pro 1 2Ala) and PPARGC1B (Ala203Pro) modifies the association between the inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity and breast cancer (BC). Mexican women were interviewed, and blood and urine samples were collected from them (cases/controls= 197/220). The concentration of urinary arsenic species and the polymorphisms of interest were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. In women with a high %MMA (urinary monomethyl arsenic) and high primary methylation ratio (PM = MMA/iAs), the risk of BC was increased (odds ratio [OR]%MMA T3 vs.T1= 3.60: 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-6.41, ORPMI T3 vs.T1= 3.47: 95%CI 1.95-6.17), which was maintained after adjusting for polymorphisms. No significant interactions were observed between the polymorphisms and the arsenic variables on the risk of BC. Pro 12Ala and Ala203Pro polymorphisms did not modify the association between the iAs methylation capacity and BC.

  1. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  2. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  3. The Role of Dopamine in Anticipatory Pursuit Eye Movements: Insights from Genetic Polymorphisms in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billino, Jutta; Hennig, Jürgen; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations. We measured smooth pursuit in 110 healthy subjects genotyped for two well-documented polymorphisms, the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism and the SLC6A3 3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism. Pursuit paradigms were chosen to particularly assess the ability of the pursuit system to initiate tracking when target motion onset is blanked, reflecting the impact of extraretinal signals. In contrast, when following a fully visible target sensory, retinal signals are available. Our results highlight the crucial functional role of dopamine for anticipatory, but not for sensory-driven, pursuit processes. We found the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism specifically associated with anticipatory pursuit parameters, emphasizing the dominant impact of prefrontal dopamine activity on complex oculomotor control. In contrast, modulation of striatal dopamine activity by the SLC6A3 3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism had no significant functional effect. Though often neglected so far, individual differences in healthy subjects provide a promising approach to uncovering functional mechanisms and can be used as a bridge to understanding deficits in patients.

  4. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms and Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Nielsen, Lecia M; Feddersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    , kappa, and delta opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRK1, and OPRD1) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) influenced the pain phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis. METHODS: The frequencies of 17 polymorphisms were examined. Pain sensitivity was assessed preoperatively by (1) hip rotation......BACKGROUND: Factors such as age, gender, and genetic polymorphisms may explain individual differences in pain phenotype. Genetic associations with pain sensitivity have previously been investigated in osteoarthritis patients, with a focus on the P2X7, TRPV1, and TACR1 genes. However, other genes...... may play a role as well. Osteoarthritis is a common joint disease, and many patients suffering from this disease are thought to have increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli resulting from sensitization in the nociceptive system. The aim of this study was to investigate if genetic variants of mu...

  5. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bartholomaeus, A.; Bregitzer, P.; Doerrer, N.G.; Gray, A.; Holzhauzer, T.; Jordan, M.; Keese, P.; Kok, E.J.; Macdonald, P.; Parrott, W.; Privalle, L.; Raybould, A.; Rhee, S.Y.; Rice, E.; Romeis, J.; Vaughn, J.; Wal, J.M.; Glenn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  7. Genetic Polymorphism of Secretoglobin SCGB1A1 and Development of Lung Pathology in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Malaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation — to study of A(38G genetic polymorphism of the first exon of secretoglobin SCGB1A1 in Crimean children and to identify the possible correlation between the degree of polymorphism and development of lung pathology (bronchial asthma and recurrent bronchitis. There were investigated DNA samples from children with bronchial asthma (75 persons, recurrent bronchitis (19 persons and healthy children (20 persons aged from 6 to 16 years. The genetic polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction with method of allele discrimination with registration the results by electrophoresis. Frequency of allele combinations of genetic variants of studied polymorphism was different in patients with bronchial asthma, recurrent bronchitis and in control group. Thus, among patients with bronchial asthma the frequency of homozygous allele AA carriers is lower, and among patients with recurrent bronchitis it is higher then in control group. Contrary, the frequency of AG heterozygotes was higher among patients with bronchial asthma then in patients with recurrent bronchitis and in control group. Also the frequency of AG heterozygotes in patients with recurrent bronchitis is much lower than homozygotes. The obtained results can be used for prognostic purpose to evaluate the prospects of the obstructive syndrome development.

  8. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maronna Praça Longhi

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

  9. Genetically Modified Foods: Promises, Challenges and Safety Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Application of genetically modified organisms in the agriculture sector and food industry began since last years of 20th century. Since then this technology has become a central part of the broader public controversy about the advantages and safety of these products. This article has tried to review aspects of these types of organisms and foods.Results and Conclusion: Genetically modified technology has potential to overcome agricultural problems, such as biotic and abiotic issues by enhancing pests and herbicides resistance, drought tolerance, fast ripening, and finally enhancing yield and nutritional quality. Besides these revolutionary advantages, during the last decades some potential human, animal and environmental risks have been taken in account for these organisms or foods. However, no scientific evidence exists adequately about their harmful human or animal effects, and also, some new scientific and management methodologies (new technologies and regulations have been developed to mitigate the environmental risks. Some challenges such as pest adaptation are being solved by refuge technology, gene pyramiding and insertion of best-coupled primers through the known conditions reducing unintended outcomes including silencing, activation or rearrangement of non-target genome pieces. However, it does not mean that no harmful effect will happen in the future. Therefore, it is required that before release of any genetically modified crop, all requested risk assessments be performed, and then post release monitoring be done to follow the possible gene flow and prevent any potential disastrous contaminations to the food chain. Finally, it could be concluded that the safe usage of this technology, by considering all nationally and internationally accepted environmental and health safety assessment protocols, can help us to use advantages of this technology in agriculture, medicine and industry. However, more safety

  10. Genetic polymorphism of vitamin D receptor determines its metabolism and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Yakovleva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of researches of vitamin D receptor characteristics and its genetic polymorphism, which is variable in different populations, and also depends on age and gender. This polymorphism determines the association of vitamin D different concentration with the probability of bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development, and therefore the different efficacy of drug correction of vitamin D deficiency. However, the scientific data are contradictory, the molecular mechanisms of connection between vitamin D and bronchial tonus or allergic reactions remain unclear, which emphasizes the importance of studies to clarify the role of vitamin D in inflammatory, immune disorders in bronchial obstructive syndrome.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal STR loci in the Vietnamese population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Hu, Liping; Du, Lei; Nie, Aiting; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-05-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated in 522 healthy unrelated Vietnamese from Yunnan, China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999999999999999999999991 26 and 0.999999975, respectively. Results suggested that the 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic, which is suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing.

  12. No interactions between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events on outcome of antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms seem to influence the response on antidepressant treatment and moderate the impact of stress on depression. The present study aimed to assess, whether allelic variants and stressful life events interact on the clinical outcome of depression. In a sample of 290 systematically...... recruited patients diagnosed with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10, we assessed the outcome of antidepressant treatment and the presence of stressful life events in a 6-month period preceding onset of depression by means of structured interviews. Further, we genotyped nine polymorphisms...... dependent on stressful life events experienced by the individual prior to onset of depression....

  13. Genetic analysis of interleukin 18 gene polymorphisms in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sumeyya Deniz; Ates, Omer

    2018-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA), which appears as nonscarring hair shedding on any hair-bearing area, is a common organ-specific autoimmune condition. Cytokines have important roles in the development of AA. Interleukin (IL) 18 is a significant proinflammatory cytokine that was found higher in the patients with AA. We aimed to investigate whether the IL-18 (rs187238 and rs1946518) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with AA and/or clinical outcome of patients with AA in Turkish population. Genotyping of rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs were detected using sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) method in 200 patients with AA and 200 control subjects. The genotype distribution of rs1946518 (-607C>A) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and controls (P = .0008). Distribution of CC+CA genotypes and frequency of -607/allele C of rs1946518 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .001, P = .001, respectively). The genotype distribution of rs187238 (-137G>C) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and control subjects (P = .0014). Distribution of GG genotype and frequency of -137/allele G of rs187238 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .0003, P = .001, respectively). The rs1946518 (-607C>A) and rs187238 (-137G>C) polymorphisms were found associated with alopecia areata disease. The study suggests that IL-18 rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs may be the cause of the AA susceptibility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  15. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  16. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  17. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  18. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  19. A functional TNFAIP2 3'-UTR rs8126 genetic polymorphism contributes to risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidences demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR may impact microRNAs (miRNAs-mediated expression regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. There is a TNFAIP2 3'-UTR rs8126 T>C genetic variant which has been proved to be associated with head and neck cancer susceptibility. This SNP could disturb binding of miR-184 with TNFAIP2 mRNA and influence TNFAIP2 regulation. However, it is still unclear how this polymorphism is involved in development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Therefore, we hypothesized that the functional TNFAIP2 rs8126 SNP may affect TNFAIP2 expression and, thus, ESCC risk. METHODS: We investigated the association between the TNFAIP2 rs8126 variant and ESCC risk as well as the functional relevance on TNFAIP2 expression in vivo. Genotypes were determined in a case-control set consisted of 588 ESCC patients and 600 controls. The allele-specific regulation on TNFAIP2 expression by the rs8126 SNP was examined in normal and cancerous tissue specimens of esophagus. RESULTS: We found that individuals carrying the rs8126 CC or CT genotype had an OR of 1.89 (95%CI  = 1.23-2.85, P = 0.003 or 1.38 (95%CI  = 1.05-1.73, P = 0.017 for developing ESCC in Chinese compared with individual carrying the TT genotype. Carriers of the rs8126 CC and CT genotypes had significantly lower TNFAIP2 mRNA levels than those with the TT genotypes in normal esophagus tissues (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that functional TNFAIP2 rs8126 genetic variant is a ESCC susceptibility SNP. These results support the hypothesis that genetic variants interrupting miRNA-mediated gene regulation might be important genetic modifiers of cancer risk.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway enzymes, DRD4 and GSTM1 are related to temporomandibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayor-Olea Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a multifactorial syndrome related to a critical period of human life. TMD has been associated with psychological dysfunctions, oxidative state and sexual dimorphism with coincidental occurrence along the pubertal development. In this work we study the association between TMD and genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolism, neurotransmission, oxidative and hormonal metabolism. Folate metabolism, which depends on genes variations and diet, is directly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations that can influence the changes of last growing period of development in human and the appearance of the TMD. Methods A case-control study was designed to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms above described on TMD. A total of 229 individuals (69% women were included at the study; 86 were patients with TMD and 143 were healthy control subjects. Subjects underwent to a clinical examination following the guidelines by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD. Genotyping of 20 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs, divided in two groups, was performed by multiplex minisequencing preceded by multiplex PCR. Other seven genetic polymorphisms different from SNPs (deletions, insertions, tandem repeat, null genotype were achieved by a multiplex-PCR. A chi-square test was performed to determine the differences in genotype and allelic frequencies between TMD patients and healthy subjects. To estimate TMD risk, in those polymorphisms that shown significant differences, odds ratio (OR with a 95% of confidence interval were calculated. Results Six of the polymorphisms showed statistical associations with TMD. Four of them are related to enzymes of folates metabolism: Allele G of Serine Hydoxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1 rs1979277 (OR = 3.99; 95%CI 1.72, 9.25; p = 0.002, allele G of SHMT1 rs638416 (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 1.51, 5.21; p = 0.013, allele T of Methylentetrahydrofolate

  1. Genetic diversity and structure analysis based on hordein protein polymorphism in barley landrace populations from jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A.W.; Ali, M.; Baloch, A.M.; Mangan, B.U.N.; Song, W

    2014-01-01

    Jordan is unanimously considered to be one of the centers of genetic diversity for barley, where wild and landraces of barley has been grown under different climatic conditions. The genetic diversity and genetic structure based on hordein polymorphism was assessed in 90 different accessions collected from four different sites of Jordan. A-PAGE was used to reveal hordein polymorphism among the genotypes. A total of 29 distinct bands were identified, out of them 9 bands were distinguished for D, 11 for C, and 9 for the B hordein regions. The observed genetic similarity was an exceptionally high between the populations than expected, which is probably due to high gene flow estimated between them. The genetic diversity parameters were not differ largely among the populations, indicating that local selection of a particular site did not play a key role in shaping genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant population structure when accessions were structured according to population site. There was 94% of hordein variation resided within the populations and only 8% present among the populations. Both Bayesian and Principale Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) concordantly demonstrated admixture genotypes of the landraces barley populations. Consequently, none of the population found to be clustered separately according to its population site. It is concluded that this approach can be useful to explore the germplasm for genetic diversity but perhaps is not suitable for determining phylogenic relations in barley. (author)

  2. Application of sequence-related amplified polymorphism to genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reported that 19.3% of total genetic diversity resides among the populations of 29 outbreeding species (Bussell 1999). L. sinense is an insect-pollinated, outcrossing species .... For the special habitat of L. sinense, in situ conserva- tion should be first recommended. For ex situ conservation, we need to design and establish a ...

  3. Genetic Polymorphism Of Glutathione-S-Transferase And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic tobacoo smoking is a major risk factor in the development of. COPD. However, it is estimated that only 10-20% of chronic heavy smokers will develop symptomatic COPD. This indicates the possible contribution of environmental or genetic cofactors to the development of COPD in smokers. The present work aimed ...

  4. Genetic polymorphism in FOXP3 gene: imbalance in regulatory T ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... In contrast, high Treg levels have been reported in peripheral blood, lymph ... patients with different types of cancer. ... Therefore, in the present study, the relationship between genetic ... (amino acids 240–261) and a carboxy-terminal forkhead ... FOXP3 in tumour cells indicates that FOXP3-targeted drugs.

  5. Tanaman Genetically Modified Organism (GMO dan Perspektif Hukumnya di Indonesia

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    Yuwono Prianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Genetically modified organism (GMO merupakan organisme yang gen-gennya telah diubah dengan menggunakan teknik rekayasa genetika. Produk rekayasa genetika diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu generasi pertama: satu sifat; generasi kedua: kumpulan sifat; generasi ketiga dan keempat: near-intragenic, intragenic, dan cisgenic. Adapun produk rekayasa genetika pada tanaman di Indonesia di antaranya adalah padi, tomat, tebu, singkong, dan kentang. Regulasi tanaman hasil rekayasa genetika diatur oleh beberapa lembaga, di antaranya Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Pertanian, Komisi Keamanan Hayati, Tim Teknis Keamanan Hayati, dan Biosafety Clearing House, berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah No. 21 tahun 2005. Pengujian yang dilakukan pada produk rekayasa genetika meliputi analisis sumber gen penyebab alergi, sekuens homolog asam amino, resistensi pepsin, skrining serum, serta penggunaan hewan uji. Berbagai produk GMO di Indonesia sejauh ini merupakan produk yang dibutuhkan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari, yang perlu diawasi secara ketat dari segi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan melalui ketentuan hukum yang berlaku, yang diwakili oleh instansi-instansi terkait tersebut.Abstract Genetically modified organism (GMO is an organism whose genes that have been altered by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering products are classified into 4 types, which are the first generation: one trait; the second generation: a collection of properties; the third and fourth generation: near-intragenic, intragenic, and cisgenic. The genetic engineering products in plants in Indonesia include rice, tomatoes, sugar cane, cassava, and potatoes. The application of the genetically engineered crops is regulated by several institutions, including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Biosafety Commission, the Biosafety Technical Team and the Biosafety Clearing House, under government regulation No. 21 of the year

  6. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

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    Silvia Sterpone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER. In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer.

  7. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-07-25

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of adult reindeer coat colour in a herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean J. Lauvergne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a random sample of 188 adult reindeer belonging to a reindeer herding cooperative in Finnish Lapland, the following coat colour mutants were identified: Abf at the locus Agouti (A, kalppinokka (WNk at the locus White Nose (WN and white at the locus W (White. Coefficients of coat colour phenotypic polymorphism K were estimated, in order to quantify this genetic polymorphism. Estimations of K were 12.8% for the locus A (Agouti, 5.1% for the locus WN (White Nose, and 7.5% for the locus W (White. This polymorphism results probably from a change in fitness coefficient of genotypes carrying colour mutants following domestication in a random mating context which has not yet been proved.

  9. EVALUATION OF LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Lukošiut&#

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to present the results obtained during the survey of Lithuanian consumers in order to identify their attitudes towards food with genetically modified organisms (GMO. Investigating the consumers approach to genetically modified (GM food, the following were considered: consumers’ opinions on GMO were analyzed, their knowledge about the presence of food containing GMO on the Lithuanian market, the mandatory GM food labelling, the behavior to a transgenic product while shopping, as well as consumers’ willingness to purchase such products. Data were gathered through a survey of 1000 Lithuanian residents. The empirical results indicated that the majority of the respondents’ attitudes towards food containing GMO are negative. The older consumers with less income are more against GM food compared to younger, wealthier households. 72% of consumers know that if the food contains GMO it must be indicated on the label. However, many consumers who oppose GMO do not try to avoid paying attention to the components of the product listed on its label. Only about a quarter of consumers while buying a product look for such information. This indicates that consumers are not really interested in whether or not the product contains GMO

  10. Genetic association of polymorphism rs1333049 with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Meng, Dongmei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhou, Sirui; Miao, Zhimin; Han, Lin; Chu, Nan; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Xu; Li, Changgui

    2011-09-01

    We suspect that genes or loci that contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) may also play a role in the pathogenesis of gout, since hyperuricaemia leads to gout, and serum uric acid (SUA) levels are potential risk factors for CAD. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1333049 (C/G) on chromosome 9p21 has been implicated in previous studies to be associated with CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between this SNP and gout pathogenesis. Nine hundred Chinese Han were recruited for this study (461 gout patients and 439 gout-free individuals). The rs1333049 SNP and surrounding sequences were PCR sequenced. There was a clear link between the rs1333049 genotypic and allelic frequencies between gout cases and controls (χ(2) = 6.81, df = 2, P = 0.033 by genotype; χ(2) = 6.63, df = 1, P = 0.01 by allele). There was a significantly increased risk of gout in carriers of the CC genotype (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% CI 1.07, 1.91). To the best of our knowledge, our findings are the first to establish an association of rs1333049 with gout in a Chinese Han population. Meanwhile, this SNP is homologous to miR-519 and miR-520.

  11. An Investigation of Modifying Effects of Metallothionein Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Association between Mercury Exposure and Biomarker Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Basu, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several genes that mediate mercury metabolism are polymorphic in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metallothionein (MT) genes may underlie interindividual differences in mercury biomarker levels. We studied the potential modifying effects of MT SNPs on mercury exposure–biomarker relationships. Methods: We measured total mercury in urine and hair samples of 515 dental professionals. We also surveyed occupational and personal exposures to dental amalgam and dietary fish consumption, from which daily methylmercury (MeHg) intake was estimated. Log-transformed urine and hair levels were modeled in multivariable linear regression separately against respective exposure surrogates, and the effect modification of 13 MT SNPs on exposure was investigated. Results: The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06 μg/L) and hair (0.51 μg/g) were not significantly different from the U.S. general population (0.95 μg/L and 0.47 μg/g, respectively). The mean estimated daily MeHg intake was 0.084 μg/kg/day (range, 0–0.98 μg/kg/day), with 25% of study population intakes exceeding the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg/day. Multivariate regression analysis showed that subjects with the MT1M (rs2270837) AA genotype (n = 10) or the MT2A (rs10636) CC genotype (n = 42) had lower urinary mercury levels than did those with the MT1M or MT2A GG genotype (n = 329 and 251, respectively) after controlling for exposure and potential confounders. After controlling for MeHg intake, subjects with MT1A (rs8052394) GA and GG genotypes (n = 24) or the MT1M (rs9936741) TT genotype (n = 459) had lower hair mercury levels than did subjects with MT1A AA (n = 113) or MT1M TC and CC genotypes (n = 15), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that some MT genetic polymorphisms may influence mercury biomarker concentrations at levels of exposure relevant to the general

  12. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was −0.07 (range: −3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect. PMID:23134884

  13. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-12-01

    Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.

  14. Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical. We grew three such genotypes or lines in monocultures or two-line mixtures. Phenotypic measurements were taken at the level of individual plants and of entire plots (population level). We found that resistance to mildew increased with both GM richness (0, 1, or 2 Pm3 transgenes with different resistance specificities per plot) and GM concentration (0%, 50%, or 100% of all plants in a plot with a Pm3 transgene). Plots with two transgenes had 34.6% less mildew infection and as a consequence 7.3% higher seed yield than plots with one transgene. We conclude that combining genetic modification with mixed cropping techniques could be a promising approach to increase sustainability and productivity in agricultural systems, as the fitness cost of stacking transgenes within individuals may thus be avoided.

  15. Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Borjigin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

  16. Genetic Polymorphism of Folate and Methionine Metabolizing Enzymes and their Susceptibility to Malignant Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.E.; Aziz, M.; Kotb, M.

