WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic identity biological

  1. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  2. Genetics in Relation to Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. Bird

    1987-01-01

    Claims that most instruction dealing with genetics is limited to sex education and personal hygiene. Suggests that the biology curriculum should begin to deal with other issues related to genetics, including genetic normality, prenatal diagnoses, race, and intelligence. Predicts these topics will begin to appear in British examination programs.…

  3. Genetics and developmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli; radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian germ cells; effects of uv radiation on xeroderma pigmentosum skin cells; mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells; radioinduced hemoglobin variants in the mouse; analysis of mutants in yeast; Drosophila genetics; biochemical genetics of Neurospora; DNA polymerase activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes; uv-induced damage in Bacillus subtilis; and others

  4. Biology, Genetics, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L.; Luczak, Susan E.; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)—particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles—have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person’s alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  5. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976-1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one's origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances.

  6. Genetics and developmental biology of cooperation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasper, C.; Vierbuchen, M.; Ernst, Ulrich R.; Fischer, S.; Radersma, R.; Raulo, A.; Cunha-Saraiva, F.; Wu, M.; Mobley, K. B.; Taborsky, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2017), s. 4364-4377 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : altruism * behaviour * indirect genetic effects * social behaviour * social effects Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  7. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Myssior, Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo; Silva, Luís Eduardo Gomes

    2016-01-01

    This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a resu...

  8. Germline Genetic Modification and Identity: the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    In a legal 'first', the UK removed a prohibition against modifying embryos in human reproduction, to enable mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs), a move the Government distanced from 'germline genetic modification', which it aligned with modifying the nuclear genome. This paper (1) analyzes the uses and meanings of this term in UK/US legal and policy debates; and (2) evaluates related ethical concerns about identity. It shows that, with respect to identity, MRTs and nuclear genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas-9 (now a policy topic), are not as different as has been supposed. While it does not follow that the two should be treated exactly alike, one of the central reasons offered for treating MRTs more permissively than nuclear genetic modification, and for not regarding MRTs as 'germline genetic modification', is thereby in doubt. Identity cannot, by itself, do the work thus far assigned to it, explicitly or otherwise, in law and policy.

  9. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  10. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2013-12-08

    Dec 8, 2013 ... cept of evolution, viz. genetic memory and evolutionary variations, genomic adaptations to stress .... or codons, along the transcript without giving attention to whether they are ... They do not affect the genome in a straightfor-.

  11. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo Myssior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a result, elucidate how such discrimination affects individuals, it is possible to conclude that regardless of the type of discrimination, all should be restrained by law.

  12. Yeast genetics and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers subjects and the following titles: cell biology; RNA processing and translation; organelle biogenesis; cell division cycle; mating physiology; recombination and repair; retro-transposition; and metabolic regulating mechanisms

  13. ANONIMATO DEL PROGENITOR Y DERECHO A LA IDENTIDAD DEL HIJO: DECISIONES JUDICIALES ENCONTRADAS SOBRE RESERVA DE IDENTIDAD EN LOS CASOS DE MADRE SOLTERA Y DONANTE DE ESPERMA Anonymity of genetic parents and the children's right to know own biological identity: Opossed judicial decisions about the secrecy of identity in the cases of single mother and sperm donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Duran Rivacoba

    2010-01-01

    faculty to the anonymity of genetic parents and the children's right to know own biological identity, appear confronted. We will contrast a decision of the Supreme Tribunal who declared unconstitutional the norms which allow the unwed mother to refuse the child and protect the secrecy of her identity, with the Constitutional Tribunal's decision (issued a few months earlier which legitimates the anonymity of the sperm donor in the context of an assisted reproduction proceeding. We argue, against both solutions, that in the first one, maternal anonymity seeks not to protect the mother, but to protect the child before a possible abortion or infanticide so the right to the identity must be limited. To illustrate the convenience and viability of this argument we analyze the "Odiévre" case, in which the European Human Rights Court concluded that the Trench system (that reserves the identity of the mother was not contrary to the European Covenant. On the other hand, we criticize the Constitutional Tribunal's decision regarding the sperm donor because it overstate the right of privacy of the progenitor against the child's best interest. This contrast exercise shows that the mother, who used to have certain means that could jeopardize the child's life, loses them; however the father (that since 1981 reform that allowed free paternity investigation, benefits with the same dispense that the mother nowadays lack.

  14. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human proteome. Additionally, almost all basic postulations of this concept can neither be tested nor imitated for experimentation, which is a prerequisite for acceptance and validation of any scientific hypotheses.

  15. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Mohammad Saad Zaghloul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The concept of biological evolution has long been accepted as a palatable theory aiming at explaining how life began and how creatures diverged so widely along the life span of the earth. Meticulous analysis and criticism of the different postulations of this concept, however, reveals that evolution is an illogic concept based on theoretical hypotheses that can never be tested. Creation, on the other hand, represents the other side of the coin, and up till now debates confronting ...

  16. Learning, memory and exploratory similarities in genetically identical cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chi Won; Kim, Geon A; Park, Won Jun; Park, Kwan Yong; Jeon, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-12-30

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows generation of genetically identical animals using donor cells derived from animals with particular traits. To date, few studies have investigated whether or not these cloned dogs will show identical behavior patterns. To address this question, learning, memory and exploratory patterns were examined using six cloned dogs with identical nuclear genomes. The variance of total incorrect choice number in the Y-maze test among cloned dogs was significantly lower than that of the control dogs. There was also a significant decrease in variance in the level of exploratory activity in the open fields test compared to age-matched control dogs. These results indicate that cloned dogs show similar cognitive and exploratory patterns, suggesting that these behavioral phenotypes are related to the genotypes of the individuals.

  17. [Synthetic biology and rearrangements of microbial genetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan-Feng; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qing-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    As an emerging discipline, synthetic biology has shown great scientific values and application prospects. Although there have been many reviews of various aspects on synthetic biology over the last years, this article, for the first time, attempted to discuss the relationship and difference between microbial genetics and synthetic biology. We summarized the recent development of synthetic biology in rearranging microbial genetic materials, including synthesis, design and reduction of genetic materials, standardization of genetic parts and modularization of genetic circuits. The relationship between synthetic biology and microbial genetic engineering was also discussed in the paper.

  18. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  20. Genetics and human rights. Two histories: Restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2014-03-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976-1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program "Reencontro", which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual) in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind.

  1. Genetics and human rights. Two histories: Restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976–1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program “Reencontro”, which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual) in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind. PMID:24764764

  2. Genetics and human rights: Two histories: restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Penchaszadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976-1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program "Reencontro", which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind.

  3. Genetics and human rights: Two histories: restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to i...

  4. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernot Segelbacher; Samuel A. Cushman; Bryan K. Epperson; Marie-Josee Fortin; Olivier Francois; Olivier J. Hardy; Rolf Holderegger; Stephanie Manel

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics (analyses...

  5. Science Identity's Influence on Community College Students' Engagement, Persistence, and Performance in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitelli, Melinda

    In the United States (U.S.), student engagement, persistence, and academic performance levels in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs have been unsatisfactory over the last decade. Low student engagement, persistence, and academic performance in STEM disciplines have been identified as major obstacles to U.S. economic goals and U.S. science education objectives. The central and salient science identity a college student claims can influence his engagement, persistence, and academic achievement in college science. While science identity studies have been conducted on four-year college populations there is a gap in the literature concerning community college students' science identity and science performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between community college students claimed science identities and engagement, persistence, and academic performance. A census sample of 264 community college students enrolled in biology during the summer of 2015 was used to study this relationship. Science identity and engagement levels were calculated using the Science Identity Centrality Scale and the Biology Motivation Questionnaire II, respectively. Persistence and final grade data were collected from institutional and instructor records. Engagement significantly correlated to, r =.534, p = .01, and varied by science identity, p < .001. Percent final grade also varied by science identity (p < .005), but this relationship was weaker (r = .208, p = .01). Results for science identity and engagement and final grade were consistent with the identity literature. Persistence did not vary by science identity in this student sample (chi2 =2.815, p = .421). This result was inconsistent with the literature on science identity and persistence. Quantitative results from this study present a mixed picture of science identity status at the community college level. It is suggested, based on the findings

  6. Políticas de identidade: perfil de DNA e a identidade genético-criminal Identity politics: DNA profile and the genetic-criminal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O DNA é visto por muitos como a “verdadeira” base da identidade humana, por se tratar de uma estrutura biológica, em princípio, única em cada indivíduo. Esta noção de “unicidade”, pilar fundamental da investigação criminal e da genética forense, tem alimentado políticas de identidade da parte dos Estados modernos pela classificação e armazenamento de informação sobre “criminosos”. Neste artigo analisam-se estratégias médico-legais e burocrático-estatais de produção da identidade “genético-criminal” relacionadas com a criação, em Portugal, de uma base de dados forense de perfis de DNA. Discutem-se os impactos desta política de identidade na gestão, categorização e vigilância de indivíduos classificados como criminosos.DNA is seen by many as the “true” basis of human identity, insofar as it is a biological structure that is, in principle, unique in each individual. This notion of “uniqueness”, a fundamental pillar of criminal investigation and forensic genetics, has fostered identity politics by modern states through the classification and storage of information about “criminals”. This article explores the alignment of science and state bureaucracy for producing the “genetic-criminal” identity in the context of the Portuguese forensic DNA database for forensic purposes. We discuss the impacts of this sort of identity politics for the management, categorization, and surveillance of individuals classified as criminals.

  7. Genetic Diseases and Genetic Determinism Models in French Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Bruguiere, Catherine; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of genetic diseases in French secondary school biology textbooks is analysed to determine the major conceptions taught in the field of human genetics. References to genetic diseases, and the processes by which they are explained (monogeny, polygeny, chromosomal anomaly and environmental influence) are studied in recent French…

  8. Review: Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations | Saad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as for interpretation of possible mechanisms implicated in its occurrence. Keywords: Genetic imprinting; Mutations; Re-sense mutation; Epigenetic alterations; DNA methylation/demethylation; Parthenogenesis; Position-effect variegation; Post-fertilization genomic imprinting; microRNA; Chromatin modifications; Pyknons ...

  9. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations | Salem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human ...

  10. Identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Revathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on the identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus.  Morphological details of the external genitalia were found to be useful in segregating the two forms clytia and dissimilis belonging to this species.  The biology took 32–36 days for completion.  Besides the host plants already recorded, Litsea coriacea was recorded as a new larval host plant of this butterfly.  

  11. Genetic heritage and native identity of the Seaconke Wampanoag tribe of Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadanov, Sergey I; Dulik, Matthew C; Markley, Michael; Jennings, George W; Gaieski, Jill B; Elias, George; Schurr, Theodore G

    2010-08-01

    The name "Wampanoag" means "Eastern People" or "People of the First Light" in the local dialect of the Algonquian language. Once extensively populating the coastal lands and neighboring islands of the eastern United States, the Wampanoag people now consist of two federally recognized tribes, the Aquinnah and Mashpee, the state-recognized Seaconke Wampanoag tribe, and a number of bands and clans in present-day southern Massachusetts. Because of repeated epidemics and conflicts with English colonists, including King Philip's War of 1675-76, and subsequent colonial laws forbidding tribal identification, the Wampanoag population was largely decimated, decreasing in size from as many as 12,000 individuals in the 16th century to less than 400, as recorded in 1677. To investigate the influence of the historical past on its biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in the Seaconke Wampanoag tribe. Our results indicate that the majority of their mtDNA haplotypes belongs to West Eurasian and African lineages, thus reflecting the extent of their contacts and interactions with people of European and African descent. On the paternal side, Y-chromosome analysis identified a range of Native American, West Eurasian, and African haplogroups in the population, and also surprisingly revealed the presence of a paternal lineage that appears at its highest frequencies in New Guinea and Melanesia. Comparison of the genetic data with genealogical and historical information allows us to reconstruct the tribal history of the Seaconke Wampanoag back to at least the early 18th century. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [Agressive fibromatosis: genetic and biological correlations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavatá, Z; Porsok, S

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis, also known as desmoid tumor, is specific and relatively rarely occuring disease. It belongs to heterogenous group of soft tissue tumors. Originally, it arises from fibroblasts with monoclonal proliferation derived from fibro-aponeurotic tissue with typical local invasive spreading without metastatic tendency. Increased amount of knowledge about the role of the APC gene and its protein product in FAP play an important role in revealing the molecular nature of desmoid tumors. In general, we can conclude that the β-catenin dysregulation is the key player of the FAP associated desmoid tumor onset. The Wingless/Wnt cascade plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aggressive fibromatosis. However, it has not been definitely proven that the mutations of APC or β-catenin genes are the trigger mechanisms. The research outcome can pave the way for using target biological therapy in routine practice in patients with aggressive fibromatosis in the future.

  13. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  14. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  15. Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. W. Chun; M. -S. Kim; M. A. Ahuja; M. C. Dillon; R. C. Carman; L. G. Eskew

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-four Populus biotechnology chapters, written by 85 authors, are comprised in 5 sections: 1) in vitro culture (micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, protoplasts, somaclonal variation, and germplasm preservation); 2) transformation and foreign gene expression; 3) molecular biology (molecular/genetic characterization); 4) biotic and abiotic resistance (disease,...

  16. Editorial Introduction [to Female Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

  17. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis conributes to biology and drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, A.; Yoshida, S.; Graham, R.R.; Manoharan, A.; Ortmann, W.; Bhangale, T.; Denny, J.C.; Carroll, R.J.; Eyler, A.E.; Greenberg, J.D.; Kremer, J.M.; Pappas, D.A.; Jiang, L.; Yin, L.; Ye, L.; Su, D.F.; Yang, J.; Xie, G.; Keystone, E.; Westra, H.J.; Esko, T.; Metspalu, A.; Zhou, X.; Gupta, N.; Mirel, D.; Stahl, Eli A.; Diogo, D.; Cui, J.; Liao, K.; Guo, M.H.; Myouzen, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Coenen, M.J.; van Riel, P.L.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.; Guchelaar, H.J.; Huizinga, T.W.; Dieudé, P.; Mariette, X.; Louis Bridges Jr, S.; Zhernakova, A.; Toes, R.E.; Tak, P.P.; Miceli-Richard, C.; Bang, S.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Martin, J.; Gonzales-Gay, M.A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rantapää-Dhlqvist, S.; Arlestig, L.; Choi, H.K.; Kamatani, Y.; Galan, P.; Lathrop, M.; Eyre, S.; Bowes, J.; Barton, A.; de Vries, N.; Moreland, L.W.; Criswell, L.A.; Karlson, E.W.; Taniguchi, A.; Yamada, R; Kubo, M.; Bae, S.C.; Worthington, J.; Padyukov, L.; Klareskog, L.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Stranger, B.E.; de Jager, P.L.; Franke, L.; Visscher, P.M.; Brown, M.A.; Yamanaka, H.; Mimori, T.; Takahashi, A.; Xu, H.; Behrens, T.W.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Momohara, S.; Matsuda, F.; Yamamoto, K.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)1. Here we performed

  18. Nuclear and plastid markers reveal the persistence of genetic identity: a new perspective on the evolutionary history of Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia Anversa; Cazé, Ana Luíza Ramos; Turchetto, Caroline; Klahre, Ulrich; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Recently divergent species that can hybridize are ideal models for investigating the genetic exchanges that can occur while preserving the species boundaries. Petunia exserta is an endemic species from a very limited and specific area that grows exclusively in rocky shelters. These shaded spots are an inhospitable habitat for all other Petunia species, including the closely related and widely distributed species P. axillaris. Individuals with intermediate morphologic characteristics have been found near the rocky shelters and were believed to be putative hybrids between P. exserta and P. axillaris, suggesting a situation where Petunia exserta is losing its genetic identity. In the current study, we analyzed the plastid intergenic spacers trnS/trnG and trnH/psbA and six nuclear CAPS markers in a large sampling design of both species to understand the evolutionary process occurring in this biological system. Bayesian clustering methods, cpDNA haplotype networks, genetic diversity statistics, and coalescence-based analyses support a scenario where hybridization occurs while two genetic clusters corresponding to two species are maintained. Our results reinforce the importance of coupling differentially inherited markers with an extensive geographic sample to assess the evolutionary dynamics of recently diverged species that can hybridize. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological pathways and genetic mechanisms involved in social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cella, David; Mosing, Miriam; Oliveira, Joao R; Patrick, Donald L; Veenhoven, Ruut; Wagner, Gert G; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-08-01

    To describe the major findings in the literature regarding associations between biological and genetic factors and social functioning, paying special attention to: (1) heritability studies on social functioning and related concepts; (2) hypothesized biological pathways and genetic variants that could be involved in social functioning, and (3) the implications of these results for quality-of-life research. A search of Web of Science and PubMed databases was conducted using combinations of the following keywords: genetics, twins, heritability, social functioning, social adjustment, social interaction, and social dysfunction. Variability in the definitions and measures of social functioning was extensive. Moderate to high heritability was reported for social functioning and related concepts, including prosocial behavior, loneliness, and extraversion. Disorders characterized by impairments in social functioning also show substantial heritability. Genetic variants hypothesized to be involved in social functioning are related to the network of brain structures and processes that are known to affect social cognition and behavior. Better knowledge and understanding about the impact of genetic factors on social functioning is needed to help us to attain a more comprehensive view of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and will ultimately enhance our ability to identify those patients who are vulnerable to poor social functioning.

  20. Female versus male biological identities of nanoparticles determine the interaction with immune cells in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Murugadoss, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Biomolecule decoration of nanoparticles provides a corona that modulates how the nanoparticles interact with biological milieus. The corona composition has proved to reflect the differences in the repertoire of proteins to which the nanoparticles are exposed, and as a result the same nanoparticles...... and myeloid populations of the blood cells preferentially accumulated the nanoparticles with a female biological identity, irrespective of the sex of the fish from which the cells were obtained. The concept of repertoire differences in the corona proteome therefore deserves further attention, as various...

  1. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  3. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  4. Repatriation and the Limits of Genetic Identity- DNA and Indigeneity Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothy Lippert

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History repatriates human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony to federally-recognized tribes. Documenting the ties between existing tribes and ancient peoples can utilize biological constructions of identity, but there are limits to this type of analysis given that tribes are political entities as well as cultural ones. This presentation will use case studies to show how difficult repatria...

  5. Successful biological invasion despite a severe genetic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Zayed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that influence the success of ecologically and economically damaging biological invasions is of prime importance. Recent studies have shown that invasive populations typically exhibit minimal, if any, reductions in genetic diversity, suggesting that large founding populations and/or multiple introductions are required for the success of biological invasions, consistent with predictions of the propagule pressure hypothesis. Through population genetic analysis of neutral microsatellite markers and a gene experiencing balancing selection, we demonstrate that the solitary bee Lasioglossum leucozonium experienced a single and severe bottleneck during its introduction from Europe. Paradoxically, the success of L. leucozonium in its introduced range occurred despite the severe genetic load caused by single-locus complementary sex-determination that still turns 30% of female-destined eggs into sterile diploid males, thereby substantially limiting the growth potential of the introduced population. Using stochastic modeling, we show that L. leucozonium invaded North America through the introduction of a very small number of propagules, most likely a singly-mated female. Our results suggest that chance events and ecological traits of invaders are more important than propagule pressure in determining invasion success, and that the vigilance required to prevent invasions may be considerably greater than has been previously considered.

  6. Chemical and genetic tools to explore S1P biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    The zwitterionic lysophospholipid Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic mediator of physiology and pathology. The synthesis, transport, and degradation of S1P are tightly regulated to ensure that S1P is present in the proper concentrations in the proper location. The binding of S1P to five G protein-coupled S1P receptors regulates many physiological systems, particularly the immune and vascular systems. Our understanding of the functions of S1P has been aided by the tractability of the system to both chemical and genetic manipulation. Chemical modulators have been generated to affect most of the known components of S1P biology, including agonists of S1P receptors and inhibitors of enzymes regulating S1P production and degradation. Genetic knockouts and manipulations have been similarly engineered to disrupt the functions of individual S1P receptors or enzymes involved in S1P metabolism. This chapter will focus on the development and utilization of these chemical and genetic tools to explore the complex biology surrounding S1P and its receptors, with particular attention paid to the in vivo findings that these tools have allowed for.

  7. Cyclic Concatenated Genetic Encoder: A mathematical proposal for biological inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-González, M E; Echeverri, O Y; Guevara, J M; Palazzo, R

    2018-01-01

    The organization of the genetic information and its ability to be conserved and translated to proteins with low error rates have been the subject of study by scientists from different disciplines. Recently, it has been proposed that living organisms display an intra-cellular transmission system of genetic information, similar to a model of digital communication system, in which there is the ability to detect and correct errors. In this work, the concept of Concatenated Genetic Encoder is introduced and applied to the analysis of protein sequences as a tool for exploring evolutionary relationships. For such purposes Error Correcting Codes (ECCs) are used to represent proteins. A methodology for representing or identifying proteins by use of BCH codes over ℤ 20 and F 4 ×ℤ 5 is proposed and cytochrome b6-f complex subunit 6-OS sequences, corresponding to different plants species, are analyzed according to the proposed methodology and results are contrasted to phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. Through the analyses, it was observed that using BCH codes only some sequences are identified, all of which differ in one amino acid from the original sequence. In addition, mathematical relationships among identified sequences are established by considering minimal polynomials, where such sequences showed a close relationship as revealed in the phylogenetic reconstruction. Results, here shown, point out that communication theory may provide biology of interesting and useful tools to identify biological relationships among proteins, however the proposed methodology needs to be improved and rigorously tested in order to become into an applicable tool for biological analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular genetics of glioblastomas: defining subtypes and understanding the biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Golgher, Denise

    2015-02-01

    Despite comprehensive therapy, which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme is very poor. Diagnosed individuals present an average of 12 to 18 months of life. This article provides an overview of the molecular genetics of these tumors. Despite the overwhelming amount of data available, so far little has been translated into real benefits for the patient. Because this is such a complex topic, the goal is to point out the main alterations in the biological pathways that lead to tumor formation, and how this can contribute to the development of better therapies and clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  10. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BULLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  11. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULLA, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  12. Systematic reconstruction of autism biology from massive genetic mutation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weijun; Zhang, Chaolin; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Brouwer, Cory R

    2018-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1% of world population and has become a pressing medical and social problem worldwide. As a paradigmatic complex genetic disease, ASD has been intensively studied and thousands of gene mutations have been reported. Because these mutations rarely recur, it is difficult to (i) pinpoint the fewer disease-causing versus majority random events and (ii) replicate or verify independent studies. A coherent and systematic understanding of autism biology has not been achieved. We analyzed 3392 and 4792 autism-related mutations from two large-scale whole-exome studies across multiple resolution levels, that is, variants (single-nucleotide), genes (protein-coding unit), and pathways (molecular module). These mutations do not recur or replicate at the variant level, but significantly and increasingly do so at gene and pathway levels. Genetic association reveals a novel gene + pathway dual-hit model, where the mutation burden becomes less relevant. In multiple independent analyses, hundreds of variants or genes repeatedly converge to several canonical pathways, either novel or literature-supported. These pathways define recurrent and systematic ASD biology, distinct from previously reported gene groups or networks. They also present a catalog of novel ASD risk factors including 118 variants and 72 genes. At a subpathway level, most variants disrupt the pathway-related gene functions, and in the same gene, they tend to hit residues extremely close to each other and in the same domain. Multiple interacting variants spotlight key modules, including the cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) second-messenger system and mGluR (metabotropic glutamate receptor) signaling regulation by GRKs (G protein-coupled receptor kinases). At a superpathway level, distinct pathways further interconnect and converge to three biology themes: synaptic function, morphology, and plasticity.

  13. Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Laikre; Fred W. Allendorf; Laurel C. Aroner; C. Scott Baker; David P. Gregovich; Michael M. Hansen; Jennifer A. Jackson; Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin Mckelvey; Maile C. Neel; Isabelle Olivieri; Nils Ryman; Michael K. Schwartz; Ruth Short Bull; Jeffrey B. Stetz; David A. Tallmon; Barbara L. Taylor; Christina D. Vojta; Donald M. Waller; Robin S. Waples

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the foundation for all biological diversity; the persistence and evolutionary potential of species depend on it. World leaders have agreed on the conservation of genetic diversity as an explicit goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Nevertheless, actions to protect genetic diversity are largely lacking. With only months left to the...

  14. Insights into Monascus biology at the genetic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanchun; Lei, Ming; Mao, Zejing; Zhou, Youxiang; Chen, Fusheng

    2014-05-01

    The genus of Monascus was nominated by van Tieghem in 1884, but its fermented product-red mold rice (RMR), namely red yeast rice, has been used as folk medicines, food colorants, and fermentation starters for more than thousands of years in oriental countries. Nowadays, RMR is widely developed as food supplements around the world due to its functional compounds such as monacolin K (MK, also called lovastatin) and γ-aminobutyric acid. But the usage of RMR also incurs controversy resulting from contamination of citrinin (a kind of mycotoxin) produced by some Monascus strains. In the past decade, it has made great progress to Monascus spp. at the genetic level with the application of molecular biology techniques to restrain the citrinin production and increase the yields of MK and pigment in RMR, as well as aid Monascus classification and phylogenesis. Up to now, hundreds of papers about Monascus molecular biology (MMB) have been published in the international primary journals. However, to our knowledge, there is no MMB review issued until now. In this review, current understanding of Monascus spp. from the view of molecular biology will be covered and insights into research areas that need to be further investigated will also be discussed.

  15. Trans-National Genetic Distance and Genetic Identity of Barak Valley Hindus en Route the Journey of Mankind from Africa for ABO Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at estimating the genetic distance and genetic identity between Barak Valley Hindus and other twenty four nations for ABO blood group gene along the route of historic journey of mankind from Africa as proposed by Stephen Oppenheimer to gain insights on the evolutionary relationship and genetic closeness of the Hindus with other nations. Barak Valley Zone, located in southern part of Assam state in North East India, has inhabited the major endogamous group, the Hindus, for several centuries. Over the last few decades, they have maintained distinct culture and life style. This study used ABO gene frequency data of these populations to estimate Neis standard genetic distance and genetic identity of population genetics between Barak Valley Hindus and other nations. The historic journey of mankind commenced from Africa about 200,000 years ago (www.bradshawfoundation.com. Genetic distance estimate ranged from 0.07 to 5.18%. Barak Valley Hindus (BVH showed relatively low genetic distance for ABO gene with the populations of Saudi Arabia (0.07%, India (0.13%, Borneo (0.40%, Russia (0.59%, Central Asia (0.60%, Siberia (0.60%, South China (0.71% and Sri Lanka (0.93% suggesting high genetic identity and possible evolutionary relationship of BVH during migration with these nations. But the BVH showed highest genetic distance with Australia (5.18% followed by Norway (4.13%, Sudan (3.89% and Sweden (3.60% indicating low genetic identity of BVH with these nations. Migration was not the key determining factor in changing the ABO gene frequency in human populations.

  16. Trans-National Genetic Distance and Genetic Identity of Barak Valley Hindus en Route the Journey of Mankind from Africa for ABO Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at estimating the genetic distance and genetic identity between Barak Valley Hindus and other twenty four nations for ABO blood group gene along the route of historic journey of mankind from Africa as proposed by Stephen Oppenheimer to gain insights on the evolutionary relationship and genetic closeness of the Hindus with other nations. Barak Valley Zone, located in southern part of Assam state in North East India, has inhabited the major endogamous group, the Hindus, for several centuries. Over the last few decades, they have maintained distinct culture and life style. This study used ABO gene frequency data of these populations to estimate Nei�s standard genetic distance and genetic identity of population genetics between Barak Valley Hindus and other nations. The historic journey of mankind commenced from Africa about 200,000 years ago (www.bradshawfoundation.com. Genetic distance estimate ranged from 0.07 to 5.18%. Barak Valley Hindus (BVH showed relatively low genetic distance for ABO gene with the populations of Saudi Arabia (0.07%, India (0.13%, Borneo (0.40%, Russia (0.59%, Central Asia (0.60%, Siberia (0.60%, South China (0.71% and Sri Lanka (0.93% suggesting high genetic identity and possible evolutionary relationship of BVH during migration with these nations. But the BVH showed highest genetic distance with Australia (5.18% followed by Norway (4.13%, Sudan (3.89% and Sweden (3.60% indicating low genetic identity of BVH with these nations. Migration was not the key determining factor in changing the ABO gene frequency in human populations.