    2005-01-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymorphisms in the genes of folate metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer. In the present study, 2 polymorphisms were evaluated for a folate metabolic enzyme, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and one was evaluated for methionine synthase (MS). The 2 polymorphisms MTHFR 677 C-7T and MTHFR 1298 A-7C, are reported to reduce the enzyme activity, which causes intracellular accumulation of 5, 10 vm ethylene-tetrahydrofolate and results in a reduced incidence of DNA double strand breakage. The MS 2756 A-7G polymorphism also reduces the enzyme activity and results in the hypo methylation of DNA. Patients and Methods: To test this hypothesis, genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway were investigated using the DNA from a case-control study on 31 patients having malignant lymphoma from the Oncology Outpatient Clinic of the New Children's Hospital, Cairo University and 30 controls who were actually normal children attending for vaccination to the same hospital. We found that there is a higher susceptibility with the MTHFR 677CC and MTHFR 1298 AA genotypes (OR=4.3, 95% CI 1.12-16). When those harbor at least one variant allele in either polymorphism of MTHFR they were defined as reference. For the MS 2756 AG genotype polymorphism there was also a higher susceptibility to developing malignant lymphoma (OR=2.6; 95% CI 1.16.4). Results suggest that folate and methionine metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma. Further studies to confirm this association and detailed biologic mechanisms are now required

  17. The effects of genetic polymorphism on treatment response of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; You, Hanxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Linjie; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Chengsheng

    2017-12-06

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used in clinical treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or non GHD since 1985 and technology have achieved a great development in different long-acting formulations. Although the mathematical models for predicting the growth hormone response could help clinicians get to an individual personalized growth dose, many patients just can't reach the target height and the growth hormone responses differed.Genetic polymorphisms may play a role in the varies of individual responses in this treatment process.This article gives an overview of the genetic polymorphisms research of growth hormone in recent years, in order to give some potential suggestion and guide for the dose titration during treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, M A; Al-Tamimi, A; Alam, P; Elkholy, S F; Jordan, J R

    2015-12-28

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an important food and medicinal crop that is cultivated in Mediterranean countries. Morphological characteristics, such as head shape and diameter, leaf shape, and bract shape, are mainly affected by environmental conditions. A molecular marker approach was used to analyze the degree of polymorphism between artichoke hybrid lines. The degree of genetic difference among three artichoke hybrids was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). In this study, the DNA fingerprints of three artichoke lines (A13-010, A11-018, and A12-179) were generated, and a total of 10 decamer primers were applied for RAPD-PCR analyses. Polymorphism  (16.66 to 62.50%) was identified using eight arbitrary decamers and total genomic DNA extracted from the hybrids. Of the 59 loci detected, there were 25 polymorphic and 34 monomorphic loci. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged between 1.0 and 0.84. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity matrix and dendrogram, the results indicated that two hybrids (A13-010 and A11-018) were closely related to each other, and the A12-179 line showed more divergence. When identifying correct accessions, consideration of the genetic variation and genetic relationships among the genotypes are required. The RAPD-PCR fingerprinting of artichoke lines clearly showed that it is possible to analyze the RAPD patterns for correlation between genetic means and differences or resemblance between close accessions (A13-010 and A11- 018) at the genomic level.

  19. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci including D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364 and D22GATA198B05 in Chinese Han population of Henan province and to assess its value in forensic science.

  20. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjiwan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of genetic diversity is important for characterisation of crop plant collections in order to detect the presence of valuable trait variation for use in breeding programs. A collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes was evaluated for intra- and inter-population diversity using a set of 768 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, of which 657 obtained successful amplification and detected polymorphisms. Gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC values varied between 0.022–0.500 and 0.023–1.00, with averages of 0.363 and 0.287, respectively. The genetic structure of the germplasm collection was analysed and a neighbour-joining (NJ dendrogram was constructed. The faba bean accessions grouped into two major groups, with several additional smaller sub-groups, predominantly on the basis of geographical origin. These results were further supported by principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA, deriving two major groupings which were differentiated on the basis of site of origin and pedigree relationships. In general, high levels of heterozygosity were observed, presumably due to the partially allogamous nature of the species. The results will facilitate targeted crossing strategies in future faba bean breeding programs in order to achieve genetic gain.

  1. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  2. Genetic relationship among nine Rhododendron species in Qinling mountains, China using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relationships of nine species of Rhododendron in the Qinling Mountains were evaluated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 440 amplification products were obtained using nine selected AFLP markers, of which 421 (95.40%) showed polymorphism. With these polymorphic products, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). R. calophytum, R. hypoglaucum and R. clementinae, belonging to Subgen Hymenanthes, gathered together, and the species derived from Subgen Rhododendron and Subgen Tsutsusi formed another two groups. R. tsinlingense, R. purdomii, R. Taibaiense and R. capitatum (Subsect. Lapponica), and R. concinnum (Subsect. Triflora) were clustered as one group, but they belong to difference subsect. and R. purdomii and R. Taibaiense showed the closest genetic distance, but both species differed greatly in morphological characteristics.These results showed that the genetic relationships among nine Rhododendron species, determined by AFLP markers, were partially related to their taxonomic position, geography distribution and morphological classification. The present study will benefit the identification and conservation of Rhododendron, and the development of new Rhododendron cultivar. (author)

  3. 4P: fast computing of population genetics statistics from large DNA polymorphism panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzo, Andrea; Panziera, Alex; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Massive DNA sequencing has significantly increased the amount of data available for population genetics and molecular ecology studies. However, the parallel computation of simple statistics within and between populations from large panels of polymorphic sites is not yet available, making the exploratory analyses of a set or subset of data a very laborious task. Here, we present 4P (parallel processing of polymorphism panels), a stand-alone software program for the rapid computation of genetic variation statistics (including the joint frequency spectrum) from millions of DNA variants in multiple individuals and multiple populations. It handles a standard input file format commonly used to store DNA variation from empirical or simulation experiments. The computational performance of 4P was evaluated using large SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) datasets from human genomes or obtained by simulations. 4P was faster or much faster than other comparable programs, and the impact of parallel computing using multicore computers or servers was evident. 4P is a useful tool for biologists who need a simple and rapid computer program to run exploratory population genetics analyses in large panels of genomic data. It is also particularly suitable to analyze multiple data sets produced in simulation studies. Unix, Windows, and MacOs versions are provided, as well as the source code for easier pipeline implementations.

  4. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, Angela G.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, Ted; Brimm, Daniel J.; White, Clayton M

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  5. Polymorphism of the VEGF gene and its association with growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: VEGF gene, caprine, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genetic variation, PCR-SSCP ... This field is strongly focusing on gene loci and polymorphisms that have ..... Enhance the efficiency of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis by short polyacrylamide gel and modified silver staining. Anal.

  6. Estimation of genetic variability among elite wheat genotypes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIBI, S.; Khan, I.A.; Naqvi, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Yasmeen, S.; Seema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty four wheat varieties/lines were assessed through RAPD for genetic diversity. Of forty primers, thirteen were able to amplify the genomic DNA and yielded 269 polymorphic bands. The percentage of the polymorphic loci was 86.22%. Nei's genetic diversity (h) ranged from 0.248 to 0.393, with an average of 0.330. Shanon's index ranged from 0.382 to 0.567, with an average of 0.487. The proportion of genetic variation among the populations ( Ds) accounted for 28.58 % of the whole genetic diversity. The level of gene flow (Nm) was 1.25. Some specific RAPD bands were also identified, variety C-591, and QM-4531 contain a specific segment of 4.9 kbp. Whereas SARC-1 and PKV-1600 amplified a specific DNA segment with primer A-09. Marvi-2000 contains two specific segments of 3.2 kb and 200 bp amplified with primer B-07. Genetically most similar genotypes were C-591 and Pasban-90 (76%) and most dissimilar genotypes were Rawal-87 and Khirman (36.1%). On the basis of results, 24 wheat varieties under study could be divided into 'two' groups and five clusters 'A' to 'E. (author)

  7. Outcrossing and coexistence of genetically modified with (genetically) unmodified crops: a case study of the situation in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops the EU has demanded that individual member states enact measures to prevent inadvertent admixture ¿ through outcrossing ¿ of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with products from conventional and organic farming. A literature review on

  8. Genetic analysis of 430 Chinese Cynodon dactylon accessions using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunqiong; Liu, Guodao; Bai, Changjun; Wang, Wenqiang

    2014-10-21

    Although Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is widely distributed in China, information on its genetic diversity within the germplasm pool is limited. The objective of this study was to reveal the genetic variation and relationships of 430 C. dactylon accessions collected from 22 Chinese provinces using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Fifteen primer pairs were used to amplify specific C. dactylon genomic sequences. A total of 481 SRAP fragments were generated, with fragment sizes ranging from 260-1800 base pairs (bp). Genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) among the 430 accessions averaged 0.72 and ranged from 0.53-0.96. Cluster analysis conducted by two methods, namely the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA), separated the accessions into eight distinct groups. Our findings verify that Chinese C. dactylon germplasms have rich genetic diversity, which is an excellent basis for C. dactylon breeding for new cultivars.

  9. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  10. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  11. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  12. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  13. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  14. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangliang; Gu Hongya; Li Yi; Su Yilan; Wu Ping; Jiang Zhicheng; Ming Xiaotian; Tian Jinhua; Pan Naisui; Qu Lijia

    2003-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety

  15. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  16. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  17. Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinfeng; Xing Da; Shen Xingyan; Zhu Debin

    2005-01-01

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with two types of nucleic acid probes hybridization was applied to detect GMOs for the first time. Whether the organisms contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator. The experiment results show that the detection limit is 100 fmol of PCR products. The promoter and the terminator can be clearly detected in GMOs. The method may provide a new means for the detection of GMOs due to its simplicity and high efficiency

  18. Demographic, genetic, and environmental factors that modify disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2011-05-01

    As with susceptibility to disease, it is likely that multiple factors interact to influence the phenotype of multiple sclerosis and long-term disease outcomes. Such factors may include genetic factors, socioeconomic status, comorbid diseases, and health behaviors, as well as environmental exposures. An improved understanding of the influence of these factors on disease course may reap several benefits, such as improved prognostication, allowing us to tailor disease management with respect to intensity of disease-modifying therapies and changes in specific health behaviors, in the broad context of coexisting health issues. Such information can facilitate appropriately adjusted comparisons within and between populations. Elucidation of these factors will require careful study of well-characterized populations in which the roles of multiple factors are considered simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... and economic results were integrated into a decision support model to facilitate the assessment of the impact of various cropping systems on soil quality and economics. In conclusion, the ECOGEN results indicate no difference of biological relevance in the impact on soil organisms between Bt-maize line MON 810...

  20. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  2. The genetic polymorphism and expression profiles of NLRP3 inflammasome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Amin; Yu, Jie; Yan, Shuxin; Zhao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xueyun; Hua, Mingqiang; Wang, Ruiqing; Zhang, Chen; Zhong, Chaoqin; He, Na; Ji, Chunyan; Ma, Daoxin

    2018-01-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome has been recently reported as an important risk factor in the development of cancer. But the relationship between polymorphisms of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rarely reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of five genetic polymorphisms (NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18, CARD8 and NF-κB) in 267 CML patients and 344 healthy controls. We found that the AT genotype of CARD8 (rs2043211) was significantly higher compared to TT genotype in high and intermediate risk CML patients. IL-1β (rs16944) polymorphism in early molecular response at 6 months was marginally different, with more GG and less AA genotype in BCR-ABL IS >1% group. IL-18 (rs1946518) polymorphism was significantly different with more GG genotype in BCR-ABL IS >1% group at 6 months. We also demonstrated that WBC count of newly diagnosed patients carrying AG genotype was significantly higher than that of GG or AA genotype of IL-1β (rs16944). The onset age of patients carrying ins/ins genotype of NF-κB (rs28362491) was significantly older than that of ins/del and del/del genotype. Moreover, IL-1β or NLRP3 mRNA expression was decreased and IL-18 mRNA expression was increased significantly in CML patients compared with controls. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms of NLRP3 inflammasome may be served as potential predictors for CML. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Subchronic toxicity test of genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2010-07-01

    To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.

  4. Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in TNF and MIF Gene with the Risk of Primary Dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Hatice Yilmaz; Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Karakus, Nevin; Delibas, Ilhan Bahri; Isguder, Cigdem Kunt; Yigit, Serbulent

    2016-08-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea, which affects 90 % of adolescent girls and more than 50 % of menstruating women worldwide, is characterized by recurrent pain during menses in the absence of a detectable organic disease. The aim of this study is to assess the association between MIF -173 and TNF -308 genetic polymorphisms and the clinical features of primary dysmenorrhea. The study population comprised 154 unrelated female patients with clinical diagnosis of dysmenorrhea, and a total of 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively. The MIF -173G > C promoter polymorphism (rs755622) and TNF gene -308G > A (rs1800629) polymorphism were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Two fragments (268 and 97 bp) were seen when the G allele was present at position -173, and three fragments (206, 97, and 62 bp) were observed when the C allele was present. Two fragments (87 and 20 bp) were seen when G allele was present at position -308. There were statistically significant associations between age at menarche and history of back pain among dysmenorrhea patients and MIF gene -173G > C polymorphism (p = 0.003 and p = 0.042, respectively). The genotype and allele frequencies of -308G > A polymorphism showed statistically significant differences between dysmenorrhea patients and controls (p = 0.023 and p = 0.009, respectively). A high association was also observed when the patients were compared with the controls according to the GG genotype versus GA+AA genotypes (p = 0.009). The present study showed that the TNF-α -308 GG genotype may be a useful tool to predict the susceptibility of dysmenorrhea.

  5. The Discussion around the agricultural Products Genetically Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez H, Andres

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic products or genetically modified have been product of the vertiginous technological developments related with the sciences of the life and mainly of the genetics. The Introduction of these products to the market has generated big expectations and discussions. It is undoubtedly intention of this paper to provide the reader a conceptual mark that identifies the main arguments exposed by the parts in debate, to identify the most relevant aspects in the international legislation and to describe shortly how the topic is approached in Colombia. They are gathered this way then and the so much arguments of defenders like opponents contain regarding the topic, among those that the improvement, of the productivity and the yields can be included by cultivated meter, the decrease of the malnutrition at world level, environmental risks for possible reductions of the biodiversity and of development of resistant plagues to pesticides or herbicides, among others. At international level the first steps are giving to unify a clear legislation in this respect, although at the moment it is not articulate with other legislations like the World Trade Organization WTO)

  6. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  7. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .

  8. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  9. Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of Duffy binding protein of Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion and a potential asexual blood stage vaccine candidate antigen against P. vivax. The polymorphic nature of PvDBP, particularly amino terminal cysteine-rich region (PvDBPII), represents a major impediment to the successful design of a protective vaccine against vivax malaria. In this study, the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at PvDBPII among Myanmar P. vivax isolates were analysed. Methods Fifty-four P. vivax infected blood samples collected from patients in Myanmar were used. The region flanking PvDBPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The polymorphic characters and natural selection of the region were analysed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs. Results Thirty-two point mutations (28 non-synonymous and four synonymous mutations) were identified in PvDBPII among the Myanmar P. vivax isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that 12 different PvDBPII haplotypes were identified in Myanmar P. vivax isolates and that the region has evolved under positive natural selection. High selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified as B- and T-cell epitopes of PvDBPII. Recombination may also be played a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvDBPII. Conclusions PvDBPII of Myanmar P. vivax isolates displays a high level of genetic polymorphism and is under selective pressure. Myanmar P. vivax isolates share distinct types of PvDBPII alleles that are different from those of other geographical areas. These results will be useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Myanmar and for development of PvDBPII-based vaccine. PMID:22380592

  10. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M; Bissonnette, Sarah A; Knight, Jonathan D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. We developed a novel written assessment tool and administered it to 120 non-biology majors, 154 entering biology majors, 120 advanced biology majors (ABM), and nine biology faculty. Results indicated that undergraduate biology majors rarely included molecular and cellular rationales in their initial explanations of GMOs. Despite ABM demonstrating that they have much of the biology knowledge necessary to understand genetic modification, they did not appear to apply this knowledge to explaining GMOs. Further, this study showed that all undergraduate student populations exhibited evidence of essentialist thinking while explaining GMOs, regardless of their level of biology training. Finally, our results suggest an association between scientifically accurate ideas and the application of molecular and cellular rationales, as well as an association between misconceptions and essentialist rationales. © 2017 L. M. Potter et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Detection of Genetically Modified Sugarcane by Using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Xie, H.; Zha, B.; Ding, W.; Luo, J.; Hu, C.

    2018-03-01

    A methodology is proposed to identify genetically modified sugarcane from non-genetically modified sugarcane by using terahertz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine-discriminant analysis (SVM-DA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The classification rate of the above mentioned methods is compared, and different types of preprocessing are considered. According to the experimental results, the best option is PLS-DA, with an identification rate of 98%. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques are a powerful tool to identify genetically modified and non-genetically modified sugarcane.

  12. Genetic variability of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in Java based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIYAH MARTANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae is valued for its glucomanan content for use in food industry (healthy diet food, paper industry, pharmacy and cosmetics. The species is triploid (2n=3x=39 and the seed is developed apomictically. The present research is aimed to identify genetic variability of six population of A. muelleri from Java (consisted of 50 accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The six populations of the species are: East Java: (1 Silo-Jember, (2 Saradan-Madiun, (3 IPB (cultivated, from Saradan-Madiun, (4 Panti-Jember, (5 Probolinggo; and Central Java: (6 Cilacap. The results showed that five RAPD primers generated 42 scorable bands of which 29 (69.05% were polymorphic. Size of the bands varied from 300bp to 1.5kbp. The 50 accessions of A. muelleri were divided into two main clusters, some of them were grouped based on their populations, and some others were not. The range of individual genetic dissimilarity was from 0.02 to 0.36. The results showed that among six populations investigated, Saradan population showed the highest levels of genetic variation with mean values of na = 1.500+ 0.5061, ne = 1.3174 + 0.3841, PLP = 50% and He = 0, 0.1832+0.2054, whereas Silo-Jember population showed the lowest levels of genetic variation with mean values na = 1.2619+ 0.4450, ne = 1.1890 + 0.3507, PLP = 26.19% and He = 0.1048+0.1887. Efforts to conserve, domesticate, cultivate and improve genetically should be based on the genetic properties of each population and individual within population, especially Saradan population which has the highest levels of genetic variation, need more attention for its conservation.

  13. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. Material/Methods A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. Results Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all PWarfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1–1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (Pwarfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (Pwarfarin maintenance dose (all Pwarfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms in Cytokine Genes in Colombian Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Galvis, C A; de-la-Torre, A; Mantilla-Muriel, L E; Beltrán-Angarita, L; Elcoroaristizabal-Martín, X; McLeod, R; Alliey-Rodriguez, N; Begeman, I J; López de Mesa, C; Gómez-Marín, J E; Sepúlveda-Arias, J C

    2018-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , which has the capacity to infect all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of visual defects in the Colombian population; however, the association between genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes and susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis has not been studied in this population. This work evaluates the associations between polymorphisms in genes coding for the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (rs1799964, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, and rs361525), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) (rs16944, rs1143634, and rs1143627), IL-1α (rs1800587), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) (rs2430561), and IL-10 (rs1800896 and rs1800871) and the presence of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a sample of a Colombian population (61 patients with OT and 116 healthy controls). Genotyping was performed with the "dideoxynucleotide (ddNTP) primer extension" technique. Functional-effect predictions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were done by using FuncPred. A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene promoter (-1082G/A) was significantly more prevalent in OT patients than in controls ( P = 1.93e-08; odds ratio [OR] = 5.27e+03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18 to 8.739; Bonferroni correction [BONF] = 3.48e-07). In contrast, haplotype "AG" of the IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms (rs1800896 and rs1800871) was present at a lower frequency in OT patients ( P = 7e-04; OR = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.35). The +874A/T polymorphism of IFN-γ was associated with OT ( P = 3.37e-05; OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.478 to 7.12; BONF = 6.07e-04). Haplotype "GAG" of the IL-1β gene promoter polymorphisms (rs1143634, rs1143627, and rs16944) appeared to be significantly associated with OT ( P = 0.0494). The IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1β polymorphisms influence the development of OT in the Colombian population. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Individual Variations in Inorganic Arsenic Metabolism Associated with AS3MT Genetic Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Takeshita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual variations in inorganic arsenic metabolism may influence the toxic effects. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state methyltransferase (AS3MT that can catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet to trivalent arsenical, may play a role in arsenic metabolism in humans. Since the genetic polymorphisms of AS3MT gene may be associated with the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic toxicity, relationships of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AS3MT with inorganic arsenic metabolism have been investigated. Here, we summarize our recent findings and other previous studies on the inorganic arsenic metabolism and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms in humans. Results of genotype dependent differences in arsenic metabolism for most of SNPs in AS3MT were Inconsistent throughout the studies. Nevertheless, two SNPs, AS3MT 12390 (rs3740393 and 14458 (rs11191439 were consistently related to arsenic methylation regardless of the populations examined for the analysis. Thus, these SNPs may be useful indicators to predict the arsenic metabolism via methylation pathways.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms associated with fatty liver disease and fibrosis in HIV positive patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luda, Carolin; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Hansel, Cordula; Nischalke, Hans-Dieter; Lutz, Philipp; Mohr, Raphael; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Strassburg, Christian P.; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt; Spengler, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis can occur with any antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to predispose to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, their role for treatment-associated steatosis in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. We determined the frequency of PNPLA3 (rs738409), CSPG3/NCAN (rs2228603), GCKR (rs780094), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), TM6SF (rs8542926), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855) and MBOAT7 (rs626283) by RT-PCR in 117 HIV-positive patients on cART and stratified participants based on their “controlled attenuation parameter” (CAP) into probable (CAP: 215–300 dB/m) and definite (CAP >300 dB/m) hepatic steatosis. We analyzed CAP values and routine metabolic parameters according to the allele frequencies. Sixty-five (55.6%) and 13 (11.1%) patients were allocated to probable and definite steatosis. CAP values (p = 0.012) and serum triglycerides (p = 0.043) were increased in carriers of the GCKR (rs780094) A allele. Cox logistic regression identified triglycerides (p = 0.006), bilirubin (p = 0.021) and BMI (p = 0.068), but not the genetic parameters as risk factors for the occurrence of hepatic steatosis. Taken together, according to the limited sample size, this exploratory study generates the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms seem to exert minor effects on the risk for fatty liver disease in HIV-positive patients on cART. Nevertheless, SNPs may modify metabolic complications once metabolic abnormalities have developed. Hence, subsequent analysis of a larger cohort is needed. PMID:28594920

  17. [The role of genetic polymorphisms of interleukins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotina, S S; Tikunova, T S; Proshchaev, K I; Efremova, O A; Batlutskaia, I V; Iakunchenko, T I; Sobianin, F I; Churnosov, M I; Alekseev, S M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a multifactorial disease, in which development the important role played the cytokine genes, in particular interleukins. This type of leukemia is more common in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among residents of the Central Chernozem region of Russia. Genotyping of the -889C/T IL-1A, -590C/T IL-4 and VNTR IL-1 Ra was conducted in 206 patients with CLL and 307 individuals of the control group. The study found that the genetic risk factor for the development of CLL is allele -590T IL-4 (OR=-1,45). The development of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLL is associated with genetic variants -889T IL-1A (OR=1,95), -889TT IL-1A (OR=6,2) and IL-1Ra*1 (OR=-2,32).