  17. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1972-01-01

    Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

  18. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  19. Genetics of Psoriasis and Pharmacogenetics of Biological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. The causes of psoriasis are unknown, although family and twin studies have shown genetic factors to play a key role in its development. The many genes associated with psoriasis and the immune response include TNFα, IL23, and IL12. Advances in knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis have enabled the development of new drugs that target cytokines (e.g., etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab, which target TNFα, and ustekinumab, which targets the p40 subunit of IL23 and IL12. These drugs have improved the safety and efficacy of treatment in comparison with previous therapies. However, not all patients respond equally to treatment, possibly owing to interindividual genetic variability. In this review, we describe the genes associated with psoriasis and the immune response, the biological drugs used to treat chronic severe plaque psoriasis, new drugs in phase II and III trials, and current knowledge on the implications of pharmacogenomics in predicting response to these treatments.

  20. Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakara, B.N.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Gowda, C.L. Laxmipathi [Global Theme on Crop Improvement, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Wani, S.P. [Global Theme of Agroecosystems, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bio-diesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The bio-diesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion litres by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favour its use for bio-diesel production. Hence non-edible oil from crops like Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) and Pongamia (Pongamiapinnata) is favoured for bio-diesel production and the trend is expected to continue. Especially J. curcas has gained attention in tropical and sub-tropical countries and has spread beyond its centre of origin, because of its hardiness, easy propagation, drought endurance, high oil content, rapid growth, adaptation to wide agro-climatic conditions, and multiple uses of plant as a whole. The full potential of J. curcas has not been realized due to several technological and economic reasons. One of the major reasons is the lack of high yielding varieties with high oil content. In this review, we attempt to discuss the currently available information on Jatropha species identity, taxonomy and description, distribution and ecological requirements of the species, possibilities of exploitation of genetic potentiality, exploitation of existing diversity for yield and oil content by direct selection, hybridization and creation of diversity by mutation, and biotechnological interventions. (author)

  1. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-08-26

    Erwin Schrödinger's question "What is life?" received the answer for decades of "physics + chemistry". The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: "information". This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings "sequence space". Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract "sequence space" concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry.

  2. Genetic identity and differential gene expression between Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundodi Vasanthakrishna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen responsible for trichomonosis, the number-one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD worldwide, while T. tenax is a commensal of the human oral cavity, found particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. The extent of genetic identity between T. vaginalis and its oral commensal counterpart is unknown. Results Genes that were differentially expressed in T. vaginalis were identified by screening three independent subtraction cDNA libraries enriched for T. vaginalis genes. The same thirty randomly selected cDNA clones encoding for proteins with specific functions associated with colonization were identified from each of the subtraction cDNA libraries. In addition, a T. vaginalis cDNA expression library was screened with patient sera that was first pre-adsorbed with an extract of T. tenax antigens, and seven specific cDNA clones were identified from this cDNA library. Interestingly, some of the clones identified by the subtraction cDNA screening were also obtained from the cDNA expression library with the pre-adsorbed sera. Moreover and noteworthy, clones identified by both the procedures were found to be up-regulated in expression in T. vaginalis upon contact with vaginal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for these gene products in host colonization. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of select clones showed that the genes were not unique to T. vaginalis and that these genes were also present in T. tenax, albeit at very low levels of expression. Conclusion These results suggest that T. vaginalis and T. tenax have remarkable genetic identity and that T. vaginalis has higher levels of gene expression when compared to that of T. tenax. The data may suggest that T. tenax could be a variant of T. vaginalis.

  3. The Effects of Meiosis/Genetics Integration and Instructional Sequence on College Biology Student Achievement in Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark

    The purpose of the research was to manipulate two aspects of genetics instruction in order to measure their effects on college, introductory biology students' achievement in genetics. One instructional sequence that was used dealt first with monohybrid autosomal inheritance patterns, then sex-linkage. The alternate sequence was the reverse.…

  4. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    -specialized language in which it also serves a number of functions – some of which are quite fundamental to society as such. In other words, the lexeme identity is a polysemic word and has multiple, well, identities. Given that it appears to have a number of functions in a variety of registers, including terminologies...... in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine...

  5. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide

  6. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  7. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 Testing on Deaf Identity and Comprehension of Genetic Test Results in a Sample of Deaf Adults: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results. PMID:25375116

  8. Negotiating identity at the intersection of paediatric and genetic medicine: the parent as facilitator, narrator and patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies a significant transformation in the role and identity of parents accompanying their child to clinic. This shift is a product of the intersection between paediatric and genetic medicine, where parents play a critical role in providing information about their child, family and ultimately, about themselves. To provide a context for this matrix, two broad areas of sociological inquiry are highlighted. The first is explanations of the role a parent plays in paediatric medicine and the second is the diagnostic process in paediatric genetics and the implications for parent and child identities. Drawing from an ethnographic study of clinical consultations, attention is paid to the changing role of parenthood and the extended role of patienthood in paediatric genetic medicine. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identity dimensions versus proactive coping in late adolescence while taking into account biological sex and psychological gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the relationship between proactive coping strategies and the dimensions of identity formation, along with the role of biological sex and psychological gender as moderators for this relationship. We conducted analyses aimed at showing differences in terms of identity dimensions levels and proactive coping strategies used by a group of individuals with different biological sex and psychological gender. A group of 101 students from upper secondary schools (47 females, 54 males from Pomeranian Voivodeship took part in the study. We used in our research The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale; The Psychological Gender Inventory and The Proactive Coping Inventory for Adolescents. We found, among others, that in the case of a proactive strategy, biological sex turned out to be a significant moderator in the relationship between this variable and identity dimensions: ruminative exploration, commitment-making and identification with commitment. In the case of instrumental support seeking, psychological gender turned out to be a significant moderator for the relationship between these variables and a part of identity dimensions. The obtained results show that, regardless of whether young people, in terms of characteristics that are stereotypically associated with biological sex, are described as aschematic (undifferentiated individuals or schematic (sex-typed when entering adulthood and attempting to constitute themselves, more often cope in a task-oriented manner by trying to create a set of information useful in difficult situations and aspire to obtain informational support from individuals in one’s own social network, who are regarded as safe people.

  10. Unsolvable Problems of Biology: It Is Impossible to Create Two Identical Organisms, to Defeat Cancer, or to Map Organisms onto Their Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, E D

    2018-04-01

    The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors. 3) Problems unsolvable because of the uncertainty principle and observer effect in biology, due to which it is impossible to obtain adequate information about cells in their tissue microenvironment by isolating and analyzing individual cells. In particular, we cannot draw conclusions on the properties of stem cells in their niches based on the properties of stem cell cultures. A strategy is proposed for constructing the pattern most closely approximated to the relationship of genotypes with their phenotypes by designing networks of intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes).

  11. Contribution of genetics and genomics to seagrass biology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccini, Gabriele; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity is one of three forms of biodiversity recognized by the IUCN as deserving conservation along with species and ecosystems. Seagrasses provide all three levels in one. This review addresses the latest advances in our understanding of seagrass population genetics and genomics within

  12. Biological pathways and genetic variables involved in pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Qiuling; Cleeland, Charles S.; Klepstad, Pål; Miaskowski, Christine; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Baas, Frank; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Dueck, Amylou C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele Y.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Patrick, Donald L.; Ropka, Mary E.; Shinozaki, Gen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Veenhoven, Ruut; Yang, Ping; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This paper summarizes current knowledge of pain-related and analgesic-related pathways as well as genetic variations involved in pain perception and management. Methods The pain group of the GENEQOL Consortium was given the task of summarizing the current status of research on genetic

  13. Staphylococcus aureus surface contamination of mobile phones and presence of genetically identical strains on the hands of nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuse Kanayama, Akiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from mobile phones and palms and fingers of users. Genetically identical isolates were detected from mobile phones and their user and multiple users, which is consistent with mobile phones serving as reservoirs of infection in the health care environment. These findings reinforce the need for hand hygiene prior to patient contact as the most effective intervention for preventing health care-associated infection. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermodynamic perspectives on genetic instructions, the laws of biology and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Jack T; Saier, Milton H

    2011-01-01

    This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). Living organisms are far from equilibrium with their surrounding environmental systems, which tends towards increasing disorder (increasing entropy). Organisms free themselves from high entropy (high disorder) to maintain their cellular structures for a period of time sufficient to allow reproduction and the resultant offspring to reach reproductive ages. This time interval varies for different species. Bacteria, for example need no sexual parents; dividing cells are nearly identical to the previous generation of cells, and can begin a new cell cycle without delay under appropriate conditions. By contrast, human infants require years of care before they can reproduce. Living organisms maintain order in spite of their changing surrounding environment that decreases order according to the second law of thermodynamics. These events actually work together since living organisms create ordered biological structures by increasing local entropy. From a disease perspective, viruses and other disease agents interrupt the normal functioning of cells. The pressure for survival may result in mechanisms that allow organisms to resist attacks by viruses, other pathogens, destructive chemicals and physical agents such as radiation. However, when the attack is successful, the organism can be damaged until the cell, tissue, organ or entire organism is no longer functional and entropy increases. Copyright © 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic perspectives on genetic instructions, the laws of biology, diseased states and human population control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Many knowledge gaps abound, hence our understanding is still fragmented and incomplete. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). Living organisms are far from equilibrium with their surrounding environmental systems, which tends towards increasing disorder (increasing entropy). Organisms must free themselves from high entropy (high disorder) to maintain their cellular structures for a period of time sufficient enough to allow reproduction and the resultant offspring to reach reproductive ages. This time interval varies for different species. Bacteria, for example need no sexual parents; dividing cells are nearly identical to the previous generation of cells, and can begin a new cell cycle without delay under appropriate conditions. By contrast, human infants require years of care before they can reproduce. Living organisms maintain order in spite of their changing surrounding environment, that decreases order according to the second law of thermodynamics. These events actually work together since living organisms create ordered biological structures by increasing local entropy. From a disease perspective, viruses and other disease agents interrupt the normal functioning of cells. The pressure for survival may result in mechanisms that allow organisms to resist attacks by viruses, other pathogens, destructive chemicals and physical agents such as radiation. However, when the attack is successful, the organism can be damaged until the cell, tissue, organ or entire organism is no longer functional and entropy increases. PMID:21262480

  16. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Günter Vogt

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... advantage of producing high numbers of genetically identi- cal offspring. ..... For net culture, small containers should be filled to a water level of about ...... The availability of the genome of marbled crayfish now enables further ...

  17. Does Biology Justify Ideology? The Politics of Genetic Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhay, Elizabeth; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that political conservatives are more likely than liberals to endorse genetic explanations for many human characteristics and behaviors. Whether and to what extent this is true has received surprisingly limited systematic attention. We examine evidence from a large U.S. public opinion survey that measured the extent to which respondents believed genetic explanations account for a variety of differences among individuals as well as groups in society. We find that conservatives were indeed more likely than liberals to endorse genetic explanations for perceived race and class differences in characteristics often associated with socioeconomic inequality (intelligence, math skills, drive, and violence). Different ideological divisions emerged, however, with respect to respondents’ explanations for sexual orientation. Here, liberals were more likely than conservatives to say that sexual orientation is due to genes and less likely to say that it is due to choice or the environment. These patterns suggest that conservative and liberal ideologues will tend to endorse genetic explanations where their policy positions are bolstered by “naturalizing” human differences. That said, debates over genetic influence may be more politicized with respect to race, class, and sexual orientation than population differences generally: We find that left/right political ideology was not significantly associated with genetic (or other) attributions for individual differences in intelligence, math skills, drive, or violence. We conclude that conceptions of the proper role of government are closely intertwined with assumptions about the causes of human difference, but that this relationship is a complex one. PMID:26379311

  18. Applications of Systems Genetics and Biology for Obesity Using Pig Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2016-01-01

    approach, a branch of systems biology. In this chapter, we will describe the state of the art of genetic studies on human obesity, using pig populations. We will describe the features of using the pig as a model for human obesity and briefly discuss the genetics of obesity, and we will focus on systems...

  19. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    biological warfare. The primary focus of the framework are those aspects of the technology directly affecting humans by inducing virulent infectious disease...applications. Simple organisms such as fruit flies have been used to study the effects of genetic changes across generations. Transgenic mice are...Analysis * Multi-cell pathogens * Toxins (Chemical products of living cells.) * Fungi (Robust organism; no genetic manipulation needed

  20. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2006-02-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  1. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  2. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  3. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  4. Improving microalgae for biotechnology - From genetics to synthetic biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavová, Monika; Turóczy, Zoltán; Bišová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 1194-1203 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Microalgae * Genetics * Mutagenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.848, year: 2015

  5. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to ...

  6. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  7. The impact of advances in human molecular biology on radiation genetic risk estimation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, the data base, methods and assumptions used thus far to assess the genetic risks of exposure of human populations to ionising radiation. These are then re-examined in the contemporary context of the rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular biology of human mendelian diseases. This re-examination reveals that (i) many of the assumptions used thus far in radiation genetic risk estimation may not be fully valid and (ii) the current genetic risk estimates are probably conservative, but provide an adequate margin of safety for radiological protection. The view is expressed that further advances in the field of genetic risk estimation will be largely driven by advances in the molecular biology of human genetic diseases. (author). 37 refs., 5 tabs

  8. The Examination of the Effects of Biological Gender and Gender Identity Roles on Attitude of the Consumers to Advertisements Applied by Accomodation Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Güçer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results

  9. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-01-01

    and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many...

  10. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, ...

  11. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  12. Wild cassava, Manihot spp.: Biology and potentialities for genetic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Nagib M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild species of Manihot are progenitors of cassava. They constitute valuable genetic reservoirs presenting genes that show new characters. Screening of these species showed some of them to have a notably high percentage of protein combined with a low percentage of hydrocyanic acid. Study of natural habitats revealed resistance to drought and excessive soil aluminum toxicity as well as adaptation to low temperature. Some of the hybrids obtained showed high root productivity and resistance to stem borers. Apomixis was discovered in the wild and transferred successfully to the cultivate species.

  13. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  14. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  15. Understanding genetic variation - the value of systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacology is currently transformed by the vast amounts of genome-associated information available for system-level interpretation. Here I review the potential of systems biology to facilitate this interpretation, thus paving the way for the emerging field of systems pharmacology. In particular, I will show how gene regulatory and metabolic networks can serve as a framework for interpreting high throughput data and as an interface to detailed dynamical models. In addition to the established connectivity analyses of effective networks, I suggest here to also analyze higher order architectural properties of effective networks. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. The collective biology of the gene: Towards genetic dynamics engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1985-11-01

    Chromatin dynamics is studied in terms of coupled vibrations (phonon pairing); this is shown to lead to a collective variable Δ, interpreted as a gene inhibition factor, which behaves as a biological switch turned off, not only by enzymatic action or metabolic energy, but also by means of an external probe:irradiation. We discuss the inactivation of the X chromosome and puffing. The relevance of being able to modulate Δ is emphasized, since it is equivalent to controlling chromatin dynamics without interfering with chromatin structure, unlike in the usual recombinant DNA techniques. (author)

  17. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.

  18. How Genetic and Other Biological Factors Interact with Smoking Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierut, Laura; Cesarini, David

    2015-09-01

    Despite clear links between genes and smoking, effective public policy requires far richer measurement of the feedback between biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) plans to exploit the plummeting costs of data gathering and to make creative use of new technologies to construct a longitudinal panel data set that would compare favorably to existing longitudinal surveys, both in terms of the richness of the behavioral measures and the cost-effectiveness of the data collection. By developing a more comprehensive approach to characterizing behavior than traditional methods, KHP will allow researchers to paint a much richer picture of an individual's life-cycle trajectory of smoking, alcohol, and drug use, and interactions with other choices and environmental factors. The longitudinal nature of KHP will be particularly valuable in light of the increasing evidence for how smoking behavior affects physiology and health. The KHP could have a transformative impact on the understanding of the biology of addictive behaviors such as smoking, and of a rich range of prevention and amelioration policies.

  19. Application of genetic algorithms for determination biological half-life of 137 Cs in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic algorithm an optimization method involving natural selection mechanisms, was used to determine biological half-life of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs in the milk, after the Chernobyl accident, based on a two compartment linear system model. Genetic algorithms operate on populations of strings. Reproduction, crossover and mutation are applied to successive string population to create new string population. A model parameter estimation is performed by minimizing square differences between fitting function and experimental data. The calculated biological half-life of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs in milk is (32(+(-) days (author)

  20. Future strategy and puzzles of heavy ion beam mediated technique in genetic improvement of biological bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce

    2007-01-01

    The 7 research puzzles in the genetic improvement of biological bodies made by ion beam mediated technique, are worth noticed. The technical ideas, including one mediated technique in physics, 2 significant subjects, 3 effective changes, the mediated evidences of 4 aspects and 5 biological characteristics, were particularly put forward according to the existing states in the field. The 2 significant subjects consist of the mechanics of the allogenetic materials entering into the acceptor and they being to be recombined. The 3 effective changes include from studying morphology to genetic laws, from researching M1 generation to the next generations, from determining the single character to the synthetic traits. The mediated evidences of 4 aspects come from morphology, physiology and biochemistry, molecule biology. The 5 biological characteristics are mainly reproduction, development, photosynthesis, bad condition-resistant and quality. (authors)

  1. The molecular genetics of the telomere biology disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuch, Alison A

    2016-08-02

    The importance of telomere function for human health is exemplified by a collection of Mendelian disorders referred to as the telomere biology disorders (TBDs), telomeropathies, or syndromes of telomere shortening. Collectively, the TBDs cover a spectrum of conditions from multisystem disease presenting in infancy to isolated disease presentations in adulthood, most notably idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eleven genes have been found mutated in the TBDs to date, each of which is linked to some aspect of telomere maintenance. This review summarizes the molecular defects that result from mutations in these genes, highlighting recent advances, including the addition of PARN to the TBD gene family and the discovery of heterozygous mutations in RTEL1 as a cause of familial pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Genetic Identity in Genebanks: Application of the SolCAP 12K SNP Array in Fingerprinting and Diversity Analysis in the Global In Trust Potato Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Chavez, Oswaldo; Coombs, Joseph J; Soto, Julian V; Gomez, Rene; Douches, David S; Panta, Ana; Silvestre, Rocio; Anglin, Noelle Lynette

    2018-05-24

    Breeders rely on genetic integrity of material from genebanks, however, mislabeling and errors in original data can occur. Paired samples of original material and their in vitro counterparts from 250 diverse potato landrace accessions from the International Potato Center (CIP), were fingerprinted using the Infinium 12K V2 Potato Array to confirm genetic identity and evaluate genetic diversity. Diploid, triploid, and tetraploid accessions were included representing seven cultivated potato taxa (Hawkes, 1990). Fingerprints between mother field plants and in vitro clones, were used to evaluate identity, relatedness, and ancestry. Clones of the same accession grouped together, however eleven (4.4%) accessions were mismatches genetically. SNP genotypes were used to construct a phylogeny to evaluate inter- and intraspecific relationships and population structure. Data suggests that the triploids evaluated are genetically similar. STRUCTURE analysis identified several putative hybrids and suggests six populations with significant gene flow between. This study provides a model for genetic identity of plant genetic resources collections as mistakes in conservation of these collections and in genebanks is a reality and confirmed identity is critical for breeders and other users of these collections, as well as for quality management programs and to provide insights into the diversity of the accessions evaluated.

  3. Interferon Lambda Genetics and Biology in Regulation of Viral Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Hemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferons, also known as interferon lambdas (IFNλs, are the most recent addition to the IFN family following their discovery in 2003. Initially, IFNλ was demonstrated to induce expression of interferon-stimulated genes and exert antiviral properties in a similar manner to type I IFNs. However, while IFNλ has been described to have largely overlapping expression and function with type I IFNs, it has become increasingly clear that type III IFNs also have distinct functions from type I IFNs. In contrast to type I IFNs, whose receptor is ubiquitously expressed, type III IFNs signal and function largely at barrier epithelial surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as the blood–brain barrier. In further support of unique functions for type III IFNs, single nucleotide polymorphisms in IFNL genes in humans are strongly associated with outcomes to viral infection. These biological linkages have also been more directly supported by studies in mice highlighting roles of IFNλ in promoting antiviral immune responses. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of type III IFNs, and how their functions are similar to, and different from, type I IFN in various immune cell subtypes and viral infections.

  4. A systems genetics approach provides a bridge from discovered genetic variants to biological pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nakaoka

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have yielded novel genetic loci underlying common diseases. We propose a systems genetics approach to utilize these discoveries for better understanding of the genetic architecture of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Current evidence of genetic associations with RA was sought through PubMed and the NHGRI GWAS catalog. The associations of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms and HLA-DRB1 alleles were confirmed in 1,287 cases and 1,500 controls of Japanese subjects. Among these, HLA-DRB1 alleles and eight SNPs showed significant associations and all but one of the variants had the same direction of effect as identified in the previous studies, indicating that the genetic risk factors underlying RA are shared across populations. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the genetic risk score based on the selected variants was 68.4%. For seropositive RA patients only, the AUC improved to 70.9%, indicating good but suboptimal predictive ability. A simulation study shows that more than 200 additional loci with similar effect size as recent GWAS findings or 20 rare variants with intermediate effects are needed to achieve AUC = 80.0%. We performed the random walk with restart (RWR algorithm to prioritize genes for future mapping studies. The performance of the algorithm was confirmed by leave-one-out cross-validation. The RWR algorithm pointed to ZAP70 in the first rank, in which mutation causes RA-like autoimmune arthritis in mice. By applying the hierarchical clustering method to a subnetwork comprising RA-associated genes and top-ranked genes by the RWR, we found three functional modules relevant to RA etiology: "leukocyte activation and differentiation", "pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathway", and "chemokines and their receptors".These results suggest that the systems genetics approach is useful to find directions of future mapping strategies to illuminate

  5. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology.

  6. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  7. What Do Beginner Biology Teacher Candidates Know of Genetics and Genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    Misconceptions are a barrier to understanding biology hence, to promote meaningful learning, it is necessary to overcome these difficulties with the help of different instructional methods rather than traditional instructional methods. Therefore it could be very interesting to find out "how students' prior knowledge of genetics affects…

  8. Chapter 7. Management strategies for dwarf mistletoes: Biological, chemical, and genetic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. F. Shamoun; L. E. DeWald

    2002-01-01

    The opportunity and need for management of mistletoe populations with biological, chemical, and genetic approaches are greatest for application to the dwarf mistletoes. Although much information is available on these management strategies (see reviews by Hawksworth 1972, Knutson 1978), significant research and development are still required for these to become...

  9. Pathways to smoking behaviours : biological insights from the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minicã, C C; Mbarek, H; Pool, R; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I; Vink, J M

    By running gene and pathway analyses for several smoking behaviours in the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (TAG) sample of 74 053 individuals, 21 genes and several chains of biological pathways were implicated. Analyses were carried out using the HYbrid Set-based Test (HYST) as implemented in the

  10. I'm so tired: biological and genetic mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsevick, Andrea; Frost, Marlene; Zwinderman, Aeilko; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele; Abertnethy, Amy P.; Baas, Frank; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Cleeland, Charles S.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Klepstad, Pål; Martin, Nicholas G.; Miaskowski, Christine; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Patrick, Donald L.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ropka, Mary E.; Shi, Quiling; Shinozaki, Gen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Veenhoven, Ruut; Yang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this paper is to discuss cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and address issues related to the investigation into potential biological and genetic causal mechanisms. The objectives are to: (1) describe CRF as a component of quality of life (QOL); (2) address measurement issues that

  11. Sequencing Genetics Information: Integrating Data into Information Literacy for Undergraduate Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Don

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes an information literacy lab for an undergraduate biology course that leads students through a range of resources to discover aspects of genetic information. The lab provides over 560 students per semester with the opportunity for hands-on exploration of resources in steps that simulate the pathways of higher-level…

  12. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  13. Synthetic biology approaches in cancer immunotherapy, genetic network engineering, and genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Cho, Jang Hwan; Weinberg, Benjamin H; Wong, Nicole M; Wong, Wilson W

    2016-04-18

    Investigations into cells and their contents have provided evolving insight into the emergence of complex biological behaviors. Capitalizing on this knowledge, synthetic biology seeks to manipulate the cellular machinery towards novel purposes, extending discoveries from basic science to new applications. While these developments have demonstrated the potential of building with biological parts, the complexity of cells can pose numerous challenges. In this review, we will highlight the broad and vital role that the synthetic biology approach has played in applying fundamental biological discoveries in receptors, genetic circuits, and genome-editing systems towards translation in the fields of immunotherapy, biosensors, disease models and gene therapy. These examples are evidence of the strength of synthetic approaches, while also illustrating considerations that must be addressed when developing systems around living cells.

  14. [Review of: K.-S. Taussig Ordinary genomes: science, citizenship, and genetic identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary Genomes is an ethnography of clinical genetics practice in the Netherlands, written by US anthropologist Karen-Sue Taussig. By looking at the case of the Netherlands, this book aims to illuminate the way specific scientific knowledge - in this case genomics - which is generally presumed to

  15. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the role of retinal Müller cells with approaches in genetics and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Suhua; Zhu, Meili; Ash, John D; Wang, Yunchang; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Müller cells are major macroglia and play many essential roles as a supporting cell in the retina. As Müller cells only constitute a small portion of retinal cells, investigating the role of Müller glia in retinal biology and diseases is particularly challenging. To overcome this problem, we first generated a Cre/lox-based conditional gene targeting system that permits the genetic manipulation and functional dissection of gene of interests in Müller cells. To investigate diabetes-induced alteration of Müller cells, we recently adopted methods to analyze Müller cells survival/death in vitro and in vivo. We also used normal and genetically altered primary cell cultures to reveal the mechanistic insights for Müller cells in biological and disease processes. In this article, we will discuss the applications and limitations of these methodologies, which may be useful for research in retinal Müller cell biology and pathophysiology.

  17. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  18. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  19. Genetics reveal the identity and origin of the lionfish invasion in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariche, Michel; Kleitou, Periklis; Kalogirou, Stefanos; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2017-07-28

    Following aquarium releases, invasive lionfishes have colonized large areas of the Caribbean and western Atlantic, resulting in an immense ecological damage. The early stages of that invasion are poorly known. Indeed, a lag of time between the introduction and detection often preclude genetic characterization of that crucial phase. With elevated awareness, the recent invasion of Pterois miles was quickly detected in the Mediterranean Sea. We hereby show that the very first individuals establishing populations in the Mediterranean Sea display haplotypes that nest within the large genetic diversity of Red Sea individuals, thus indicating an invasion via the Suez Canal. We also show that only two haplotypes are detected in the Mediterranean Sea, suggesting that few individuals may have been involved in the invasion. Thus, we conclude that the Mediterranean invasion is the result of a movement of individuals from the Red Sea, rather than from other means, and that low genetic diversity does not seem to have a negative effect on the success and spread of lionfish into the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Cuyabano, Beatriz Castro Dias; Børglum, Anders D; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case-control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and immunological responses, which previously have been implicated with schizophrenia based on experimental and observational studies. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Next-generation mammalian genetics toward organism-level systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Ukai, Hideki; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-01-01

    Organism-level systems biology in mammals aims to identify, analyze, control, and design molecular and cellular networks executing various biological functions in mammals. In particular, system-level identification and analysis of molecular and cellular networks can be accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics. Mammalian genetics without crossing, where all production and phenotyping studies of genome-edited animals are completed within a single generation drastically reduce the time, space, and effort of conducting the systems research. Next-generation mammalian genetics is based on recent technological advancements in genome editing and developmental engineering. The process begins with introduction of double-strand breaks into genomic DNA by using site-specific endonucleases, which results in highly efficient genome editing in mammalian zygotes or embryonic stem cells. By using nuclease-mediated genome editing in zygotes, or ~100% embryonic stem cell-derived mouse technology, whole-body knock-out and knock-in mice can be produced within a single generation. These emerging technologies allow us to produce multiple knock-out or knock-in strains in high-throughput manner. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and related technologies as well as current challenges and future opportunities for next-generation mammalian genetics in organism-level systems biology.

  2. Genetic Variation and Biological Control of Fusarium graminearum Isolated from Wheat in Assiut-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum Schwabe causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. Twelve isolates of F. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from Assiut Egypt. These isolates were compared using SRAP. The results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within F. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their pathogenicity on wheat. There were biologically significant differences between the groups; with group (B isolates being more aggressive towards wheat than groups (A and (C. Furthermore, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg which isolated from wheat kernels were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. They significantly reduced the growth of F. graminearum colonies in culture. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, highly antagonistic isolates of T. harzianum and B. subtilis were selected, based on their in vitro effectiveness, for greenhouse test. It was revealed that T. harzianum and B. subtilis significantly reduced FHB severity. The obtained results indicated that T. harzianum and B. subtilis are very effective biocontrol agents that offer potential benefit in FHB and should be harnessed for further biocontrol applications. The accurate analysis of genetic variation and studies of population structures have significant implications for understanding the genetic traits and disease control programs in wheat. This is the first known report of the distribution and genetic variation of F. graminearum on wheat spikes in Assiut Egypt.

  3. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  4. Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

  5. Novel microsatellite loci for studies of Thamnophis Gartersnake genetic identity and hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Paloski, Rori A.; Boyle, Owen D.; Kapfer, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Butler’s Gartersnakes (BGS; Thamnophis butleri) are confined to open and semi-open canopy wetlands and adjacent uplands, habitats under threat of development in Wisconsin. To address issues of species identity and putative hybridization with congeneric snakes, a suite of 18 microsatellite loci capable of cross-species amplification of Plains Gartersnakes (T. radix) and Common Gartersnakes (T. sirtalis) was developed. All loci were polymorphic in BGS with mean number of alleles per locus of 16.11 (range = 3–41) and mean observed heterozygosity of 0.659 (range = 0.311–0.978). Loci amplified efficiently in the congeneric species with high levels of intra- and inter-specific variation. These loci will aid ongoing efforts to effectively identify and manage BGS in Wisconsin.

  6. Regional Spread of CTX-M-2-Producing Proteus mirabilis with the Identical Genetic Structure in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Karin; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates collected from the central region of Japan. Between 2005 and 2012, 820 clinical P. mirabilis isolates were obtained from ten acute care hospitals in Japan. We characterized ESBL confirmatory test-positive isolates by sequencing the ESBL genes and their flanking regions, detecting plasmid replicons, and performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ninety-six isolates (12%) were positive according to the ESBL confirmatory test; all these isolates possessed bla CTX-M-2 with the same flanking structure of upstream ΔISEcp1 and a downstream region identical to downstream bla KLUA-1 . IncT was the prevalent, and only, replicon found in 63 isolates. PFGE analysis detected eight clusters with more than one isolate, among which three included 56 isolates and six included isolates from multiple hospitals. CTX-M-2-producing P. mirabilis with an identical genetic structure flanking bla CTX-M-2 is dominant in this Japanese region, and there is evidence for the clonal spread of isolates.

  7. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  8. Behavioral versus genetic correlates of lipoproteins and adiposity in identical twins discordant for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Blanche, Patricia J; Krauss, Ronald M

    2005-07-19

    Lipoprotein and weight differences between vigorously active and sedentary monozygotic (MZ) twins were used to (1) estimate the effects of training while controlling for genotype and (2) estimate genetic concordance (ie, similarity) in the presence of divergent lifestyles. Thirty-five pairs of MZ twins (25 male, 10 female) were recruited nationally who were discordant for vigorous exercise (running distances differed by > or =40 km in male and > or =32 km in female twins). The active twins ran an average (mean+/-SD) of 63.0+/-20.4 km/wk, whereas the mostly sedentary twins averaged 7.0+/-13.5 km/wk. The active twins had significantly lower body mass index (difference+/-SE, -2.12+/-0.57 kg/m2, P=0.0007) and significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.14+/-0.04 mmol/L, P=0.004), HDL2 (2.71+/-1.04 U, P=0.01), and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (0.10+/-0.03 g/L, P=0.004). Despite the difference in lifestyle, when adjusted for sex, the correlations between the discordant MZ twin pairs were significant (PHDL cholesterol (r=0.69), apoA-I (r=0.58), and HDL2 (r=0.67). There was no significant MZ twin correlation for body mass index (r=0.17). None of the active twins having an overweight twin were themselves overweight. Behavior (vigorous exercise) may reduce genetic influences on body mass index. In contrast, genetics (or shared environment) substantially influences HDL cholesterol and HDL subclasses, even in the presence of extreme behavioral differences. There may be greater individual control over moderate degrees of obesity, whereas low HDL cholesterol may be largely predetermined and less effectively treated by vigorous exercise.

  9. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224 individu......Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339......, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis....

  10. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  11. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  12. Biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mammary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Kittrell, Frances S.; Shepard, Anne; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Junxuan; Allred, D. Craig; McCarthy, Maureen; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53 confers an increased tumorigenic risk for mammary epithelial cells. In this report, we describe the biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mouse mammary epithelium in a p53 wild-type environment. Mammary epithelium from p53 null mice was transplanted serially into the cleared mammary fat pads of p53 wild-type BALB/c female to develop stable outgrowth lines. The outgrowth lines were transplanted for 10 generations. The outgrowths were ductal in morphology and progressed through ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ before invasive cancer. The preneoplastic outgrowth lines were immortal and exhibited activated telomerase activity. They are estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive, and aneuploid, and had various levels of tumorigenic potential. The biological and genetic properties of these lines are distinct from those found in most hyperplastic alveolar outgrowth lines, the form of mammary preneoplasia occurring in most traditional models of murine mammary tumorigenesis. These results indicate that the preneoplastic cell populations found in this genetically engineered model are similar in biological properties to a subset of precurser lesions found in human breast cancer and provide a unique model to identify secondary events critical for tumorigenicity and invasiveness.

  13. Advances in the Application of Genetics in Marine Turtle Biology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Komoroske

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles migrate across long distances, exhibit complex life histories, and occupy habitats that are difficult to observe. These factors present substantial challenges to understanding fundamental aspects of their biology or assessing human impacts, many of which are important for the effective conservation of these threatened and endangered species. The early development and application of genetic tools made important contributions to understanding marine turtle population and evolutionary biology, such as providing evidence of regional natal homing by breeding adults, establishing connectivity between rookeries and foraging habitats, and determining phylogeography and broad scale stock structure for most marine turtle species. Recent innovations in molecular technologies, statistical methods, and creative application of genetic tools have significantly built upon this knowledge to address key questions in marine turtle biology and conservation management. Here, we evaluate the latest major advances and potential of marine turtle genetic applications, including improved resolution and large-scale syntheses of population structure, connectivity and phylogeography, estimation of key demographic rates such as age to maturity and operational or breeding sex ratios, insight into reproductive strategies and behavior, and assessment of differential human impacts among populations. We then discuss remaining challenges and emerging capabilities, such as rapid, multiplexed genotyping, and investigation of the genomic underpinnings of adaptive variation afforded by high-throughput sequencing technologies.

  14. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  15. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic coding and united-hypercomplex systems in the models of algebraic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhov, Sergey V

    2017-08-01

    Structured alphabets of DNA and RNA in their matrix form of representations are connected with Walsh functions and a new type of systems of multidimensional numbers. This type generalizes systems of complex numbers and hypercomplex numbers, which serve as the basis of mathematical natural sciences and many technologies. The new systems of multi-dimensional numbers have interesting mathematical properties and are called in a general case as "systems of united-hypercomplex numbers" (or briefly "U-hypercomplex numbers"). They can be widely used in models of multi-parametrical systems in the field of algebraic biology, artificial life, devices of biological inspired artificial intelligence, etc. In particular, an application of U-hypercomplex numbers reveals hidden properties of genetic alphabets under cyclic permutations in their doublets and triplets. A special attention is devoted to the author's hypothesis about a multi-linguistic in DNA-sequences in a relation with an ensemble of U-numerical sub-alphabets. Genetic multi-linguistic is considered as an important factor to provide noise-immunity properties of the multi-channel genetic coding. Our results attest to the conformity of the algebraic properties of the U-numerical systems with phenomenological properties of the DNA-alphabets and with the complementary device of the double DNA-helix. It seems that in the modeling field of algebraic biology the genetic-informational organization of living bodies can be considered as a set of united-hypercomplex numbers in some association with the famous slogan of Pythagoras "the numbers rule the world". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PAIRS AND GROUPS OF GENETICALLY RELATED LONG-PERIOD COMETS AND PROPOSED IDENTITY OF THE MYSTERIOUS LICK OBJECT OF 1921

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: Zdenek.Sekanina@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: R.Kracht@t-online.de [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2016-05-20

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits, and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs considerably from member to member owing primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the enigmatic and as-yet-unidentified object discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7 happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it might be genetically related. Our search shows that the Lick object, which could not be a Kreutz sungrazer, was likely a companion to comet C/1847 C1 (Hind), whose perihelion distance was ∼9 R {sub ⊙} and true orbital period was approximately 8300 yr. The gap of 74.4 yr between their perihelion times is consistent with a separation velocity of ∼1 m s{sup −1} which sets the fragments apart following the parent's breakup in a general proximity of perihelion during the previous return to the Sun in the seventh millennium BCE.

  18. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource: Genetic, Genomic, and Biological Knowledgebase for the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T

    2017-07-01

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bagley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford, and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED; data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups.

  20. Biological underpinnings of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder: focusing on genetics and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joanne; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Saffery, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk. We also discuss important considerations for future research in this area.

  1. [Molecular biology of renal cancer: bases for genetic directed therapy in advanced disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto Rey, José Pablo; Cillán Narvaez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    There has been expansion of therapeutic options in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma due to a better knowledge of the molecular biology of kidney cancers. There are different tumors grouped under the term renal cell carcinoma, being clear cell cancer the most frequent and accounting for 80% of kidney tumors. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene can be identified in up to 80% of sporadic clear cell cancer, linking a genetically inheritable disease where vascular tumors are frequent, with renal cell cancer. Other histologic types present specific alterations in molecular pathways, like c-MET in papillary type I tumors, and Fumarase Hydratase in papillary type II tumors. Identification of the molecular alteration for a specific tumor may offer an opportunity for treatment selection based on biomarkers, and, in the future, for developing an engineering designed genetic treatment.

  2. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-12

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

  3. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van ’t Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  4. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  5. The biology and potential for genetic research of transposable elements in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Cecilia de Lima Fávaro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently many transposable elements have been identified and characterized in filamentous fungi, especially in species of agricultural, biotechnological and medical interest. Similar to the elements found in other eukaryotes, fungal transposons can be classified as class I elements (retrotransposons that use RNA and reverse transcriptase and class II elements (DNA transposons that use DNA. The changes (transposition and recombination caused by transposons can supply wide-ranging genetic variation, especially for species that do not have a sexual phase. The application of transposable elements to gene isolation and population analysis is an important tool for molecular biology and studies of fungal evolution.

  6. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  8. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, P.G.; Cock, M.J.W.; Barratt, B.I.P.; Klapwijk, J.N.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Hoelmer, K.A.; Heimpel, G.E.

    2018-01-01

    The Nagoya Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity that provides a framework for the effective implementation of the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including invertebrate biological control agents.

  9. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  10. Biological Networks Entropies: Examples in Neural Memory Networks, Genetic Regulation Networks and Social Epidemic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demongeot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Networks used in biological applications at different scales (molecule, cell and population are of different types: neuronal, genetic, and social, but they share the same dynamical concepts, in their continuous differential versions (e.g., non-linear Wilson-Cowan system as well as in their discrete Boolean versions (e.g., non-linear Hopfield system; in both cases, the notion of interaction graph G(J associated to its Jacobian matrix J, and also the concepts of frustrated nodes, positive or negative circuits of G(J, kinetic energy, entropy, attractors, structural stability, etc., are relevant and useful for studying the dynamics and the robustness of these systems. We will give some general results available for both continuous and discrete biological networks, and then study some specific applications of three new notions of entropy: (i attractor entropy, (ii isochronal entropy and (iii entropy centrality; in three domains: a neural network involved in the memory evocation, a genetic network responsible of the iron control and a social network accounting for the obesity spread in high school environment.

  11. The rise of developmental genetics - a historical account of the fusion of embryology and cell biology with human genetics and the emergence of the Stem Cell Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, S H; Ballo, R; Greenberg, L J

    2016-05-25

    Genetics and cell biology are very prominent areas of biological research with rapid advances being driven by a flood of theoretical, technological and informational knowledge. Big biology and small biology continue to feed off each other. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the productive interactions that have taken place between human geneticists and cell biologists at UCT, and credit is given to the enabling environment created led by Prof. Peter Beighton. The growth of new disciplines and disciplinary mergers that have swept away division of the past to make new exciting syntheses are discussed. We show how our joint research has benefitted from worldwide advances in developmental genetics, cloning and stem cell technologies, genomics, bioinformatics and imaging. We conclude by describing the role of the UCT Stem Cell Initiative and show how we are using induced pluripotent cells to carry out disease-in-the- dish studies on retinal degeneration and fibrosis.

  12. Are Aquatic Viruses a Biological Archive of Genetic Information from Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toparceanu, F.; Negoita, Gh. T.; Nita, I. I.; Sava, D.

    2009-04-01

    After 1990, when the viruses were admited as the most abundant lifeforms from aquatic environments, it became obvious that viral lysis had an essential role on release and recycling of nutrients. Studies on cellular cultures and modeling suggest that this is an important quantitative process. The viruses from oceans represent the widest source of genetic diversity on the Earth, uncharacterized yet. The ancient lifeforms records stretching back a million years are locked in ice caps. The trend of glaciers melting as effect of actual climate change will promote the release of ancient viruses from ice caps. The increasing of the freshwater layer led to the replace of some algae species by others. Law-Racovitza Station (69o23'S 76o23'E) from East Antarctica (Larsemann Hills Oasis) offers opportunities to study the Antarctic marine ecosystem, as well as archaic aquatic ecosystems from this area ( 150 lakes and waterways resulted from ice and snow melting during the austral summer). According to Law-Racovitza Station Scientific Program, we are performing studies regarding the effect of climate changes on virus-algae host relationship in these aquatic ecosystems. Phycodnaviruses, that infect the eukaryote algae, are comprised of ancient genes and they are considered a "peek" of genetic diversity useful in biological studies and exobiology regarding the evolution of genetic sequencing. The latest discoveries of the giant aquatic viruses open the unexpected perspectives for understanding the role of viral infection in global ecosystem; beyond the old concept which considered that the viruses were only etiological agents of human, animals and plants illnesses. The aquatic viruses which infect microalgae contain similar genes of other viruses, bacteria, arhebacteria and eukaryotes, all of them being on the same genome. Which is the signification of enormous abundance of viruses and excessive diversity of genetic information encoded by viruses? There is the possibility that

  13. Colloquium paper: uniquely human evolution of sialic acid genetics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2010-05-11

    Darwinian evolution of humans from our common ancestors with nonhuman primates involved many gene-environment interactions at the population level, and the resulting human-specific genetic changes must contribute to the "Human Condition." Recent data indicate that the biology of sialic acids (which directly involves less than 60 genes) shows more than 10 uniquely human genetic changes in comparison with our closest evolutionary relatives. Known outcomes are tissue-specific changes in abundant cell-surface glycans, changes in specificity and/or expression of multiple proteins that recognize these glycans, and novel pathogen regimes. Specific events include Alu-mediated inactivation of the CMAH gene, resulting in loss of synthesis of the Sia N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and increase in expression of the precursor N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac); increased expression of alpha2-6-linked Sias (likely because of changed expression of ST6GALI); and multiple changes in SIGLEC genes encoding Sia-recognizing Ig-like lectins (Siglecs). The last includes binding specificity changes (in Siglecs -5, -7, -9, -11, and -12); expression pattern changes (in Siglecs -1, -5, -6, and -11); gene conversion (SIGLEC11); and deletion or pseudogenization (SIGLEC13, SIGLEC14, and SIGLEC16). A nongenetic outcome of the CMAH mutation is human metabolic incorporation of foreign dietary Neu5Gc, in the face of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, generating a novel "xeno-auto-antigen" situation. Taken together, these data suggest that both the genes associated with Sia biology and the related impacts of the environment comprise a relative "hot spot" of genetic and physiological changes in human evolution, with implications for uniquely human features both in health and disease.

  14. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  15. Population genetics of traditionally managed maize : farming practice as a determinant of genetic structure and identity of maize landraces in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of crop genetic diversity is being maintained in farmers' fields worldwide. The population genetics of traditionally managed landraces is therefore of interest to the conservation of genetic resources. The growing trend towards agricultural modernization and the prospect of

  16. Genetically engineered mouse models of craniopharyngioma: an opportunity for therapy development and understanding of tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, John Richard; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is the commonest tumor of the sellar region in childhood. Two genetically engineered mouse models have been developed and are giving valuable insights into ACP biology. These models have identified novel pathways activated in tumors, revealed an important function of paracrine signalling and extended conventional theories about the role of organ-specific stem cells in tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize these mouse models, what has been learnt, their limitations and open questions for future research. We then discussed how these mouse models may be used to test novel therapeutics against potentially targetable pathways recently identified in human ACP. © 2017 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  17. MP-GeneticSynth: inferring biological network regulations from time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Alberto; Paltrinieri, Daniele; Manca, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    MP-GeneticSynth is a Java tool for discovering the logic and regulation mechanisms responsible for observed biological dynamics in terms of finite difference recurrent equations. The software makes use of: (i) metabolic P systems as a modeling framework, (ii) an evolutionary approach to discover flux regulation functions as linear combinations of given primitive functions, (iii) a suitable reformulation of the least squares method to estimate function parameters considering simultaneously all the reactions involved in complex dynamics. The tool is available as a plugin for the virtual laboratory MetaPlab. It has graphical and interactive interfaces for data preparation, a priori knowledge integration, and flux regulator analysis. Availability and implementation: Source code, binaries, documentation (including quick start guide and videos) and case studies are freely available at http://mplab.sci.univr.it/plugins/mpgs/index.html. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Conservation, genetic characterization, phytochemical and biological investigation of black calla lily: A wild endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists continue to search for and conserve plants whose medicinal properties have become crucial in the fight against diseases. Moreover, lessons from folk medicine, indigenous knowledge and Chinese medicine on crude extracts points to possible findings of novel promising and strong pharmaceutically bioactive constituents. Arum palaestinum, commonly known as black calla lily, is one of the most important medicinal plants belonging to the family Araceae, which has not been well studied. Little is known about its pharmaceutically bioactive constituents and the effective conservation through the use of biotechnology. Thus, Arum Palaestinum is selected and reviewed for its phytochemical analysis and biological activities. Besides, the tissue culture and genetic characterization developed for effective conservation of the plant were also summarized.

  19. ANALISIS ARGUMENTASI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI PADA ISU SOSIOSAINFIK KONSUMSI GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis argumentasi yang dikemukakan oleh mahasiswa pendidikan biologi terkait isu sosiosaintifik yaitu konsumsi pangan Genetically Modified Organism (GMO.  Penelitian menggunakan metode survei secara online.  Partisipan yang berasal dari semester III-VII Universitas Islam Negeri Jakarta yang secara sukarela mengisi kuisioner online yang diunggah pada weblog. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan isu sosiosaintifik GMO lebih banyak ditanggapi secara saintifik oleh partisipan.  Argumentasi sebagian besar berada pada level II, yaitu telah mampu mengungkapkan sebuah klaim disertai dengan alasan. Hanya sedikit yang sudah mampu memberikan argumen secara holistik (level IV, yaitu mampu mengungkapkan argumen dengan alasan yang kuat yang tidak mudah dibantah.  Umumnya argumentasi yang dikemukan partisipan berjenis argumentasi sederhana dan argumentasi tipe rantai.  Berdasarkan temuan ini, perlu dikembangkan sebuah model perkuliahan yang dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berargumentasi. This research aimed to analyze the argument for socioscientifik issue “Genetically Modified Organism (GMO Food Consumtion”.  This reseach used online survey.  Participant filled online questionaire that uploaded in weblog.  Participants are student of biology education in Jakarta Islamic State University. The result showed most participants gave scientific view in their argument.  Most of argumentations were in level II; participants gave a klaim within a warrant.  Only a few argument were in level IV, it’s a holistic argument that contained a klaim, a warrant, a backing, and a rebuttal.  Most of argument had simple type or chain type.  From this result, university must develop strategies of lecturing to improve argumentation skill.

  20. Synthetic Biology Parts for the Storage of Increased Genetic Information in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sydney E; Feldman, Aaron W; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2017-10-20

    To bestow cells with novel forms and functions, the goal of synthetic biology, we have developed the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates dNaMTP and dTPT3TP, which form an unnatural base pair (UBP) and expand the genetic alphabet. While the UBP may be retained in the DNA of a living cell, its retention is sequence-dependent. We now report a steady-state kinetic characterization of the rate with which the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I synthesizes the UBP and its mispairs in a variety of sequence contexts. Correct UBP synthesis is as efficient as for a natural base pair, except in one sequence context, and in vitro performance is correlated with in vivo performance. The data elucidate the determinants of efficient UBP synthesis, show that the dNaM-dTPT3 UBP is the first generally recognized natural-like base pair, and importantly, demonstrate that dNaMTP and dTPT3TP are well optimized and standardized parts for the expansion of the genetic alphabet.

  1. Biological engineering applications of feedforward neural networks designed and parameterized by genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferentinos, Konstantinos P

    2005-09-01

    Two neural network (NN) applications in the field of biological engineering are developed, designed and parameterized by an evolutionary method based on the evolutionary process of genetic algorithms. The developed systems are a fault detection NN model and a predictive modeling NN system. An indirect or 'weak specification' representation was used for the encoding of NN topologies and training parameters into genes of the genetic algorithm (GA). Some a priori knowledge of the demands in network topology for specific application cases is required by this approach, so that the infinite search space of the problem is limited to some reasonable degree. Both one-hidden-layer and two-hidden-layer network architectures were explored by the GA. Except for the network architecture, each gene of the GA also encoded the type of activation functions in both hidden and output nodes of the NN and the type of minimization algorithm that was used by the backpropagation algorithm for the training of the NN. Both models achieved satisfactory performance, while the GA system proved to be a powerful tool that can successfully replace the problematic trial-and-error approach that is usually used for these tasks.

  2. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  3. Student world view as a framework for learning genetics and evolution in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Roger Wesley

    Statement of the problem. Few studies in biology education have examined the underlying presuppositions which guide thinking and concept learning in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the biological world views of a variety of high school students before they take biology courses. Specifically, the study examined student world views in the domains of Classification, Relationship and Causation related to the concepts of heredity, evolution and biotechnology. The following served as guiding questions: (1) What are the personal world views of high school students entering biology classes, related to the domain of Classification, Relationship and Causality? (2) How do these student world views confound or enhance the learning of basic concepts in genetics and evolution? Methods. An interpretive method was chosen for this study. The six student participants were ninth graders and represented a wide range of world view backgrounds. A series of three interviews was conducted with each participant, with a focus group used for triangulation of data. The constant comparative method was used to categorize the data and facilitate the search for meaningful patterns. The analysis included a thick description of each student's personal views of classification, evolution and the appropriate use of biotechnology. Results. The study demonstrates that world view is the basis upon which students build knowledge in biology. The logic of their everyday thinking may not match that of scientists. The words they use are sometimes inconsistent with scientific terminology. This study provides evidence that students voice different opinions depending on the social situation, since they are strongly influenced by peers. Students classify animals based on behaviors. They largely believe that the natural world is unpredictable, and that humans are not really part of that world. Half are unlikely to accept the evolution of humans, but may accept it in other

  4. Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn [Find My Family - On biology, identity and kinship on television] Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Frello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Danish public service television station (DR has launched several documentary serials that focus on kinship and genealogy. Genealogy makes ‘good TV’ because it enables an immediate identification with the protagonist of the programme. Furthermore, the protagonist’s personal story can function as a vehicle for telling other stories. However, the way kinship is depicted in the serials presupposes that a person’s knowledge about her biological kin equals knowledge about her personal identity. The article analyses the serial Find my Family (Danish: Sporløs, discussing the naturalisation of biological kin and the possible consequences of the conceptualisation of kinship that is taken for granted in the serial.DR har i de senere år lanceret flere programserier, som har slægt og slægtsforskning som fokus. Slægtsprogrammer er ’godt fjernsyn’ i den forstand, at de giver mulighed for en umiddelbar identifikation med hovedpersonen, samtidig med at dennes historie kan bruges som løftestang for andre historier. Imidlertid anlægger programmerne en vinkel på slægten, som forudsætter, at et øget kendskab til den biologiske slægt automatisk medfører et øget kendskab til den personlige identitet. Denne selvfølgeliggørelse af den biologiske slægts betydning problematiseres i artiklen, og med udgangspunkt i Sporløs diskuteres mulige implikationer og konsekvenser af den forståelse af slægten, som programmerne tager udgangspunkt i og tager for givet.

  5. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and

  7. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  8. Framing the Genetics Curriculum for Social Justice: An Experimental Exploration of How the Biology Curriculum Influences Beliefs about Racial Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment manipulated the racial framing of a reading on human genetic disease to explore whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum affects how adolescents explain and respond to the racial achievement gap in American education. Carried out in a public high school in the San Francisco Bay Area, students recruited for the…

  9. Coping with the abstract and complex nature of genetics in biology education : The yo-yo learning and teaching strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, M.C.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a research project that was carried out at the Centre for Science and Mathematics Education at Utrecht University between 1998 and 2002. The study addresses problems in learning and teaching genetics in upper secondary biology education. The aim of the study is to develop a

  10. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  11. Seeding-inspired chemotaxis genetic algorithm for the inference of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2014-09-18

    A large challenge in the post-genomic era is to obtain the quantitatively dynamic interactive information of the important constitutes of underlying systems. The S-system is a dynamic and structurally rich model that determines the net strength of interactions between genes and/or proteins. Good generation characteristics without the need for prior information have allowed S-systems to become one of the most promising canonical models. Various evolutionary computation technologies have recently been developed for the identification of system parameters and skeletal-network structures. However, the gaps between the truncated and preserved terms remain too small. Additionally, current research methods fail to identify the structures of high dimensional systems (e.g., 30 genes with 1800 connections). Optimization technologies should converge fast and have the ability to adaptively adjust the search. In this study, we propose a seeding-inspired chemotaxis genetic algorithm (SCGA) that can force evolution to adjust the population movement to identify a favorable location. The seeding-inspired training strategy is a method to achieve optimal results with limited resources. SCGA introduces seeding-inspired genetic operations to allow a population to possess competitive power (exploitation and exploration) and a winner-chemotaxis-induced population migration to force a population to repeatedly tumble away from an attractor and swim toward another attractor. SCGA was tested on several canonical biological systems. SCGA not only learned the correct structure within only one to three pruning steps but also ensures pruning safety. The values of the truncated terms were all smaller than 10 -14 , even for a thirty-gene system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology. PMID:23193293

  13. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops.