  18. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, S H; Pilla, F; Galal, S; Shaat, I; D'Andrea, M; Reale, S; Abdelsalam, A Z A; Li, M H

    2008-06-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity of three Egyptian (Egyptian Baladi, Barki and Zaraibi) and two Italian (Maltese and Montefalcone) goat breeds. The microsatellites showed a high polymorphic information content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in most of the locus-breed combinations and indicated that the loci were useful in assessing within- and between-breed variability of domestic goat (Capra hircus). The expected heterozygosity of the breeds varied from 0.670 to 0.792. In the geographically wider distributed Egyptian Baladi breed there were indications for deviations from random breeding. Analysis of genetic distances and population structure grouped the three Egyptian goat breeds together, and separated them from the two Italian breeds. The studied Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and European populations seem to have differentiated from each other with only little genetic exchange between the geographically isolated populations.

  19. Systematic screening for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Dai, Da-Peng; Wang, Hao; Huang, Xiang-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Hao; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To systematically investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene in a Han Chinese population. The promoter and exons of CYP3A4 gene in 1114 unrelated, healthy Han Chinese subjects were amplified and genotyped by direct sequencing. In total, five previously reported alleles (*1G, *4, *5, *18B and *23) were detected, of which one allele (*23) was reported for the first time in Han Chinese population. Additionally, seven novel exonic variants were also identified and designated as new alleles CYP3A4*28-*34. This study provides the most comprehensive data of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Han Chinese population and detects the largest number of novel CYP3A4 alleles in one ethnic group.

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms in Organic Cation Transporter 1 Attenuates Hepatic Metformin Exposure in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, E. I.O.; Gormsen, Lars C; Jensen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    the transporter protein OCT1, affect the hepatic distribution of metformin in humans. We performed noninvasive 11C-metformin positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to determine hepatic exposure in 12 subjects genotyped for variants in SLC22A1. Hepatic distribution of metformin...... was significantly reduced after oral intake in carriers of M420del and R61C variants in SLC22A1 without being associated with changes in circulating levels of metformin. Our data show that genetic polymorphisms in transporter proteins cause variation in hepatic exposure to metformin, and it demonstrates......Metformin has been used successfully to treat type 2 diabetes for decades. However, the efficacy of the drug varies considerably from patient to patient and this may in part be due to its pharmacokinetic properties. The aim of this study was to examine if common polymorphisms in SLC22A1, encoding...

  1. Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (Got) Genetics in the Mouse: Polymorphism of Got-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Verne M.; Ruddle, Frank H.

    1972-01-01

    We have examined a polymorphism for the soluble glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT-1) isozyme system which was found in the Asian mouse Mus castaneus. Variants of GOT-1 segregate as though they are controlled by codominant alleles for a single autosomal locus which we have designated Got-1. No close linkage of genes for soluble and mitochondrial forms of the enzyme, GOT-1 and GOT-2 respectively, was observed. Furthermore, no close linkage of Got-1 and the loci c, Gpi-1, Mod-2, Mod-1, Ld-1, Gpd-1, Pgm-1 or Gpo-1 was observed. Our results demonstrate the utility of sampling Mus from diverse populations to extend the repertoire of polymorphic loci and the genetic linkage map. PMID:17248564

  2. SNP genetic polymorphisms of MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYPB11 genes in four canine breeds upon toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; Arruga, M Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have become increasingly promising regarding the clinical application of genetic data to aid in prevention of adverse reactions. Specific screening tests can predict which animals express modified proteins or genetic sequences responsible for adverse effects associated with a drug. Among the genetic variations that have been investigated in dogs, the multidrug resistance gene (MDR) is the best studied. However, other genes such as CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 control the protein syntheses involved in the metabolism of many drugs. In the present study, the MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes were examined to identify SNP polymorphisms associated with these genes in the following four canine breeds: Uruguayan Cimarron, Border Collie, Labrador Retriever and German Shepherd. The results revealed that several SNPs of the CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes are potential targets for drug sensitivity investigations.

  3. Aminolevulinate dehydrogenase polymorphisms did not modified lead serum and memory relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead accumulation in the blood widely known affecting the formation of heme and oxygen transport processes in vital organs, Leading to organ failure including the brain synapses. Lead affinity has been recognized influenced by constitutional genotype of aminolevulinate dehydrogenase (ALAD, which encodes for heme synthesis. This research aimed to determine the relationship between plumbum (Pb and short term memory on each ALAD gene genotyping (ALAD 1-1, ALAD 1-2 or ALAD 2-2 in gas station workers. METHODS Seventy six probands from gas station workers were recruited to participate in this research. Each probands was carried out ALAD genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP method, lead serum level using atomic absorbent spectrophotometer (AAS, and short term memory was measurement by intelligence structure test (IST. RESULTS Proportion of δ ALAD 1-1, 1-2, and 2-2 were 91.8%, 8.2% and 0% respectively. Lead serum showed 15.84 ppb in homozygous 1-1, and 20.79 ppb in heterozygous. Short term memory in the probands varied from 85 until 117, with average in 99.71. There was significant negative relationship between lead serum and short term memory (r=-0.24; p=0.038. However, we could not find any significant correlation in each δ ALAD genotypes. CONCLUSION The δ ALAD genotypes did not modified the relationship between serum lead level and short term memory in gas station workers.

  4. Rapid recent human evolution and the accumulation of balanced genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    All evolutionary change can be traced to alterations in allele frequencies in populations over time. DNA sequencing on a massive scale now permits us to follow the genetic consequences as our species has diverged from our close relatives and as we have colonized different parts of the world and adapted to them. But it has been difficult to disentangle natural selection from many other factors that alter frequencies. These factors include mutation and intragenic reciprocal recombination, gene conversion, segregation distortion, random drift, and gene flow between populations (these last two are greatly influenced by splits and coalescences of populations over time). The first part of this review examines recent studies that have had some success in dissecting out the role of natural selection, especially in humans and Drosophila. Among many examples, these studies include those that have followed the rapid evolution of traits that may permit adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan and Andean populations. In some cases, directional selection has been so strong that it may have swept alleles close to fixation in the span of a few thousand years, a rapidity of change that is also sometimes encountered in other organisms. The second part of the review summarizes data showing that remarkably few alleles have been carried completely to fixation during our recent evolution. Some of the alleles that have not reached fixation may be approaching new internal equilibria, which would indicate polymorphisms that are maintained by balancing selection. Finally, the review briefly examines why genetic polymorphisms, particularly those that are maintained by negative frequency dependence, are likely to have played an important role in the evolution of our species. A method is suggested for measuring the contribution of these polymorphisms to our gene pool. Such polymorphisms may add to the ability of our species to adapt to our increasingly complex and challenging environment.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and possible gene-gene interactions in metabolic and DNA repair genes: Effects on DNA damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naccarati, Alessio; Souček, P.; Štětina, R.; Haufroid, V.; Kumar, R.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Trtková, K.; Dušinská, M.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 593, 1-2 (2006), s. 22-31 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0437 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Single-strand breaks * Genetic polymorphisms * Metabolism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  6. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4 gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively from Kankrej (22 and Triple cross (24 cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p˂0.05. Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05. Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance.

  7. Modeling genetic imprinting effects of DNA sequences with multilocus polymorphism data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staud Roland

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most widespread type of DNA sequence variation in the human genome and they have recently emerged as valuable genetic markers for revealing the genetic architecture of complex traits in terms of nucleotide combination and sequence. Here, we extend an algorithmic model for the haplotype analysis of SNPs to estimate the effects of genetic imprinting expressed at the DNA sequence level. The model provides a general procedure for identifying the number and types of optimal DNA sequence variants that are expressed differently due to their parental origin. The model is used to analyze a genetic data set collected from a pain genetics project. We find that DNA haplotype GAC from three SNPs, OPRKG36T (with two alleles G and T, OPRKA843G (with alleles A and G, and OPRKC846T (with alleles C and T, at the kappa-opioid receptor, triggers a significant effect on pain sensitivity, but with expression significantly depending on the parent from which it is inherited (p = 0.008. With a tremendous advance in SNP identification and automated screening, the model founded on haplotype discovery and statistical inference may provide a useful tool for genetic analysis of any quantitative trait with complex inheritance.

  8. Maintenance of a genetic polymorphism with disruptive natural selection in stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchinko, Kerry B; Matthews, Blake; Arnegard, Matthew E; Rogers, Sean M; Schluter, Dolph

    2014-06-02

    The role of natural selection in the maintenance of genetic variation in wild populations remains a major problem in evolution. The influence of disruptive natural selection on genetic variation is especially interesting because it might lead to the evolution of assortative mating or dominance [1, 2]. In theory, variation can persist at a gene under disruptive natural selection, but the process is little studied and there are few examples [3, 4]. We report a stable polymorphism in the bony armor of threespine stickleback maintained with a deficit of heterozygotes at the major underlying gene, Ectodysplasin (Eda) [5]. The deficit vanishes at the embryo life stage only to re-emerge in adults, indicating that disruptive natural selection, rather than nonrandom mating, is the cause. The mechanism enabling long-term persistence of the polymorphism is unknown, but disruptive selection is predicted to be frequency dependent, favoring homozygous genotypes when they become rare. Further research on the ecological and evolutionary processes affecting individual genes will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes of genetic variation in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An application of CART algorithm in genetics: IGFs and cGH polymorphisms in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Selçuk

    2017-04-01

    The avian insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGFs) and avian growth hormone (cGH) genes are the most important genes that can affect bird performance traits because of its important function in growth and metabolism. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of variation in growth-related traits is of importance for continued improvement and increased rates of genetic gain. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of cGH and IGFs genes in Japanese quail using conventional least square method (LSM) and CART algorithm. Therefore, this study was aimed to demonstrate at determining the polymorphisms of two genes related growth characteristics via CART algorithm. A simulated data set was generated to analyze by adhering the results of some poultry genetic studies which it includes live weights at 5 weeks of age, 3 alleles and 6 genotypes of cGH and 2 alleles and 3 genotypes of IGFs. As a result, it has been determined that the CART algorithm has some advantages as for that LSM.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms associated with psoriasis and development of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Nikolai Dyrberg; Skov, Lone; Rasmussen, Mads Kirchheiner; Gniadecki, Robert; Dam, Tomas Norman; Brandslund, Ivan; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Andersen, Malene Rohr; Dessau, Ram Benny; Bergmann, Ann Christina; Andersen, Niels Møller; Abildtoft, Mikkel Kramme; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hetland, Merete Lund; Glintborg, Bente; Bank, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Andersen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis (PsO) is a chronic inflammatory disease with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. Approximately one third of patients with PsO develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), whereas the remaining proportion of patients has isolated cutaneous psoriasis (PsC). These two phenotypes share common immunology, but with different heredity that might in part be explained by genetic variables. Using a candidate gene approach, we studied 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 genes that regulate inflammation. In total, we assessed 480 patients with PsO from DERMBIO, of whom 151 had PsC for 10 years or more (PsC10), 459 patients with PsA from DANBIO, and 795 healthy controls. Using logistic regression analysis, crude and adjusted for age and gender, we assessed associations between genetic variants and PsO, PsC10, and PsA, as well as associations between genetic variants and development of PsA in PsO. Eleven polymorphisms in 10 genes were nominally associated with PsO and/or PsC and/or PsA (P psoriasis, two SNPs in the IL12B and TNF genes were associated with susceptibility of psoriasis. None of the SNPs were specifically associated with isolated cutaneous psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis.

  11. Shared polymorphisms and modifiable behavior factors for myocardial infarction and high cholesterol in a retrospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad

    2017-09-01

    Genetic and environmental (behavior, clinical, and demographic) factors are associated with increased risks of both myocardial infarction (MI) and high cholesterol (HC). It is known that HC is major risk factor that may cause MI. However, whether there are common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with both MI and HC is not firmly established, and whether there are modulate and modified effects (interactions of genetic and known environmental factors) on either HC or MI, and whether these joint effects improve the predictions of MI, is understudied.The purpose of this study is to identify novel shared SNPs and modifiable environmental factors on MI and HC. We assess whether SNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI may relate to HC; whether there are moderate effects among SNPs, lifestyle (smoke and drinking), HC, and MI after controlling other factors [gender, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension (HTN)]; and evaluate prediction power of the joint and modulate genetic and environmental factors influencing the MI and HC.This is a retrospective study with residents of Erie and Niagara counties in New York with a history of MI or with no history of MI. The data set includes environmental variables (demographic, clinical, lifestyle). Thirty-one tagSNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI are genotyped. Generalized linear models (GLMs) with imputation-based analysis are conducted for examining the common effects of tagSNPs and environmental exposures and their interactions on having a history of HC or MI.MI, BMI, and HTN are significant risk factors for HC. HC shows the strongest effect on risk of MI in addition to HTN; gender and smoking status while drinking status shows protective effect on MI. rs16944 (gene IL-1β) and rs17222772 (gene ALOX) increase the risks of HC, while rs17231896 (gene CETP) has protective effects on HC either with or without the clinical, behavioral, demographic factors with different effect sizes that may indicate the

  12. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  13. Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-06-23

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited.

  14. Environmental impacts of genetically modified plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad; Kouretas, Demetrios; Balias, Georgios; Savolainen, Kai; Tutelyan, Victor A; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Lee, Jeong Dong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2017-07-01

    Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity. The current state of knowledge reveals that GM crops impart damaging impacts on the environment such as modification in crop pervasiveness or invasiveness, the emergence of herbicide and insecticide tolerance, transgene stacking and disturbed biodiversity, but these impacts require a more in-depth view and critical research so as to unveil further facts. Most of the reviewed scientific resources provide similar conclusions and currently there is an insufficient amount of data available and up until today, the consumption of GM plant products are safe for consumption to a greater extent with few exceptions. This paper updates the undesirable impacts of GM crops and their products on target and non-target species and attempts to shed light on the emerging challenges and threats associated with it. Underpinning research also realizes the influence of GM crops on a disturbance in biodiversity, development of resistance and evolution slightly resembles with the effects of non-GM cultivation. Future prospects are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

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    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems.

  16. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

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    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  17. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection

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    Chih-Hui Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation.

  18. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  20. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm.

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    Balci, F; Papachristos, E B; Gallistel, C R; Brunner, D; Gibson, J; Shumyatsky, G P

    2008-04-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.

  1. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  2. Stakeholders’ Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

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    Latifah Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.

  3. Genetically modified organisms: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.

  4. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis identifies specific nucleotide patterns promoting genetic polymorphisms

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    Arehart Eric

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fidelity of DNA replication serves as the nidus for both genetic evolution and genomic instability fostering disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs constitute greater than 80% of the genetic variation between individuals. A new theory regarding DNA replication fidelity has emerged in which selectivity is governed by base-pair geometry through interactions between the selected nucleotide, the complementary strand, and the polymerase active site. We hypothesize that specific nucleotide combinations in the flanking regions of SNP fragments are associated with mutation. Results We modeled the relationship between DNA sequence and observed polymorphisms using the novel multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR approach. MDR was originally developed to detect synergistic interactions between multiple SNPs that are predictive of disease susceptibility. We initially assembled data from the Broad Institute as a pilot test for the hypothesis that flanking region patterns associate with mutagenesis (n = 2194. We then confirmed and expanded our inquiry with human SNPs within coding regions and their flanking sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database (n = 29967 and a control set of sequences (coding region not associated with SNP sites randomly selected from the NCBI database (n = 29967. We discovered seven flanking region pattern associations in the Broad dataset which reached a minimum significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Significant models (p Conclusion The present study represents the first use of this computational methodology for modeling nonlinear patterns in molecular genetics. MDR was able to identify distinct nucleotide patterning around sites of mutations dependent upon the observed nucleotide change. We discovered one flanking region set that included five nucleotides clustered around a specific type of SNP site. Based on the strongly associated patterns identified in

  6. The consumer and the right to information against the uncertainties surrounding genetically modified foods

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    Luana Michelle da Silva Godoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the need for consumer information on the divergênciascientíficas regarding the risks of genetically modified foods . Concludes access to information is inherent in the exercise of the right of choice doconsumidor front of genetically modified foods , as the same were entered the market without the existence of scientific consensus related to risk.

  7. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  8. Polymorphisms of the lipoprotein lipase gene as genetic markers for stroke in colombian population: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez Pereira, Leydi Carolina; Vargas Castellanos, Clara Inés; Silva Sieger, Federico Arturo

    2016-12-30

    To analyze if there is an association between the presence of polymorphisms in the LPL gene (rs320, rs285 and rs328) with development of acute ischemic stroke in Colombian population. In a case control design, 133 acute ischemic stroke patients (clinical diagnosis and x-ray CT) and 269 subjects without stroke as controls were studied. PCR -RFLP technique was used to detect rs320, rs285 and rs328 polymorphisms in the LPL gene. In the present research was not found any association between any of the LPL gene polymorphism and acute ischemic stroke in the population studied; the allele and genotypic frequencies of the studied polymorphisms were similar in cases and controls and followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The study was approved by the IRB and each subject signed the informed consent. LPL gene polymorphisms are not genetic markers for the development of stroke in the Colombian sample used.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  10. Genetic Effects of Polymorphisms in Myogenic Regulatory Factors on Chicken Muscle Fiber Traits

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    Zhi-Qin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The myogenic regulatory factors is a family of transcription factors that play a key role in the development of skeletal muscle fibers, which are the main factors to affect the meat taste and texture. In the present study, we performed candidate gene analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MyoD, Myf5, MyoG, and Mrf4 genes using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism in 360 Erlang Mountain Chickens from three different housing systems (cage, pen, and free-range. The general linear model procedure was used to estimate the statistical significance of association between combined genotypes and muscle fiber traits of chickens. Two polymorphisms (g.39928301T>G and g.11579368C>T were detected in the Mrf4 and MyoD gene, respectively. The diameters of thigh and pectoralis muscle fibers were higher in birds with the combined genotypes of GG-TT and TT-CT (p0.05. Our findings suggest that the combined genotypes of TT-CT and GG-TT might be advantageous for muscle fiber traits, and could be the potential genetic markers for breeding program in Erlang Mountain Chickens.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic system are associated with circadian manifestations of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, G H; Bornhardt, T; Iturriaga, V; Salazar, L A

    2016-11-01

    Bruxism (BRX) is a condition of great interest for researchers and clinicians in dental and medical areas. BRX has two circadian manifestations; it can occur during sleep (sleep bruxism, SB) or during wakefulness (awake bruxism, WB). However, it can be suffered together. Recent investigations suggest that central nervous system neurotransmitters and their genes could be involved in the genesis of BRX. Serotonin is responsible for the circadian rhythm, maintaining arousal, regulating stress response, muscle tone and breathing. Thus, serotonin could be associated with BRX pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of genetic polymorphisms in the genes HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs1923884, rs4941573, rs6313, rs2770304), HTR2C (rs17260565) and SLC6A4 (rs63749047) in subjects undergoing BRX treatment. Patients included were classified according to their diagnosis in awake bruxism (61 patients), sleep bruxism (26 patients) and both (43 patients). The control group included 59 healthy patients with no signs of BRX. Data showed significant differences in allelic frequencies for the HTR2A rs2770304 polymorphism, where the C allele was associated with increased risk of SB (odds ratio = 2·13, 95% confidence interval: 1·08-4·21, P = 0·03). Our results suggest that polymorphisms in serotonergic pathways are involved in sleep bruxism. Further research is needed to clarify and increase the current understanding of BRX physiopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.