  14. The association of telomere length and genetic variation in telomere biology genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Yu, Kai; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hunter, David J; Prescott, Jennifer; Wong, Jason Y Y; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hayes, Richard B; Savage, Sharon A

    2010-09-01

    Telomeres cap chromosome ends and are critical for genomic stability. Many telomere-associated proteins are important for telomere length maintenance. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding telomere-associated proteins (RTEL1 and TERT-CLPTM1) as markers of cancer risk. We conducted an association study of telomere length and 743 SNPs in 43 telomere biology genes. Telomere length in peripheral blood DNA was determined by Q-PCR in 3,646 participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and Nurses' Health Study. We investigated associations by SNP, gene, and pathway (functional group). We found no associations between telomere length and SNPs in TERT-CLPTM1L or RTEL1. Telomere length was not significantly associated with specific functional groups. Thirteen SNPs from four genes (MEN1, MRE11A, RECQL5, and TNKS) were significantly associated with telomere length. The strongest findings were in MEN1 (gene-based P=0.006), menin, which associates with the telomerase promoter and may negatively regulate telomerase. This large association study did not find strong associations with telomere length. The combination of limited diversity and evolutionary conservation suggest that these genes may be under selective pressure. More work is needed to explore the role of genetic variants in telomere length regulation. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The role of the SIBLING, Bone Sialoprotein in skeletal biology - Contribution of mouse experimental genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Bouet, Guenaelle; Granito, Renata Neves; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Aubin, Jane E; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Vico, Laurence; Malaval, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) is a member of the "Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoproteins" (SIBLING) extracellular matrix protein family of mineralized tissues. BSP has been less studied than other SIBLING proteins such as Osteopontin (OPN), which is coexpressed with it in several skeletal cell types. Here we review the contribution of genetically engineered mice (BSP gene knockout and overexpression) to the understanding of the role of BSP in the bone organ. The studies made so far highlight the role of BSP in skeletal mineralization, as well as its importance for proper osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and activity, most prominently in primary/repair bone. The absence of BSP also affects the local environment of the bone tissue, in particular hematopoiesis and vascularization. Interestingly, lack of BSP induces an overexpression of OPN, and the cognate protein could be responsible for some aspects of the BSP gene knockout skeletal phenotype, while replacing BSP for some of its functions. Such interplay between the partly overlapping functions of SIBLING proteins, as well as the network of cross-regulations in which they are involved should now be the focus of further work. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnic, racial and cultural identity and perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for breast cancer among at-risk women of African descent in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, K M; Edwards, T A; Thompson, H S; Jandorf, L; Kwate, N O; Forman, A; Brown, K; Kapil-Pair, N; Bovbjerg, D H; Schwartz, M D; Valdimarsdottir, H B

    2011-01-01

    Due to disparities in the use of genetic services, there has been growing interest in examining beliefs and attitudes related to genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk among women of African descent. However, to date, few studies have addressed critical cultural variations among this minority group and their influence on such beliefs and attitudes. We assessed ethnic, racial and cultural identity and examined their relationships with perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing for cancer risk in a sample of 160 women of African descent (49% self-identified African American, 39% Black-West Indian/Caribbean, 12% Black-Other) who met genetic risk criteria and were participating in a larger longitudinal study including the opportunity for free genetic counseling and testing in New York City. All participants completed the following previously validated measures: (a) the multi-group ethnic identity measure (including ethnic search and affirmation subscales) and other-group orientation for ethnic identity, (b) centrality to assess racial identity, and (c) Africentrism to measure cultural identity. Perceived benefits and barriers related to genetic testing included: (1) pros/advantages (including family-related pros), (2) cons/disadvantages (including family-related cons, stigma and confidentiality concerns), and (3) concerns about abuses of genetic testing. In multivariate analyses, several ethnic identity elements showed significant, largely positive relationships to perceived benefits about genetic testing for breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, the exception being ethnic search, which was positively associated with cons/disadvantages, in general, and family-related cons/disadvantages. Racial identity (centrality) showed a significant association with confidentiality concerns. Cultural identity (Africentrism) was not related to perceived benefits and/or barriers. Ethnic and racial identity may influence perceived benefits and barriers

  17. Genetic identity, ancestry and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Aceh, Indonesia revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the source of cocoa powder and butter used for chocolate and this species originated in the rainforests of South America. Indonesia is the 3rd largest cacao producer in the world with an annual cacao output of 0.55 million tons. Knowledge of on-farm genetic diversity is...

  18. Biological characteristics of genetic variants of Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K E; Dimock, K; Brown, E G

    2000-03-01

    The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is composed of a mixture of variants distinguishable by a difference at nucleotide (nt) 1081 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene (Brown, E.G., Dimock, K., Wright, K.E., 1996. The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is a mixture of viruses differing at amino acid (aa) 335 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene with one form associated with disease. J. Infect. Dis. 174, 619-622.). Further genetic and biological variation was detected in plaque purified viruses from the Urabe AM9 vaccine by examining the HN gene sequence, plaque morphology, cytopathic effects and growth in Vero cells, and temperature sensitivity (ts). Infection of Vero cells with plaque purified viruses with a G at nt 1081 of the HN gene produced large, clear plaques, caused significant CPE early after infection but yielded lower titres of virus than other purified viruses. None of these viruses were ts. In contrast, half of the plaque purified viruses with an A at nt 1081 were sensitive to a temperature of 39.5 degrees C. These viruses produced small plaques, caused significant CPE and grew to low titres. Two ts viruses possessed a unique aa substitution at aa 468 of HN. The remaining A(1081) viruses were not ts, produced large plaques but little CPE, and grew to titres 10-fold higher than the G(1081) viruses. Isolates of Urabe AM9 associated with post-vaccination illness were similar to these non-ts A(1081) viruses, but could be further sub-divided into two groups on the basis of a difference at aa 464 of HN. The post-vaccination isolates may represent insufficiently attenuated components of the vaccine, while the G(1081) and ts subset of A(1081) viruses may be more fully attenuated.

  19. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  20. Isolation and genetic analysis of pure cells from forensic biological mixtures: The precision of a digital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, F; Rapone, C; Bregola, G; Aversa, R; de Meo, A; Signorini, G; Sergio, M; Ferrarini, A; Lanzellotto, R; Medoro, G; Giorgini, G; Manaresi, N; Berti, A

    2017-07-01

    Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e.g. epithelial cells, blood cells, sperm), prior to genotyping. Different approaches have been investigated for this purpose, such as fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) or laser capture microdissection (LCM), but currently none of these methods can guarantee the complete separation of different type of cells present in a mixture. In other fields of application, such as oncology, DEPArray™ technology, an image-based, microfluidic digital sorter, has been widely proven to enable the separation of pure cells, with single-cell precision. This study investigates the applicability of DEPArray™ technology to forensic samples analysis, focusing on the resolution of the forensic mixture problem. For the first time, we report here the development of an application-specific DEPArray™ workflow enabling the detection and recovery of pure homogeneous cell pools from simulated blood/saliva and semen/saliva mixtures, providing full genetic match with genetic profiles of corresponding donors. In addition, we assess the performance of standard forensic methods for DNA quantitation and genotyping on low-count, DEPArray™-isolated cells, showing that pure, almost complete profiles can be obtained from as few as ten haploid cells. Finally, we explore the applicability in real casework samples, demonstrating that the described approach provides complete

  1. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts: a study of Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kragh Andersen, Per; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Hawton, Keith

    2014-02-01

    Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions. The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Population biology of establishment in New Zealand hedgehogs inferred from genetic and historical data: conflict or compromise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfíková, Barbora; Konečný, Adam; Pfäffle, Miriam; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hulva, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    The crucial steps in biological invasions, related to the shaping of genetic architecture and the current evolution of adaptations to a novel environment, usually occur in small populations during the phases of introduction and establishment. However, these processes are difficult to track in nature due to invasion lag, large geographic and temporal scales compared with human observation capabilities, the frequent depletion of genetic variance, admixture and other phenomena. In this study, we compared genetic and historical evidence related to the invasion of the West European hedgehog to New Zealand to infer details about the introduction and establishment. Historical information indicates that the species was initially established on the South Island. A molecular assay of populations from Great Britain and New Zealand using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci was performed based on a set of analyses including approximate Bayesian computation, a powerful approach for disentangling complex population demographies. According to these analyses, the population of the North Island was most similar to that of the native area and showed greatest reduction in genetic variation caused by founder demography and/or drift. This evidence indicated the location of the establishment phase. The hypothesis was corroborated by data on climate and urbanization. We discuss the contrasting results obtained by the molecular and historical approaches in the light of their different explanatory power and the possible biases influencing the description of particular aspects of invasions, and we advocate the integration of the two types of approaches in invasion biology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Demographic history and biologically relevant genetic variation of Native Mexicans inferred from whole-genome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Garcíarrubio, Alejandro; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Antúnez-Argüelles, Erika; Balcazar-Quintero, Martha; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; García-Ortíz, Humberto; Granados-Silvestre, Ángeles; Granados, Julio; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Native American populations is important to clarify their diversity, demographic history, and to identify genetic factors relevant for biomedical traits. Here, we show a demographic history reconstruction from 12 Native American whole genomes belonging to six distinct ethnic groups representing the three main described genetic clusters of Mexico (Northern, Southern, and Maya). Effective population size estimates of all Native American groups remained bel...

  4. Teaching Biology through Statistics: Application of Statistical Methods in Genetics and Zoology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the…

  5. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  6. Methods in Molecular Biology Mouse Genetics: Methods and Protocols | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouse Genetics: Methods and Protocols provides selected mouse genetic techniques and their application in modeling varieties of human diseases. The chapters are mainly focused on the generation of different transgenic mice to accomplish the manipulation of genes of interest, tracing cell lineages, and modeling human diseases.

  7. New Algorithm and Software (BNOmics) for Inferring and Visualizing Bayesian Networks from Heterogeneous Big Biological and Genetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoshin, Grigoriy; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rodin, Andrei S

    2017-04-01

    Bayesian network (BN) reconstruction is a prototypical systems biology data analysis approach that has been successfully used to reverse engineer and model networks reflecting different layers of biological organization (ranging from genetic to epigenetic to cellular pathway to metabolomic). It is especially relevant in the context of modern (ongoing and prospective) studies that generate heterogeneous high-throughput omics datasets. However, there are both theoretical and practical obstacles to the seamless application of BN modeling to such big data, including computational inefficiency of optimal BN structure search algorithms, ambiguity in data discretization, mixing data types, imputation and validation, and, in general, limited scalability in both reconstruction and visualization of BNs. To overcome these and other obstacles, we present BNOmics, an improved algorithm and software toolkit for inferring and analyzing BNs from omics datasets. BNOmics aims at comprehensive systems biology-type data exploration, including both generating new biological hypothesis and testing and validating the existing ones. Novel aspects of the algorithm center around increasing scalability and applicability to varying data types (with different explicit and implicit distributional assumptions) within the same analysis framework. An output and visualization interface to widely available graph-rendering software is also included. Three diverse applications are detailed. BNOmics was originally developed in the context of genetic epidemiology data and is being continuously optimized to keep pace with the ever-increasing inflow of available large-scale omics datasets. As such, the software scalability and usability on the less than exotic computer hardware are a priority, as well as the applicability of the algorithm and software to the heterogeneous datasets containing many data types-single-nucleotide polymorphisms and other genetic/epigenetic/transcriptome variables, metabolite

  8. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and ... genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars ..... The project was financed by the National Natural Science .... Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Alberta.

  9. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT with regard to forensic genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient’s blood was identical with the donor’s in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient’s profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells – similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  10. Genetic identification of the bacteriocins produced by Enterococcus faecium IT62 and evidence that bacteriocin 32 is identical to enterocin IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Esther; Cai, Yimin; Marchioni, Eric; Ennahar, Saïd

    2009-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium IT62, a strain isolated from ryegrass in Japan, produces three bacteriocins (enterocins L50A, L50B, and IT) that have been previously purified and the primary structures of which have been determined by amino acid sequencing (E. Izquierdo, A. Bednarczyk, C. Schaeffer, Y. Cai, E. Marchioni, A. Van Dorsselaer, and S. Ennahar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52:1917-1923, 2008). Genetic analysis showed that the bacteriocins of E. faecium IT62 are plasmid encoded, but with the structural genes specifying enterocin L50A and enterocin L50B being carried by a plasmid (pTAB1) that is separate from the one (pTIT1) carrying the structural gene of enterocin IT. Sequencing analysis of a 1,475-bp region from pTAB1 identified two consecutive open reading frames corresponding, with the exception of 2 bp, to the genes entL50A and entL50B, encoding EntL50A and EntL50B, respectively. Both bacteriocins are synthesized without N-terminal leader sequences. Genetic analysis of a sequenced 1,380-bp pTIT1 fragment showed that the genes entIT and entIM, encoding enterocin IT and its immunity protein, respectively, were both found in E. faecium VRE200 for bacteriocin 32. Enterocin IT, a 6,390-Da peptide made up of 54 amino acids, has been previously shown to be identical to the C-terminal part of bacteriocin 32, a 7,998-Da bacteriocin produced by E. faecium VRE200 whose structure was deduced from its structural gene (T. Inoue, H. Tomita, and Y. Ike, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 50:1202-1212, 2006). By combining the biochemical and genetic data on enterocin IT, it was concluded that bacteriocin 32 is in fact identical to enterocin IT, both being encoded by the same plasmid-borne gene, and that the N-terminal leader peptide for this bacteriocin is 35 amino acids long and not 19 amino acids long as previously reported.

  11. Views of female breast cancer patients who donated biologic samples regarding storage and use of samples for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, K A; Janoff, J M; Harris, L N; Emmons, K M

    2006-05-01

    Although social and ethical issues related to the storage and use of biologic specimens for genetic research have been discussed extensively in the medical literature, few empiric data exist describing patients' views. This qualitative study explored the views of 26 female breast cancer patients who had consented to donate blood or tissue samples for breast cancer research. Participants generally did not expect personal benefits from research and had few unprompted concerns. Few participants had concerns about use of samples for studies not planned at the time of consent. Some participants did express concerns about insurance or employment discrimination, while others believed that current privacy protections might actually slow breast cancer research. Participants were generally more interested in receiving individual genetic test results from research studies than aggregate results. Most participants did not want individual results of uncertain clinical significance, although others believed that they should be able to receive such information. These data examined the range of participants' views regarding the storage and use of biologic samples. Further research with different and diverse patient populations is critical to establishing an appropriate balance between protecting the rights of human subjects in genetic research and allowing research to progress.

  12. Case Study on Ancestry Estimation in an Alaskan Native Family: Identity and Safeguards Against Reductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Alyssa C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the complexities of ancestry-related identity is a necessary component of ethically sound research related to the genetic ancestry of modern-day communities. This is especially true when working with indigenous populations, given the legal and social implications that genetic ancestry interpretations may have in these communities. This study employs a multicomponent approach to explore the intricacies of ancestry-related identity within one extended family with members who identify as Alaskan Native. The seven participants were interviewed about their own self-identity, perceptions regarding genetic ancestry estimation, and their knowledge of oral family history. Additionally, each participant consented to having his or her genetic ancestry estimated. The researchers also surveyed ancestry-related documents, such as census records, birth certificates, and Certificates of Indian Blood. These three different perspectives-oral family history and self-identity, genetic ancestry estimation, historical and legal documentation-illustrate the complex nature of ancestry-related identity within the context of indigenous and colonial interactions in North America. While estimates of genetic ancestry broadly reflected each individual's self-reported biogeographic ancestry and supported all described and historically reported biological relationships, the estimates did not always match federally recorded blood quantum values, nor did they provide any information on relationships at the tribe or clan level. Employing a multicomponent approach and engaging study participants may help to safeguard against genetic essentialism and provide a more nuanced understanding of ancestry-related identity within a larger political, legal, and historical context.

  13. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Xeroxing Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)

  14. Genetic diversity in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis: molecular mechanisms and biological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Gena D; Kerr, Jennifer E; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity. It is implicated in the development of periodontitis, a chronic periodontal disease affecting half of the adult population in the USA. To survive in the oral cavity, these bacteria must colonize dental plaque biofilms in competition with other bacterial species. Long-term survival requires P. gingivalis to evade host immune responses, while simultaneously adapting to the changing physiology of the host and to alterations in the plaque biofilm. In reflection of this highly variable niche, P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species and in this review the authors summarize genetic diversity as it relates to pathogenicity in P. gingivalis. Recent studies revealing a variety of mechanisms by which adaptive changes in genetic content can occur are also reviewed. Understanding the genetic plasticity of P. gingivalis will provide a better framework for understanding the host–microbe interactions associated with periodontal disease. PMID:23642116

  15. Gold nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions: assessment of safety and biological identity for nanomedicine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correard F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florian Correard,1,2 Ksenia Maximova,3 Marie-Anne Estève,1,2 Claude Villard,1 Myriam Roy,4 Ahmed Al-Kattan,3 Marc Sentis,3 Marc Gingras,4 Andrei V Kabashin,3 Diane Braguer1,2 1Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, CR02 UMR_S911, Marseille, France; 2APHM, Hôpital Timone, Marseille, France; 3Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, Marseille, France; 4Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINAM, UMR 7325 Marseille, France Abstract: Due to excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and promising optical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs are the focus of research and applications in nanomedicine. Au-NPs prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions present an essentially novel object that is unique in avoiding any residual toxic contaminant. This paper is conceived as the next step in development of laser-ablated Au-NPs for future in vivo applications. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, uptake, and biological behavior of laser-synthesized Au-NPs prepared in water or polymer solutions in human cell lines. Our results showed that laser ablation allows the obtaining of stable and monodisperse Au-NPs in water, polyethylene glycol, and dextran solutions. The three types of Au-NPs were internalized in human cell lines, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and safety of Au-NPs were demonstrated by analyzing cell survival and cell morphology. Furthermore, incubation of the three Au-NPs in serum-containing culture medium modified their physicochemical characteristics, such as the size and the charge. The composition of the protein corona adsorbed on Au-NPs was investigated by mass spectrometry. Regarding composition of complement C3 proteins and apolipoproteins, Au-NPs prepared in dextran solution appeared as a promising drug carrier. Altogether, our results revealed the safety of laser-ablated Au-NPs in human cell lines and support their use for theranostic applications. Keywords: protein

  16. Suicidal genetic elements and their use in biological containment of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Boe, Lars; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1993-01-01

    The potential risks of unintentional releases of genetically modified organisms, and the lack of predictable behavior of these in the environment, are the subject of considerable concern. This concern is accentuated in connection with the next phase of gene technology comprising deliberate releases...... are discussed: actively contained bacteria based on the introduction of controlled suicide systems, and passively contained strains based on genetic interference with their survival under environmental-stress conditions....

  17. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  18. Should We Add History of Science to Provide Nature of Science into Vietnamese Biology Textbook: A Case of Evolution and Genetics Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    History of science (HOS) plays a substantial role in the enhancement of rooted understanding in science teaching and learning. HOS of evolution and genetics has not been included in Vietnamese biology textbooks. This study aims to investigate the necessity of introducing evolution and genetics HOS into Vietnamese textbooks. A case study approach…

  19. Recovering the Genetic Identity of an Extinct-in-the-Wild Species: The Puzzling Case of the Alagoas Curassow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariellen C; Oliveira, Paulo R R; Davanço, Paulo V; Camargo, Crisley de; Laganaro, Natasha M; Azeredo, Roberto A; Simpson, James; Silveira, Luis F; Francisco, Mercival R

    2017-01-01

    The conservation of many endangered taxa relies on hybrid identification, and when hybrids become morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, the use of molecular markers can assign individual admixture levels. Here, we present the puzzling case of the extinct in the wild Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu), whose captive population descends from only three individuals. Hybridization with the Razor-billed Curassow (P. tuberosa) began more than eight generations ago, and admixture uncertainty affects the whole population. We applied an analysis framework that combined morphological diagnostic traits, Bayesian clustering analyses using 14 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA haplotypes to assess the ancestry of all individuals that were alive from 2008 to 2012. Simulated data revealed that our microsatellites could accurately assign an individual a hybrid origin until the second backcross generation, which permitted us to identify a pure group among the older, but still reproductive animals. No wild species has ever survived such a severe bottleneck, followed by hybridization, and studying the recovery capability of the selected pure Alagoas Curassow group might provide valuable insights into biological conservation theory.

  20. Recovering the Genetic Identity of an Extinct-in-the-Wild Species: The Puzzling Case of the Alagoas Curassow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariellen C Costa

    Full Text Available The conservation of many endangered taxa relies on hybrid identification, and when hybrids become morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, the use of molecular markers can assign individual admixture levels. Here, we present the puzzling case of the extinct in the wild Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu, whose captive population descends from only three individuals. Hybridization with the Razor-billed Curassow (P. tuberosa began more than eight generations ago, and admixture uncertainty affects the whole population. We applied an analysis framework that combined morphological diagnostic traits, Bayesian clustering analyses using 14 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA haplotypes to assess the ancestry of all individuals that were alive from 2008 to 2012. Simulated data revealed that our microsatellites could accurately assign an individual a hybrid origin until the second backcross generation, which permitted us to identify a pure group among the older, but still reproductive animals. No wild species has ever survived such a severe bottleneck, followed by hybridization, and studying the recovery capability of the selected pure Alagoas Curassow group might provide valuable insights into biological conservation theory.

  1. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism......Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  2. Fanconi anaemia: genetics, molecular biology, and cancer – implications for clinical management in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Chandler, K; Tischkowitz, M; Meyer, S

    2015-07-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities, cross-linker hypersensitivity and extreme cancer predisposition. With better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the disease, and improved clinical management, FA has been transformed from a life-limiting paediatric disease to an uncommon chronic condition that needs lifelong multidisciplinary management, and a paradigm condition for the understanding of the gene-environment interaction in the aetiology of congenital anomalies, haematopoiesis and cancer development. Here we review genetic, molecular and clinical aspects of FA, and discuss current controversies and future prospects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Danny R; Steeg, Patricia S; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2000-01-01

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  4. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (YongMei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); D. Anderson (Denise); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  5. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.; Justice, Anne E.; Pers, Tune H.; Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Asa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancakova, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blueher, Matthias; Bohringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Jurgen; Gronberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaeelle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Qinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Asa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Noethen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wrightl, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gadin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hypponen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Laic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramines, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Waeber, Gerard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; Maerz, Winfried; Melbve, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnu R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijri, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, Andre; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Ines; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Peeters, P; Broekmans, FJM; van Gils, CH; van der Schouw, YT; Fauser, BCJM; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Bots, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in upto 339,224

  6. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locke, A.E.; Kahali, B.; Berndt, S.I.; Justice, A.E.; Pers, T.H.; Day, F.R.; Powell, C.; Vedantam, S.; Buchkovich, M.L.; Yang, J.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Esko, T.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Kutalik, Z.; Luan, J.; Maegi, R.; Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Workalemahu, T.; Faul, J.D.; Smith, J.A.; Zhao, J.H.; Zhao, W.; Chen, J.; Fehrmann, R.; Hedman, A.K.; Karjalainen, J.; Schmidt, E.M.; Absher, D.; Amin, N.; Anderson, D.; Beekman, M.; Bolton, J.L.; Bragg-Gresham, L.; Buyske, S.; Demirkan, A.; Deng, G.; Ehret, G.B.; Feenstra, B.; Feitosa, M.F.; Fischer, K.; Goel, A.; Gong, J.; Jackson, A.U.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Lim, U.; Lotay, V.; Mangino, M.; Leach, I.M.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Medland, S.E.; Nalls, M.A.; Palmer, C.D.; Pasko, D.; Pechlivanis, S.; Peters, MJ; Prokopenko, I.; Shungin, D.; Stancakova, A.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Sung, Y.J.; Teumer, A.; Trompet, S.; van der Laan, S.W.; van Settee, J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Wang, Z.; Yengo, L.; Zhang, W.; Isaacs, A.; Albrecht, E.; Arnlov, J.; Arscott, G.M.; Attwood, A.P.; Bandinelli, S.; Barrett, A.; Bas, I.N.; Bellis, C.; Bennett, A.J.; Berne, C.; Blagieva, R.; Blueher, M.; Bohringer, S.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Boettcher, Y.; Boyd, H.A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Caspersen, I.H.; Chen, Y.I.; Clarke, R.; Daw, E.W.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Delgado, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Doney, A.S.F.; Eklund, N.; Estrada, K.; Eury, E.; Folkersen, L.; Fraser, R.M.; Garcia, M.E.; Geller, F.; Giedraitis, V.; Gigante, B.; Go, A.S.; Golay, A.; Goodall, A.H.; Gordon, S.D.; Gorski, M.; Grabe, H.; Grallert, H.; Grammer, T.B.; Graessler, J.; Gronberg, H.; Groves, C.J.; Gusto, G.; Haessler, J.; Hall, P.; Haller, T.; Hallmans, G.; Hartman, C.A.; Hassinen, M.; Hayward, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Helmer, Q.; Hengstenberg, C.; Holmen, O.; Hottenga, J.J.; James, A.L.; Jeff, J.M.; Johansson, A.; Jolley, J.; Juliusdottir, T.; Kinnunen, L.; Koenig, W.; Koskenvuo, M.; Kratzer, W.; Laitinen, J.; Lamina, C.; Leander, K.; Lee, N.R.; Lichtner, P.; Lind, L.; Lindstrom, J.; Lo, K.S.; Lobbens, S.; Lorbeer, R.; Lu, Y.; Mach, F.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahajan, A.; McArdle, W.L.; McLachlan, S.; Menni, C.; Merger, S.; Mihailov, E.; Milani, L.; Moayyeri, A.; Monda, K.L.; Morken, M.A.; Mulas, A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Musk, A.W.; Nagaraja, R.; Noethen, M.M.; Nolte, I.M.; Pilz, S.; Rayner, N.W.; Renstrom, F.; Rettig, R.; Ried, J.S.; Ripke, S.; Robertson, N.R.; Rose, L.M.; Sanna, S.; Scharnagl, H.; Scholtens, S.; Schumacher, F.R.; Scott, W.R.; Seufferlein, T.; Shi, J.; Smith, A.V.; Smolonska, J.; Stanton, A.V.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Stirrups, K.; Stringham, H.M.; Sundstrom, J.; Swertz, M.A.; Swift, A.J.; Syvanen, A.; Tan, S.; Tayo, B.O.; Thorand, B.; Thorleifsson, G.; Tyrer, J.P.; Uh, H.; Vandenput, L.; Verhulst, F.C.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Verweij, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Waite, L.L.; Warren, H.R.; Waterworth, D.; Weedon, M.N.; Wilkens, L.R.; Willenborg, C.; Wilsgaard, T.; Wojczynski, M.K.; Wong, A.; Wrightl, A.F.; Zhang, Q.; Brennan, E.P.; Choi, M.; Dastani, Z.; Drong, A.W.; Eriksson, P.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Gadin, J.R.; Gharavi, A.G.; Goddard, M.E.; Handsaker, R.E.; Huang, J.; Karpe, F.; Kathiresan, S.; Keildson, S.; Kiryluk, K.; Kubo, M.; Lee, J.; Liang, L.; Lifton, R.P.; Ma, B.; McCarroll, S.A.; McKnight, A.J.; Min, J.L.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Murabito, J.M.; Nicholson, G.; Nyholt, DR; Okada, Y.; Perry, J.R.B.; Dorajoo, R.; Reinmaa, E.; Salem, R.M.; Sandholm, N.; Scott, R.A.; Stolk, L.; Takahashi, A.; Tanaka, T.; van 't Hooft, F.M.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Westra, H.; Zheng, W.; Zondervan, K.T.; Heath, A.C.; Arveiler, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Beilby, J.; Bergman, R.N.; Blangero, J.; Bovet, P.; Campbell, H.; Caulfield, M.J.; Cesana, G.; Chakravarti, A.; Chasman, D.I.; Chines, P.S.; Collins, F.S.; Crawford, D.C.; Cupples, L.A.; Cusi, D.; Danesh, J.; de Faire, U.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Dominiczak, A.F.; Erbel, R.; Erdmann, J.; Eriksson, J.G.; Farrall, M.; Felix, S.B.; Ferrannini, E.; Ferrieres, J.; Ford, I.; Forouhi, N.G.; Forrester, T.; Franco, O.H.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Gejman, P. V.; Gieger, C.; Gottesman, O.; Gudnason, V.; Gyllensten, U.; Hall, A.S.; Harris, T.B.; Hattersley, A.T.; Hicks, A.A.; Hindorff, L.A.; Hingorani, A.D.; Hofman, A.; Homuth, G.; Hovingh, G.K.; Humphries, S.E.; Hunt, S.C.; Hypponen, E.; Illig, T.; Jacobs, K.B.; Jarvelin, M.; Joeckel, K.; Johansen, B.; Jousilahti, P.; Jukema, J.W.; Jula, A.M.; Kaprio, J.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Knekt, P.; Kooner, J.S.; Kooperberg, C.; Kovacs, P.; Kraja, A.T.; Kumari, M.; Kuusisto, J.; Lakka, T.A.; Langenberg, C.; Le Marchand, L.; Lehtimaki, T.; Lyssenko, V.; Mannisto, S.; Marette, A.; Matise, T.C.; McKenzie, C.A.; McKnight, B.; Moll, F.L.; Morris, A.D.; Morris, A.P.; Murray, J.C.; Nelis, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ong, K.K.; Madden, P.A.F.; Pasterkamp, G.; Peden, J.F.; Peters, A.; Postma, D.S.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Price, J.F.; Qi, L.; Raitakari, O.T.; Rankinen, T.; Rao, D.C.; Rice, T.K.; Ridker, P.M.; Rioux, J.D.; Ritchie, M.D.; Rudan, I.; Salomaa, V.; Samani, N.J.; Saramines, J.; Sarzynski, M.A.; Schunkert, H.; Schwarz, P.E.H.; Sever, P.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Sinisalo, J.; Stolk, R.P; Strauch, K.; Toenjes, A.; Tregouet, D.; Tremblay, A.; Tremoli, E.; Virtamo, J.; Vohl, M.; Voelker, U.; Waeber, G.; Willemsen, G.; Witteman, J.C.; Zillikens, M.C.; Adair, L.S.; Amouyel, P.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Assimes, T.L.; Bochud, M.; Boehm, B.O.; Boerwinkle, E.; Bornstein, S.R.; Bottinger, E.P.; Bouchard, C.; Cauchi, S.; Chambers, J.C.; Chanock, S.J.; Cooper, R.S.; de Bakker, P.I.W.; Dedoussis, G.; Ferrucci, L.; Franks, P.W.; Froguel, P.; Groop, L.C.; Haiman, C.A.; Hamsten, A.; Hui, J.; Hunter, D.J.; Hveem, K.; Kaplan, R.C.; Kivimaki, M.; Kuh, D; Laakso, M.; Liu, Y.; Martin, N.G.; Maerz, W.; Melbve, M.; Metspalu, A.; Moebus, S.; Munroe, P.B.; Njolstad, I.; Oostra, B.A.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Pedersen, N.L.; Perola, M.; Perusse, L.; Peters, U.; Power, C.; Quertermous, T.; Rauramaa, R.; Rivadeneira, F.; Saaristo, T.E.; Saleheen, D.; Sattar, N.; Schadt, E.E.; Schlessinger, D.; Slagboom, P.E.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.D.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.R.; Stumvoll, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Uusitupa, M.; van der Harst, P.; Walker, M.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wareham, N.J.; Watkins, H.; Weir, D.R.; Wichmann, H.-.; Wilson, J.F.; Zanen, P.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Heid, I.M.; O'Connell, J.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijri, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Franke, L.; Frayling, T.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Visscher, P. M.; Scherag, A.; Willer, C.J.; Boehnke, M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Lindgren, C.M.; Beckmann, J.S.; Barroso, I.; North, K.E.; Ingelsson, E.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Loos, R.J.F.; Speliotes, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224