  13. Computer-aided identification of polymorphism sets diagnostic for groups of bacterial and viral genetic variants

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    Huygens Flavia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and genes that exhibit presence/absence variation have provided informative marker sets for bacterial and viral genotyping. Identification of marker sets optimised for these purposes has been based on maximal generalized discriminatory power as measured by Simpson's Index of Diversity, or on the ability to identify specific variants. Here we describe the Not-N algorithm, which is designed to identify small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for user-specified subsets of known genetic variants. The algorithm does not treat the user-specified subset and the remaining genetic variants equally. Rather Not-N analysis is designed to underpin assays that provide 0% false negatives, which is very important for e.g. diagnostic procedures for clinically significant subgroups within microbial species. Results The Not-N algorithm has been incorporated into the "Minimum SNPs" computer program and used to derive genetic markers diagnostic for multilocus sequence typing-defined clonal complexes, hepatitis C virus (HCV subtypes, and phylogenetic clades defined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH data for Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Conclusion Not-N analysis is effective for identifying small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for microbial sub-groups. The best results to date have been obtained with CGH data from several bacterial species, and HCV sequence data.

  14. Genetic differentiation and origin of the Jordanian population: an analysis of Alu insertion polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Raoudha; El Moncer, Wifak; Al-Batayneh, Khalid; Sadiq, May; Esteban, Esther; Moral, Pedro; Chaabani, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    Although much of Jordan is covered by desert, its north-western region forms part of the Fertile Crescent region that had given a rich past to Jordanians. This past, scarcely described by historians, is not yet clarified by sufficient genetic data. Thus in this paper we aim to determine the genetic differentiation of the Jordanian population and to discuss its origin. A total of 150 unrelated healthy Jordanians were investigated for ten Alu insertion polymorphisms. Genetic relationships among populations were estimated by a principal component (PC) plot based on the analyses of the R-matrix software. Statistical analysis showed that the Jordanian population is not significantly different from the United Arab Emirates population or the North Africans. This observation, well represented in PC plot, suggests a common origin of these populations belonging respectively to ancient Mesopotamia, Arabia, and North Africa. Our results are compatible with ancient peoples' movements from Arabia to ancient Mesopotamia and North Africa as proposed by historians and supported by previous genetic results. The original genetic profile of the Jordanian population, very likely Arabian Semitic, has not been subject to significant change despite the succession of several civilizations.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the Yi population from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mengdan; Li, Dianzhen; Zhao, Guige; Li, Jing; Niu, Fanglin; Li, Bin; Chen, Peng; Jin, Tianbo

    2018-03-30

    Drug response and target therapeutic dosage are different among individuals. The variability is largely genetically determined. With the development of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, widespread research have provided us a wealth of information on drug-related genetic polymorphisms, and the very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants have been identified for the major populations around the world whereas less is known regarding minorities in China, including the Yi ethnic group. Our research aims to screen the potential genetic variants in Yi population on pharmacogenomics and provide a theoretical basis for future medication guidance. In the present study, 80 VIP variants (selected from the PharmGKB database) were genotyped in 100 unrelated and healthy Yi adults recruited for our research. Through statistical analysis, we made a comparison between the Yi and other 11 populations listed in the HapMap database for significant SNPs detection. Two specific SNPs were subsequently enrolled in an observation on global allele distribution with the frequencies downloaded from ALlele FREquency Database. Moreover, F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses were conducted for determination of genetic similarity between the 12 ethnic groups. Using the χ2 tests, rs1128503 (ABCB1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs9934438 (VKORC1), rs1540339 (VDR) and rs689466 (PTGS2) were identified as the significantly different loci for further analysis. The global allele distribution revealed that the allele "A" of rs1540339 and rs9934438 were more frequent in Yi people, which was consistent with the most populations in East Asia. F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated that the Yi and CHD shared a closest relationship on their genetic backgrounds. Additionally, Yi was considered similar to the Han people from Shaanxi province among the domestic ethnic populations in China. Our results demonstrated significant differences on

  16. Gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers for genetic and association mapping in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Cortés, Andrés J; Fernández, Andrea C; Soler, Álvaro; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Makunde, Godwill; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2012-06-26

    In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in

  17. BETA-ADRENORECEPTORS GENETIC POLYMORPHISM CONNECTION WITH BETA-BLOKER THERAPY EFFICACY IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS

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    A.A. Svistunov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available At present it is obvious that genetic peculiarities of patients are the major reason for individual differences in pharmacological responses to (β-adrenoblockers. Furthermore ADRB1 gene polymorphism is responsible for the efficiency of (β-adrenoblockers. Thus, a real prospect exists for an individualized approach to administration of (β-adrenoblockers and selection of dosage based on patient’s genotype, which must undoubtedly increase efficiency of the administered therapy. Reviewfocuses on gene polymorphism responsible for (β-adrenoblockers pharmacodynamics and on the clinical significance of the polymorphism detection to individualize drug therapy based on patient’s genotype.

  18. Characterization of genetic diversity in chickpea using SSR markers, Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-Derived Polymorphism (CDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibarat, Zahra; Saidi, Abbas; Hajibarat, Zohreh; Talebi, Reza

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity among 48 genotypes of chickpea comprising cultivars, landraces and internationally developed improved lines genetic distances were evaluated using three different molecular marker techniques: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR); Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-derived Polymorphism (CDDP). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for SSR, SCoT and CDDP markers was 0.47, 0.45 and 0.45, respectively, and this revealed that three different marker types were equal for the assessment of diversity amongst genotypes. Cluster analysis for SSR and SCoT divided the genotypes in to three distinct clusters and using CDDP markers data, genotypes grouped in to five clusters. There were positive significant correlation (r = 0.43, P SSR markers. These results suggest that efficiency of SSR, SCOT and CDDP markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of chickpea genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of using targeted DNA region molecular marker (CDDP) for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea in comparison with SCoT and SSR markers. Overall, our results are able to prove the suitability of SCoT and CDDP markers for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea for their high rates of polymorphism and their potential for genome diversity and germplasm conservation.

  19. [Genetic polymorphism of flax Linum usitatissimum based on use of molecular cytogenetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskaia, O A; Lemesh, V A; Muravenko, O V; Iurkevich, O Iu; Guzenko, E V; Bol'sheva, N L; Bogdanova, M V; Samatadze, T E; Popov, K V; Malyshev, S V; Shostak, N G; Heller, K; Khotyleva, L V; Zelenin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of approaches based on the use of molecular cytogenetic markers (DAPI/C-banding, estimation of the total area of DAPI-positive regions in prophase nuclei, FISH with 26S and 5S rDNA probes) and the microsatellite (SSR-PCR) assay, we studied genomic polymorphism in 15 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties from different geographic regions belonging to three directions of selection (oil, fiber, and intermediate flaxes) and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. All individual chromosomes have been identified in the karyotypes of these varieties on the basis of the patterns of differential DAPI/C-banding and the distribution of 26S and 5S rDNA, and idiograms of the chromosomes have been generated. Unlike the oil flax varieties, the chromosomes in the karyotypes of the fiber flax varieties have, as a rule, pericentromeric and telomeric DAPI-positive bands of smaller size, but contain larger intercalary regions. Two chromosomal rearrangements (chromosome 3 inversions) were discovered in the variety Luna and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. In both these forms, no colocalization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA on the satellite chromosome was detected. The SSR assay with the use of 20 polymorphic pairs of primers revealed 22 polymorphic loci. Based on the SSR data, we analyzed genetic similarity of the flax forms studied and constructed a genetic similarity dendrogram. The genotypes studied here form three clusters. The oil varieties comprise an independent cluster. The genetically related fiber flax varieties Vita and Luna, as well as the landrace Lipinska XIII belonging to the intermediate type, proved to be closer to the oil varieties than the remaining fiber flax varieties. The results of the molecular chromosomal analysis in the fiber and oil flaxes confirm their very close genetic similarity. In spite of this, the combined use of the chromosomal and molecular markers has opened up unique possibilities for describing the genotypes of flax varieties and creating their genetic

  20. A Genetic Polymorphism in RBP4 Is Associated with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Ke Wan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and obesity is influenced by the retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 adipokine. This study aims to determine if genetic polymorphisms in RBP4 are associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in Chinese patients. RBP4 polymorphisms were analyzed by high resolution melting (HRM analysis in a case-control study of 392 unrelated CAD patients and 368 controls from China. The Gensini score was used to determine the severity of CAD. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of RBP4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated for associations with CAD and severity of disease. The A allele frequency was significantly higher in CAD case groups compared to control groups (16.7% vs. 8.8% at the RBP4 rs7094671 locus. Compared to the G allele, this allele was associated with a higher risk of CAD (OR = 2.07 (1.50–2.84. Polymorphisms at rs7094671 were found to associate with CAD using either a dominant or recessive model (OR, 95% CI: 1.97, 1.38–2.81; 3.81, 1.53–9.51, respectively. Adjusting for sex, history of smoking, serum TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c, the risk of CAD for carriers remained significantly higher in both dominant and recessive models (OR, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.12–2.51; 2.74, 1.00–7.52, respectively. However, this SNP was not significantly associated with severity of CAD using angiographic scores in multivariable linear regression models (p = 0.373. The RBP4 rs7094671 SNP is associated with CAD; however, our results do not indicate that this locus is associated with clinical severity of CAD or the extent of coronary lesions.

  1. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

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    Ling-I Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1, reactive oxygen species (ROS related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1, and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.. However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated.

  2. Transgene x environment interactions in genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard

    2010-07-12

    The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

  3. Transgene x environment interactions in genetically modified wheat.

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    Simon L Zeller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM plants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

  4. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods.

  5. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  6. Genetic polymorphism of six DNA loci in six population groups of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

    2007-08-01

    The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow.

  7. Analysis of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Xiaomin; Shu, Chang; Cai, Yimei; Gong, Wei; Wang, Xumin; Wang, Duen-mei; Hu, Songnian

    2011-06-01

    Our study aimed to comprehensively investigate the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese. We sequenced the gene regions of CYP3A4, including its promoter, exons, surrounding introns and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), from 100 unrelated-healthy Han Chinese individuals. We detected 11 SNPs, three of which are novel. According to in silico functional prediction of novel variants, 20148 A>G in exon 10, resulting in substitution of Tyr319 with Cys (CYP3A4*21), may induce dramatic alteration of protein conformation, and 26908 G>A in 3'UTR may disrupt post-transcriptional regulation. We identified five alleles in Han Chinese, the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1, *5, *6, *18 and *21 are 97, 0.5, 1, 1 and 0.5%, respectively. Haplotype inference revealed 14 haplotypes, of which the major haplotype CYP3A4*1A constitutes 59% of the total chromosomes. We also examined the possible role of natural selection in shaping the variation of CYP3A4 and confirmed a trend, consistent with the action of positive selection. We systematically screened the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese, highlighted possible functional impairment of the novel allele and summarized the distinct allele and haplotype frequency distribution, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of recent positive selection on the CYP3A4 gene in Han Chinese.

  8. CCR2-V64I genetic polymorphism: a possible involvement in HER2+ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Campos, Clodoaldo Zago; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Ceribelli, Jesus Roberto; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-05-01

    Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these molecules can affect both tumor progression and anti-tumor immune response. Genetic polymorphisms of some chemokine receptors were found to be closely related to malignant tumors, especially in metastasis process, including breast cancer (BC). Considering this, it was investigated a possible role for CCR2-V64I (C-C chemokine receptor 2) and CCR5-Δ32 (C-C chemokine receptor 5) genetic variants in BC context. Patients were divided into subgroups according to immunohistochemical profile of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. No significant associations were found in relation to susceptibility (CCR2-V64I: OR 1.32; 95 % CI 0.57-3.06; CCR5-∆32: OR 1.04; 95 % CI 0.60-1.81), clinical outcome (tumor size, lymph nodes commitment and/or distant metastasis, TNM staging and nuclear grade) or therapeutic response (recurrence and survival). However, it was found a significant correlation between CCR2-V64I allelic variant and HER2 immunohistochemical positive samples (p = 0.026). All in all, we demonstrate, for the first time, a positive correlation between CCR2 receptor gene polymorphism and a subgroup of BC related to poor prognosis, which deserves further investigation in larger samples for validation.

  9. Genetic association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and obesity-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, M; Carrillo-Ávila, J A; Schmidt-RioValle, J; González-Jiménez, E; Vargas, S; Martín, J; Rueda-Medina, B

    2018-01-15

    Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed. Differences in obesity traits across the genotypes were determined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The FokI polymorphism showed a significant association with PFM across the whole population after adjusting for age and sex (p=0.022). Age-adjusted analysis revealed an association between body weight and the TaqI and BsmI SNPs in males (p=0.033 and p=0.028, respectively). However, these positive findings did not remain significant after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that VDR genetic variants are unlikely to play a major role in obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms of The Chicken Antiviral Mx Gene in A Variety of Indonesian Indigenous Chicken Breeds

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    Sri Sulandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that a G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at nucleotideposition 1,892 of coding sequence of chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance to avian viral diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the geographical distribution of G/A alleles in relation to differentgenetic backgrounds of a wide range of chicken populations. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction- RestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods, 492 samples from 15 breeds of indigenous chickenpopulations from Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands were genotyped. Allele and genotypefrequencies of each population were calculated. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were testedand inbreeding coefficient FIS estimated. Overall, the susceptible allele G had a frequency of 37.27% whilethe resistant allele A had a corresponding frequency of 62.73%. No clear relation of the geographicaldistribution of the G/A alleles to genetic backgrounds was found. The distribution of this SNP acrosspopulations seems to be affected by genetic drift rather than selection.

  11. Start codon targeted (scot polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in european old maize (zea mays l. Genotypes

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    Martin Vivodík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the world's most important crop plants following wheat and rice, which provides staple food to large number of human population in the world. It is cultivated in a wider range of environments than wheat and rice because of its greater adaptability. Molecular characterization is frequently used by maize breeders as an alternative method for selecting more promising genotypes and reducing the cost and time needed to develop hybrid combinations. In the present investigation 40 genotypes of maize from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Slovakia and Yugoslavia were analysed using 20 Start codon targeted (SCoT markers. These primers produced total 114 fragments across 40 maize genotypes, of which 86 (76.43% were polymorphic with an average of 4.30 polymorphic fragments per primer and number of amplified fragments ranged from 2 (SCoT 45 to 8 (SCoT 28 and SCoT 63. The polymorphic information content (PIC value ranged from 0.374 (ScoT 45 to 0.846 (SCoT 28 with an average of 0.739. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the maize genotypes were divided into two main clusters. Unique maize genotype (cluster 1, Zuta Brzica, originating from Yugoslavia separated from others. Cluster 2 was divided into two main clusters (2a and 2b. Subcluster 2a contained one Yugoslavian genotype Juhoslavanska and subcluster 2b was divided in two subclusters 2ba and 2bb. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in analysis of maize, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and genotypes improvement.

  12. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina T; Mejía, Rosa E; Banegas, Engels; Piedade, Rita; Alger, Jackeline; Fontecha, Gustavo; Ferreira, Pedro E; Veiga, Maria I; Enamorado, Irma G; Bjorkman, Anders; Ursing, Johan

    2011-12-19

    In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes were detected using PCR based methods. Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence of drug resistant/tolerant P

  13. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey) by using rapid amplified polymorphic DNA and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, L G

    2014-02-14

    Chinese kale is an original Chinese vegetable of the Cruciferae family. To select suitable parents for hybrid breeding, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese kale. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity across 21 Chinese kale accessions from AVRDC and Guangzhou in China. A total of 104 bands were detected by 11 RAPD primers, of which 66 (63.5%) were polymorphic, and 229 polymorphic bands (68.4%) were observed in 335 bands amplified by 17 SRAP primer combinations. The dendrogram showed the grouping of the 21 accessions into 4 main clusters based on RAPD data, and into 6 clusters based on SRAP and combined data (RAPD + SRAP). The clustering of accessions based on SRAP data was consistent with petal colors. The Mantel test indicated a poor fit for the RAPD and SRAP data (r = 0.16). These results have an important implication for Chinese kale germplasm characterization and improvement.

  14. The role of genetic (PON1 polymorphism and environmental factors, especially physical activity, in antioxidant function of paraoxonase*

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    Aneta Otocka-Kmiecik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 ([i]PON1[/i] is a member of a three-gene family ([i]PON1, PON2[/i], and [i]PON3[/i]. PON1 activity dominates in human plasma. It is secreted from hepatic cells and is found in the circulation bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs. For many years it has been known only for its ability to hydrolyze organophosphate derivatives. More recently, PON1’s antioxidant activity draws attention as the enzyme was described to prevent oxidation of lipoproteins by reactive oxygen species formed during oxidative stress. PON1 was also shown to hydrolyze atherogenic products of oxidative lipid modification such as phospholipid peroxides and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides. Some studies indicate that the enzyme presents a lipolactonase activity and hydrolyzes homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL. There is growing evidence as to PON1’s protective role in atherosclerosis. Genetic (PON1 polymorphism and environmental factors and lifestyle may influence PON1 blood concentration and biological activity. Among the many recognized factors accounting for lifestyle, physical activity plays an important role. Various, often opposite, effects on PON1 status are observed in regular training and single physical activities. The results of different studies are often contradictory. It may depend on the time, intensity, and frequency of physical activity. Additionally, it seems that the effects of physical activity on [i]PON1[/i] blood concentration and activity are modified by environmental and lifestyle factors as well as [i]PON1[/i] polymorphism.

  15. The association between genetic polymorphisms of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and an atypical porphyrinogenic response to mercury exposure in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, James S.; Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Simmonds, P. Lynne; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated highly specific urinary porphyrin profile (UPP) changes in response to mercury (Hg) exposure in animals and human subjects and have defined the biochemical etiology of this effect as selective alteration of the heme pathway enzymes, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), and coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) by Hg in the kidney. Ongoing validation studies in a population of dental practitioners with low-level occupational Hg exposure have demonstrated the predicted UPP change among ∼85% of subjects. This study focused on the genetic etiology of an atypical porphyrinogenic response (APR) seen among the remaining 15% of Hg-exposed subjects, characterized by excess excretion of 4- and 5-carboxyl porphyrins and also of the atypical ketoisocoproporphyrin (KICP). Automated DNA-sequencing-based assays were developed to examine the 7 exons and flanking intron-exon boundaries of the CPOX gene. Among several polymorphisms identified, an A814C variant in exon 4 encoding a N272H substitution was found to be predominant among subjects with the APR. Studies suggest that this variant CPOX preferentially converts the upstream 5-carboxylporphyrin (5-CP) to KICP. By partially inhibiting the 5- to 4-decarboxylation step of UROD, Hg promotes 5-CP accumulation, accounting for e xcess KICP excretion and the APR in Hg-exposed subjects carrying the variant CPOX gene. This finding represents the first report of a polymorphism in a human gene that modifies the effect of Hg on a biological process. The APR might serve as a biomarker of both Hg exposure and susceptibility to Hg toxicity

  16. Aging and a genetic KIBRA polymorphism interactively affect feedback- and observation-based probabilistic classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Petok, Jessica R; Meeter, Martijn; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Gluck, Mark A; Li, Shu-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Probabilistic category learning involves complex interactions between the hippocampus and striatum that may depend on whether acquisition occurs via feedback or observation. Little is known about how healthy aging affects these processes. We tested whether age-related behavioral differences in probabilistic category learning from feedback or observation depend on a genetic factor known to influence individual differences in hippocampal function, the KIBRA gene (single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145). Results showed comparable age-related performance impairments in observational as well as feedback-based learning. Moreover, genetic analyses indicated an age-related interactive effect of KIBRA on learning: among older adults, the beneficial T-allele was positively associated with learning from feedback, but negatively with learning from observation. In younger adults, no effects of KIBRA were found. Our results add behavioral genetic evidence to emerging data showing age-related differences in how neural resources relate to memory functions, namely that hippocampal and striatal contributions to probabilistic category learning may vary with age. Our findings highlight the effects genetic factors can have on differential age-related decline of different memory functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacodynamic genetic polymorphisms affect adverse drug reactions of haloperidol in patients with alcohol-use disorder

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    Zastrozhin MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin,1,2 Vadim Markovich Brodyansky,3 Valentin Yurievich Skryabin,4 Elena Anatolievna Grishina,5 Dmitry Vladimirovich Ivashchenko,5 Kristina Anatolievna Ryzhikova,5 Ludmila Mikhaylovna Savchenko,1 Alexander Olegovich Kibitov,3 Evgeny Alekseevich Bryun,1,4 Dmitry Alekseevich Sychev6 1Department of Addictology, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia; 2Moscow Research and Practical Centre on Addictions of the Moscow Department of Healthcare, Center for the Prevention of Dependent Behavior, Moscow, Russia; 3Federal Medical Research Centre of Psychiatry and Addictology, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Moscow, Russia; 4Moscow Research and Practical Centre on Addictions of the Moscow Department of Healthcare, Department of Addictology, Moscow, Russia; 5Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Research Centre, Moscow, Russia; 6Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Background: Antipsychotic action of haloperidol is due to blockade of D2 receptors in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, while the adverse drug reactions are associated with striatal D2 receptor blockade. Contradictory data concerning the effects of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding these receptors and associated structures (catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT], glycine transporter and gene encoding the density of D2 receptors on the neuronal membrane are described.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between DRD2, SLC6A3 (DAT and COMT genetic polymorphisms and to investigate their effect on the development of adverse drug reactions in patients with alcohol-use disorder who received haloperidol.Patients and methods: The study

  18. One Novel Multiple-Target Plasmid Reference Molecule Targeting Eight Genetically Modified Canola Events for Genetically Modified Canola Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2017-09-27

    Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R 2 ) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.

  19. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  20. Can health benefits break down Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    that genetically modified functional foods can be a potential wallbreaker for the use of GMOs in food production, that is: if European health claim legislation is deregulated as expected. This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers......' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...

  1. A review of animal models used to evaluate potential allergenicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...... of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).......Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...

  2. Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer and Two Genetic Polymorphisms of XRCC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Naghmeh; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour

    2015-09-01

    The X-ray complementing group 4 (XRCC4, OMIM: 194363) plays a key role in non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells. This pathway is believed to help maintain genomic stability. In the present study, it is hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in the NHEJ repair XRCC4 gene may be associated with an increased risk in developing colorectal cancer (CRC). We genotyped two polymorphisms of XRCC4, G-1394T (rs6869366) and intron 3 insertion/deletion (I/D; rs28360071) in 200 colorectal cancer patients as well as 256 healthy individuals, and evaluated their association with CRC. We found that in G-1394T polymorphism, neither the TG nor the GG genotypes (versus the TT genotype) were associated with the risk of developing CRC. The results of our study indicate that in comparison with the II genotype, ID and DD genotypes had no significant association with the risk of developing CRC. Subjects with TT genotype and positive family history in colorectal cancer were found to be at a much lower risk of developing CRC in comparison with the reference group (OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.11-0.85, P =  .023). It should be noted that participants having at least one G allele (TG+GG genotypes) were at a significantly higher risk to develop the disease compared with the reference group (OR = 9.10, 95%CI: 2.00-41.3, P = 0.004). In relation to I/D polymorphism, among participants, those with positive family history, either with ID (OR =  .78, 95%CI: 2.26-10.0, P < 0.001) or DD genotypes (OR = 5.73, 95%CI: 1.99-16.4, P = 0.001) had a significantly association with the disease. Among participants with a positive family history in CRC, the haplotype GD dramatically increased the risk of developing CRC (OR = 10.2, 95%CI: 2.28-46, P = 0.002). The results of this study indicate that G-1394T and I/D polymorphisms of XRCC4 among individuals with positive family history for colorectal cancer substantially increase the risk factor for developing colorectal cancers.

  3. [Association of XRCC1 genetic polymorphism with susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Li; Guo, Bo; Yang, Yang; Wang, Hong-Yan; Sun, Jing-Fen; Cao, Yong-Bin

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1)gene polymorphism and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk. A total of 282 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients and 231 normal controls were used to investigate the effect of three XRCC1 gene polymorphisms (rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782) on susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Genotyping was performed by using SNaPshot method. All statistical analyses were done with R software. Genotype and allele frequencies of XRCC1 were compared between the patients and controls by using the chi-square test. Crude and adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression on the basis of genetic different models. For four kinds of NHL, subgroup analyses were also conducted. Combined genotype analyses of the three XRCC1 polymorphisms were also done by using logistic regression. The results showed that the variant genotype frequency was not significantly different between the controls and NHL or NHL subtype cases. Combined genotype analyses of XRCC1 399-280-194 results showed that the combined genotype was not associated with risk of NHL overall, but the VT-WT-WT combined genotype was associated with the decreased risk of T-NHL (OR: 0.21; 95%CI (0.06-0.8); P = 0.022), and the WT-VT-WT combined genotype was associated with the increased risk of FL(OR:15.23; 95%CI (1.69-137.39); P = 0.015). It is concluded that any studied polymorphism (rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782) alone was not shown to be rela-ted with the risk of NHL or each histologic subtype of NHL. The combined genotype with mutation of three SNP of XRCC1 was not related to the risk of NHL. However, further large-scale studies would be needed to confirm the association of decreased or increased risk for T-NHL and FL with the risk 3 combined SNP mutants of XRCC1 polymorphism.

  4. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), and ...

  5. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of the TYMS gene are not associated with congenital cardiac septal defects in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yuan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical research indicates that periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce the occurrence of congenital cardiac septal defects (CCSDs. The vital roles of folate exhibits in three ways: the unique methyl donor for DNA expression regulation, the de novo biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine for DNA construction, and the serum homocysteine removal. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS is the solo catalysis enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP, which is the essential precursor of DNA biosynthesis and repair process. To examine the role of TYMS in Congenital Cardiac Septal Defects (CCSDs risk, we investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS gene associated with the CCSDs in a Han Chinese population. METHOD: Polymorphisms in the noncoding region of TYMS were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated individuals composed of half CCSDs and half control subjects. Nine SNPs and two insertion/deletion polymorphisms were genotyped from two independent case-control studies involving a total of 529 CCSDs patients and 876 healthy control participants. The associations were examined by both single polymorphism and haplotype tests using logistic regression. RESULT: We found that TYMS polymorphisms were not related to the altered CCSDs risk, and even to the changed risk of VSDs subgroup, when tested in both studied groups separately or in combination. In the haplotype analysis, there were no haplotypes significantly associated with risks for CCSDs either. CONCLUSION: Our results show no association between common genetic polymorphisms of the regulatory region of the TYMS gene and CCSDs in the Han Chinese population.

  7. Gender differences in consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerbeek, H.; Casimir, G.

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general

  8. Effect of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r on the Fungal Rhizosphere Microflora of Field-Grown Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glandorf, D.C.M.; Verheggen, Patrick; Jansen, Timo; Jorritsma, J.-W.; Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Wernars, Karel; Thomashow, L.S.; Laureijs, Eric; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the

  9. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Serotonergic System and Comorbid Personality Disorders Among Patients with First-Episode Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the association between genetic polymorphisms and personality disorders have provided inconsistent results. Using the "enriched sample method," the authors of the present study aimed to assess the association between polymorphisms in the serotonergic transmitter system and comorbid...... personality disorders in patients recently diagnosed with first-episode depression. A total of 290 participants were systematically recruited via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Diagnoses of personality disorders were assessed by a SCID-II interview, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding...... the serotonin transporter, serotonin receptors 1A, 2A, 2C, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were genotyped. The authors found a significant effect of the length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) on cluster B personality disorder (mainly borderline disorder), but no influence on cluster C...

  10. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  11. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Zsofia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes and glioma susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Peng; Zou, Peng; Zhao, Lin; Yan, Wei; Kang, Chunsheng; Jiang, Tao; You, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual’s susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development. We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case–control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform. In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers. These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas

  13. No evidence of association of MUC-1 genetic polymorphism with embryo implantation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Dentillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss can be caused by several factors involved in human reproduction. Although up to 50% of cases remain unexplained, it has been postulated that the major cause of failed pregnancy is an error of embryo implantation. Transmembrane mucin-1 (MUC-1 is a glycoprotein expressed on the endometrial cell surface which acts as a barrier to implantation. The gene that codes for this molecule is composed of a polymorphic tandem repeat of 60 nucleotides. Our objective was to determine if MUC-1 genetic polymorphism is associated with implantation failure in patients with a history of recurrent abortion. The study was conducted on 10 women aged 25 to 35 years with no history of successful pregnancy and with a diagnosis of infertility. The control group consisted of 32 patients aged 25 to 35 years who had delivered at least two full-term live children and who had no history of abortions or fetal losses. MUC-1 amplicons were obtained by PCR and observed on agarose and polyacrylamide gel after electrophoresis. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the number of MUC-1 variable number of tandem repeats between these groups (P > 0.05. Our results suggest that there is no effect of the polymorphic MUC-1 sequence on the implantation failure. However, the data do not exclude MUC-1 relevance during embryo implantation. The process is related to several associated factors such as the mechanisms of gene expression in the uterus, specific MUC-1 post-translational modifications and appropriate interactions with other molecules during embryo implantation.

  14. Development of a set of SSR markers for genetic polymorphism detection and interspecific hybrid jute breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipnarayan Saha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corchorus capsularis (white jute and C. olitorius (dark jute are the two principal cultivated species of jute that produce natural bast fiber of commercial importance. We have identified 4509 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci from 34,163 unigene sequences of C. capsularis to develop a non-redundant set of 2079 flanking primer pairs. Among the SSRs, trinucleotide repeats were most frequent (60% followed by dinucleotide repeats (37.6%. Annotation of the SSR-containing unigenes revealed their putative functions in various biological and molecular processes, including responses to biotic and abiotic signals. Eighteen expressed gene-derived SSR (eSSR markers were successfully mapped to the existing single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP linkage map of jute, providing additional anchor points. Amplification of 72% of the 74 randomly selected primer pairs was successful in a panel of 24 jute accessions, comprising five and twelve accessions of C. capsularis and C. olitorius, respectively, and seven wild jute species. Forty-three primer pairs produced an average of 2.7 alleles and 58.1% polymorphism in a panel of 24 jute accessions. The mean PIC value was 0.34 but some markers showed PIC values higher than 0.5, suggesting that these markers can efficiently measure genetic diversity and serve for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs in jute. A primer polymorphism survey with parents of a wide-hybridized population between a cultivated jute and its wild relative revealed their efficacy for interspecific hybrid identification. For ready accessibility of jute eSSR primers, we compiled all information in a user-friendly web database, JuteMarkerdb (http://jutemarkerdb.icar.gov.in/ for the first time in jute. This eSSR resource in jute is expected to be of use in characterization of germplasm, interspecific hybrid and variety identification, and marker-assisted breeding of superior-quality jute.

  15. Analysis of polymorphisms and haplotype structure of the human thymidylate synthase genetic region: a tool for pharmacogenetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Ghosh

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil (5FU, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, inhibits the DNA replicative enzyme, thymidylate synthase (Tyms. Prior studies implicated a VNTR (variable numbers of tandem repeats polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of the TYMS gene as a determinant of Tyms expression in tumors and normal tissues and proposed that these VNTR genotypes could help decide fluoropyrimidine dosing. Clinical associations between 5FU-related toxicity and the TYMS VNTR were reported, however, results were inconsistent, suggesting that additional genetic variation in the TYMS gene might influence Tyms expression. We thus conducted a detailed genetic analysis of this region, defining new polymorphisms in this gene including mononucleotide (poly A:T repeats and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs flanking the VNTR in the TYMS genetic region. Our haplotype analysis of this region used data from both established and novel genetic variants and found nine SNP haplotypes accounting for more than 90% of the studied population. We observed non-exclusive relationships between the VNTR and adjacent SNP haplotypes, such that each type of VNTR commonly occurred on several haplotype backgrounds. Our results confirmed the expectation that the VNTR alleles exhibit homoplasy and lack the common ancestry required for a reliable marker of a linked adjacent locus that might govern toxicity. We propose that it may be necessary in a clinical trial to assay multiple types of genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS region to meaningfully model linkage of genetic markers to 5FU-related toxicity. The presence of multiple long (up to 26 nt, polymorphic monothymidine repeats in the promoter region of the sole human thymidylate synthetic enzyme is intriguing.

  16. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Luiza Monteavaro; Silva, Alexandre Mauat da; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Gattino, Gustavo Schulz; Araujo, Gustavo Andrade de; Figueiredo, Felipe Grahl; Tagliani-Ribeiro, Alice; Roman, Tatiana; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer

    2017-01-01

    Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4) related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP) which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  17. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Monteavaro Mariath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4 related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  18. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to evaluate the genetic variability of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coletta Filho Helvécio Della

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RAPD analysis of 19 Ponkan mandarin accessions was performed using 25 random primers. Of 112 amplification products selected, only 32 were polymorphic across five accessions. The absence of genetic variability among the other 14 accessions suggested that they were either clonal propagations with different local names, or that they had undetectable genetic variability, such as point mutations which cannot be detected by RAPD.

  19. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...

  20. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Perry, J.N.; Amzal, B.; Paoletti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment.

  1. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  2. Structure and population genetics of the breakpoints of a polymorphic inversion in Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaceit, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila subobscura is a paleartic species of the obscura group with a rich chromosomal polymorphism. To further our understanding on the origin of inversions and on how they regain variation, we have identified and sequenced the two breakpoints of a polymorphic inversion of D. subobscura--inversion 3 of the O chromosome--in a population sample. The breakpoints could be identified as two rather short fragments (∼300 bp and 60 bp long) with no similarity to any known transposable element family or repetitive sequence. The presence of the ∼300-bp fragment at the two breakpoints of inverted chromosomes implies its duplication, an indication of the inversion origin via staggered double-strand breaks. Present results and previous findings support that the mode of origin of inversions is neither related to the inversion age nor species-group specific. The breakpoint regions do not consistently exhibit the lower level of variation within and stronger genetic differentiation between arrangements than more internal regions that would be expected, even in moderately small inversions, if gene conversion were greatly restricted at inversion breakpoints. Comparison of the proximal breakpoint region in species of the obscura group shows that this breakpoint lies in a small high-turnover fragment within a long collinear region (∼300 kb). © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Genetic association between ghrelin polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuto; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kuerban, Bolati; Komatsu, Miwa; Arai, Heii

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin has been reported to enter the hippocampus and to bind to the neurons of the hippocampal formation. This peptide also affects neuronal glucose uptake and decreases tau hyperphosphorylation. There is increasing evidence suggesting an association between ghrelin and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ghrelin gene are associated with AD. The SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan technology and were analyzed using a case-control study design. Our case-control dataset consisted of 182 AD patients and 143 age-matched controls. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses suggest that the region in and around the gene is highly polymorphic. One SNP, rs4684677 (Leu90Gln), showed a marginal association with age of AD onset. We did not detect any association between the other SNPs of the ghrelin gene and AD. There have been few genetic studies on the relationship between circulating ghrelin and functional SNPs. Further multifactorial studies are needed to clarify the relationship between ghrelin and AD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  5. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the coral reef fish Centropyge bicolor

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2015-08-14

    A total of 23 novel polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were developed for the angelfish Centropyge bicolor through 454 sequencing, and further tested on two spatially separated populations (90 individuals each) from Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea. The mean ± s.e. number of alleles per locus was 14·65 ± 1·05, and mean ± s.e. observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity frequencies were 0·676 ± 0·021 and 0·749 ± 0·018, respectively. The markers reported here constitute the first specific set for this genus and will be useful for future conservation genetic studies in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the coral reef fish Centropyge bicolor

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Saenz-Agudelo, P.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 23 novel polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were developed for the angelfish Centropyge bicolor through 454 sequencing, and further tested on two spatially separated populations (90 individuals each) from Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea. The mean ± s.e. number of alleles per locus was 14·65 ± 1·05, and mean ± s.e. observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity frequencies were 0·676 ± 0·021 and 0·749 ± 0·018, respectively. The markers reported here constitute the first specific set for this genus and will be useful for future conservation genetic studies in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Influence of DPYD Genetic Polymorphisms on 5-Fluorouracil Toxicities in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our meta-analysis aggregated existing results from relevant studies to comprehensively investigate the correlations between genetic polymorphisms in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD gene and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU toxicities in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC. The MEDLINE (1966∼2013, the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013, EMBASE (1980∼2013, CINAHL (1982∼2013, Web of Science (1945∼2013, and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM (1982∼2013 were searched without language restrictions. Meta-analyses were conducted with the use of STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 946 CRC patients met our inclusion criteria, and NOS scores of each of the included studies were ≥5. Our findings showed that DPYD genetic polymorphisms were significantly correlated with high incidences of 5-FU-related toxicity in CRC patients. SNP-stratified analysis indicated that there were remarkable connections of IVS14+1G>A, 464T>A, and 2194G>A polymorphisms with the incidence of marrow suppression in CRC patients receiving 5-FU chemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that IVS14+1G>A, 496A>G, and 2194G>A polymorphisms were correlated with the incidence of gastrointestinal reaction. Ethnicity-stratified analysis also revealed that DPYD genetic polymorphisms might contribute to the development of marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reaction among Asians, but not among Caucasians. The present meta-analysis suggests that DPYD genetic polymorphisms may be correlated with the incidence of 5-FU-related toxicity in CRC patients.

  8. Sociodemographic and subjective belief reasons for inter-EU differences of attitudes towards genetically modified food

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Antje; Papastefanou, Georgios; Tsioumanis, Asterios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2005-01-01

    'Modern biotechnology is a central issue in the public debate as there are still concerns about possible adverse effects deriving from the use of genetically modified organisms. The public, by influencing decisions on new biotechnology, politically through democratic channels or interest groups, but also as consumers via the market, will constitute the ultimate judge of agricultural biotechnology. The present research paper deals with attitudes towards genetically modified food (GM foods) in ...

  9. WHEAT CHARACTERISTIC DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around improvements that meet consumer and end-user needs/issues in addition to meeting produ...

  10. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... The maize imported into Kenya contained Bt genetic elements. Nevertheless, the .... obtained from various open air markets and retail shops located in ... Magic, Bokomo and Temmy) was not successful. Assessment of cry1Ab ...

  11. Genetic Screens in Yeast to Identify BRCA1 Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plon, Sharon E

    2004-01-01

    .... The yeast RAD9 protein has similar functions and sequence motifs as BRCA1 and we proposed to identify candidate modifier loci by identifying haploinsufficient mutations at a second locus that alters...

  12. Gender-specific association of ADA genetic polymorphism with human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolioni, Valerio; Lucarini, Nazzareno

    2010-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether the polymorphic ADA (Adenosine Deaminase, EC 3.5.4.4) gene, which determines the cellular level of adenosine and plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system and in the control of metabolic rates, is involved in longevity. 884 unrelated healthy individuals (age range 10-106 years, 400 males and 484 females) from central Italy were studied. ADA genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. Frequency distributions were compared using the chi-square test and a three-way contingency table analysis by a log linear model was applied to test independence between the variables. We found that ADA influences human life-span in a sex and age specific way. An increased frequency of ADA*2 carriers was found in males aged 80-85, and a decreased frequency in males over 85 (chi(2) = 13.93; df = 3; P = 0.003); significant differences among the age groups was not found in females. A strong interaction among age groups, ADA genotype and sex (G = 15.086; df = 3; P = 0.0017) was found. Males aged 80-85 could be protected from ischemic stroke by higher levels of adenosine (determined by the ADA*2 allele). The decrease of ADA*2 carriers in males over 85 may depend essentially on immunological factors; reduced levels of adenosine protect from asthma and other pulmonary diseases and lead to a reduced activation of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the low level of adenosine may potentiate the activity of NK and other cellular effectors against tumor cells. The negligible effect of ADA genetic polymorphism in females suggest a marginal influence of genetic factors in determining longevity in this sex, confirming previous reports.

  13. Temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a genetically modified (GM) rice ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Gi; Kang, Hojeong

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a soil ecosystem supporting genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L., ABC-TPSP; fusion of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase). Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we compared bacterial and fungal communities in the soils underlying GM rice (ABC-TPSP), and its host cultivar (Nakdong) during growing seasons and non-growing seasons. Overall, the soils supporting GM and non-GM rice did not differ significantly in diversity indices, including ribotype numbers, for either bacteria or fungi. The diversity index (H) in both the bacterial and fungal communities was correlated with water content, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium nitrogen, and the correlation was stronger in fungi than in bacteria. Multivariate analysis showed no differences in microbial community structures between the two crop genotypes, but such differences did appear in time, with significant changes observed after harvest. Gene copy number was estimated as 10(8)~10(11) and 10(5)~10(7) per gram of soil for bacteria and fungi, respectively. As observed for community structure, the rice genotypes did not differ significantly in either bacterial- or fungal-specific gene copy numbers, although we observed a seasonal change in number. We summarize the results of this study as follows. (1) GM rice did not influence soil bacterial and fungal community structures as compared to non-GM rice in our system, (2) both bacterial and fungal communities changed with the growth stage of either rice genotype, (3) fungal communities were less variable than bacterial communities, and (4) although several environmental factors, including ammonium nitrogen and DOC correlated with shifts in microbial community structure, no single factor stood out.