  7. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Dastani, Zari; Timpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xin; Henneman, Peter; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Small, Kerrin; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Frants, Rune; Willemsvan-vanDijk, Ko; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andy; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H. Erich; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, John Brent; Willenborg, Christina; Thompson, John R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Basart, Hanneke; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Hovingh, G. Kees; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; Collins, Rory; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roberts, Robert; Schunkert, Heribert; Pattaro, Cristian; Köttgen, Anna; Garnaas, Maija; Böger, Carsten A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Smith, Albert V.; Struchalin, Maksim; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völzke, Henry; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Franke, Andre; Rettig, Rainer; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Waterworth, Dawn; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Minster, Ryan L.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Svensson, Olle; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Khaw, Kay-Tee; McCloskey, Eugene; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Wareham, Nick J.; Econs, Michael J.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Reeve, Jonathan; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lin, Shih-Yi; Müller, Gabrielle; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Willemsen, Gonneke; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Price, Jackie F.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Stanèáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Anderson, Carl A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Zheng, Wei; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Lim, Unhee; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Gong, Jian; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Heath, Andrew C.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Keyzer, Jules; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Medland, Sarah E.; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Geller, Frank; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boyd, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  8. Hybrid Deterministic Views about Genes in Biology Textbooks: A Key Problem in Genetics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Vanessa Carvalho; Joaquim, Leyla Mariane; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2012-01-01

    A major source of difficulties in promoting students' understanding of genetics lies in the presentation of gene concepts and models in an inconsistent and largely ahistorical manner, merely amalgamated in hybrid views, as if they constituted linear developments, instead of being built for different purposes and employed in specific contexts. In…

  9. Anatomy and Cell Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorder : Lessons from Human Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, Kristel T E; Huguet, Guillaume; Tastet, Julie; Bourgeron, Thomas; Burbach, J P H

    2017-01-01

    Until recently autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was regarded as a neurodevelopmental condition with unknown causes and pathogenesis. In the footsteps of the revolution of genome technologies and genetics, and with its high degree of heritability, ASD became the first neuropsychiatric disorder for

  10. Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

  11. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A; Vonk, Judith M; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Marenholz, Ingo; Tian, Chao; Hoffman, Joshua D; Helmer, Quinta; Tillander, Annika; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Rüschendorf, Franz; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Medway, Chris W; Mountjoy, Edward; Burrows, Kimberley; Hummel, Oliver; Grosche, Sarah; Brumpton, Ben M; Witte, John S; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zheng, Jie; Rodríguez, Elke; Hotze, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Revez, Joana A; Beesley, Jonathan; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bain, Lisa M; Fritsche, Lars G; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Balliu, Brunilda; Nielsen, Jonas B; Zhou, Wei; Hveem, Kristian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Løset, Mari; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Willer, Cristen J; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Thompson, Philip J; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L; Novak, Natalija; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that

  12. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome...

  13. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  14. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  15. Review of genetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, practitioners of medicine have become increasingly aware of the importance of genetics in the understanding of physical and mental health and in the management of disease. The last decades have witnessed unprecedented developments in genetics that have increased our understanding of the basic processes of heredity enormously. New techniques and understanding have provided insights directly applicable to medicine. The fundamental fact of heredity may be considered the ability of living organisms to produce offspring that resemble their parents more than others. One of the basic characteristics of the human condition is the uniqueness and diversity of all individuals. This results from their genetic individuality (with the exception of identical twins) and the interaction of the genetic constitution (the genome) with the environment, which is generally unique to the individual as well. In short, the interaction of genes with the environment is what confers biologic uniqueness to all humans

  16. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  17. The biology and potential for genetic research of transposable elements in filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fávaro,Léia Cecilia de Lima; Araújo,Welington Luiz de; Azevedo,João Lúcio de; Paccola-Meirelles,Luzia Doretto

    2005-01-01

    Recently many transposable elements have been identified and characterized in filamentous fungi, especially in species of agricultural, biotechnological and medical interest. Similar to the elements found in other eukaryotes, fungal transposons can be classified as class I elements (retrotransposons) that use RNA and reverse transcriptase and class II elements (DNA transposons) that use DNA. The changes (transposition and recombination) caused by transposons can supply wide-ranging genetic va...

  18. Cryptosporidium,Giardia, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis genetic variability: cryptic biological species or clonal near-clades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tibayrenc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal evolution (PCE recently proposed by us. In spite of the considerable phylogenetic diversity that exists among these pathogens, we have found striking similarities among them. The two main PCE features described by us, namely highly significant linkage disequilibrium and near-clading (stable phylogenetic clustering clouded by occasional recombination, are clearly observed in Cryptococcus and Giardia, and more limited indication of them is also present in Cryptosporidium and Pneumocystis. Moreover, in several cases, these features still obtain when the near-clades that subdivide the species are analyzed separately ("Russian doll pattern". Lastly, several sets of data undermine the notion that certain microbes form clonal lineages simply owing to a lack of opportunity to outcross due to low transmission rates leading to lack of multiclonal infections ("starving sex hypothesis". We propose that the divergent taxonomic and population genetic inferences advanced by various authors about these pathogens may not correspond to true evolutionary differences and could be, rather, the reflection of idiosyncratic practices among compartmentalized scientific communities. The PCE model provides an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and applied research dealing with these pathogens and others, such as viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoa, and fungi.

  19. Commercialization of genetic testing services: the FDA, market forces, and biological tarot cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, M J; Blatt, R J R

    1997-03-01

    Many women fear being diagnosed with breast cancer, and rightfully so. Despite the capabilities of modern medicine, the cumulative lifetime risk of getting the disease has risen to one in eight and, despite decades of research, no cures exist. In this Article, the authors explore the commercialization of so-called breast cancer gene tests, based upon genetic alterations linked to the disease. Although the authors fully address this specific technology, they use what constitutes the seminal case of predictive genetic testing to analyze the adequacy of the existing regulatory framework. The authors conclude that the present regulatory system is inadequate and places a dangerous amount of reliance on primary care physicians. Their conclusion is grounded in the observation that most primary care physicians lack sufficient knowledge about this evolving investigative technology--which is highly subject to misinterpretation, and, though potentially helpful to some "high risk" patients, offers questionable clinical value for the general public. The authors set forth numerous proposals to promote both the quality and clinical value of predictive genetic testing so that it conforms to public health standards and can be properly integrated as a reliable component of medical care in specific situations.

  20. Aging and Identity: Meanings of Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey that focus on reflections on the construction of identity in elderly women. Interviews were conducted by semi-structured form with six elderly women and the data were analyzed based on the Comprehensive Review of Phenomenological Base. Not reduce the subject to biological, genetic, social allows us to develop these projects and achievements in this time of life where the experience can lead to a better well-being and quality of life.

  1. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  2. Genetic relationship and biological status of the industrially important yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus Sampaio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S. bayanus var. bayanus and S. bayanus var. uvarum. The genetic data presented indicate that all of the three taxa belong to the same species.

  3. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169-e174. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  5. Leadership identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Questioning the assumption that identities can be controlled through a shared organisational culture, the article explores the inculcation of a discourse of diversity into leadership identities in a Danish bank and building society. Thus, it intends to demonstrate that, on the one hand, discourse...... plays a significant role in identity construction and, on the other, that leaders’ constructions may have many sources of inspiration within and outside the organisation, emphasising that identity construction is a complex process in which organisational efforts to promote a common leadership identity...... to construct their leadership identities. While the respondents present comparable identities to the interviewer, the analysis reveals that the they draw on different discourses and employ a number of different discursive means to present this identity. This, the article argues, may be the result of a number...

  6. The biotechnology (genetic transformation and molecular biology) of Bixa orellana L. (achiote).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit; Rivera-Madrid, Renata

    2018-05-10

    Genetic transformation allows for greater bixin or norbixin production in achiote. Knowledge of genes that control the biosynthesis of these important secondary metabolites will allow for targeted amplification in transgenic plants. Annatto is a natural dye or coloring agent derived from the seeds, or their arils, of achiote (Bixa orellana L.), and is commercially known as E160b. The main active component of annatto dye is water-insoluble bixin, although water-soluble norbixin also has commercial applications. Relative to other antioxidants, bixin is light- and temperature stable and is thus safe for human consumption. Bixin is, therefore, widely applied as a dye and as an antioxidant in the medico-pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and dye industries. Even though bixin has also been isolated from leaves and bark, yield is lower than from seeds. More biotechnology-based research of this industrial and medicinal plant is needed. Building on provisional genetic transformation studies, it would be advantageous to transform genes that could result in greater bixin or norbixin production. Reliable protocols for the extraction of bixin and norbixin, as well as deeper knowledge of the genes that control the biosynthesis of these important secondary metabolites will allow for targeted amplification in transgenic plants.

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg Henrik

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

  8. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  9. Ternutator identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Fairlie, David; Nuyts, Jean; Weingart, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The ternary commutator or ternutator, defined as the alternating sum of the product of three operators, has recently drawn much attention as an interesting structure generalizing the commutator. The ternutator satisfies cubic identities analogous to the quadratic Jacobi identity for the commutator. We present various forms of these identities and discuss the possibility of using them to define ternary algebras.

  10. Draft genome of the medaka fish: a comprehensive resource for medaka developmental genetics and vertebrate evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-01

    The medaka Oryzias latipes is a small egg-laying freshwater teleost, and has become an excellent model system for developmental genetics and evolutionary biology. The medaka genome is relatively small in size, approximately 800 Mb, and the genome sequencing project was recently completed by Japanese research groups, providing a high-quality draft genome sequence of the inbred Hd-rR strain of medaka. In this review, I present an overview of the medaka genome project including genome resources, followed by specific findings obtained with the medaka draft genome. In particular, I focus on the analysis that was done by taking advantage of the medaka system, such as the sex chromosome differentiation and the regional history of medaka species using single nucleotide polymorphisms as genomic markers.

  11. Genetic background and 227Thorium as risk factors in biologically based models for induction of bone cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, W.F.; Rosemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the potential for the biologically based two-stage clonal expansion model to make statements about the influence of genetic factors on the steps in the model. We find evidence that the different susceptibility of BALB/C and CBA/Ca mice to bone cancer after 227 Thorium injection may be mostly due to different promotional responses to radiation. In BALB/C x CBA/Ca back-crossed mice, we analyzed the specific contribution of two individual loci in the carcinogenic process. This analysis suggests that the two high- or low-risk alleles are acting on promotion or on the background parameters, but not on radiation-induced initiation. Taken together with the comparison of CBA/Ca and BALB/C mice, this hints at the possibility that the two loci are candidates for modifying radiation-induced promotion. (orig.)

  12. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  13. Reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Vamizi island, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Rita; Santos, Camila; Lopes, Cardoso; Moreira, Helena; Souto, Luis; Ferrão, Jorge; Garnier, Julie; Pereira, Mário J

    2014-01-01

    Vamizi, an Island located in the Western Indian Ocean, is visited by a small and not fully characterized green turtle (Chelonia mydas (L.)) population. This population is threatened by natural hazards and several human activities, which are used to identify conservation priorities for marine turtles. It was our aim to contribute to the knowledge of marine turtles that nest in Vamizi, with respect to its regional management, and to an area that may possibly be included on the UNESCO World Heritage List due to its potential Outstanding Universal Value. Here, we evaluate the nesting parameters (incubation period, clutch size, hatching and emergence successes rates) and patterns over an 8-year (2003 - 2010) conservation program. We also present the results of genetic diversity based on the analysis of approximately an 850 pb fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. We found that Vamizi beaches host a small number of nesting females, approximately 52 per year, but these have shown a reduction in their length. High hatching success (88.5 ± SD 17.2%, N = 649), emergence success rates (84.5 ± SD 20.4%, N = 649) were observed, and genetic diversity (N = 135), with 11 haplotypes found (7 new). It was also observed, in the later years of this study, a reduction in the incubation period, a dislocation of the nesting peak activity and an increase in the number of flooded nests and an increase of the number of nests in areas with lower human activity. Some resilience and behavioral plasticity seems to occur regarding human territory occupancy and climate changes. However, regardless of the results, aspects like what seems to be the reduction of some cohorts, the number of flooded nests and the diminishing of the incubation period (East and South facing beaches), show that conservation efforts have to be improved.

  14. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: New Insights From Epidemiology, Genetics, and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-02-19

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need to reduce levels to no advice on treatment. New insight in epidemiology now suggests that these lipoproteins, marked by high triglycerides, are strong and independent predictors of ASCVD and all-cause mortality, and that their cholesterol content or remnant cholesterol likewise are strong predictors of ASCVD. Of all adults, 27% have triglycerides >2 mmol/L (176 mg/dL), and 21% have remnant cholesterol >1 mmol/L (39 mg/dL). For individuals in the general population with nonfasting triglycerides of 6.6 mmol/L (580 mg/dL) compared with individuals with levels of 0.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), the risks were 5.1-fold for myocardial infarction, 3.2-fold for ischemic heart disease, 3.2-fold for ischemic stroke, and 2.2-fold for all-cause mortality. Also, genetic studies using the Mendelian randomization design, an approach that minimizes problems with confounding and reverse causation, now demonstrate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with ASCVD and all-cause mortality. Finally, genetic evidence also demonstrates that high concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with low-grade inflammation. This suggests that an important part of inflammation in atherosclerosis and ASCVD is because of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein degradation and uptake into macrophage foam cells in the arterial intima. Taken together, new insights now strongly suggest that elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins represent causal risk factors for low-grade inflammation, ASCVD, and all-cause mortality. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Leitner, Thomas; Laurén, Anna; Karlsson, Ingrid; Pastore, Angela; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.

  16. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  17. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Rehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; Naguib, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  18. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  19. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab M. Hafez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  20. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-02

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.

  1. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul De Barro

    the available genetic diversity.

  2. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  3. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  4. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  5. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus...... as a contribution to the body of literature of ANT-based studies. Second, it contributes to existing identity theories by exemplifying a socio-material approach to identity issues. Third, the study enables reflections upon how educational institutions as fundamentally identity-producing organisations acknowledge...

  6. Somatic cell genetics of uranium miners and plutonium workers. A biological dose-response indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandom, W.F.; Bloom, A.D.; Bistline, R.W.; Saccomanno, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two populations of underground uranium miners and plutonium workers work in the state of Colorado, United States of America. We have explored the prevalence of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a possible biological indicator of absorbed radiation late-effects in these populations. The uranium miners are divided into four exposure groups expressed in Working Level Months (WLM), the plutonium workers into six groups with estimated 239 Pu burdens expressed in nCi. Comparison of chromosome aberration frequency data between controls, miners, and plutonium workers demonstrate: (1) a cytogenetic response to occupational ionizing radiation at low estimated doses; and (2) an increasing monotonic dose-response in the prevalence of complex (all exchange) or total aberrations in all exposure groups in these populations. We also compared trends in the prevalence of aberrations per exposure unit (WLM and nCi) in each exposure subgroup for each population. In the uranium miners, the effects per WLM seem to decrease monotonically with increasing dose, whereas in the Pu workers the change per nCi appears abrupt, with all exposure groups over 1.3 nCi (minimum detectable level) having essentially similar rates. The calculations of aberrations per respective current maximum permissible dose (120 WLM and 40 nCi) for the two populations yield 4.8 X 10 -2 /100 cells for uranium miners and 90.6 X 10 -2 /100 cells for Pu workers. Factors which may have influenced this apparent 20-fold increase in the effectiveness of plutonium in the production of complex aberrations (9-fold increase in total aberrations) are discussed. (author)

  7. Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Whakapapa, genealogy and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald

    2012-05-01

    This paper provides part of an analysis of the use of the Maori term whakapapa in a study designed to test the compatibility and commensurability of views of members of the indigenous culture of New Zealand with other views of genetic technologies extant in the country. It is concerned with the narrow sense of whakapapa as denoting biological ancestry, leaving the wider sense of whakapapa as denoting cultural identity for discussion elsewhere. The phenomenon of genetic curiosity is employed to facilitate this comparison. Four levels of curiosity are identified, in the Maori data, which penetrate more or less deeply into the psyche of individuals, affecting their health and wellbeing. These phenomena are compared with non-Maori experiences and considerable commonalities are discovered together with a point of marked difference. The results raise important questions for the ethical application of genetic technologies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Development Genetic Analysis of General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 12 Years in a Sample of Adoptees, Biological Siblings, and Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, E. G.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin; Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied continuity and change in general cognitive ability from infancy to adolescence in adoptees (107 children), biological siblings (87 pairs), and twins (224 monozygotic and 189 dyzygotic pairs). Findings generally support previous findings about genetic and environmental factors, with the exception that in the transition to adolescence,…

  10. Promoting Self-Directed Learning in Developing or Poorly Defined Subject Areas: A Problem-Based Course in Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    A new problem-based course in molecular biology, genetics, and cancer for first-year veterinary students was developed at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University (New York). The course was developed out of a desire to foster student-centered and lifelong learning and to integrate basic and clinical science knowledge despite a lack…

  11. "I don't have to know why it snows, I just have to shovel it!": Addiction Recovery, Genetic Frameworks, and Biological Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny; Heaney, Kathleen; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    The gene has infiltrated the way citizens perceive themselves and their health. However, there is scant research that explores the ways genetic conceptions infiltrate individuals' understanding of their own health as it relates to a behavioral trait, like addiction. Do people seeking treatment for addiction ground their self-perception in biology in a way that shapes their experiences? We interviewed 63 participants in addiction treatment programs, asking how they make meaning of a genetic understanding of addiction in the context of their recovery, and in dealing with the stigma of addiction. About two-thirds of people in our sample did not find a genetic conception of addiction personally useful to them in treatment, instead believing that the cause was irrelevant to their daily struggle to remain abstinent. One-third of respondents believed that an individualized confirmation of a genetic predisposition to addiction would facilitate their dealing with feelings of shame and accept treatment. The vast majority of our sample believed that a genetic understanding of addiction would reduce the stigma associated with addiction, which demonstrates the perceived power of genetic explanations in U.S. society. Our results indicate that respondents (unevenly) ground their self-perception of themselves as an addicted individual in biology.

  12. “I don't have to know why it snows, I just have to shovel it!”: Addiction Recovery, Genetic Frameworks, and Biological Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny; Heaney, Kathleen; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The gene has infiltrated the way citizens perceive themselves and their health. However, there is scant research that explores the ways genetic conceptions infiltrate individuals’ understanding of their own health as it relates to a behavioral trait, like addiction. Do people seeking treatment for addiction ground their self-perception in biology in a way that shapes their experiences? We interviewed 63 participants in addiction treatment programs, asking how they make meaning of a genetic understanding of addiction in the context of their recovery, and in dealing with the stigma of addiction. About two-thirds of people in our sample did not find a genetic conception of addiction personally useful to them in treatment, instead believing that the cause was irrelevant to their daily struggle to remain abstinent. One-third of respondents believed that an individualized confirmation of a genetic predisposition to addiction would facilitate their dealing with feelings of shame and accept treatment. The vast majority of our sample believed that a genetic understanding of addiction would reduce the stigma associated with addiction, which demonstrates the perceived power of genetic explanations in U.S. society. Our results indicate that respondents (unevenly) ground their self-perception of themselves as an addicted individual in biology. PMID:29552089

  13. Social identities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Jensen, Mette; Kaltoft, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Expert-based environmental and health risk regulation is widely believed to suffer from a lack of public understanding and legitimacy. On controversial issues such as genetically modified organisms and food-related chemicals, a "lay-expert discrepancy" in the assessment of risks is clearly visible...... of social identities. On the basis of qualitative interviews with citizens and experts, respectively, we focus on the multiple ways in which identities come to be employed in actors' risk accounts. Empirically, we identify salient characteristics of "typical" imagined experts and lay-people, while arguing...

  14. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  15. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  16. Ritual Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Rituals are often used as opportunities for self-reflection and identity construction. The Camino to Santiago de Compostela, which has become a singularly popular pilgrimage since the late 1980s, is an example of a ritual that is explicitly used to gain a deeper understanding of one’s identity

  17. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  18. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...

  19. Differentially expressed genes distributed over chromosomes and implicated in certain biological processes for site insertion genetically modified rice Kemingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Yunhe; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Xiuping; Jian, Guiliang; Peng, Yufa; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Release of genetically modified (GM) plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD) rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11). The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  20. Fashioning Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    We dress to communicate who we are, or who we would like others to think we are, telling seductive fashion narratives through our adornment. Yet, today, fashion has been democratized through high-low collaborations, social media and real-time fashion mediation, complicating the basic dynamic...... of identity displays, and creating tension between personal statements and social performances. Fashioning Identity explores how this tension is performed through fashion production and consumption,by examining a diverse series of case studies - from ninety-year old fashion icons to the paradoxical rebellion...... by readdressing Fred Davis' seminal concept of 'identity ambivalence' in Fashion, Culture and Identity (1992), Mackinney-Valentin argues that we are in an epoch of 'status ambivalence', in which fashioning one's own identity has become increasingly complicated....

  1. The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario

    2018-05-15

    Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Efficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in the treatment of uveitis associated with rheumatic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Neroyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of incorporating genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs into a combination treatment regimen for rheumatic diseases (RD (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behcet's disease in relation to associated uveitis of varying severity was studied in 92 children aged 2 to 17 years. The follow-up lasted 1.5 to 49 months. Twenty-three patients took consecutively 2 to 5 GEBAs. When infliximab was used, remission of uveitis occurred in 21% of 38 children and the disease activity and/or recurrence rates reduced in an additional 21%. These were in 45 and 38.6% of 44 patients on adalimumab (ADA and in 27.8 and 27.8% of 18 patients on abatacept, respectively. There was an association of the efficiency of therapy with the severity of uveitis at the start of treatment. The use of ADA induced a steady remission of panuveitis resistant to therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in both patients with Behcet's disease. One of 4 rituximab-treated patients achieved a steady remission. Tocilizumab therapy caused an exacerbation of uveitis in 1 patient. The postoperative period showed no inflammatory complications in most cases (37 operations, 26 eyes, 20 patients. No local adverse reactions were seen; systemic reactions occurred in 14% of the patients, this caused GEBAs to be discontinued in 7%. There is evidence for a need for further investigations into the efficacy of GEBAs in RD-associated uveitis in children in order to define success criteria, differentiated indications, and therapy regimens.

  3. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is routinely involved in the forensic investigation of CBCs in the Netherlands. Reliable DNA profiles were frequently obtained from CBCs and used to match suspects, victims, or other crime scene-related DNA traces. In this paper, we describe the sensitive method developed by us to extract DNA from CBCs. Using PCR-based genotyping of autosomal short tandem repeats, we were able to obtain reliable and reproducible DNA profiles in 163 out of 616 criminal cases (26.5%) and in 283 out of 4,085 individual CBC items (6.9%) during the period January 2003-December 2009. We discuss practical aspects of the method and the sometimes unexpected effects of using cell lysis buffer on the subsequent investigation of striation patterns on CBCs.

  4. Identity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with its implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user’s privacy when completed traceability is enforced and some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  5. Identity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, A [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN.

  6. Identity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  7. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  8. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines; Genetische Determination der biologischen Strahlenantwort in Mausinzuchtstaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim (Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene

    2000-07-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy {gamma}-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [German] Die phaenotypische Variation der Strahlensensitivitaet und

  9. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  10. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  11. NeuroChip: a microfluidic electrophysiological device for genetic and chemical biology screening of Caenorhabditis elegans adult and larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Hu

    Full Text Available Genetic and chemical biology screens of C. elegans have been of enormous benefit in providing fundamental insight into neural function and neuroactive drugs. Recently the exploitation of microfluidic devices has added greater power to this experimental approach providing more discrete and higher throughput phenotypic analysis of neural systems. Here we make a significant addition to this repertoire through the design of a semi-automated microfluidic device, NeuroChip, which has been optimised for selecting worms based on the electrophysiological features of the pharyngeal neural network. We demonstrate this device has the capability to sort mutant from wild-type worms based on high definition extracellular electrophysiological recordings. NeuroChip resolves discrete differences in excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory components of the neural network from individual animals. Worms may be fed into the device consecutively from a reservoir and recovered unharmed. It combines microfluidics with integrated electrode recording for sequential trapping, restraining, recording, releasing and recovering of C. elegans. Thus mutant worms may be selected, recovered and propagated enabling mutagenesis screens based on an electrophysiological phenotype. Drugs may be rapidly applied during the recording thus permitting compound screening. For toxicology, this analysis can provide a precise description of sub-lethal effects on neural function. The chamber has been modified to accommodate L2 larval stages showing applicability for small size nematodes including parasitic species which otherwise are not tractable to this experimental approach. We also combine NeuroChip with optogenetics for targeted interrogation of the function of the neural circuit. NeuroChip thus adds a new tool for exploitation of C. elegans and has applications in neurogenetics, drug discovery and neurotoxicology.

  12. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  13. Multivariate analysis and determination of the best indirect selection criteria to genetic improvement the biological nitrogen fixation ability in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Reza Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of biological nitrogen fixation, sixty four common bean genotypes were cultivated in two randomized complete block design. Genotypes were inoculated with bacteria Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 only in one of the experiments. The second experiment was considered as check for the first. Correlation analysis showed positive and highly significant correlation of majority of the traits with percent of nitrogen fixation. Step-wise regression designated that traits percent of total nitrogen of shoot, number of nodule per plant and biological yield accounted for 92.3 percent of variation exist in percent of nitrogen fixation. Path analysis indicated that these traits have direct and positive effect on percent of nitrogen fixation. Hence, these traits are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes especially in early generations.

  14. Knowlege of, attitudes toward, and acceptance of genetically modified organisms among prospective teachers of biology, home economics, and grade school in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed. Copyright © 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The Poitiers School of Mathematical and Theoretical Biology: Besson-Gavaudan-Schützenberger's Conjectures on Genetic Code and RNA Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, J; Hazgui, H

    2016-12-01

    The French school of theoretical biology has been mainly initiated in Poitiers during the sixties by scientists like J. Besson, G. Bouligand, P. Gavaudan, M. P. Schützenberger and R. Thom, launching many new research domains on the fractal dimension, the combinatorial properties of the genetic code and related amino-acids as well as on the genetic regulation of the biological processes. Presently, the biological science knows that RNA molecules are often involved in the regulation of complex genetic networks as effectors, e.g., activators (small RNAs as transcription factors), inhibitors (micro-RNAs) or hybrids (circular RNAs). Examples of such networks will be given showing that (1) there exist RNA "relics" that have played an important role during evolution and have survived in many genomes, whose probability distribution of their sub-sequences is quantified by the Shannon entropy, and (2) the robustness of the dynamics of the networks they regulate can be characterized by the Kolmogorov-Sinaï dynamic entropy and attractor entropy.