  14. Genetic Variations as Modifying Factors to Dietary Zinc Requirements—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin J. Day

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype. Eighteen studies investigating 31 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in relation to zinc intake and/or status were identified. Five studies examined type 2 diabetes; zinc intake was found to interact independently with two polymorphisms in the zinc-transporter gene SLC30A8 to affect glucose metabolism indicators. While the outcomes were statistically significant, the small size of the effect and lack of replication raises issues regarding translation into nutrition and dietetic practice. Two studies assessed the relationship of polymorphisms and cognitive performance; seven studies assessed the association between a range of outcomes linked to chronic conditions in aging population; two papers described the analysis of the genetic contribution in determining zinc concentration in human milk; and two papers assessed zinc concentration in plasma without linking to clinical outcomes. The data extracted confirmed a connection between genetics and zinc requirements, although the direction and magnitude of the dietary modification for carriers of specific genotypes could not be defined. This study highlights the need to summarise nutrigenetics studies to enable health professionals to translate scientific evidence into dietary recommendations.

  15. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  16. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient

  17. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a qualitative study in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Italy and the United Kingdom. In all four countries, however, genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting product, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well...

  18. Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Nijman, I.J.; Kuijpers, S.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain

  19. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how

  20. Genetically modified cellular vaccines for therapy of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16)-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2008), s. 180-186 ISSN 1568-0096 Grant - others:EU-FP6-NoE Clinigene(XE) 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * genetically modified vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.316, year: 2008

  1. Genetically modified vaccines augment the efficacy of cancer surgery and chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2009), s. 199-200 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : genetically modified vaccines * cancer surgery and chemotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009

  2. Toxicity assessment of modified Cry1Ac1 proteins and genetically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Key words: Modified Cry1Ac1, food safety assessment, toxicity, insect- resistant rice Agb0101. INTRODUCTION. Genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an increasingly important feature of the agricultural land- scapes. In 2013, approximately 175 million hectares of. GM crops were planted by 18 ...

  3. Rare genetic variation in UNC13A may modify survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Benjamin; Shatunov, Aleksey; Pulit, Sara; Jones, Ashley R; Sproviero, William; Gillett, Alexandra; Chen, Zhongbo; Kirby, Janine; Fogh, Isabella; Powell, John F; Leigh, P Nigel; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Shaw, Christopher E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Lewis, Cathryn M; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA

  4. Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  5. MMP9 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yongbin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In addition to tumor invasion and angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 also contributes to carcinogenesis and tumor growth. Genetic variation that may influence MMP9 expression was evaluated among participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (SBCGS) for associations with breast cancer susceptibility. In stage 1, 11 MMP9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by the Affymetrix Targeted Genotyping System and/or the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 among 4,227 SBCGS participants. One SNP was further genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX MassARRAY platform among an additional 6,270 SBCGS participants. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models that included adjustment for age, education, and genotyping stage when appropriate. In Stage 1, rare allele homozygotes for a promoter SNP (rs3918241) or a non-synonymous SNP (rs2274756, R668Q) tended to occur more frequently among breast cancer cases (P value = 0.116 and 0.056, respectively). Given their high linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1.0, r (2) = 0.97), one (rs3918241) was selected for additional analysis. An association with breast cancer risk was not supported by additional Stage 2 genotyping. In combined analysis, no elevated risk of breast cancer among homozygotes was found (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.8). Common genetic variation in MMP9 was not found to be significantly associated with breast cancer susceptibility among participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study.

  6. The -351A>G genetic polymorphism in the estrogen receptor alpha gene and risk of endometriosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Asadi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results do not support the previous findings of an association between -351A>G genetic polymorphism in ESR1 gene and endometriosis. Therefore, comprehensive genetic approaches including linkage analyses and family-based tests, together with a number of replication studies with large sample size, are needed to make conclusive claims about the role of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to endometriosis.

  7. Genetically modified dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 153-155 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cell s * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  8. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M.; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Knight, Jonathan D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of…

  9. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  10. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  11. Progranulin genetic polymorphisms influence progression of disability and relapse recovery in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Marco; Fenoglio, Chiara; Galimberti, Daniela; Mattioda, Alessandra; Chiavazza, Carlotta; Binello, Eleonora; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Giobbe, Dario; Scarpini, Elio; Cavalla, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Progranulin (GRN) is a multifunctional protein involved in inflammation and repair, and also a neurotrophic factor critical for neuronal survival. Progranulin is strongly expressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains by macrophages and microglia. In this study we evaluated GRN genetic variability in 400 MS patients, in correlation with clinical variables such as disease severity and relapse recovery. We also evaluated serum progranulin levels in the different groups of GRN variants carriers. We found that incomplete recovery after a relapse is correlated with an increased frequency of the rs9897526 A allele (odds ratio (OR) 4.367, p = 0.005). A more severe disease course (Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score > 5) is correlated with an increased frequency of the rs9897526 A allele (OR 1.886, p = 0.002) and of the rs5848 T allele (OR 1.580, p = 0.019). Carriers of the variants associated with a more severe disease course (rs9897526 A, rs5848 T) have significantly lower levels of circulating progranulin (80.5 ± 9.1 ng/mL vs. 165.7 ng/mL, p = 0.01). GRN genetic polymorphisms likely influence disease course and relapse recovery in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  12. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J

    2014-03-12

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.

  13. [Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of 3 SNP loci in 5-HTT gene and paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jin-Feng; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao; Xing, Jia-Xin; Sun, Yi-Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the population genetic data of 3 SNP loci (rs25533, rs34388196 and rs1042173) of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene and the association with paranoid schizophrenia. Three SNP loci of 5-HTT gene were examined in 132 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 150 unrelated healthy individuals of Northern Chinese Han population by PCR-RFLP technique. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was performed using the chi-square test and the data of haplotype frequency and population genetics parameters were statistically analyzed. Among these three SNP loci, four haplotypes were obtained. There were no statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group (P > 0.05). The DP values of the 3 SNP loci were 0.276, 0.502 and 0.502. The PIC of them were 0.151, 0.281 and 0.281. The PE of them were 0.014, 0.072 and 0.072. The three SNP loci and four haplotypes of 5-HTT gene have no association with paranoid schizophrenia, while the polymorphism still have high potential application in forensic practice.

  14. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  15. The genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Aceh province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K. F.; Supargiyono, S.; Syafruddin, D.; Pratama, N.; Silvy, S.

    2018-03-01

    An estimated of 3.3 million Indonesian population were infected with malaria. However, extensive genetic polymorphism of the field isolates msp-1 of P. falciparum represents a major obstacle for the development of malaria treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of msp-1 genotype in field isolates of P. falciparum collected in Aceh Province. A total of 90 patients with malaria (+) were selected from eleven district hospitals in Aceh from 2013-2015. Data were collected by anamnesis, complete physical examination and laboratory tests for msp-1. All protocols to diagnose malaria followed the WHO 2010 guideline. All samples were stored in Eijkman Biology Molecular Institute, Jakarta. Among 90 samples, 57.7% were male, and 42.3% were female with the most cases found between 21-30 years old. From the allele typing analysis of P. falciparum from Aceh; K1, MAD20, and RO33 allele types were identified. MAD20 type was the highest allele found in this study (57.9%). It was found in single and mixed infection. A moderate level of the mixed allele was also observed.

  16. Genetic Imaging of the Association of Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR Polymorphisms with Positive Maternal Parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4-6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging, hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs1042778 in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods.

  17. Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Sumatra and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSUMADEWI SRI YULITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yulita KS (2011 Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Bengkulu and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints. Biodiversitas 12: 125-130. Duku (Lansium domesticum Corr. is one of popular tropical fruits in SE Asia. The spesies has three varieties, known as duku, langsat and kokosan; and duku is the most popular one for being the sweetiest fruit. Indonesia has several local varieties of duku, such as duku Condet, duku Sumber and duku Palembang. This present study aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 accessions of duku from Java, Sumatra, and Ceram based on RAPD fingerprints. Ten RAPD’s primers were initially screened and five were selected for the analysis. These five primers (OPA 7, 13, 18, OPB 7, and OPN 12 generated 53 scorable bands with an average of 10.6 polymorphic fragment per primer. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 16.89% (OPA 7 and OPN 12 to 24.54% (OPB 7 with an average of 20.16% polymorphism. OPB 7 at 450 bp was exclusively possessed by accession 20 (Java, OPA 18 at 500 bp was by accession 6 (Java, 550 bp by 3 clones from Bengkulu. While OPN 12 at 300 bp and OPA 13 at 450 bp were shared among the accessions. Clustering analysis was performed based on RAPD profiles using the UPGMA method. The range of genetic similarity value among accessions was 0.02-0.65 suggesting high variation of gene pool existed among accessions.

  18. Start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for evaluating the genetic relationship of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Refeng; Yang, Sai; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Mengying; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-08-10

    Two molecular marker systems, start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), were used for genetic relationship analysis of 36 Dendrobium species collected from China. Twenty-two selected SCoT primers produced 337 loci, of which 324 (96%) were polymorphic, whereas 13 TRAP primer combinations produced a total of 510 loci, with 500 (97.8%) of them being polymorphic. An average polymorphism information content of 0.953 and 0.983 was detected using the SCoT and TRAP primers, respectively, showing that a high degree of genetic diversity exists among Chinese Dendrobium species. The partition of clusters in the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis plot based on the SCoT and TRAP markers was similar and clustered the 36 Dendrobium species into four main groups. Our results will provide useful information for resource protection and will also be useful to improve the current Dendrobium breeding programs. Our results also demonstrate that SCoT and TRAP markers are informative and can be used to evaluate genetic relationships between Dendrobium species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A genetic polymorphism evolving in parallel in two cell compartments and in two clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt Ward B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK, occurs in its guanosine-nucleotide-using form in animals and a few prokaryotes. We study its natural genetic variation in Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae. PEPCK offers a route, alternative to pyruvate kinase, for carbon skeletons to move between cytosolic glycolysis and mitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions. Results PEPCK is expressed in both cytosol and mitochondrion, but differently in diverse animal clades. In vertebrates and independently in Drosophila, compartment-specific paralogous genes occur. In a contrasting expression strategy, compartment-specific PEPCKs of Colias and of the silkmoth, Bombyx, differ only in their first, 5′, exons; these are alternatively spliced onto a common series of following exons. In two Colias species from distinct clades, PEPCK sequence is highly variable at nonsynonymous and synonymous sites, mainly in its common exons. Three major amino acid polymorphisms, Gly 335 ↔ Ser, Asp 503 ↔ Glu, and Ile 629 ↔ Val occur in both species, and in the first two cases are similar in frequency between species. Homology-based structural modelling shows that the variants can alter hydrogen bonding, salt bridging, or van der Waals interactions of amino acid side chains, locally or at one another′s sites which are distant in PEPCK′s structure, and thus may affect its enzyme function. We ask, using coalescent simulations, if these polymorphisms′ cross-species similarities are compatible with neutral evolution by genetic drift, but find the probability of this null hypothesis is 0.001 ≤ P ≤ 0.006 under differing scenarios. Conclusion Our results make the null hypothesis of neutrality of these PEPCK polymorphisms quite unlikely, but support an alternative hypothesis that they are maintained by natural selection in parallel in the two species. This alternative can now be justifiably tested further via studies of PEPCK genotypes′ effects

  20. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 metabolic genes and risk of lung cancer in Asturias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Cima, M Felicitas; Álvarez-Avellón, Sara M; Pascual, Teresa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic genes have been associated with the function of metabolizing and detoxifying environmental carcinogens. Polymorphisms present in these genes could lead to changes in their metabolizing and detoxifying ability and thus may contribute to individual susceptibility to different types of cancer. We investigated if the individual and/or combined modifying effects of the CYP1A1 MspI T6235C, GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms are related to the risk of developing lung cancer in relation to tobacco consumption and occupation in Asturias, Northern Spain. A hospital-based case–control study (CAPUA Study) was designed including 789 lung cancer patients and 789 control subjects matched in ethnicity, age, sex, and hospital. Genotypes were determined by PCR or PCR-RFLP. Individual and combination effects were analysed using an unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, pack-years, family history of any cancer and occupation. No statistically significant main effects were observed for the carcinogen metabolism genes in relation to lung cancer risk. In addition, the analysis did not reveal any significant gene-gene, gene-tobacco smoking or gene-occupational exposure interactions relative to lung cancer susceptibility. Lastly, no significant gene-gene combination effects were observed. These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 metabolic genes were not significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the current study. The results of the analysis of gene-gene interactions of CYP1A1 MspI T6235C, GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms in lung cancer risk indicate that these genes do not interact in lung cancer development

  2. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  3. Smoking modifies the associated increased risk of future cardiovascular disease by genetic variation on chromosome 9p21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hamrefors

    Full Text Available AIMS: Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease (CVD is likely to be modified by environmental exposures. We tested if the associated risk of CVD and CVD-mortality by the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4977574 on chromosome 9p21 is modified by life-style factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 24,944 middle-aged subjects (62% females from the population-based Malmö-Diet-and-Cancer-Cohort were genotyped. Smoking, education and physical activity-levels were recorded. Subjects were followed for 15 years for incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD; N = 2309, ischemic stroke (N = 1253 and CVD-mortality (N = 1156. Multiplicative interactions between rs4977574 and life-style factors on endpoints were tested in Cox-regression-models. We observed an interaction between rs4977574 and smoking on incident CAD (P = 0.035 and CVD-mortality (P = 0.012. The hazard ratios (HR per risk allele of rs4977574 were highest in never smokers (N = 9642 for CAD (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40; P<0.001 and for CVD-mortality (HR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.20-1.63; P<0.001, whereas the risk increase by rs4977574 was attenuated in current smokers (N = 7000 for both CAD (HR = 1.05; 95%CI 0.95-1.16; P = 0.326 and CVD-mortality (HR = 1.08; 95%CI 0.94-1.23; P = 0.270. A meta-analysis supported the finding that the associated increased risk of CAD by the risk-allele was attenuated in smokers. Neither education nor physical activity-levels modified the associated risk of CAD, ischemic stroke and CVD mortality conferred by rs4977574. CONCLUSION: Smoking may modify the associated risk of CAD and CVD-mortality conferred by genetic variation on chromosome 9p21. Whether the observed attenuation of the genetic risk reflects a pathophysiological mechanism or is a result of smoking being such a strong risk-factor that it may eliminate the associated genetic effect, requires further investigation.

  4. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  5. Draft genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and genetic polymorphism among color variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jihoon; Oh, Jooseong; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Hong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sung-Gwon; Cheon, Seongmin; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Jin, Soyeong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Joong-Ki; Park, Chungoo

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867) is an economically important species as a source of seafood and ingredient in traditional medicine. It is mainly found off the coasts of northeast Asia. Recently, substantial exploitation and widespread biotic diseases in A. japonicus have generated increasing conservation concern. However, the genomic knowledge base and resources available for researchers to use in managing this natural resource and to establish genetically based breeding systems for sea cucumber aquaculture are still in a nascent stage. A total of 312 Gb of raw sequences were generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled to a final size of 0.66 Gb, which is about 80.5% of the estimated genome size (0.82 Gb). We observed nucleotide-level heterozygosity within the assembled genome to be 0.986%. The resulting draft genome assembly comprising 132 607 scaffolds with an N50 value of 10.5 kb contains a total of 21 771 predicted protein-coding genes. We identified 6.6-14.5 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the assembled genome of the three natural color variants (green, red, and black), resulting in an estimated nucleotide diversity of 0.00146. We report the first draft genome of A. japonicus and provide a general overview of the genetic variation in the three major color variants of A. japonicus. These data will help provide a comprehensive view of the genetic, physiological, and evolutionary relationships among color variants in A. japonicus, and will be invaluable resources for sea cucumber genomic research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Genetic Analysis of IL-17 Gene Polymorphisms in Gout in a Male Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Li, Xinde; Li, Hua; Guo, Mingzhen; Liu, Shiguo; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by activated T helper 17 cells and involved in inflammatory immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL-17 variants as well as serum IL-17 levels with gout in male Chinese Han individuals. A total of 1,101 male gout patients and 1,239 ethic-matched controls were enrolled. Genetic distributions of three variants (rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman probe method. The plasma concentrations of IL-17A and IL-17F were measured in 228 gout patients and 198 controls that came from above samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were observed in the genetic distribution of these polymorphisms between cases and controls (rs2275913: χ2 = 0.15, p = 0.928 by genotype, χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.711 by allele; rs763780: χ2 = 2.24, p = 0.326 by genotype, χ2 = 0.26, p = 0.609 by allele; rs4819554: χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.409 by genotype, χ2 = 1.46, p = 0.227 by allele). Levels of serum IL-17A and IL-17F were significantly decreased in gout patients (both pgout patients between different genotypic carriers of rs2275913 and rs763780 regarding serum IL-17A and IL-17F levels (p>0.05). Although the genetic variants in IL-17 we studied in this research do not appear to be involved in the development of gout in male Chinese Han individuals, the IL-17 cytokine family may participate in gouty inflammation in an undefined way, which requires further validation.

  7. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI......Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight...

  8. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Sustainability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Wen S.

    2006-01-01

    Surveys on consumer acceptance of GM foods revealed differences in knowledge, risk perception and acceptance of GM foods in Japan, Norway, Spain, Taiwan and the United States. There were opponents and proponents of GM foods. However, even in the United States, one of the most supportive countries, consumers were willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GM alternatives. While genetic engineering holds great potential to enhance yield and productivity for many crops, especially those widely...

  9. Genetically modified organisms authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Matveeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In July 2016 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in terms of improving the state regulation in the field of genetic engineering” (03.07.2016 N 358-FL. This review is devoted to the analysis of Article 4 of the Act, namely the discussion of what GMOs may be authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Andersson

    Full Text Available The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 G-703T polymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202. Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.ClinicalTrials.gov (ID-NCT0056496.

  11. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6-174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Kassem, Eias; Eliakim, Alon

    2017-09-01

    The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively) compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001); middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001); and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively). The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  12. Genetics of VEGF serum variation in human isolated populations of cilento: importance of VEGF polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruggiero

    Full Text Available Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF is the main player in angiogenesis. Because of its crucial role in this process, the study of the genetic factors controlling VEGF variability may be of particular interest for many angiogenesis-associated diseases. Although some polymorphisms in the VEGF gene have been associated with a susceptibility to several disorders, no genome-wide search on VEGF serum levels has been reported so far. We carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis in three isolated populations and we detected a strong linkage between VEGF serum levels and the 6p21.1 VEGF region in all samples. A new locus on chromosome 3p26.3 significantly linked to VEGF serum levels was also detected in a combined population sample. A sequencing of the gene followed by an association study identified three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population (Campora, two already reported in the literature (rs3025039, rs25648 and one new signal (rs3025020. A fourth SNP (rs41282644 was found to affect VEGF serum levels in another population (Cardile. All the identified SNPs contribute to the related population linkages (35% of the linkage explained in Campora and 15% in Cardile. Interestingly, none of the SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population was found to be associated in the two other populations. These results allow us to exclude the hypothesis that the common variants located in the exons, intron-exon junctions, promoter and regulative regions of the VEGF gene may have a causal effect on the VEGF variation. The data support the alternative hypothesis of a multiple rare variant model, possibly consisting in distinct variants in different populations, influencing VEGF serum levels.

  13. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  14. Relationships between genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related factor gene and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Li; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Guang-Jun; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan; Su, Hong-Xin; Wang, He-Tong

    2014-09-01

    Our study aims to discuss the association between inflammation-related factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We used Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the genetic variation of five SNPs in 194 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 231 healthy subjects. All statistical analysis is performed with statistical product and service solutions v13.0; odds ratio (OR) value and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. There is no relationship between TGFβ1 -869 T/C, IL-6 -634C/G, TGFβ1 -509C/T, IL1 -511C/T and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility. Both single factor and multiple factors analysis showed that IL1a -889 T/T genotype is significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in decreasing the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A highly significant association was found between IL1a -889 T/T genotype and protective genotype as defined by various pathological types. This is more obvious in the protective genotype of the non-keratin-type squamous carcinoma undifferentiated type. We also discovered that genotype G/G and C/G + G/G of IL6 -634 gene are associated with reduced recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. IL1a -889 gene polymorphism and susceptibility is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can potentially decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Han Chinese population in north China. IL1-889 TT genotype is protective genotype for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have provided evidence that the GG genotype of the IL6 -634 gene is associated with recurrent risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The G allele is the protective gene of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence.

  15. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Zaken Sigal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001; middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001; and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001. In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively. The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  16. Impact of Body Mass Index, Age, Prostate Volume, and Genetic Polymorphisms on Prostate-specific Antigen Levels in a Control Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cox, David G; Roupret, Morgan; Koutlidis, Nicolas; Bigot, Pierre; Valeri, Antoine; Ondet, Valerie; Gaffory, Cécile; Fournier, Georges; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmene; Cormier, Luc; Cussenot, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is still the cornerstone of prostate cancer (PCa) screening and diagnosis in both research and current clinical practice. Inaccuracy of PSA is partly due to the influence of a number of genetic, clinical, and biological factors modifying PSA blood levels. In the present study, we detailed the respective influence of each factor among age, body mass index (BMI), prostate volume, and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms-rs10788160 (10q26), rs10993994 (10q11), rs11067228 (12q24), rs17632542 (19q13.33), and rs2928679 (8p21)-on PSA values in a cohort of 1374 men without PCa. Our results show that genetic factors, when risk variants are combined, influence PSA levels with an effect size similar to that of BMI. Taken together, the respective correlations of clinical parameters and genetic parameters would make it possible to correct and adjust PSA values more effectively in each individual. These results establish the basis to understand and implement a more personalised approach for the interpretation of PSA blood levels in the context of PCa screening and diagnosis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values in an individual may vary according to genetic predisposition. The effect size of this variation can be significant, comparable with those resulting from clinical characteristics. Personalised PSA testing should take this into account. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association analysis of the genetic polymorphisms with leprosy subtypes in Chinese Han population from Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Honglei; Pan, Qing; Fu, Xi'an; Liu, Tingting; Yu, Gongqi; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen

    2018-03-24

    Leprosy is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from paucibacillary (PB) to multibacillary (MB) depending upon the different immunologic response to the invading of M. leprae 3,4 . It has been widely accepted that genetic predisposition plays the crucial role in the different clinical manifestations. Host susceptibility to leprosy is modified by number of genes via two stages. In the first stage, a group of genes confers susceptibility to leprosy per se; A second group of genes are associated to the type of host immune response and leprosy subtype 5 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional attitudes of young people completing secondary schools towards genetic modification of organisms (GMO and genetically modified foods (GMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents’ emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. Material and method. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Results. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined ‘know rather little’ or ‘very little know’ about this problem. In respondents’ opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO ‘rather do not exist’. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.

  19. Emotional attitudes of young people completing secondary schools towards genetic modification of organisms (GMO) and genetically modified foods (GMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Anna; Zagórski, Jerzy; Bujak, Franciszek; Lachowski, Stanisław; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents' emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined 'know rather little' or 'very little know' about this problem. In respondents' opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO 'rather do not exist'. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.

  20. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  1. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Immunotoxicologic assessment of genetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-lai; Li, Yong-ning; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Cui, Wen-ming; Jia, Xu-dong

    2012-06-01

    To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, Pgenetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms potentially associated with response to metformin in postmenopausal diabetics suffering and not suffering with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Vasilyev, Dmitry; Poroshina, Tatyana E; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a well-known antidiabetic medication, which, besides diabetes, may be involved into modulation of other age-related pathologies, including cancer. The study concerns 12 gene polymorphisms divided into 2 groups consisting of 6 genes each. The first group was composed from so-called "standard" (S) polymorphisms, for which the connection with metabolic response to metformin is already established. The second group included polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins possibly connected with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), impaired glucose tolerance or cancer and entitled here as "associated" (A). A total of 156 postmenopausal women (average age 60.7 ± 0.7) were included, 37 of them healthy, 64 with type DM2 and concurrent treatment-naïve cancer (mostly breast, endometrial or colorectal cancer), 32 with DM2 without cancer, and 23 with treatment-naïve cancer and normal glucose tolerance. The leading metformin response S-marker in combined group of DM2 patients was the CC variant of OCT1-R61C polymorphism of organic cation transporter protein 1 gene. In cancer patients without DM2, this position belonged to AC and AA genotypes of OCT1_rs622342 polymorphism. Among the A-polymorphisms, GA variant of sex hormone-binding globulin gene SHBG_D356N was less frequently observed in DM2 patients with or without cancer. Besides, in diabetics, the same polymorphic variant of SHBG as well as GC genotype of oxidized lipoprotein receptor OLR1_G501C and GG genotype of locus rs11065987 near BRAP gene were carried rather often in combination with "metformin-positive" variant of OCT1_R61C. In addition, carriers of OCT1_R61C and OCT1_rs622342 polymorphisms with potentially positive reaction to metformin had higher insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR) values. Received data lead to the conclusion that postmenopausal diabetics, both with and without cancer, differ in genetic stigmata of potential response to metformin less than they differ from cancer patients without DM2. As genetic

  4. Dectin-1 Polymorphism: A Genetic Disease Specifier in Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Bennabi

    Full Text Available In autism spectrum disorders (ASD, complex gene-environment interactions contribute to disease onset and progress. Given that gastro-intestinal dysfunctions are common in ASD, we postulated involvement of microbial dysbiosis in ASD and investigated, under a case-control design, the influence of DNA polymorphisms in the CLEC7A gene that encodes a pivotal fungal sensor, Dectin-1.DNAs from 478 ASD patients and 351 healthy controls (HC were analyzed for the CLEC7A rs16910631G/A and rs2078178 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Differences in the distribution of allele, genotype and haplotype by Chi-square testing and nonparametric analysis by Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney tests, where appropriate, were performed. The free statistical package R.2.13 software was used for the statistical analysis.We found that the CLEC7A rs2078178 G allele and GG genotype were more prevalent in HC as compared to ASD but failed to reach statistical significance for the latter (pc = 0.01, 0.06 respectively. However, after phenotype-based stratification, the CLEC7A rs2078178 G allele and GG genotype were found to be significantly more frequent in the Asperger group as compared to other ASD subsets (pc = 0.02, 0.01, a finding reinforced by haplotype analysis (rs2078178/rs16910631 G-G/G-G (pc = 0.002. Further, intellectual quotient (IQ-based stratification of ASD patients revealed that IQ values increase linearly along the CLEC7A rs2078178 AA, AG and GG genotypes (p = 0.05 and in a recessive manner (GG vs. AA+AG p = 0.02, further confirmed by haplotype distribution (CLEC7A rs2078178-16910631; A-G/A-G, A-G/G-G and G-G/G-G, p = 0.02, G-G/G-G vs. others, p = 0.01.Our data suggest that the genetic diversity of CLEC7A gene influences the ASD phenotype by behaving as a disease specifier and imply that the genetic control of innate immune response could determine the ASD phenotype.

  5. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  6. Genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 modify the risk of HPV16-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ziyuan; Sturgis, Erich M; Liu, Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation between phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced protein 1 (NOXA) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) is critical in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), by inducing p53 and pRb-E2F degradation, may play an essential role in development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) through NOXA-MCL1 axis-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the SCCHN risk associated with HPV16 seropositivity. HPV16 serology was obtained by immunoadsorption assay. Four functional SNPs in the promoter of NOXA (rs9957673, rs4558496) and MCL1 (rs9803935, rs3738485) were genotyped for 380 cases and 335 frequency-matched cancer-free controls of non-Hispanic whites. Associations between the four polymorphisms and SCCHN risk were not significant, while we observed a significantly joint effect on SCCHN risk between the polymorphisms and HPV16 seropositivity. Notably, this effect modification was particularly pronounced for oropharyngeal cancer in subgroups including never smokers, never drinkers and younger subjects. Our results suggested that polymorphisms of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the risk of HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer. The further identification of population subgroups at higher risk provides evidence that HPV-targeting treatment may help benefit SCCHN. However, larger studies are needed to validate our findings

  7. Genetically modified organisms in New Zealand and cultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.; Roberts, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modem society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents of genetic modification (GM), and the difficulty of resolution within the secular-based framework of quantitative risk assessment applied by the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and decision-making committees. Alternative frameworks suggested by Maori are beginning to emerge, and along with the results of several government-funded research projects in this area, should make a valuable contribution to a new framework that more equitably incorporates the fundamental principles of both knowledge systems. If this aim is achieved, it will be of considerable interest to other indigenous peoples in the world who are also faced with real and perceived threats to their cultural beliefs and values originating from new biotechnologies. (author)

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in 5-Fluorouracil-related enzymes predict pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bailey; Carter, Jane V; Eichenberger, Maurice R; Netz, Uri; Galandiuk, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Many patients with rectal cancer undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation, with approximately 70% exhibiting pathologic downstaging in response to treatment. Currently, there is no accurate test to predict patients who are likely to be complete responders to therapy. 5-Fluorouracil is used regularly in the neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer. Genetic polymorphisms affect the activity of thymidylate synthase, an enzyme involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism, which may account for observed differences in response to neoadjuvant treatment between patients. Detection of genetic polymorphisms might identify patients who are likely to have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy and perhaps allow them to avoid operation. DNA was isolated from whole blood taken from patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant therapy (n = 50). Response to therapy was calculated with a tumor regression score based on histology from the time of operation. Polymerase chain reaction was performed targeting the promoter region of thymidylate synthase. Polymerase chain reaction products were separated using electrophoresis to determine whether patients were homozygous for a double-tandem repeat (2R), a triple-tandem repeat (3R), or were heterozygous (2R/3R). A single nucleotide polymorphism, 3G or 3C, also may be present in the second repeat unit of the triple-tandem repeat allele. Restriction fragment length polymorphism assays were performed in patients with at least one 3R allele using HaeIII. Patients with at least 1 thymidylate synthase 3G allele were more likely to have a complete or partial pathologic response to 5-Fluorouracil neoadjuvant therapy (odds ratio 10.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-81.6; P = .01) than those without at least one 3G allele. Identification of rectal cancer patients with specific genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism seems to predict the likelihood of complete or partial pathologic response

  9. Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

    2004-07-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration in Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between high temperature essential factor A-1(HTRA1polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration(AMDin Han population. METHODS: Totally 201 patients of wet AMD in Han population were selected from May 2014 to January 2017 in our hospital as disease group, and 201 healthy persons of Han were selected as health group. Blood samples of peripheral vein were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. HTRA1 polymorphism loci were detected, and the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci of HTRA1 gene were detected by Sequenom mass spectrometry platform. Then the relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet AMD were analyzed. RESULTS: The grade distributions of the genotype of the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci in the two groups subjects had significant differences(PPPOR values of rs11200638 genotype AA and AG were respectively 5.36 and 3.45, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(POR values of rs2248799 genotype TT and TC were respectively 2.36 and 1.98, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(PCONCLUSION: The rs11200638 and rs2248799 polymorphisms of HTRA1 gene are associated with the incidence of wet AMD, and the genotype AA and TT are closely related to the risk of wet AMD in Han population, of which the higher frequencies can increase the risk of wet AMD.

  11. Evaluation of a reverse-hybridization StripAssay for the detection of genetic polymorphisms leading to acenocoumarol sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialeraki, Argyri; Markatos, Christos; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Travlou, Anthi; Politou, Marianna

    2010-04-01

    Acenocoumarol is mainly catabolized by CYP2C9 isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) liver complex and exerts its anticoagulant effect through the inhibition of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR). The most important genetic polymorphisms which lead to an impaired enzymatic activity and therefore predispose to acenocoumarol sensitivity, are considered to be CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys), CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu) and VKORC1-1639G>A, respectively. In this study we compared the results of the PGXThrombo StripAssay kit (ViennaLab Diagnostics,Vienna, Austria) with direct DNA sequencing and in house Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) for the detection of the aforementioned Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The reverse hybridization StripAssay was found to be equally effective with RFLP and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, respectively. The comparison of the RFLP reference method with the reverse hybridization StripAssay for the detection of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism showed that the reverse hybridization StripAsssay might misclassify some A/A homozygotes as heterozygotes. Optimization of the hybridization procedures may eliminate the extra low signal band observed in some samples at the reverse hybridization StripAssay and improve its diagnostic value.

  12. Risk assesment in the context of EC directives on genetically modified organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meer, P.J. van der [Ministry for the Environment (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment.

  13. Risk assesment in the context of EC directives on genetically modified organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, P.J. van der

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment

  14. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Coherent spectroscopic methods for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moguilnaya, T.; Suminov, Y.; Botikov, A.; Ignatov, S.; Kononenko, A.; Agibalov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed the new automatic method that combines the method of forced luminescence and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This method is used for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution. We carried out the statistical spectral analysis of pathogens, genetically modified soy and nano-particles of silver in water from different regions in order to determine the statistical errors of the method. We studied spectral characteristics of these objects in water to perform the initial identification with 95% probability. These results were used for creation of the model of the device for monitor of pathogenic organisms and working model of the device to determine the genetically modified soy in meat.

  16. Detection of DNA of genetically modified maize by a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Van Binh; Tung Pham, Xuan Thanh; Duong Dang, Ngoc Thuy; Tuyen Le, Thi Thanh; Tran, Phu Duy; Nguyen, Thanh Chien; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Dang, Mau Chien; Tong, Duy Hien; Van Rijn, Cees J M

    2011-01-01

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200 pM

  17. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary genetic imaging study of the association between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and harsh human maternal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Michalska, Kalina J; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Hipwell, Alison E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D; Decety, Jean

    2012-09-06

    A failure of neural changes initiated by the estrogen surge in late pregnancy to reverse the valence of infant stimuli from aversive to rewarding is associated with dysfunctional maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. Estrogen receptor-α plays the crucial role in mediating these neural effects of estrogen priming. This preliminary study examines associations between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and human maternal behavior. Two polymorphisms were associated with human negative maternal parenting. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging to child stimuli in neural regions associated with social cognition fully mediated the association between genetic variation and negative parenting. This suggests testable hypotheses regarding a biological pathway between genetic variants and dysfunctional human maternal parenting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between combinations of genetic polymorphisms and epidemiopathogenic forms of bovine paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon A. Juste

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of major mycobacterial diseases affecting livestock is a challenging issue that requires different approaches. The use of genetic markers for improving resistance to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle has been explored as a promising population strategy We performed paratuberculosis epidemiopathogenic phenotypic and genotypic characterization involving 24 SNPs in six candidate genes (NOD2, CD209, SLC11A1, SP110, TLR2 and TLR4 on 502 slaughtered Friesian cows. In the current study, we investigate whether recently proposed paratuberculosis (PTB epidemiopathogenic (EP forms (apparently free-AF, latent-LAT and patent-PAT could be associated with some combination of these 24 SNPs. Best EP form grouping was obtained using a combination of 5 SNPs in four genes (CD209: rs210748127; SLC11A1: rs110090506; SP110: rs136859213 and rs110480812; and TLR2: rs41830058. These groups were defined according to the level of infection progression risk to patent epidemiopathogenic forms and showed the following distributions: LOWIN (low with 39 (8% cases (94.9% AF/5.1% LAT/0% PAT; LATIN (low with 17 (3% cases (5.9% AF/94.1% LAT/0% PAT; AVERIN (average with 413 (82% cases (52.1% AF/38.5% LAT/9.4% PAT and PATIN (patent with 33 (7% cases (36.4% AF/24.2% LAT/39.4% PAT. Age of slaughter was significantly higher for LATIN (88.3 months compared to AVERIN (65.3 months; p = 0.0007 and PATIN (59.1 months; p = 0.0004, and for LOWIN (73.9 months compared to PATIN (p = 0.0233, and nearly significant compared to AVERIN (p = 0.0572 These results suggest that some selected genetic polymorphisms have a potential use as markers of PTB EP forms and thus add a new tool for the control of this widespread infection.

  20. Detecting high-order interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms using genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunkesser, Robin; Bernholt, Thorsten; Schwender, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja; Wegener, Ingo

    2007-12-15

    Not individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but high-order interactions of SNPs are assumed to be responsible for complex diseases such as cancer. Therefore, one of the major goals of genetic association studies concerned with such genotype data is the identification of these high-order interactions. This search is additionally impeded by the fact that these interactions often are only explanatory for a relatively small subgroup of patients. Most of the feature selection methods proposed in the literature, unfortunately, fail at this task, since they can either only identify individual variables or interactions of a low order, or try to find rules that are explanatory for a high percentage of the observations. In this article, we present a procedure based on genetic programming and multi-valued logic that enables the identification of high-order interactions of categorical variables such as SNPs. This method called GPAS cannot only be used for feature selection, but can also be employed for discrimination. In an application to the genotype data from the GENICA study, an association study concerned with sporadic breast cancer, GPAS is able to identify high-order interactions of SNPs leading to a considerably increased breast cancer risk for different subsets of patients that are not found by other feature selection methods. As an application to a subset of the HapMap data shows, GPAS is not restricted to association studies comprising several 10 SNPs, but can also be employed to analyze whole-genome data. Software can be downloaded from http://ls2-www.cs.uni-dortmund.de/~nunkesser/#Software

  1. Genetic polymorphisms and asthma: findings from a case-control study in the Madeira island population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Anabela Gonçalves; Fernandes, Ana Teresa; Oliveira, Susana; Rodrigues, Mariana; Ornelas, Pedro; Romeira, Diogo; Serrão, Tânia; Rosa, Alexandra; Câmara, Rita

    2014-09-04

    Asthma is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. While Madeira has the highest prevalence of asthma in Portugal (14.6%), the effect of both genetic and environmental factors in this population has never been assessed. We categorized 98 asthma patients according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, established their sensitization profile, and measured their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) indexes. Selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed as potential markers for asthma susceptibility and severity in the interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 13 (IL13), beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), gasdermin-like (GSDML) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes comparatively to a population reference set. Although mites are the major source of allergic sensitization, no significant difference was found amongst asthma severity categories. IL4-590*CT/TT and IL4-RP2*253183/183183 were found to predict the risk (2-fold) and severity (3 to 4-fold) of asthma and were associated with a lower FEV1 index. ADRB2-c.16*AG is a risk factor (3.5-fold), while genotype GSDML-236*TT was protective (4-fold) for moderate-severe asthma. ADAM33-V4*C was associated to asthma and mild asthma by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Finally, ADAM33-V4*CC and STAT6-21*TT were associated with higher sensitization (mean wheal size ≥10 mm) to house dust (1.4-fold) and storage mite (7.8-fold). In Madeira, IL4-590C/T, IL4-RP2 253/183, GSDML-236C/T and ADAM33-V4C/G SNPs are important risk factors for asthma susceptibility and severity, with implications for asthma healthcare management.

  2. Gene-environment interaction: Does fluoride influence the reproductive hormones in male farmers modified by ERα gene polymorphisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Huang, Hui; Sun, Long; Zhou, Tong; Zhu, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xuemin; Duan, Lijv; Li, Zhiyuan; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of endemic fluorosis is derived from high fluoride levels in drinking water and industrial fumes or dust. Reproductive disruption is also a major harm caused by fluoride exposure besides dental and skeletal lesions. However, few studies focus on the mechanism of fluoride exposure on male reproductive function, especially the possible interaction of fluoride exposure and gene polymorphism on male reproductive hormones. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in rural areas of Henan province in China to explore the interaction between the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene and fluoride exposure on reproductive hormone levels in male farmers living in the endemic fluorosis villages. The results showed that fluoride exposure significantly increased the serum level of estradiol in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis in male farmers. Moreover, the observations indicated that fluoride exposure and genetic markers had an interaction on serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol, and the interaction among different loci of the ERα gene could impact the serum testosterone level. Findings in the present work suggest that chronic fluoride exposure in drinking water could modulate the levels of reproductive hormones in males living in endemic fluorosis areas, and the interaction between fluoride exposure and ERα polymorphisms might affect the serum levels of hormones in the HPT axis in male farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MTLRP genetic polymorphism (214C>A) was associated with Type 2 diabetes in Caucasian population: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Li; Han, Song-Mei; Tang, Fei-Fei; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported the relation between MTLRP genetic polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, however, the conclusion were conflicting. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to reveal this association. Methods Literature retrieval, selection and assessment, data extraction, and meta-analyses were performed according to the RevMan 5.0 guidelines. In the meta-analysis, we utilized random-effect model or fixed-effect model to pool the Odds ratio (OR) according to the tes...

  4. Genetic Variation among Isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the Agent of Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, as Revealed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheikha, H. M.; Schott, H. C.; Mansfield, L. S.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged. Here, the genetic diversity of Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Fifteen S. neurona taxa from different regions collected over the last 10 years were used; six isolates were from clinically diseased horses, eight isolates were from wild-caught opossums (Didelph...

  5. ECOGENETICS AND PHARMACOGENETICS: THE IMPORTANCE OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN THE VARIABILITY OF ORGANISMS RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tudose

    2005-08-01

    protect confidentiality and privacy of individual genetic information may make such research infeasible. In the present paper we expose some general considerations about the importance of the borderline disciplines which are studying the cited aspects (ecogenetics, pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, emphasising the importance of human populations genome polymorphisms affecting drug efficiency and producing adverse reactions; eventually we expose the most recent trends in pharmacogenomics related to the subject

  6. IL13 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and eczema in women: a case-control study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arakawa Masashi; Tanaka Keiko; Miyake Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several genetic association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and eczema, and have provided contradictory results. We investigated the relationship between the IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of eczema in Japanese young adult women. Methods Included were 188 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Control subjects were 1,...