  16. 21 CFR 610.14 - Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity. 610.14 Section 610.14 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.14 Identity. The contents of a final container of each filling of each lot shall be tested for identity after all labeling operations shall have been completed...

  17. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A most comprehensive investigation is in progress at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to study the late biological effects of whole-body exposure to gamma irradiation as they may be influenced by total dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic background. Strain C57B1/6J mice of four age groups (newborn, 2, 6 and l5 months) were given five doses (20, 60, 180, 540, and 1620 rads) of gamma rays, with each dose being delivered at six dose rates (0.7, 2.1, 6.3, 18.9, 56.7 rads/day and 25 rads/min). Forty to sixty mice were used in each of the approximately 119 dose/dose-rate and age combinations. The study was done in two replications with an equal number of mice per replicaton. Strain RF/J mice were used in a companion study to investigate the influence of genetic background on the type and magnitude of effect. Results of the first and second replications of the l5-month-old age group and data on the influence of genetic background on biological response have been completed, and the results show no significant life shortening within the dose and dose-rate range used. It was also concluded that radiaton-induced neoplastic transformaton was significantly greater in mice with a known genetic sensitivity to neoplastic disease than in mammals which do not normally have a significant incidence of tumours. (author)

  18. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  19. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  20. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  1. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  2. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  3. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  4. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  5. The biology of human psychosexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis

    2006-11-01

    Most attempts to identify biological underpinnings of gender identity and sexual orientation in humans have investigated effects of sex steroids, so pivotal in the differentiation of the genitalia, showing strong parallels between animals and the human. The information on humans is derived from the so-called 'experiments of nature', clinical entities with a lesser-than-normal androgen exposure in XY subjects and a higher than normal androgen exposure in XX subjects. Prenatal androgenization appears to predispose to a male gender identity development, but apparently not decisively since 40-50% of 46,XY intersexed children with a history of prenatal androgen exposure do not develop a male gender identity. Obviously, male-to-female transsexuals, with a normal androgen exposure prenatally (there is no serious evidence to the contrary) develop a female gender identity, through unknown biological mechanisms apparently overriding the effects of prenatal androgens. The latest studies in 46, XX subjects exposed to prenatal androgens show that prenatal androgenization of 46,XX fetuses leads to marked masculinization of later gender-related behavior but does not lead to gender confusion/dysphoria. The example of female-to-male transsexuals, without evidence of prenatal androgen exposure, indicates that a male gender identity can develop without a significant androgen stimulus. So we are far away from any comprehensive understanding of hormonal imprinting on gender identity formation. Brain studies in homosexuals have not held up in replication studies or are in need of replication in transsexuals. Genetic studies and the fraternal birth order hypothesis provide indications of familial clustering of homosexuality but in many homosexuals these genetic patterns cannot be identified. The biological explanations advanced for the birth order hypothesis lack any experimental support.

  6. Genetic identity and diversity of Nigerian cacao genebank collections verified by Single Nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): A guide to field genebank management and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigeria is the fourth largest cacao producer in the world. Field performance and quality of cacao hybrid families is largely dependent on the genetic integrity of parental clones obtained from field genebank collections. However, information on the impact of mislabeling on seed garden output and ger...

  7. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  8. Molecular Cloning Designer Simulator (MCDS: All-in-one molecular cloning and genetic engineering design, simulation and management software for complex synthetic biology and metabolic engineering projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Cloning Designer Simulator (MCDS is a powerful new all-in-one cloning and genetic engineering design, simulation and management software platform developed for complex synthetic biology and metabolic engineering projects. In addition to standard functions, it has a number of features that are either unique, or are not found in combination in any one software package: (1 it has a novel interactive flow-chart user interface for complex multi-step processes, allowing an integrated overview of the whole project; (2 it can perform a user-defined workflow of cloning steps in a single execution of the software; (3 it can handle multiple types of genetic recombineering, a technique that is rapidly replacing classical cloning for many applications; (4 it includes experimental information to conveniently guide wet lab work; and (5 it can store results and comments to allow the tracking and management of the whole project in one platform. MCDS is freely available from https://mcds.codeplex.com. Keywords: BioCAD, Genetic engineering software, Molecular cloning software, Synthetic biology, Workflow simulation and management

  9. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure, and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A most comprehensive investigation is in progress at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to study the late biological effects of whole-body exposure to gamma irradiation as they may be influenced by total dose, dose rate, age at exposure, and genetic background. Strain C57B1/6J mice of four age groups (newborn, 2, 6, and 15 months) were given five doses (20, 60, 180, 540, and 1620 rad) of gamma rays, with each dose being delivered at six dose rates (0.7, 2.1, 6.3, 18.9, 56.7 rad/day and 25 rad/min). Forty to sixty mice were used in each of the approximately 110 dose/dose-rate and age combinations. The study was done in two replications with an equal number of mice per replication. Strain RF/J mice were used in a companion study to investigate the influence of genetic background on the type and magnitude of effect. Results of the first and second replications of the 15-month-old age group and data on the influence of genetic background on biological response have been completed, and the results show no significant life shortening within the dose and dose-rate range used

  10. An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' laboratory of molecular biology in Ghent, from genetic code to gene and genome, 1963-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrel, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at the bench than DNA due to the availability of specific RNases, enzymes used as chemical tools to analyse RNA. Finally, RNA phages provided scientists with a pure source of mRNA to investigate the genetic code, genes and even a genome sequence. This paper focuses on Walter Fiers' laboratory at Ghent University (Belgium) and their work on the RNA phage MS2. When setting up his Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Fiers planned a comprehensive study of the virus with a strong emphasis on the issue of structure. In his lab, RNA sequencing, now a little-known technique, evolved gradually from a means to solve the genetic code, to a tool for completing the first genome sequence. Thus, I follow the research pathway of Fiers and his 'RNA phage lab' with their evolving experimental system from 1960 to the late 1970s. This study illuminates two decisive shifts in post-war biology: the emergence of molecular biology as a discipline in the 1960s in Europe and of genomics in the 1990s.

  11. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  12. How to measure genetic heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Genetic information of organisms is coded as a string of four letters, A, T, G and C, a sequence in macromolecules called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA sequence offers blueprint of organisms and its heterogeneity determines identity and variation of species. The quantitation of this genetic heterogeneity is fundamental to understand biology. We compared previously-reported three measures, covariance matrix expression of list of loci (pair-wise r 2 ), the most popular index in genetics, and its multi-dimensional form, Ψ, and entropy-based index, ε. Thereafter we proposed two methods so that we could handle the diplotypic heterogeneity and quantitate the conditions where the number of DNA sequence samples is much smaller than the number of possible variants.

  13. Participation in a Year-Long CURE Embedded into Major Core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory Courses Results in Gains in Foundational Biological Concepts and Experimental Design Skills by Novice Undergraduate Researchers†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A.; Marcello, Matthew R.; Crispo, Erika; Buraei, Zafir; Strahs, Daniel; Isaacson, Marisa; Jaworski, Leslie; Lopatto, David; Zuzga, David

    2017-01-01

    This two-year study describes the assessment of student learning gains arising from participation in a year-long curriculum consisting of a classroom undergraduate research experience (CURE) embedded into second-year, major core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology (CMB) laboratory courses. For the first course in our CURE, students used micro-array or RNAseq analyses to identify genes important for environmental stress responses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The students were tasked with creating overexpressing mutants of their genes and designing their own original experiments to investigate the functions of those genes using the overexpression and null mutants in the second CURE course. In order to evaluate student learning gains, we employed three validated concept inventories in a pretest/posttest format and compared gains on the posttest versus the pretest with student laboratory final grades. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory for both years of this study and gains on the Genetics Concept Assessment (GCA). We also demonstrated a correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory and gains on the Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) for year 1 of the study. Students furthermore demonstrated significant gains in identifying the variable properties of experimental subjects when assessed using the Rubric for Experimental (RED) design tool. Results from the administration of the CURE survey support these findings. Our results suggest that a year-long CURE enables lower performing students to experience greater gains in their foundational skills for success in the STEM disciplines. PMID:28904646

  14. Historical and biological determinants of genetic diversity in the highly endemic triploid sea lavender Limonium dufourii (Plumbaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palop-Esteban, M; Segarra-Moragues, J G; González-Candelas, F

    2007-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in the critically endangered Limonium dufourii (Plumbaginaceae), a highly endemic triploid species from the coasts of eastern Spain. Sixty-five alleles from 13 microsatellite regions were amplified in a sample of 122 individuals collected from the six extant populations. Microsatellite patterns were consistent with the triploid nature of L. dufourii. Alleles were unambiguously assigned to two different parental subgenomes in this hybrid species and the greater contribution of the diploid parental subgenome was confirmed. Eleven, 25 and 26 multilocus genotypes were recorded from the haploid, diploid and from the combined information of both subgenomes, respectively. Genetic diversity was mostly distributed among populations (72.06% of the total genetic variation). Genotypes from Marjal del Moro populations grouped into two highly structured clusters (88.41% of the total variance). The observed patterns of distribution of genetic diversity are interpreted to result from multiple hybridization events and isolation between populations. Threats to this species are mainly anthropogenic (urbanization and tourism pressure), although stochastic risks cannot be ignored. Therefore, in order to preserve extant genetic variation of L. dufourii, in situ strategies such as the preservation of its habitat are a high priority. Several recommendations in order to assist ex situ measures to guarantee the success of conservation strategies and maintain the relationships between individuals and populations are proposed.

  15. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    pathogenic or vaccine evading PRRSV strain had emerged in Denmark. The overall aim of the present study was to perform a genetic and biological characterization of the virus isolated from the diseased herd. Complete genome sequencing of isolates from this herd revealed that although the case strain had some...... in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more...... unique genetic features including a deduced 3 amino acid deletion, it was in overall very similar to the other PRRS-2 viruses circulating in Denmark. In an experimental trial in growing pigs, no overt clinical signs or pathology were observed following intranasal inoculation with the new virus isolate...

  16. Modeling biology with HDL languages: a first step toward a genetic design automation tool inspired from microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrault, Yves; Madec, Morgan; Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, synthetic biology is a hot research topic. Each day, progresses are made to improve the complexity of artificial biological functions in order to tend to complex biodevices and biosystems. Up to now, these systems are handmade by bioengineers, which require strong technical skills and leads to nonreusable development. Besides, scientific fields that share the same design approach, such as microelectronics, have already overcome several issues and designers succeed in building extremely complex systems with many evolved functions. On the other hand, in systems engineering and more specifically in microelectronics, the development of the domain has been promoted by both the improvement of technological processes and electronic design automation tools. The work presented in this paper paves the way for the adaptation of microelectronics design tools to synthetic biology. Considering the similarities and differences between the synthetic biology and microelectronics, the milestones of this adaptation are described. The first one concerns the modeling of biological mechanisms. To do so, a new formalism is proposed, based on an extension of the generalized Kirchhoff laws to biology. This way, a description of all biological mechanisms can be made with languages widely used in microelectronics. Our approach is therefore successfully validated on specific examples drawn from the literature.

  17. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  18. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand...... their organization (sensemaking effect) and the gratification they derive from its positive representation (self-enhancement effect). Our findings suggest that positive media representations foster members' alignment around an emergent new understanding of what their organization is. Over time, however, celebrity...

  19. Unravelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The decision to go to war by the government of the day is assumed to be a decision taken on behalf of all citizens of the nation, conceived as a collective united by a harmony of interests. Yet in the case of the Iraq War, there is clearly no unified voice of support from the British people. There is division between the state and its citizens, and the latter also reflect the multilayered identities of an increasingly multicultural society. How do individuals displaying mu...

  20. StochPy: A Comprehensive, User-Friendly Tool for Simulating Stochastic Biological Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Maarleveld (Timo); B.G. Olivier (Brett); F.J. Bruggeman (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractSingle-cell and single-molecule measurements indicate the importance of stochastic phenomena in cell biology. Stochasticity creates spontaneous differences in the copy numbers of key macromolecules and the timing of reaction events between genetically-identical cells. Mathematical models

  1. Dissecting functions of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and the related pocket proteins by integrating genetic, cell biology, and electrophoretic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Lukas, J; Holm, K

    1999-01-01

    The members of the 'pocket protein' family, comprising the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB) and its relatives, p107 and p130, negatively regulate cell proliferation and modulate fundamental biological processes including embryonic development, differentiation, homeostatic tissue renewal...

  2. Epigenetic control of cell identity and plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Orlando, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    The DNA centered dogma for genetic information and cell identity is now evolving into a much more complex and flexible dimension provided by the discovery of the Epigenome. This comprises those chromosome structural and topological components

  3. Informing a Learning Progression in Genetics: Which Should Be Taught First, Mendelian Inheritance or the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ravit Golan; Castro-Faix, Moraima; Choi, Jinnie

    2016-01-01

    The Framework for Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards in the USA emphasize learning progressions (LPs) that support conceptual coherence and the gradual building of knowledge over time. In the domain of genetics there are two independently developed alternative LPs. In essence, the difference between the two progressions…

  4. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burrows

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR, determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  5. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R; Correa-Burrows, P; Reyes, M; Blanco, E; Albala, C; Gahagan, S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR), determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM) was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria) using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  6. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may...... adverse effects to biological diversity. The approach starts by (1) identifying the local environmental values so the ERA addresses specific concerns associated with local biological diversity. The model simplifies the indicator endpoint selection problem by (2) classifying biological diversity...... be species or ecological processes. MCDA focuses on those species and processes that are critical for the identified ecological functions and are likely to be highly exposed to the GE organism. The highest ranked indicator entities are selected for the next step. (5) Relevant risk hypotheses are identified...

  7. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  8. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  9. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of

  10. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  11. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trigo Pedroso Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  12. Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Trigo Pedroso; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal; Campos, Angelica Cristine Almeida; Bosso, Patricia Alves; Lima, Hildener Nogueira; Stewien, Klaus Eberhard; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.

  13. DNA barcoding based on plastid matK and RNA polymerase for assessing the genetic identity of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, M R; Ahamed, A

    2014-02-14

    The cultivated date palm is the most agriculturally important species of the Arecaceae family. The standard chloroplast DNA barcode for land plants recommended by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life plant working group needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. Therefore, we assessed the potential of the matK and rpoC1 markers for the authentication of date cultivars. There is not one universal method to authenticate date cultivars. In this study, 11 different date cultivars were sequenced and analyzed for matK and rpoC1 genes by using bioinformatic tools to establish a cultivar-specific molecular monogram. The chloroplast matK marker was more informative than the rpoC1 chloroplast DNA markers. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of the matK and rpoC1 sequences, and the results suggested that matK alone or in combination with rpoC1 can be used for determining the levels of genetic variation and for barcoding.

  14. A novel genetic engineering platform for the effective management of biological contaminants for the production of microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Loera Quesada, Maribel; Leyva González, Marco Antonio; Velázquez Juárez, Gilberto; Sánchez Calderón, Lenín; Do Nascimento, Mauro; López Arredondo, Damar; Herrera Estrella, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal cultivation that takes advantage of solar energy is one of the most cost-effective systems for the biotechnological production of biofuels, and a range of high value products, including pharmaceuticals, fertilizers and feed. However, one of the main constraints for the cultivation of microalgae is the potential contamination with biological pollutants, such as bacteria, fungi, zooplankton or other undesirable microalgae. In closed bioreactors, the control of contamination requires ...

  15. A proposal to establish an international network in molecular microbiology and genetic engineering for scientific cooperation and prevention of misuse of biological sciences in the framework of science for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The conference on 'Science and Technology for Construction of Peace' which was organized by the Landau Network Coordination Center and A. Volta Center for Scientific Culture dealt with conversion of military and technological capacities into sustainable civilian application. The ideas regarding the conversion of nuclear warheads into nuclear energy for civilian-use led to the idea that the extension of this trend of thought to molecular biology and genetic engineering, will be a useful contribution to Science for Peace. This idea of developing a Cooperation Network in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering that will function parallel to and with the Landau Network Coordination in the 'A. Volta' Center was discussed in the Second International Symposium on Science for Peace, Jerusalem, January 1997. It is the reason for the inclusion of the biological aspects in the deliberations of our Forum. It is hoped that the establishment of an international network in molecular biology and genetic engineering, similar to the Landau Network in physics, will support and achieve the decommissioning of biological weapons. Such a network in microbiology and genetic engineering will contribute to the elimination of biological weapons and to contributions to Science for Peace and to Culture of Peace activities of UNESCO. (author)

  16. Covering All the Bases in Genetics: Simple Shorthands and Diagrams for Teaching Base Pairing to Biology Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Kuchin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Explaining base pairing is an important element in teaching undergraduate genetics. I propose a teaching approach that aims to close the gap between the mantra “A pairs with T, and G pairs with C” and the “intimidating” chemical diagrams. The approach offers a set of simple “shorthands” for the key bases that can be used to quickly deduce all canonical and wobble pairs that the students need to know. The approach can be further developed to analyze mutagenic mismatch pairing.

  17. Sardinian Population (Italy): a Genetic Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thou

    , according to the classification suggested by Contini (1979). The genetic ... and to have maintained a genetic identity through their evolution: the cluster constituted ...... HLA class II haplotypes reveals that the Sardinian population is genetically.

  18. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. [ 3 H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound

  19. Molecular biology from bench-to-bedside - which colorectal cancer patients should be referred for genetic counselling and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Dysager, Lars; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is associated with deficiency of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. However, most MLH1 deficient tumours are sporadic in origin, and they can be identified if harbouring a BRAF V600E mutation or hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. The aim of this study...... (PMS2 were negative in 29 cases (10%). DNA quality allowed BRAF analysis in 27 of these with 14 mutations and 13 wild-type. DNA quality allowed methylation analysis in 11 of the 13 BRAF wild-type, and all but one were methylated. Subsequently, Lynch syndrome could...... was to validate our previously suggested clinically applicable strategy based on molecular characteristics for identifying which patients to refer for genetic counselling. The strategy was validated in an unselected cohort of 287 colorectal cancer patients. All tumours were tested for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6...

  20. Dissecting Biological Dark Matter: Single Cell Genetic Analysis of TM7, a Rare and Uncultivated Microbe from the Human Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, Marsha W; Marcy, Yann; Ouverney, Cleber; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Losekann, Tina; Ivanova, Natalia; Martin, H. Garcia; Szeto, E.; Platt, Darren; Hugenholtz, Philip; Relman, David A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2007-07-01

    We have developed a microfluidic device that allows the isolation and genome amplification of individual microbial cells, thereby enabling organism-level genomic analysis of complex microbial ecosystems without the need for culture. This device was used to perform a directed survey of the human subgingival crevice and to isolate bacteria having rod-like morphology. Several isolated microbes had a 16S rRNA sequence that placed them in candidate phylum TM7, which has no cultivated or sequenced members. Genome amplification from individual TM7 cells allowed us to sequence and assemble >1,000 genes, providing insight into the physiology of members of this phylum. This approach enables single-cell genetic analysis of any uncultivated minority member of a microbial community.

  1. Oxidative damage to biological macromolecules in Prague bus drivers and garagemen: impact of air pollution and genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagryantseva, Yana; Novotna, Bozena; Rossner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Milcova, Alena; Svecova, Vlasta; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2010-11-10

    DNA integrity was investigated in the lymphocytes of 50 bus drivers, 20 garagemen and 50 controls using the comet assay with excision repair enzymes. In parallel, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 15-F(2t)-isoprostane levels in the urine and protein carbonyl levels in the plasma were assessed as markers of oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and volatile compounds was measured by personal samplers for 48 and 24h, respectively, before the collection of biological specimens. Both exposed groups exhibited a higher levels of DNA instability and oxidative damage to biological macromolecules than the controls. The incidence of oxidized lesions in lymphocyte DNA, but not the urinary levels of 8-oxodG, correlated with exposure to benzene and triglycerides increased this damage. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins was associated with exposure to cPAHs and the lipid peroxidation levels positively correlated with age and LDL cholesterol, and negatively with vitamin C. The carriers of at least one variant hOGG1 (Cys) allele tended to higher oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA than those with the wild genotype, while XPD23 (Gln/Gln) homozygotes were more susceptible to the induction of DNA strand breaks. In contrast, GSTM1 null variant seemed to protect DNA integrity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A orientação homossexual e as investigações acerca da existência de componentes biológicos e genéticos determinantes; The homosexual orientation and investigations about the existence of components biological and genetics determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2013-01-01

    The male and female homosexual orientation has substantial prevalence in humans and can be explained by determinants of various levels: biological, genetic, psychological, social and cultural. However, the biological and genetic evidence have been the main hypotheses tested in scientific research in the world. This article aims to review research studies about the existence of genetic and biological evidence that determine homosexual orientation. Was conducted a review of ...

  3. Molecular Cloning Designer Simulator (MCDS): All-in-one molecular cloning and genetic engineering design, simulation and management software for complex synthetic biology and metabolic engineering projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenyu; Vickers, Claudia E

    2016-12-01

    Molecular Cloning Designer Simulator (MCDS) is a powerful new all-in-one cloning and genetic engineering design, simulation and management software platform developed for complex synthetic biology and metabolic engineering projects. In addition to standard functions, it has a number of features that are either unique, or are not found in combination in any one software package: (1) it has a novel interactive flow-chart user interface for complex multi-step processes, allowing an integrated overview of the whole project; (2) it can perform a user-defined workflow of cloning steps in a single execution of the software; (3) it can handle multiple types of genetic recombineering, a technique that is rapidly replacing classical cloning for many applications; (4) it includes experimental information to conveniently guide wet lab work; and (5) it can store results and comments to allow the tracking and management of the whole project in one platform. MCDS is freely available from https://mcds.codeplex.com.

  4. Systems Biology Genetic Approach Identifies Serotonin Pathway as a Possible Target for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Results from a Literature Search Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Overall validity of existing genetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA remains unclear. The objective of this systematic genetic study is to identify “novel” biomarkers for OSA using systems biology approach. Methods. Candidate genes for OSA were extracted from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase search engines and DisGeNET database. The gene ontology (GO analyses and candidate genes prioritization were performed using Enrichr tool. Genes pertaining to the top 10 pathways were extracted and used for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results. In total, we have identified 153 genes. The top 10 pathways associated with OSA include (i serotonin receptor interaction, (ii pathways in cancer, (iii AGE-RAGE signaling in diabetes, (iv infectious diseases, (v serotonergic synapse, (vi inflammatory bowel disease, (vii HIF-1 signaling pathway, (viii PI3-AKT signaling pathway, (ix regulation lipolysis in adipocytes, and (x rheumatoid arthritis. After removing the overlapping genes, we have identified 23 candidate genes, out of which >30% of the genes were related to the genes involved in the serotonin pathway. Among these 4 serotonin receptors SLC6A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and HTR1B were strongly associated with OSA. Conclusions. This preliminary report identifies several potential candidate genes associated with OSA and also describes the possible regulatory mechanisms.

  5. [Hybrids of human and monkey adenoviruses (adeno-adeno hybrids) that can reproduce in monkey cells: biological and molecular genetic peculiarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenko, N F; Savitskaia, N V; Pashvykina, G V; Al'tshteĭn, A D

    2003-06-01

    A highly oncogenic monkey adenovirus SA7(C8) facilitates the reproduction of human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) in monkey cells. Upon mixed infection of monkey cells with both viruses, these viruses recombine producing defective adeno-adeno hybrids Ad2C8 serologically identical to Ad2 and capable of assisting Ad2 to reproduce in monkey cells. Ad2C8 and Ad2 form an intercomplementary pair inseparable in monkey cells. Unlike oncogenic SA7(C8), Ad2C8 is a nononcogenic virus for hamsters but is able to induce tumor antigens of this virus (T and TSTA). Molecular genetic analysis of 68 clones of adeno-adeno hybrids revealed that the left part of their genome consists of Ad2 DNA, and the right part contains no less than 40% of the viral SA7(C8) genome where E2A, E3, and E4 genes are located. Apparently, the products of these genes contribute to the composition of adenoviral tumor antigens, while the E4 gene is involved in complementation of monkey and human adenoviruses and makes a contribution to host range determination of these viruses.

  6. Multivariate imaging-genetics study of MRI gray matter volume and SNPs reveals biological pathways correlated with brain structural differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Khadka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children, adolescents, and adults. Its etiology is not well-understood, but it is increasingly believed to result from diverse pathophysiologies that affect the structure and function of specific brain circuits. Although one of the best-studied neurobiological abnormalities in ADHD is reduced fronto-striatal-cerebellar gray matter volume, its specific genetic correlates are largely unknown. Methods: In this study, T1-weighted MR images of brain structure were collected from 198 adolescents (63 ADHD-diagnosed. A multivariate parallel independent component analysis technique (Para-ICA identified imaging-genetic relationships between regional gray matter volume and single nucleotide polymorphism data. Results: Para-ICA analyses extracted 14 components from genetic data and 9 from MR data. An iterative cross-validation using randomly-chosen sub-samples indicated acceptable stability of these ICA solutions. A series of partial correlation analyses controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity revealed two genotype-phenotype component pairs significantly differed between ADHD and non-ADHD groups, after a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The brain phenotype component not only included structures frequently found to have abnormally low volume in previous ADHD studies, but was also significantly associated with ADHD differences in symptom severity and performance on cognitive tests frequently found to be impaired in patients diagnosed with the disorder. Pathway analysis of the genotype component identified several different biological pathways linked to these structural abnormalities in ADHD. Conclusions: Some of these pathways implicate well-known dopaminergic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment hypothesized to be abnormal in ADHD. Other more recently implicated pathways included glutamatergic and GABA-eric physiological systems

  7. A symmetry model for genetic coding via a wallpaper group composed of the traditional four bases and an imaginary base E: towards category theory-like systematization of molecular/genetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-05-07

    Previously, we suggested prototypal models that describe some clinical states based on group postulates. Here, we demonstrate a group/category theory-like model for molecular/genetic biology as an alternative application of our previous model. Specifically, we focus on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base sequences. We construct a wallpaper pattern based on a five-letter cruciform motif with letters C, A, T, G, and E. Whereas the first four letters represent the standard DNA bases, the fifth is introduced for ease in formulating group operations that reproduce insertions and deletions of DNA base sequences. A basic group Z5 = {r, u, d, l, n} of operations is defined for the wallpaper pattern, with which a sequence of points can be generated corresponding to changes of a base in a DNA sequence by following the orbit of a point of the pattern under operations in group Z5. Other manipulations of DNA sequence can be treated using a vector-like notation 'Dj' corresponding to a DNA sequence but based on the five-letter base set; also, 'Dj's are expressed graphically. Insertions and deletions of a series of letters 'E' are admitted to assist in describing DNA recombination. Likewise, a vector-like notation Rj can be constructed for sequences of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The wallpaper group B = {Z5×∞, ●} (an ∞-fold Cartesian product of Z5) acts on Dj (or Rj) yielding changes to Dj (or Rj) denoted by 'Dj◦B(j→k) = Dk' (or 'Rj◦B(j→k) = Rk'). Based on the operations of this group, two types of groups-a modulo 5 linear group and a rotational group over the Gaussian plane, acting on the five bases-are linked as parts of the wallpaper group for broader applications. As a result, changes, insertions/deletions and DNA (RNA) recombination (partial/total conversion) are described. As an exploratory study, a notation for the canonical "central dogma" via a category theory-like way is presented for future developments. Despite the large incompleteness of our

  8. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    OpenAIRE

    Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facia...

  9. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 and GSTT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joost H.M. van Delft; Marie-Jose S.T. Steenwinkel; Jeff G. van Asten; Nico de Vogel; Truus C.D.M. Bruijntjes-Rozier; Ton Schouten; Patricia Cramers; Lou Maas; Marcel H. van Herwijnen; Frederik-Jan van Schooten; Piet M.J. Hopmans [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute (Netherlands). Toxicology Division

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to assess whether the current exposure to PAH of coke oven workers in a Dutch plant induced biological effects, and to determine if these effects are influenced by tobacco smoking and by genetic polymorphisms for the glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyr) levels were used to monitor the internal dose, while the internal effective dose was assessed by monitoring PAH-DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks (Comet assay), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC) in lymphocytes together with micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated urothelial cells. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in statistically significant increased 1-OHpyr levels, but it did not cause a significant induction of SCE, HFC, MN, DNA strand breaks or DNA adducts. Smoking caused a significant increase of 1-OHpyr, SCE, HFC and DNA adducts, but not of MN or DNA strand breaks. Following correction for the smoking-related effects, no occupational induction of the effect biomarkers could be discerned. Multi-variate analysis did not show a significant influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on any biomarker. Also no significant interactions were observed between the various biomarkers.

  10. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  11. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal.

  12. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  13. Genomic individuality and its biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J

    1996-06-01

    It is a widely accepted fundamental concept that all somatic genomes of a human individual are identical to each other. The theoretical basis of this concept is that all of these somatic genomes are the descendants of the genome of a single fertilized cell as well as the simple replicated products of asexual reproduction, thus not forming any new recombined genomes. The question here is whether such a concept might only represent one side of somatic genome biology and, even worse, whether it has perhaps already led to a very prevalent misconception that within the organism body, there exists no variability among individual somatic genomes. A hypothesis, called genomic individuality, is proposed, simply saying that every individual somatic genome, perhaps with rare exceptions, has its own unique or individual 'genetic identity' or 'fingerprint', which is characterized by its distinctive sequences or patterns of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules, or both. Thus, no two somatic genomes can be identical to each other in every or all aspects, and consequently, there must be a great deal of genomic variation present within the body of any multicellular organism. The concept or hypothesis of genomic individuality would not only provide a more complete understanding of genome biology, but also suggest a new insight into the studies of the biology of cells and organisms.

  14. Will the New Gnosticism prevail? Remarks on Synthetic Biology, Nanotechnologies and Genetic Manipulation facing the Century of the Big Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Riechmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological utopianism seduces many people, from the very origins of Western modernity –remember Francis Bacon’s island of Bensalem in his New Atlantis–, with the temptation of complete mastery over nature (which includes human immortality. Today, the prevailing mentality in the West, which tends to become a universal worldview, has much in common with the beliefs of the ancient Gnostics. According to this mindset, science and technology can allow the human mind to escape the limitations that characterize its natural state, releasing the anchor to biological stuff and escaping the human condition. In short, we would become gods –gods thought of as Immortal Super-Engineers. We must resist these destructive illusions and delusions, which means: technical rationality has to make his own critique of utopian reason (in the sense of Franz Hinkelammert. Without this self-criticism, a judicious use of techniques and technologies will be out of reach –and they do have an enormous potential for improving the human condition–, while avoiding –if it were still possible– the exterminist, nihilistic and suicidal drift of industrial civilization.

  15. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  16. Biological monitoring and the influence of genetic polymorphism of As3MT and GSTs on distribution of urinary arsenic species in occupational exposure workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasik, Beata; Reszka, Edyta; Stanislawska, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Edyta; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2015-08-01

    To examine the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns in men affected by occupational exposure, we performed a study on 149 participants—workers of a copper mill and 52 healthy controls without occupational exposure. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic (As) metabolism, we studied the associations of six polymorphisms: As3MT Met287Thr (T>C) in exon 9; As3MT A>G in 5'UTR; As3MT C>G in intron 6; As3MT T>G in intron 1; GSTP1 Ile105Val and GSTO2 T>C. Air samples were collected using individual samplers during work shift. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic chemical forms (As(III); As(V), MMA, DMA, AsB) using HPLC-ICP-MS. A specific polymerase chain reaction was done for the amplification of exons and flanking regions of As3MT and GSTs. The geometric mean arsenic concentrations in the air were 27.6 ± 4.9 µg/m(3). A significant correlation (p iAs +MMA and iAs. As3MT (rs3740400) GG homozygotes showed significantly (p iAs (21.8 ± 2.0) in urine than GC+CC heterozygotes (16.0 ± 2.1). A strong association between the gene variants and As species in urine was observed for GSTO2 (rs156697) polymorphism. The findings of the study point out that the concentration of iAs or the sum of iAs + MMA in urine can be a reliable biological indicator of occupational exposure to arsenic. This study demonstrates that As3MT and/or GSTs genotype may influence As metabolism. Nevertheless, further studies investigating genetic polymorphism in occupational conditions are required.

  17. How does a high school biology teacher interact with his 10th grade students?: Examining science talk in evolution and human genetics instruction from a sociolinguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar Erumit, Banu

    This qualitative study employed a case study design (Creswell, 2014) with a high school biology teacher to examine a) the types of discourse patterns that a high school teacher was using in evolution and human genetics units, b) the purposes and cognitive features of the teacher's questions, their impact on students' subsequent responses, and the types of teacher follow ups occurred in these two units, and c) the factors that I thought might be somehow influencing the teaching and learning of these two topics in this classroom. The findings showed that lecture and recitation were the two most frequently used discourse types in the two units. Guided discussion and guided small group work in which students' ideas and questions were more welcomed than in lecture and recitation, were used only in the evolution unit, which was also unit in which the teacher used hands-on activities. In the human genetics unit, he only used worksheet-based activities, which he called paper and pencil labs. Teacher questions were posed mainly to assess the correctness of students' factual knowledge, remind them of previously covered information, and check with students to clarify the meaning of their utterances or their progress on a task. The two primary types of cognitive processes associated with students' responses were recall information and evaluate teacher's questions, mostly with a short response. The most frequently heard voice in the classroom was teacher's. Whole class interactions did not feature equal participation as some much more engaged students dominated. The results of the teacher questionnaires. teacher interviews, teacher debriefings, and lesson observations showed that Evan had an informed understanding of NOS, a high level of acceptance of evolution, and adequate understanding of evolution. The factors that seemed to negatively influence his teaching and students' engagement in that classroom included but not limited to the teacher's lack of experience in teaching

  18. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....

  19. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  20. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  1. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  2. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  3. On Fay identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michev, Iordan P.

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the transformation of the cubic identities for general Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) tau functions from [Mishev, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2419-2428 (1999)] to the specific identities for trigonometric KdV tau functions. Afterwards, we consider the Fay identity as a functional equation and provide a wide set of solutions of this equation. The main result of this paper is Theorem 3.4, where we generalize the identities from Mishev. An open problem is the transformation of the cubic identities from Mishev to the specific identities for elliptic KdV tau functions

  4. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon....

  5. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  6. A genetic code alteration is a phenotype diversity generator in the human pathogen Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discovery of genetic code alterations and expansions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes abolished the hypothesis of a frozen and universal genetic code and exposed unanticipated flexibility in codon and amino acid assignments. It is now clear that codon identity alterations involve sense and non-sense codons and can occur in organisms with complex genomes and proteomes. However, the biological functions, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and the diversity of genetic code alterations remain largely unknown. In various species of the genus Candida, the leucine CUG codon is decoded as serine by a unique serine tRNA that contains a leucine 5'-CAG-3'anticodon (tRNA(CAG(Ser. We are using this codon identity redefinition as a model system to elucidate the evolution of genetic code alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have reconstructed the early stages of the Candida genetic code alteration by engineering tRNAs that partially reverted the identity of serine CUG codons back to their standard leucine meaning. Such genetic code manipulation had profound cellular consequences as it exposed important morphological variation, altered gene expression, re-arranged the karyotype, increased cell-cell adhesion and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first experimental evidence for an important role of genetic code alterations as generators of phenotypic diversity of high selective potential and supports the hypothesis that they speed up evolution of new phenotypes.

  7. Pembangunan Kebun Biologi Wamena*[establishment of Wamena Biological Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmansyah, M; Latupapua, HJD

    2003-01-01

    The richness of biological resources (biodiversity) in mountainous area of Papua is an asset that has to be preserved.Exploitation of natural resources often cause damage on those biological assets and as genetic resources.Care has to be taken to overcome the situation of biological degradation, and alternate steps had been shaped on ex-situ biological conservation. Wamena Biological Gardens, as an ex-situ biological conservation, has been established to keep the high mountain biological and ...

  8. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro......-Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...

  9. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  10. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  11. NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE VENEZUELAN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nércida Romer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The research had as main purpose to analyze the national identity in the Venezuelan University education. It was descriptive with descriptive transactional design. The population was 250 students of the IX and X semester of education at the UNERMB, Ciudad Ojeda. The results showed: in the objective test, they don’t know details of the national identity; It was detected in the interview that there is a sense of belonging. The recommendation is: in subjects related innovate strategies to give the student knowledge of national identity elements; promote educational and publicity campaigns about the care and conservation of geographical, biological and cultural heritage.

  12. Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-06-21

    Jun 21, 2014 ... Role of chromatin in imprinting . .... flict theory in placental mammals assumes that paternal alleles in pregnancy ... The theory also postulates that maternal alleles, on ..... postulating contributory roles of mitDNA in mediation of.

  13. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facial esthetics and psychology of patients affected by this disease.

  14. Mobile Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity management consists of the processes and all underlying technologies for the creation, management, and usage of digital identities. Business rely on identity management systems to simplify the management of access rights to their systems and services for both their employees and their

  15. Being Tolerant about Identity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, R.; Gutzmann, D.; Köpping, J.; Meier, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identity and identification are very important concepts in philosophy and logic. They are crucial for the analysis of quantification and for counting. According to some philosophers, many examples that are supposed to show that identity is contingent, in fact show that the notion of identity is

  16. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  17. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunqiang Tao

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6 images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2 Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3 A larger sample (83 pairs was collected. (4 A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5 A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  18. Genome Analysis of the First Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malaysia Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis of Its Biology and Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available The outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB has become an increasing problem in many TB-burdened countries. The underlying drug resistance mechanisms, including the genetic variation favored by selective pressure in the resistant population, are partially understood. Recently, the first case of XDR-TB was reported in Malaysia. However, the detailed genotype family and mechanisms of the formation of multiple drugs resistance are unknown. We sequenced the whole genome of the UM 1072388579 strain with a 2-kb insert-size library and combined with that from previously sequenced 500-bp-insert paired-end reads to produce an improved sequence with maximal sequencing coverage across the genome. In silico spoligotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that UM 1072388579 strain belongs to an ancestral-like, non-Beijing clade of East Asia lineage. This is supported by the presence of a number of lineage-specific markers, including fadD28, embA, nuoD and pks7. Polymorphism analysis showed that the drug-susceptibility profile is correlated with the pattern of resistance mutations. Mutations in drug-efflux pumps and the cell wall biogenesis pathway such as mmpL, pks and fadD genes may play an important role in survival and adaptation of this strain to its surrounding environment. In this work, fifty-seven putative promoter SNPs were identified. Among them, we identified a novel SNP located at -4 T allele of TetR/acrR promoter as an informative marker to recognize strains of East Asian lineage. Our work indicates that the UM 1072388579 harbors both classical and uncommon SNPs that allow it to escape from inhibition by many antibiotics. This study provides a strong foundation to dissect the biology and underlying resistance mechanisms of the first reported XDR M. tuberculosis in Malaysia.

  19. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  20. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  1. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  2. 50. Brazilian congress on genetics. 50 years developing genetics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in genetics is presented. Several aspects related to men, animals,plants and microorganisms are reported highlighting biological radiation effects, evolution, mutagenesis and genetic engineering. Genetic mapping, gene mutations, genetic diversity, DNA damages, plant cultivation and plant grow are studied as well

  3. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  4. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fission neutrons and gamma rays at occupational exposure levels: Volume 1, Studies on the genetic effects in mice of 60 equal once-weekly exposures to fission neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Carnes, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for low doses of fission neutrons compared to 60 Co gamma rays were determined with four separate assessments of genetic damage induced in young hybrid male mice. Both radiations were delivered at low dose levels over about one-half the adult lifetime as 60 once-weekly exposures. Genetic damage assessed included both transient and residual injury. The latter is more critical, as residual genetic injury can be transmitted to subsequent generations long after the radiation exposures have ceased. Assays were performed periodically during the 60-week exposure period and at 10 or more weeks after the irradiations had terminated. RBE values, with few exceptions, ranged between 5 and 15 for transient injury and between 25 and 50 for different types of residual genetic injury. The most important form of residual genetic damage in this study was the balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation. These translocations continue to be transmitted throughout reproductive life and can lead to reduced fertility and increased prenatal mortality. The best estimate of the RBE value for translocations was 45 +- 10. Implications and recommendations with regard to the neutron quality factor will be presented conjointly with the findings from the data obtained in this same project on life shortening and on the risks of incidence or death from neoplastic disease. 64 refs., 23 tabs

  5. When population genetics meets biological control of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the population genetics of two European swallow-worts belonging to the Apocynaceae that have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Population genetic data concerning both native and introduced populations are being used to pinpoint introduced population origin, and ...

  6. Exploring medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-09-16

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification.

  7. Experiencing with Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2012-01-01

    This article studies how a political organization begins to experiment with its identity. By use of an empirical case of the Danish Ministry of Education, I examine how a political organization supplements its identity of a legislating power with identities of a supervisor, beacon and facilitator...... of evaluation in public schools. Out of a paralysis emerge new innovative strategies of governing, aimed at the schools’ self-governing capacity. The identity of the political system thus emerges as oscillations between different roles of a legislating power and a supervising coach. The case study suggests...... that a society of experimentalism is emerging. Thus, the relevant object of study is no longer organizational identity, but the experiments with different identities that modern organizations are performing....

  8. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  9. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  10. Known and Unknown Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze-Pedersen, Sofie

    This qualitative study investigates the relationship between openness and identity among 18 adoptees. Many studies have argued that a high degree of openness is important for the identity formation of adoptees. However, few studies have explored this relationship. Two types of openness...... (biographical knowledge and communicative openness) are used to categorise the empirical material, making it possible to illuminate how different types of openness influence identity. The findings suggest that there is no direct link between a high degree of openness and positive identity formation. Instead...

  11. Identity/Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Knauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the unspoken fourth dimension of intersectionality—time. Using the construction of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT identities as an example, it establishes that identity, as it is lived and experienced, is not only multivalent, but also historically contingent. It then raises a number of points regarding the temporal locality of identity—the influence of time on issues of identity and understanding, its implications for legal interventions, social movement building, and paradigms of progressive change. As the title suggests, the paper asks us to consider the frame of identity over time.

  12. Elective Identities, (Culture, Identization and Integration)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of contemporary individual and social identities (constructed with societal, cultural and technological resources) are radically autonomous, nomadic and virtual - i.e. they are de-traditionalized, open to negotiation and not based on a single interpretation of a tradition.

  13. (Re)scaling identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    of Pakistani origin, the study employs theoretical ideas of estrangement, identification and recognition in order to obtain a thorough understanding of the complexity and the contradictory character of their spatial identities and affiliations. A turning point in the double processes of estrangement...... of identity....

  14. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  15. Self and social identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N; Spears, R; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine the self and identity by considering the different conditions under which these are affected by the groups to which people belong. From a social identity perspective we argue that group commitment, on the one hand, and features of the social context, on the other hand,

  16. Children's Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  17. Corporate identity. Brand designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2004-02-19

    The past two years have seen a steadily more consistent brand identity for the NHS. Branding will become more important as foundation status and PCT commissioning makes acute hospitals more competitive. This has put pressure on some trusts that have their own strong identities.

  18. Identities-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The notion of identity is often used in mathematics education research in an attempt to link individual and social understandings of mathematical learning. In this paper we review existing research making use of the notion of identity, and we point to some of the strengths and weaknesses in the w...

  19. Identity without Membership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    the formation of organizational identity in more fluid organizational settings. Drawing on an empirical study of the hacker collective Anonymous, we show that organizational identity is formed through public communicative events that are subject to meaning negotiation whether or not actions can be attributed...

  20. Personal Identity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  1. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  2. Synchronization-optimized networks for coupled nearly identical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From the stability criteria of the MSF, we construct optimal networks ... of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social sci- ..... In figure 3a, a sample of initial network of 32 coupled nearly identical Rössler oscilla-.

  3. Multicultural identity processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Zhan, Siran; Morris, Michael W; Benet-Martínez, Verónica

    2016-04-01

    The study of multicultural identity has gained prominence in recent decades and will be even more urgent as the mobility of individuals and social groups becomes the 'new normal'. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art theoretical advancements and empirical discoveries of multicultural identity processes at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and collective (e.g., organizational, societal) levels. First, biculturalism has more benefits for individuals' psychological and sociocultural adjustment than monoculturalism. Bicultural individuals' racial essentialist beliefs and Bicultural Identity Integration affect cultural frame switching, racial categorization, and creativity. Second, identity denial and identity-based discrimination by other people or groups threaten multicultural individuals' psychological health and performance. Third, multiculturalism and interculturalism policies are associated with different conceptions of and attitudes toward diversity, and have distinct outcomes for multicultural individuals and societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identity as wrapping up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of cross-professional collaboration and to develop a notion of professional identity based in practice. The background of the paper is science and technology studies and more precisely actor network theory. The method used: The empirical analysis...... in close relation to the making of a report concerning the cross-professional collaboration. Findings are that “Identity as wrapping up” points to the way in which certain actors, by other actors, are maneuvered into certain pockets in a network. Identity as wrapping up is emphasized as a way...... of participating, which is closely connected to the intention to control the relation towards the other. Thus identity as wrapping up is argued to be a strategy to optimize the situation of one’s own profession. Conclusion: This articulation of identity contributes to the actor network literature as well...

  5. Researcher Identity in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Kobayashi, Sofie; McGinn, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    to reinterpretation, and ECRs need to attend to new or reimagined signals in their efforts to develop a researcher identity in this current context. In this article, we present a comprehensive framework for researcher identity in relation to the ways ECRs recognise and respond to divergent signals across spheres...... of activity. We illustrate this framework through eight identity stories drawn from our earlier research projects. Each identity story highlights the congruence (or lack of congruence) between signals across spheres of activity and emphasises the different ways ECRs respond to these signals. The proposed...... comprehensive framework allows for the analysis of researcher identity development through the complex and intertwined activities in which ECRs are involved. We advance this approach as a foundation for a sustained research agenda to understand how ECRs identify and respond to relevant signals, and...

  6. Visual identity and rebranding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further components of corporate identity are presented in detail – starting with logotype, through business forms, advertisements, accompanying materials and Internet websites to signs on buildings. Moreover, corporate identity book as a collection of standards and guidelines for application of corporate identity rules is discussed. The deliberations are based on the study of literature. The last chapter presented the transformation of the brand of Institute of Aviation.

  7. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  8. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  9. Island biology and morphological divergence of the Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae: a combined role for local selection and genetic drift on color morph frequency divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runemark Anna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s ST for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that

  10. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  11. Vocational Identity and Ego Identity Status in Korean Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Koo, PhD, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings show that nursing students in identity achievement status have secure and clear vocational identities. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are needed to find out if identity formation among nursing students changes with age.

  12. Genetically modified foods in the opinion of the second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55% recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.

  13. Assumption-free estimation of heritability from genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing between full siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of continuously varying, quantitative traits is important in evolutionary biology, agriculture, and medicine. Variation in such traits is attributable to many, possibly interacting, genes whose expression may be sensitive to the environment, which makes their dissection into underlying causative factors difficult. An important population parameter for quantitative traits is heritability, the proportion of total variance that is due to genetic factors. Response to artificial and natural selection and the degree of resemblance between relatives are all a function of this parameter. Following the classic paper by R. A. Fisher in 1918, the estimation of additive and dominance genetic variance and heritability in populations is based upon the expected proportion of genes shared between different types of relatives, and explicit, often controversial and untestable models of genetic and non-genetic causes of family resemblance. With genome-wide coverage of genetic markers it is now possible to estimate such parameters solely within families using the actual degree of identity-by-descent sharing between relatives. Using genome scans on 4,401 quasi-independent sib pairs of which 3,375 pairs had phenotypes, we estimated the heritability of height from empirical genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing, which varied from 0.374 to 0.617 (mean 0.498, standard deviation 0.036. The variance in identity-by-descent sharing per chromosome and per genome was consistent with theory. The maximum likelihood estimate of the heritability for height was 0.80 with no evidence for non-genetic causes of sib resemblance, consistent with results from independent twin and family studies but using an entirely separate source of information. Our application shows that it is feasible to estimate genetic variance solely from within-family segregation and provides an independent validation of previously untestable assumptions. Given sufficient data, our new paradigm will

  14. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 GSTT1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, T.C.D.M.; Schouten, T.; Cramers, P.; Maas, L.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Schooten, F.-J. van; Hopmans, P.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. Objective:

  15. Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E

    2017-12-06

    Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  17. Researcher Identities in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Wisker, Gina; Kobayashi, Sofie

    as other emergent ‘signals’, the latent or clear indications from institutions and academic communities regarding career directions and necessary professional skills and attitudes should be identified and interpreted for researchers to adequately develop their new identities. The aim of this paper......Researchers are now embarked upon what we define as a ‘risk career’, rather than, as previously, a relatively more predictable academic career. In this changing context, traditional milestones that enabled early career researchers to build their identities are disappearing. Instead, what we define...... is twofold: a) to present a comprehensive framework of the notion of researcher identity by means of analysing those spheres of activity related to researcher and career development; and b) to relate researcher identities to the experiences of early career researchers with issues concerning signals...

  18. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  19. Music, culture and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Ramadani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of globalization it is difficult to pretend avoiding music culture and identity from political, cultural and social developments. Thus, it is impossible for the music to be unshakable and to represent national identity by not taking and giving nothing to culture. The dynamics of life and the rapid development of technology make it impossible for the culture to remain unaffected in terms of sharing experiences social experiences. Culture represents our current course, both in terms of politics, also in the social and human aspects. Through the technology it is possible for our children to be equal with children of all other countries, to exchange information and to connect directly with all countries of the world. Musical education is one of the main factors of cultural development and preservation of national identity. Identity consists of everything we posses and reflect. We are those who distinguish from each other and have a common denominator compared to other nations.

  20. The genetics of Tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic studies have helped us gain basic knowledge of the Tamarix invasion. We now have a better understanding of the species identities involved in the invasion, their evolutionary relationships, and the contribution of hybridization to the invasion. This information can be used to enhance the eff...

  1. WORK AND LEARNER IDENTITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how...... different groups have distinctive conditions for meeting the obligation of forming a proactive learner identity and engage in lifelong learning prevalent in both national and transnational policies on lifelong learning....

  2. Introduction: Discourses of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of usages of ideas of 'identity' in relation to migration in Britain, France, and Germany, as well as in the Serbian anti-muslim war - with a view of demonstrating conceptual context of the usages.......Analysis of usages of ideas of 'identity' in relation to migration in Britain, France, and Germany, as well as in the Serbian anti-muslim war - with a view of demonstrating conceptual context of the usages....

  3. Developing Identity for Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Høedt-Rasmussen, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The role of the lawyer is in transition and the formerly predominantly homogeneous profes-sion has become a heterogeneous group of lawyers with diverging perceptions of the lawyer’s identity and of the main characteristics of the profession. The European Union has extended the perception of democracy and the fundamental rights to include more collective rights, social concerns, global responsibility and sustainability. The dissertation’s main question is: How can the identity and competen...

  4. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruca vitrata is a polyphagous insect pest on a wide variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis mitochondrial cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata c...

  5. Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Acceptance of Genetically Modified Organisms among Prospective Teachers of Biology, Home Economics, and Grade School in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrozic-Dolinsek, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of…

  6. Perspectives and Research on the Concept of Race within the Framework of Multiracial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, according to U. S. Census reports, the number of people who classify themselves as “mixed race” is rapidly increasing. As a consequence, scholars have become increasingly interested in the nature of racial identity. Currently, scholars and laypersons tend to view the concept of race from a biological perspective, from a social-constructivist perspective, or from a mixture of the two. In this paper, we address several questions: How do political, religious, and legal experts classify various people (racially? How do men and women (especially those of mixed ancestry decide to what race they belong? Does one’s own identity, be it monoracial or multiracial, influence one’s perception of race as socially constructed or biologically determined? In order to understand how the concept of race is viewed in the U. S.—especially as the American landscape becomes increasingly complex—we reviewed 40 studies, conducted from 1986-2006, that explored the nature of racial and ethnic identity. This comprehensive review suggested that: 1. Americans often find it difficult to classify people of mixed ancestry. 2. Men and women (of mixed race generally possess a complex view of race. They generally agree that race is, at least in part, a social construct. Nonethess, they are well aware that (at least in society’s eyes ancestry, appearance, “blood,” and genetic make-up also play a part in one’s racial classification. 3. Multiracials appear to be more flexible in “choosing” a racial identity than are their peers. How they choose to present themselves depends on their physical appearance, how accepting their family and friends are of their claims, and how profitable they think it will be to identify with various aspects of their racial heritage.

  7. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  8. The effect of level of feeding, genetic merit, body condition score and age on biological parameters of a mammary gland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Pryce, J E; Pitman, G D; Davis, S R

    2007-03-01

    An evolutionary algorithm was applied to a mechanistic model of the mammary gland to find the parameter values that minimised the difference between predicted and actual lactation curves of milk yields in New Zealand Jersey cattle managed at different feeding levels. The effect of feeding level, genetic merit, body condition score at parturition and age on total lactation yields of milk, fat and protein, days in milk, live weight and evolutionary algorithm derived mammary gland parameters was then determined using a multiple regression model. The mechanistic model of the mammary gland was able to fit lactation curves that corresponded to actual lactation curves with a high degree of accuracy. The senescence rate of quiescent (inactive) alveoli was highest at the very low feeding level. The active alveoli population at peak lactation was highest at very low feeding levels, but lower nutritional status at this feeding level prevented high milk yields from being achieved. Genetic merit had a significant linear effect on the active alveoli population at peak and mid to late lactation, with higher values in animals, which had higher breeding values for milk yields. A type of genetic merit × feeding level scaling effect was observed for total yields of milk and fat, and total number of alveoli produced from conception until the end of lactation with the benefits of increases in genetic merit being greater at high feeding levels. A genetic merit × age scaling effect was observed for total lactation protein yields. Initial rates of differentiation of progenitor cells declined with age. Production levels of alveoli from conception to the end of lactation were lowest in 5- to 8-year-old animals; however, in these older animals, quiescent alveoli were reactivated more frequently. The active alveoli population at peak lactation and rates of active alveoli proceeding to quiescence were highest in animals of intermediate body condition scores of 4.0 to 5.0. The results

  9. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  10. Exploring genetic responsibility for the self, family and kin in the case of hereditary raised cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the notion of genetic responsibility, i.e. the responsibility to know and manage one's own genome for oneself and the sake of others, focusing particularly on responsibilities to family and kin. It also considers wider ideas about the emergence of new forms of biological subjectivities with which the concept of genetic responsibility is associated. The paper draws on a UK-based study concerned with lay constructions of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a treatable inherited form of high cholesterol, which involved qualitative interviews with 31 people with the condition recruited through a specialist outpatient clinic. The paper is an attempt to open out discussions about the significance of genetic responsibility and biological subjectivity. I argue that in this study, FH was not associated with a notable family narrative of illness or a strongly defined specific disease community, and no clear sense emerged of obligations to kin or others derived through genetic risks or genetic connections. While responsibilities concerned with the welfare of oneself and one's existing offspring were enunciated, obligations to other potential or actual kin, e.g. to tell and encourage kin to manage their risks, were much less clearly defined. Drawing on these findings, I start to address questions about the pervasiveness of genetic responsibility and genetic identity and the contexts in which they might be significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Process of Identity Work: Negotiating a Work Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crafford, A.; Adams, B.G.; Saayman, T.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Roodt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Identity work is an important process in negotiating, regulating and maintaining a coherent sense of self-(identity). In this chapter we discuss how identity work is particularly useful in establishing a work identity. The crux of the discussion in this chapter is based on the qualitative phase of

  12. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  13. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race:An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi N. Maglo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to frictional effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the cluster and cline constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin’s argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response.

  14. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors...

  15. Identity negotiations in meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuß, Birte; Oshima, Sae

    of the company, and all members know (and display) that he holds some information that the rest don’t have access to. Our analysis shows that the participants evoke various identities of the manager, sometimes orienting to the structure of the organization, and other times orienting to wider social categories......Meetings are places, where identity negotiation is a central activity and where members’ local practices recurrently inform and are informed by larger categories (Antaki and Widdicombe 1998). Correspondingly, the approach to understanding organization (macro) by way of identity work (micro) has...... company, and in the data recorded over 10 days, the employees frequently complain about the many changes that have taken place. Our focus lies in a unique occasion where one of the managers makes an unusual appearance at the lunchroom. In this situation, he is the only one that is on the business side...