  7. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in non-invasive genetic monitoring of a wolf population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, R.; Mucci, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent the most widespread source of sequence variation in genomes, are becoming a routine application in several fields such as forensics, ecology and conservation genetics. Their use, requiring short amplifications, may allow a more efficient geno....... We evaluated the cost, laboratory effort and reliability of these different markers and discuss the possible future use of VeraCode, SNPlex and Fluidigm EP1 system in wild population monitoring....

  8. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus tapeworms in China as determined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiumin; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Wang, Hu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Mamuti, Wulamu; Wen, Hao; Moro, Pedro L.; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus spp. in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region were evaluated by DNA sequencing analyses of genes for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1a). We collected 68 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from Xinjiang and 113 isolates of E. granulosus s. s., 49 isolates of Echinococcus multilocularis and 34 isolates of Echinococcus shiquicus from the Tibetan Plateau. The results of molecular identification by mitochondrial and nuclear markers were identical, suggesting the infrequency of introgressive hybridization. A considerable intraspecific variation was detected in mitochondrial cox1 sequences. The parsimonious network of cox1 haplotypes showed star-like features in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, but a divergent feature in E. shiquicus. The cox1 neutrality indexes computed by Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed high negative values in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. In contrast, the low positive values of both tests were obtained in E. shiquicus. These results suggest the following hypotheses: (i) recent founder effects arose in E. granulosus and E. multilocularis after introducing particular individuals into the endemic areas by anthropogenic movement or natural migration of host mammals, and (ii) the ancestor of E. shiquicus was segregated into the Tibetan Plateau by colonizing alpine mammals and its mitochondrial locus has evolved without bottleneck effects. PMID:19800346

  10. Association between N142D genetic polymorphism of GSTO2 and susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Mohammad; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-10-01

    Expression pattern analysis has been revealed that glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2, a member of class omega) is ubiquitously expressed. Over expression of GSTO2 induced apoptosis. The gene encoding GSTO2 was localized to human chromosome 10q24.3, a region that may harbor gene(s) involved in the developing of colorectal cancer. To investigate the association between GSTO2 N142D genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer the present study was done. We studied 63 (26 females, 37 males) colorectal cancer patients and 126 (52 females, 74 males) healthy individuals. The control subjects were frequency matched for age and gender with the colorectal cancer group. The genotypes were performed using RFLP-PCR method. The ND and DD genotypes were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer, in comparison with the NN genotype. Family history for cancer in the first degree of relatives significantly differed between cases and controls (P = 0.012). The profiles of GSTO2 genotypes and family history in control and cancerous groups were compared to each other. Subjects with NN genotype and positive family history significantly were at high risk to develop colorectal cancer in comparison with subjects with DD or ND genotypes and negative family history (P = 0.003). Present findings indicating that GSTO2 NN genotype increase the risk of colorectal cancer in persons with positive family history for cancer in the first degree relatives.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in 85 DNA repair genes and bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Stefan; Laplanche, Agnès; Boulet, Thomas; Dessen, Philippe; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Méjean, Arnaud; Desgrandchamps, François; Lathrop, Mark; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

    2009-05-01

    Several defense mechanisms have been developed and maintained during the evolution to protect human cells against damage produced from exogenous or endogenous sources. We examined the associations between bladder cancer and a panel of 652 polymorphisms from 85 genes involved in maintenance of genetic stability [base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair (DSBR) and mismatch repair, as well as DNA synthesis and cell cycle regulation pathways] in 201 incident bladder cancer cases and 326 hospital controls. Score statistics were used to test differences in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls in an unconditional logistic regression model. To account for multiple testing, we associated to each P-value the expected proportion of false discoveries (q-value). Haplotype analysis revealed significant associations (P genes (POLB and FANCA) with an associated q-value of 24%. A permutation test was also used to determine whether, in each pathway analyzed, there are more variants whose allelic frequencies are different between cases and controls as compared with what would be expected by chance. Differences were found for cell cycle regulation (P = 0.02) and to a lesser extent for DSBR (P = 0.05) pathways. These results hint to a few potential candidate genes; however, our study was limited by the small sample size and therefore low statistical power to detect associations. It is anticipated that genome-wide association studies will open new perspectives for interpretation of the results of extensive candidate gene studies such as ours.

  12. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang JIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches.

  13. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. For thi......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...

  14. A cross-cultural comparison of consumers' purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    CONSUMERS' PURCHASE INTENTIONS WITH REGARD TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS ARE INVESTIGATED THROUGH A CROSS-NATIONAL SURVEY IN DENMARK, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN AND ITALY, USING BEER AND YOGHURT AS EXAMPLES (N=1000 PER PRODUCT). RESULTS SHOW THAT GENERALLY COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF ITALIAN CONSUMERS...... ARE NOT COMPARABLE WITH COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF CONSUMERS OF THE THREE OTHER COUNTRIES. IN ALL CASES, HOWEVER, PUR-CHASE INTENTIONS ARE STRONGLY EXPLAINED BY CONSUMERS' OVERALL ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETIC MODIFICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION....

  15. Genetic Modification of Human Pancreatic Progenitor Cells Through Modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song; Chow, Christie C; Zhou, Junwei; Leung, Po Sing; Tsui, Stephen K; Lui, Kathy O

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a highly efficient genetic modification strategy for human pancreatic progenitor cells using modified mRNA-encoding GFP and Neurogenin-3. The properties of modified mRNA offer an invaluable platform to drive protein expression, which has broad applicability in pathway regulation, directed differentiation, and lineage specification. This approach can also be used to regulate expression of other pivotal transcription factors during pancreas development and might have potential therapeutic values in regenerative medicine.

  16. SERS-based detection methods for screening of genetically modified bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia

    factories vary largely, including industrial production of valuable compounds for biofuels, polymer synthesis and food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The improvement of computational and biochemical tools has revolutionized the synthesis of novel modified microbial strains, opening up new......The importance of metabolic engineering has been growing over the last decades, establishing the use of genetically modified microbial strains for overproduction of metabolites at industrial scale as an innovative, convenient and biosustainable method. Nowadays, application areas of microbial...

  17. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuda C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

  18. Associations between Salivary Testosterone Levels, Androgen‐Related Genetic Polymorphisms, and Self‐Estimated Ejaculation Latency Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jern, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: We were unable to find support for the hypothesis suggesting an association between T levels and ELT, possibly because of the low number of phenotypically extreme cases (the sample used in the present study was population based. Our results concerning genetic associations should be interpreted with caution until replication studies have been conducted. Jern P, Westberg L, Ankarberg‐Lindgren C, Johansson A, Gunst A, Sandnabba NK, and Santtila P. Associations between salivary testosterone levels, androgen‐related genetic polymorphisms, and self‐estimated ejaculation latency time. Sex Med 2014;2:107–114.

  19. Consumers’ Perception About Genetically Modified Foods and Their Purchase Intention in the City Center of Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Duran Çelik; Erdal Dağıstan

    2016-01-01

    In this study consumers’ perception of, and purchase intention for genetically modified foods were examined in the city center of Hatay. The data of the 343 surveys were collected by using the face to face interview method. The data were analyzed by means of Likert Scale, and Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the survey results, consumers’ risk perceptions about genetically modified foods are quite high. Consumers don’t willingly purchase genetically modified foods, and they intend ...

  20. Production of Remedial Proteins through Genetically Modified Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Tariq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has created biological organisms with advanced genetic sequences and has been extensively used to express multiple genes for therapeutic purposes when expressed in a suitable host. Microbial systems such as prokaryotic bacteria has been successfully utilized as a heterologous systems showing high therapeutic potency for various human diseases. Bioengineered bacteria have been successfully utilized for producing therapeutic proteins, treating infectious diseases, and disease arise due to increasing resistance to antibiotics. Prominently E. coli found to be the most widely used expression system for recombinant therapeutic protein production i.e. hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Besides E. coli, non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria has also been considered as an excellent candidate for live mucosal vaccine. Likewise, S. typhimurium has been deployed as attenuated type of vaccination as well as in treatment strategy of various cancers due to its ability of wide progression in tumors. The present article is a summarized view of the main achievements and current developments in the field of recombinant therapeutics using bacterial strains focusing on their usability in therapeutics and future potential.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Myanmar and Indonesia Native Chickens Together with Two Jungle Fowl Species by Using 102 Indels Polymorphisms

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    Aye Aye Maw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insertion and/or deletion (indels polymorphisms as genetic markers was evaluated by genotyping 102 indels loci in native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia as well as Red jungle fowls and Green jungle fowls from Java Island. Out of the 102 indel markers, 97 were polymorphic. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.206 to 0.268 and 0.229 to 0.284 in native chicken populations and 0.003 to 0.101 and 0.012 to 0.078 in jungle fowl populations. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst of the native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia were 0.041 and 0.098 respectively. The genetic variability is higher among native chicken populations than jungle fowl populations. The high Gst value was found between native chicken populations and jungle fowl populations. Neighbor-joining tree using genetic distance revealed that the native chickens from two countries were genetically close to each other and remote from Red and Green jungle fowls of Java Island.

  2. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  3. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms associated to folate transport as predictors of increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Mexican children

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    Fausto Zaruma-Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a frequent neoplasia occurring in children. The most commonly used drug for the treatment of ALL is methotrexate (MTX, an anti-folate agent. Previous studies suggest that folate transporters play a role in ALL prognosis and that genetic polymorphism of genes encoding folate transporters may increase the risk of ALL. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the associations among six genetic polymorphisms in four genes related with the folate transporter pathway to determine a relationship with the occurrence of ALL in Mexican children.A case-control study was performed in 73 ALL children and 133 healthy children from Northern and Northwestern Mexico. COL18A1 (rs2274808, SLC19A1 (rs2838956, ABCB1 (rs1045642 and rs1128503 and ABCC5 (rs9838667 and rs3792585. polymorphisms were assayed through qPCR.Our results showed an increased ALL risk in children carrying CT genotype (OR=2.55, CI 95% 1.11-5.83, p=0.0001 and TT genotype (OR=21.05, CI 95% 5.62-78.87, p<0.0001 of COL18A1 rs2274808; in SLC19A1 rs2838956 AG carriers (OR=44.69, CI 95% 10.42-191.63, p=0.0001; in ABCB1 rs1045642 TT carriers (OR=13.76, CI 95% 5.94-31.88, p=0.0001; in ABCC5 rs9838667 AC carriers (OR=2.61, CI 95% 1.05-6.48, p<0.05; and in ABCC5 rs3792585 CC carriers (OR=9.99, CI 95% 3.19-31.28, p=0.004. Moreover, several combinations of genetic polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with a risk for ALL. Finally, two combinations of ABCC5 polymorphisms resulted in protection from this neoplasia.In conclusion, certain genetic polymorphisms related to the folate transport pathway, particularly COL18A1 rs2274808, SLC19A1 rs2838956, ABCB1 rs1045642 and ABCC5 rs3792585, were associated with an increased risk for ALL in Mexican children.

  5. Common genetic polymorphisms of microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Hyuna; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Jeon, Sujee; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Han, Sohee; Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of microRNA’s (miRNA’s) biogenesis pathway genes in cancer development and progression has been well established, the association between genetic variants of this pathway genes and breast cancer survival is still unknown. We used genotype data available from a previously conducted case–control study to investigate association between common genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival. We investigated the possible associations between 41 germ-line single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and both disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among 488 breast cancer patients. During the median follow-up of 6.24 years, 90 cases developed disease progression and 48 cases died. Seven SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer survival. Two SNPs in AGO2 (rs11786030 and rs2292779) and DICER1 rs1057035 were associated with both DFS and OS. Two SNPs in HIWI (rs4759659 and rs11060845) and DGCR8 rs9606250 were associated with DFS, while DROSHA rs874332 and GEMIN4 rs4968104 were associated with only OS. The most significant association was observed in variant allele of AGO2 rs11786030 with 2.62-fold increased risk of disease progression (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-4.88) and in minor allele homozygote of AGO2 rs2292779 with 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% CI, 1.52-5.69). We also found cumulative effects of SNPs on DFS and OS. Compared to the subjects carrying 0 to 2 high-risk genotypes, those carrying 3 or 4–6 high-risk genotypes had an increased risk of disease progression with a hazard ratio of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18- 3.93) and 4.47 (95% CI, 2.45- 8.14), respectively (P for trend, 6.11E-07). Our results suggest that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may be associated with breast cancer survival. Further studies in larger sample size and functional characterizations are warranted to validate these results

  6. Association between PON1 genetic polymorphisms and miscarriage in Mexican women exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gamboa-Avila, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Lacasaña, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Placental oxidative stress has been involved in the pathogenesis of certain reproductive adverse effects, including miscarriage. Paraxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein(HDL)-linked enzyme that prevents oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and is involved in detoxification from organophosphate pesticides. To assess the association between maternal PON1 polymorphisms (PON1192Q/R, PON155 L/M y PON1-108C/T) and the risk of miscarriage in women chronically exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, socio-demographic data, reproductive history data, environmental exposures, and other variables of concern were collected by means of a questionnaire from 264 women (floriculturists and wives of floriculturists) who had been pregnant sometime during the 10 years preceding the study. Blood samples were also collected from them. PON1192 and PON155 genotypes were determined by PCR amplification, and PON1-108 genotypes, by a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Complete information regarding the results of pregnancy and maternal genotype tests was obtained for 514 pregnancies (35 miscarriages and 479 controls). The association between PON1 genotypes and miscarriage was evaluate through GEE models. The risk of miscarriage by mothers with PON1192RR genotype was 2.2 higher than by mothers with PON1192QR/PON1192QQ genotype (95% CI 0.93-5.17). The risk was close to 4 times higher in mothers with PON155MM/PON155LM genotype than in mothers with PON155LL genotype (OR=3.9; 95% CI 1.38-11.0). No significant differences were found in risk of miscarriage based on the maternal PON1-108C/T genotype. No evidence was found of an interaction between the various PON1 genotypes and the mothers' floricultural activity during pregnancy. This study suggests that there is an effect of genetic maternal PON1 polymorphisms on miscarriage and provides additional evidence that combines with the growing information about the ways in which

  7. Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms of AURKA and environmental factors on oral cancer development in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Chou

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth and fourth most common cause of cancer death in men worldwide and in Taiwan, respectively. AURKA, which encodes a centrosome-related serine/threonine kinase, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in many human cancers, particularly advanced OSCC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to estimate AURKA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and environmental risk factors to determine OSCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics.We enrolled a total of 876 OSCC patients and 1200 controls. Four SNPs of AURKA, namely rs1047972, rs2273535, rs2064863, and rs6024836, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Among the 1420 smokers, the AURKA polymorphism carriers with the betel nut chewing habit had a higher risk of oral cancer than AURKA wild-type (WT carriers without the betel nut chewing habit. Patients with the AURKA rs2064863 gene had a 1.365-fold higher risk of stage III or IV OSCC (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.029-1.811 than those with the rs2064863 WT gene. Furthermore, carriers of the AURKA rs1047972/rs2273535/rs2064863 C-A-T haplotype had a 1.736-fold (95% CI 1.110-2.715 higher risk of OSCC than controls (C-T-T, the most common haplotype. Among patients with the betel quid chewing habit, carriers of other haplotypes (C-T-T, C-A-G, T-A-T, T-A-G, T-T-T, and C-T-G had a 12.857-fold (95% CI 10.731-15.404 increased risk, and carriers of the C-A-T haplotype had the highest risk (AOR: 31.120; 95% CI 13.864-69.850 of OSCC, compared with those without the betel quid chewing who harbored other haplotypes.In conclusion, betel nut chewing combined with the AURKA C-A-T haplotypes lead to a high risk of OSCC. These findings reveal a novel genetic-environmental predisposition for oral tumorigenesis.

  8. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abreu-Cavalheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  9. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  10. The study of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin in Alzheimer's disease: a new perspective in a heterogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira J.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Mutations in 3 genes mapped on chromosomes 21, 14 and 1 are related to the rare early onset forms of AD while the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene (on chromosome 19 is the major susceptibility locus for the most common late onset AD (LOAD. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is a key neurotransmitter implicated in the control of mood, sleep, appetite and a variety of traits and behaviors. Recently, a polymorphism in the transcriptional control region upstream of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT gene has been studied in several psychiatric diseases and personality traits. It has been demonstrated that the short variant(s of this 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR is associated with a different transcriptional efficiency of the 5-HTT gene promoter resulting in decreased 5-HTT expression and 5-HT uptake in lymphocytes. An increased frequency of this 5-HTTLPR short variant polymorphism in LOAD was recently reported. In addition, another common polymorphic variation in the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonin receptor genes previously analyzed in schizophrenic patients was associated with auditory and visual hallucinations in AD. These observations suggest that the involvement of the serotonin pathway might provide an explanation for some aspects of the affective symptoms commonly observed in AD patients. In summary, research on genetic polymorphisms related to AD and involved in receptors, transporter proteins and the enzymatic machinery of serotonin might enhance our understanding of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.

  11. Estimating additive and non-additive genetic variances and predicting genetic merits using genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Su

    Full Text Available Non-additive genetic variation is usually ignored when genome-wide markers are used to study the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits in human, wild life, model organisms or farm animals. However, non-additive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of complex traits. This study presented a genomic BLUP model including additive and non-additive genetic effects, in which additive and non-additive genetic relation matrices were constructed from information of genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. In addition, this study for the first time proposed a method to construct dominance relationship matrix using SNP markers and demonstrated it in detail. The proposed model was implemented to investigate the amounts of additive genetic, dominance and epistatic variations, and assessed the accuracy and unbiasedness of genomic predictions for daily gain in pigs. In the analysis of daily gain, four linear models were used: 1 a simple additive genetic model (MA, 2 a model including both additive and additive by additive epistatic genetic effects (MAE, 3 a model including both additive and dominance genetic effects (MAD, and 4 a full model including all three genetic components (MAED. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were 0.397, 0.373, 0.379 and 0.357 for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. Estimated dominance variance and additive by additive epistatic variance accounted for 5.6% and 9.5% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. Based on model MAED, the estimate of broad-sense heritability was 0.506. Reliabilities of genomic predicted breeding values for the animals without performance records were 28.5%, 28.8%, 29.2% and 29.5% for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. In addition, models including non-additive genetic effects improved unbiasedness of genomic predictions.

  12. Polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene and regulators of the extracellular matrix modify the risk of Achilles tendon pathology in a British case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karryn L; Seale, Kirsten B; El Khoury, Louis Y; Posthumus, Michael; Ribbans, William J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2017-08-01

    Several genetic loci have been associated with risk of Achilles tendon pathology (ATP) within South African and Australian populations. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate eight previously implicated genetic variants in an independent British population. A total of 130 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 112 participants clinically diagnosed with ATP comprising 87 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (TEN) and 25 with Achilles tendon ruptures (RUP) were included. All participants were genotyped for variants within the COL5A1, MIR608, IL-1β, IL-6 and CASP8 genes. Primary findings implicated COL5A1 and CASP8. Three inferred allele combinations constructed from COL5A1 rs12722, rs3196378 and rs71746744 were identified as risk modifiers. The T-C-D combination was associated with increased risk of ATP (P = 0.023) and RUP (P RUP (P = 0.011) and the C-C-D combination was associated with decreased risk of ATP (P = 0.011) and RUP (P = 0.004). The CASP8 rs3834129 DD genotype was associated with decreased risk of TEN (P = 0.020, odds ratio: 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90) and the CASP8 I-G (rs3834129-rs1045485) inferred allele combination was associated with increased risk of TEN (P = 0.031). This study further highlights the importance of polymorphisms within COL5A1 and CASP8 in the aetiology of ATP.

  13. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  14. Pandora's picnic basket: the potential and hazards of genetically modified foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHughen, Alan

    2000-01-01

    ... technologies in the them from with breeding whether examines and Picnic Basket subject, from potentially dangerous products. either use or about the regulatory processes established to protect us genetically other regulators modified "natural" the production. explains, in dear language, the technologies around the food, methods question of world of Researc...

  15. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impacts of genetically modified crops is still a controversial issue in Europe. The overall risk assessment framework has recently been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) and its implementation requires harmonized and efficient methodologies. The EU-funded re...

  16. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this

  17. Vitamin D: direct effects of vitamin D metabolites on bone: lessons from genetically modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D

  18. Genetically modified crops and the “food crisis”: discourse and material impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.; Stone, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A surge of media reports and rhetorical claims depicted genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to the ‘global food crisis’ manifested in the sudden spike in world food prices during 2007–08. Broad claims were made about the potential of GM technologies to tackle the crisis, even though the

  19. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  20. Knowledge of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Florek-Łuszczki Magdalena; Lachowski Stanisław; Chmielewski Jarosław; Jurkiewicz Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.