  16. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  17. On the fundamentals of identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Mandy

    Various new perspectives on identity have been introduced or have increased in popularity over the past two decades. These include identity as dynamic system (Kunnen & Bosma, 2001), a narrative approach to identity (McAdams, 2001), multi-dimensional models of identity formation (Luyckx et al., 2006;

  18. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Splitting Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Law and Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    processes of social integration. Within media-based and political debates, transnational marriages are frequently described as practices destructive both to individual freedom and to Danish national identity. Nonetheless, it is a practice in which both minority and majority citizens engage, one that frames...... both their family lives and their lives as citizens. This article analyses the dynamic relationship between public discourse and practices of transnational marriage. The first part describes how political and legislative perceptions of transnational (arranged) marriages are situated within a discussion......' expressions of autonomy and choice and their adaptations of such concepts to understandings of social belonging, inclusion and identity formation vis--vis the Danish nation-state....

  1. Editorial: Negotiating Gamer Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Barr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘gamer identity’ is hotly contested, and certainly not understood as a broadly accepted term. From the outdated stereotype of white, heterosexual, teenage boys playing Nintendo in their parents’ basement to the equally contested proclamation that “‘gamers’ are over”, the current game culture climate is such that movements as divisive and controversial as #gamergate can flourish. For this latest special issue of Press Start, we invited submissions regarding the recent controversies surrounding the notion of player identities, with the aim of receiving papers from different viewpoints on gamer identity and culture.

  2. Corporate Brand Identity in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäläskä, Minna; Jones, Richard Ian

    Purpose: To study the emergence of corporate brand identity in SMEs and to develop a typology of brand identity drivers that reflects a co-creative approach to the emergence of brand identity. Design / Methodology / Approach : Existing approaches to brand identity are summarised. A narrative...... studies. The research is important since it suggests an iterative and co-creative approach to brand identity. A typology of brand identity formation for SMEs is presented: entrepreneur driven, market driven, stakeholder driven. Practical implications: The three paths to creating a strong brand identity...... challenge existing notions that brand identity is based solely on the values of the entrepreneur. This typology suggests that SMEs should be open to creating an identity that draws from their stakeholder eco-system. Originality / value: this research challenges the existing assumption that brand identity...

  3. Crossing the front: contrasting storm-forced dispersal dynamics revealed by biological, geological and genetic analysis of beach-cast kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan M; King, Tania M; Fraser, Ceridwen I; Craw, Dave

    2018-03-01

    The subtropical front (STF) generally represents a substantial oceanographic barrier to dispersal between cold-sub-Antarctic and warm-temperate water masses. Recent studies have suggested that storm events can drastically influence marine dispersal and patterns. Here we analyse biological and geological dispersal driven by two major, contrasting storm events in southern New Zealand, 2017. We integrate biological and physical data to show that a severe southerly system in July 2017 disrupted this barrier by promoting movement of substantial numbers of southern sub-Antarctic Durvillaea kelp rafts across the STF, to make landfall in mainland NZ. By contrast, a less intense easterly storm (Cyclone Cook, April 2017) resulted in more moderate dispersal distances, with minimal dispersal between the sub-Antarctic and mainland New Zealand. These quantitative analyses of approximately 200 freshly beach-cast kelp specimens indicate that storm intensity and wind direction can strongly influence marine dispersal and landfall outcomes. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased......BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic...

  5. Economic and Biological Values for Pasture-Based Dairy Cattle Porduction Systems and their Application in Genetic Improvement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahinya, P K; Otieno, Tobias Okeno; Kosgey, I S

    2015-01-01

    estimated under fixed herd (FH) and pasture (FP) production circumstances assuming milk marketing based on volume, and volume and butter fat. Further, economic values were estimated involving risk using the Arrow Pratt coefficients at two levels. For the former economic values for the traits ranged from KSh...... during the estimation of economic values. Genetic improvements targeting MY and growth traits would be recommended to production system with unlimited feed supply for profit maximization. However, since dairy production systems in the tropics are characterised by feed scarcity, fixing the herd...

  6. Pleistocene climatic oscillations rather than recent human disturbance influence genetic diversity in one of the world's highest treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Lachmuth, Susanne; Gallegos, Silvia C; Kessler, Michael; Ramsay, Paul M; Renison, Daniel; Suarez, Ricardo; Hensen, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses to climatic change usually leave imprints on the genetic diversity and structure of plants. Information on the current genetic diversity and structure of dominant tree species has facilitated our general understanding of phylogeographical patterns. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), we compared genetic diversity and structure of 384 adults of P. tarapacana with those of 384 seedlings across 32 forest sites spanning a latitudinal gradient of 600 km occurring between 4100 m and 5000 m a.s.l. in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), one of the world's highest treeline species endemic to the central Andes. Moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation were detected in both adults and seedlings, with levels of genetic diversity and differentiation being almost identical. Four slightly genetically divergent clusters were identified that accorded to differing geographical regions. Genetic diversity decreased from south to north and with increasing precipitation for adults and seedlings, but there was no relationship to elevation. Our study shows that, unlike the case for other Andean treeline species, recent human activities have not affected the genetic structure of P. tarapacana, possibly because its inhospitable habitat is unsuitable for agriculture. The current genetic pattern of P. tarapacana points to a historically more widespread distribution at lower altitudes, which allowed considerable gene flow possibly during the glacial periods of the Pleistocene epoch, and also suggests that the northern Argentinean Andes may have served as a refugium for historical populations. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Language, Identity, and Exile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  8. Bilingualism versus identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    1988-01-01

    During the last hundred years psychologists, philosophers and theologians have developed two different conceptions of personal identity. One of them insists that each person is a unique and transcendental being, whereas the other finds the personality deriving from interaction with other persons....... (This is the prevailing view today.) These theories are placed in relation to the difficulties an immigrant encounters....

  9. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  10. Shifting Design Consultancy Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Huijboom, Nina; Holm Nielsen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    and identities that resonate more with freelancing and portfolio careers than with the intention of creating firms that are intended to expand. We recognized a pattern where freelancers build up their work as a portfolio by moving from one engagement to another, a process that we will call sequential freelancing...

  11. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working...

  12. The Visual Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  13. Work and Female Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reohr, Janet R.

    In climbing an organizational ladder dominated by males, the professional woman encounters obstacles to the more traditional feminine behaviors and mannerisms to which she may be accustomed. These obstacles may erode her sense of identity, creating difficulties both inside and outside of her work environment. Traditional distinctions between…

  14. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  15. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  16. Spatial Identity in Gagauzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Salavatova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically the gagauz developed a self-perception based on their difference from Moldova as well as the ‘Turkish world’. The article argues that this fact has determined their pro-Russian political orientation as the only possible way of maintaining their identity

  17. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  18. Fluidity, Identity, and Organizationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    that the organizationality of a social collective is accomplished through “identity claims”—i.e., speech acts that concern what the social collective is or does—and negotiations on whether or not these claims have been made on the collective's behalf. We empirically examine the case of the hacker collective Anonymous...

  19. Professions and their Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John

    2005-01-01

    analytical strategies can frame in sufficiently complex ways what it means to be a professional today. It is assumed that at least four main issues must be dealt with in order to conduct a satisfactory analysis of professions and their identities. Firstly, it is of fundamental strategic importance that one...

  20. Regional identity and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Gordana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of a study on regionalisation and family, within the project named Sociological Aspects of Multiculturality and Regionalisation and their influence on the development of AP Vojvodina and the Republic of Serbia. The author focuses her attention to operationalisation of the theoretical and methodological premises that were developed in the previous paper (Tripković, 2002: 111-127, which means that it represents the results of the second phase of the research plan. This phase includes adjusting of theoretical concepts to the fieldwork displaying the results of the research and the analysis of the findings that put a family in the context of confronting different identities, above all national and regional. As possible "identity difference" was emphasized in the research, theoretical and methodological apparatus was adjusted to this goal. That is why in this paper the replies of interviewees that can suggest or reject the assumption that their national identity can influence significantly the evaluation of identity specificities are presented and analyzed, concerning more or less visible aspects of family life, like welfare status, relations between spouses, respect to the elder, family harmony, number of children, connections with relatives, etc.

  1. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  2. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  3. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations.

  4. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing statistically-based genetics problems. This issue is at the emerging edge of modern college-level genetics instruction, and this study attempts to identify key theoretical components for creating a specialized biological statistics curriculum. The goal of this curriculum will be to prepare biology students with the skills for assimilating quantitatively-based genetic processes, increasingly at the forefront of modern genetics. To fulfill this, two college level classes at two universities were surveyed. One university was located in the northeastern US and the other in the West Indies. There was a sample size of 42 students and a supplementary interview was administered to a select 9 students. Interviews were also administered to professors in the field in order to gain insight into the teaching of statistics in genetics. Key findings indicated that students had very little to no background in statistics (55%). Although students did perform well on exams with 60% of the population receiving an A or B grade, 77% of them did not offer good explanations on a probability question associated with the normal distribution provided in the survey. The scope and presentation of the applicable statistics/mathematics in some of the most used textbooks in genetics teaching, as well as genetics syllabi used by instructors do not help the issue. It was found that the text books, often times, either did not give effective explanations for students, or completely left out certain topics. The omission of certain statistical/mathematical oriented topics was seen to be also true with the genetics syllabi reviewed for this study. Nonetheless

  6. Looking for race in all the wrong places: analyzing the lack of productivity in the ongoing debate about race and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Morris W

    2009-09-01

    The ongoing debate about the relationship between race and genetics is more than a century old and has yet to be resolved. Recent emphasis on population-based patterns in human genetic variation and the implications of those for disease susceptibility and drug response have revitalized that long-standing debate. Both sides in the debate use the same rhetorical device of treating geographic, ancestral, population-specific, and other categories as surrogates for race, but otherwise share no evidentiary standards, analytic frameworks, or scientific goals that might resolve the debate and result in some productive outcome. Setting a common goal of weighing the scientific benefits of using racial and other social heuristics with testable estimates of the potential social harms of racialization can reduce both the unreflexive use of race and other social identities in biological analyses as well as the unreflexive use of racialization in social critiques of genetics. Treating social identities used in genetic studies as objects for investigation rather than artifacts of participant self-report or researcher attribution also will reduce the extent to which genetic studies that report social identities imply that membership in social categories can be defined or predicted using genetic features.

  7. Malignant mesothelioma: biology, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Amati, M.; Santarelli, L.; Alleva, R.; Neužil, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 190-206 ISSN 1874-4672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * biology * diagnosis and therapeutic approaches Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Biological, functional and genetic characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from pediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Conforti

    Full Text Available Alterations in hematopoietic microenvironment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients have been claimed to occur, but little is known about the components of marrow stroma in these patients. In this study, we characterized mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM of 45 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-MSCs at diagnosis (day+0 and during chemotherapy treatment (days: +15; +33; +78, the time points being chosen according to the schedule of BM aspirates required by the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 treatment protocol. Morphology, proliferative capacity, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, immunomodulatory properties and ability to support long-term hematopoiesis of ALL-MSCs were analysed and compared with those from 41 healthy donors (HD-MSCs. ALL-MSCs were also genetically characterized through array-CGH, conventional karyotyping and FISH analysis. Moreover, we compared ALL-MSCs generated at day+0 with those isolated during chemotherapy. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and in vitro life-span did not differ between ALL-MSCs and HD-MSCs. ALL-MSCs showed significantly lower proliferative capacity (p<0.001 and ability to support in vitro hematopoiesis (p = 0.04 as compared with HD-MSCs, while they had similar capacity to inhibit in vitro mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation (p = N.S.. ALL-MSCs showed neither the typical translocations carried by the leukemic clone (when present, nor other genetic abnormalities acquired during ex vivo culture. Our findings indicate that ALL-MSCs display reduced ability to proliferate and to support long-term hematopoiesis in vitro. ALL-MSCs isolated at diagnosis do not differ from those obtained during treatment.

  9. Some biological characters of two TSL genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.) for its control using Sit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacers, C.; El-Kholy, E.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    A biological comparison between two t sl s trains of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., was done. The biological parameters of this comparison involved pupal production, pupal emergence, adult sex ratio and flying ability. Two kinds of larval media were used (bran or carrot powder). Survival of the produced flies was also determined when deprived from water and food. Larval rearing was done in 5 kg trays (usual mass rearing) on sugar and bran medium or in experimental Petri dishes (15 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height) on powdered carrot medium. The results obtained revealed a better performance of Vienna 8 strain (V-8) than Vienna 7 strain (V-7) when larval rearing was carried out in 5 kg trays on the usual bran medium. However, when carrot larval diet was offered in small Petri dishes, V-7 was better as compared to V-8 strain. Adult males or females produced by V-7 showed longer survival than those produced by V-8 when adults were kept without food or water

  10. RBE [relative biological effectiveness] of tritium beta radiation to gamma radiation and x-rays analyzed by both molecular and genetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation to 60 Co gamma radiation was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL) induced in Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa as the biological effect. The SLRL test, a measure of mutations induced in germ cells transmitted through successive generations, yields a linear dose-response curve in the range used in these experiments. From these ratios of the slopes of the 3 H beta and the 60 Co gamma radiation linear dose response curves, an RBE of 2.7 is observed. When sources of error are considered, this observation suggests that the tritium beta particle is 2.7 ± 0.3 times more effective per unit of energy absorbed in inducing gene mutations transmitted to successive generation than 60 Co gamma radiation. Ion tracks with a high density of ions (high LET) are more efficient than tracks with a low ion density (low LET) in inducing transmissible mutations, suggesting interaction among products of ionization. Molecular analysis of x-ray induced mutations shows that most mutations are deletions ranging from a few base pairs as determined from sequence data to multi locus deletions as determined from complementation tests and Southern blots. 14 refs., 1 fig

  11. Generalizing genetical genomics : getting added value from environmental perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetical genomics is a useful approach for studying the effect of genetic perturbations on biological systems at the molecular level. However, molecular networks depend on the environmental conditions and, thus, a comprehensive understanding of biological systems requires studying them across

  12. Constructing nurses' professional identity through social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, Georgina; Clarke, David

    2014-04-01

    The profession of nursing continues to struggle with defining and clarifying its professional identity. The definitive recognition of nursing as a profession was the moving of training from the hospital apprentice model to the tertiary sector. However, this is only part of the story of professional identity in nursing. Once training finishes and enculturation into the workplace commences, professional identity becomes a complicated social activity. This paper proposes social identity theory as a valuable research framework to assist with clarifying and describing the professional identity of nurses. The paper outlines the key elements of a profession and then goes on to describe the main concepts of social identity theory. Lastly, a connection is made between the usefulness of using social identity theory in researching professional identity in nursing, recognizing the contextual nature of the social activity of the profession within its workplace environment. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant

  14. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  15. LITERATURE AND IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Litričin Dunić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature can represent, on the one hand, the establishment of cultural and national identity, and, on the other hand, a constant indicator of the differences. Self-image and the image of the Other in literature is very important not only for understanding national character and preservation of cultural identity, but also for the release from ideological reading and stereotyping. Analyzing the image of the Other, research into the representation of the Balkans symbolically represents in the popular literature of the West, study of the cultural context and the processes that formed the writer’s perceptions that determine the establishment of stereotypes about Homo Balcanicus and many others, are all important tasks of imagological research, as well as the key research tasks conducted nowadays. In this paper we shall discuss some of these issues in the field of comparative literature.

  16. A general integral identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, M L, E-mail: laryg@clarkson.edu [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 470071 (Spain)

    2011-06-03

    The identity {integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Phi}{integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Theta} sin{Phi} F(x sn{Phi} sin{Phi})={pi}/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}F(xt)dt, where F is any function, is derived. Several extensions are given and a few examples of physical interest are described.

  17. Experiencing the genetic body: parents' encounters with pediatric clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, Kelly; Skinner, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Because of advancements in genetic research and technologies, the clinical practice of genetics is becoming a prevalent component of biomedicine. As the genetic basis for more and more diseases are found, it is possible that ways of experiencing health, illness, identity, kin relations, and the body are becoming geneticized, or understood within a genetic model of disease. Yet, other models and relations that go beyond genetic explanations also shape interpretations of health and disease. This article explores how one group of individuals for whom genetic disorder is highly relevant formulates their views of the body in light of genetic knowledge. Using data from an ethnographic study of 106 parents or potential parents of children with known or suspected genetic disorders who were referred to a pediatric genetic counseling and evaluation clinic in the southeastern United States, we find that these parents do, to some degree, perceive of their children's disorders in terms of a genetic body that encompasses two principal qualities: a sense of predetermined health and illness and an awareness of a profound historicity that reaches into the past and extends into the present and future. They experience this genetic body as both fixed and historical, but they also express ideas of a genetic body made less deterministic by their own efforts and future possibilities. This account of parents' experiences with genetics and clinical practice contributes to a growing body of work on the ways in which genetic information and technologies are transforming popular and medical notions of the body, and with it, health, illness, kinship relations, and personal and social identities.

  18. Identity, History, Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovtsev V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of historical narratives in the formation of identity. Rüsen’s thesis on the contradiction of traditional historical identities that suggest an ethnocentric position with the processes of intercultural communication is analyzed. The potential of historical narratives in overcoming (or restricting ethnocentrism is considered. It is shown that ethnocentrism is constituted by kinds of the configuration of historical writing rather than by a subjective position of historical narrative authors. The types of stories suggest a the way of making history using only the criteria of success and failure in the interpretation of the past; b interpretation of history as teleological continuity; c merely the necessity to justify (to substantiate claims or to discredit something. It is alleged that the realization that the form of historical knowledge constructs, not discovers, can facilitate liberation from referential fallacy on the whole and enslavement by certain kinds of stories in particular. It is concluded that the recognition of the constitutive nature of historical narratives allows being independent from the traditional forms of historical knowledge and traditional ideas about their cultural value. In particular, it allows reconsidering the need to apply historical knowledge when constructing identity.

  19. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  20. What Are the Types of Genetic Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or catastrophe victims, rule out or implicate a crime suspect, or establish biological relationships between people (for example, paternity). For more information about the uses of genetic testing: A Brief Primer on Genetic Testing , which ...

  1. Meristem identity and phyllotaxis in inflorescence development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Elisabeth Bartlett

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflorescence morphology is incredibly diverse. This diversity of form has been a fruitful source of inquiry for plant morphologists for more than a century. Work in the grasses (Poaceae, the tomato family (Solanaceae, and Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae has led to a richer understanding of the molecular genetics underlying this diversity. The character of individual meristems, a combination of the number (determinacy and nature (identity of the products a meristem produces, is key in the development of plant form. A framework that describes inflorescence development in terms of shifting meristem identities has emerged and garnered empirical support in a number of model systems. We discuss this framework and highlight one important aspect of meristem identity that is often considered in isolation, phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis refers to the arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis. The development and evolution of phyllotaxis in the inflorescence remains underexplored, but recent work analyzing early inflorescence development in the grasses identified an evolutionary shift in primary branch phyllotaxis in the Pooideae. We discuss the evidence for an intimate connection between meristem identity and phyllotaxis in both the inflorescence and vegetative shoot, and touch on what is known about the establishment of phyllotactic patterns in the meristem. Localized auxin maxima are instrumental in determining the position of lateral primordia. Upstream factors that regulate the position of these maxima remain unclear, and how phyllotactic patterns change over the course of a plant’s lifetime and evolutionary time, is largely unknown. A more complete understanding of the molecular underpinnings of phyllotaxis and architectural diversity in inflorescences will require capitalizing on the extensive resources available in existing genetic systems, and developing new model systems that more fully represent the diversity of plant morphology.

  2. Meristem identity and phyllotaxis in inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Madelaine E; Thompson, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Inflorescence morphology is incredibly diverse. This diversity of form has been a fruitful source of inquiry for plant morphologists for more than a century. Work in the grasses (Poaceae), the tomato family (Solanaceae), and Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) has led to a richer understanding of the molecular genetics underlying this diversity. The character of individual meristems, a combination of the number (determinacy) and nature (identity) of the products a meristem produces, is key in the development of plant form. A framework that describes inflorescence development in terms of shifting meristem identities has emerged and garnered empirical support in a number of model systems. We discuss this framework and highlight one important aspect of meristem identity that is often considered in isolation, phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis refers to the arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis. The development and evolution of phyllotaxis in the inflorescence remains underexplored, but recent work analyzing early inflorescence development in the grasses identified an evolutionary shift in primary branch phyllotaxis in the Pooideae. We discuss the evidence for an intimate connection between meristem identity and phyllotaxis in both the inflorescence and vegetative shoot, and touch on what is known about the establishment of phyllotactic patterns in the meristem. Localized auxin maxima are instrumental in determining the position of lateral primordia. Upstream factors that regulate the position of these maxima remain unclear, and how phyllotactic patterns change over the course of a plant's lifetime and evolutionary time, is largely unknown. A more complete understanding of the molecular underpinnings of phyllotaxis and architectural diversity in inflorescences will require capitalizing on the extensive resources available in existing genetic systems, and developing new model systems that more fully represent the diversity of plant morphology.

  3. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  4. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  5. Engineering a Biological Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Susan

    2017-01-26

    The new field of synthetic biology promises to change health care, computer technology, the production of biofuels, and more. Students participating in the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition are on the front lines of this revolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Entrepreneurship Education as Identity Workspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education theory and practice show increasing interest in identity work as an important part of entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship programs become identity workspaces where pedagogical designs stimulate entrepreneurial identity work and support individuals’ discovery...... of themselves as entrepreneurs. This article investigates how entrepreneurship education is practiced as an identity workspace, when reflective identity work is turned into a pedagogical strategy for entrepreneurial learning. I present empirical data from a qualitative fieldstudy in an eleven week mandatory...... and identities. Exposed to identity work practices in class, learners experienced conflicting demands participating as succesful students and participating as potential entrepreneurs. The study draws attention to how an education setting contextualises identity work as a social practice. It critisises...

  7. Genética, biologia molecular e ética: as relações trabalho e saúde Genetics, molecular biology and ethics: work and health connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Jorge Figaro Gattás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o impacto dos avanços da genética e da biologia molecular sobre a prática em saúde ocupacional. O conhecimento atual sobre o genoma humano permite, em certas circunstâncias, identificar fatores individuais de suscetibilidade a doenças em situações de exposição a substâncias químicas ou físicas, ou ainda, a doenças genéticas de manifestação tardia. Estudos epidemiológicos incorporando elementos da genética e da biologia molecular têm sido desenhados para avaliar a interação de variantes metabólicas e exposições ambientais no risco de ocorrência de diferentes doenças. Apesar desta perspectiva, considera-se que as pesquisas nesta área são ainda incipientes. A estratégia para a redução dos danos causados à saúde do trabalhador deve continuar a ter como base, prioritariamente, a modificação e a adequação dos ambientes de trabalho e não a especificação genética da força de trabalho. Introduzir a discussão sobre a necessidade de definir princípios de responsabilidade social no uso de informações genéticas e que possam reger ações éticas em saúde do trabalhador é uma das propostas principais deste artigo.This paper provides a discussion about the increasing development of genetics and molecular biomarkers technologies and consequent impact on practices of occupational health. Genetic analysis could be in specific populations at occupational, pharmacological or environmental exposures. Current knowledge of human genome open up the possibility of individual genetic screening of disease susceptibility among those exposed in workplaces to chemical or physical hazards, or for late onset hereditary disease. Epidemiological studies including genetic and molecular biology approaches have been designed to evaluate the interaction of genetically determined metabolic variants with different environmental exposures on the risk of diseases. The strategy for worker's health promotion must be

  8. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BART MicroRNA: A Paradigm for Viral Modulation of Host Immune Response Genes and Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Dreyfus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, is associated through epidemiologic evidence with common autoimmune syndromes and cancers. However, specific genetic mechanisms of pathogenesis have been difficult to identify. In this review, the author summarizes evidence that recently discovered noncoding RNAs termed microRNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus BARF (BamHI A right frame termed BART (BamHI A right transcripts are modulators of human immune response genes and genome stability in infected and bystander cells. BART expression is apparently regulated by complex feedback loops with the host immune response regulatory NF-κB transcription factors. EBV-encoded BZLF-1 (ZEBRA protein could also regulate BART since ZEBRA contains a terminal region similar to ankyrin proteins such as IκBα that regulate host NF-κB. BALF-2 (BamHI A left frame transcript, a viral homologue of the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene recombinase RAG-1 (recombination-activating gene-1, may also be coregulated with BART since BALF-2 regulatory sequences are located near the BART locus. Viral-encoded microRNA and viral mRNA transferred to bystander cells through vesicles, defective viral particles, or other mechanisms suggest a new paradigm in which bystander or hit-and-run mechanisms enable the virus to transiently or chronically alter human immune response genes as well as the stability of the human genome.

  9. An 'open source' networked identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of identity in relation to youth practices on social network sites (SNS). The paper illustrates how writing “I love you” or other emotional statements on each other’s profiles on SNS is not only a common way for Danish teenagers to communicate and practice friendship...... communicative actions – are not only performing their own identity, but are becoming co-constructors of each other's identities, which the author characterizes as an 'open source' networked identity....

  10. Social Identity and Group Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...

  11. Social identity process within organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bazarov, Takhir; Kuzmina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Expanding and complex social realities cause new types of identity. Variety in organizations and workgroups (where people are involved), implies a special kind of social identity which can be defined as professional, organizational or managerial. The study of the social identity processes in organizations is a new interdisciplinary sphere that is presented especially commonly in European Social Psychology. The result of its theoretical comprehension is Social Identity Theory. In the article l...

  12. John locke on personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  13. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  14. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  15. The fluidity of biosocial identity and the effects of place, space, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Daniel; Rodriguez Escobar, Jeronimo; Hsu, Yohsiang; Kulathinal, Rob J; Hayes-Conroy, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Public and scientific conceptions of identity are changing alongside advances in biotechnology, with important relevance to health and medicine. In particular, biological identity, once predominantly conceived as static (e.g., related to DNA, dental records, fingerprints) is now being recognized as dynamic or fluid, mirroring contemporary understandings of psychological and social identity. The dynamism of biological identity comes from the individual body's unique relationship with the world surrounding it, and therefore may best be described as biosocial. This paper reviews advances in scientific understandings of identity and presents a model that contrasts prior static approaches to biological identity from more recent dynamically-relational ones. This emerging viewpoint is of broad significance to health and medicine, particularly as medicine recognizes the significance of biography - i.e. the multiple, dense interactions imparted on a body across spatio-temporal dimensions - to phenotypic prediction, especially disease risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  17. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  18. Social Identity Simulation System (SISTEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Report Individuation Individuation refers to when an individual attempts to preserve self-esteem by psychologically separating oneself from a...its expected costs. The following subsections describe various strategies of social identity entrepreneurship in more detail. Calling for...Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S. (2007). Identity Entrepreneurship and the consequences of identity failure: the dynamics of leadership in the BBC prison

  19. Identity theft and your practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft.

  20. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  2. [Evaluation of visualization of biological stains with the use of alternative light source (ALS) for the purpose of genetic identification. Part I. Blood and saliva stains analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremeta, Michał; Pepiński, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Sackiewicz, Adam; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Okłota, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was evaluation of visualization of human blood and saliva stains with the use of alternative light source for the purpose of genetic identification. Experimental bloodstains on the bright base were the most clearly seen in the natural light and white light, up to blood dilution of 1:600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles was obtained from bloodstains at dilution 1:1500. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from bloodstains at dilutions 1:1750 and 1:2000. Experimental saliva stains on the light-colored base were completely invisible in the natural light and white light, while they were visualized at wavelength range 300-415 nm through yellow goggles, and at wavelength range 300-455 nm through orange goggles at saliva dilution 1: 600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was obtained from saliva stains at dilution 1:1750. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from saliva stains at dilution 1:2000. The wavelength of 455 nm and orange goggles were the optimal set for visualization of bloodstains on various, noncontrasting materials. Other useful wavelength/combinations of goggles were CSS light/red goggles. In case of saliva, the most useful general condition for visualization of stains on various, non-contrasting materials was with the wavelength set to 300-415 nm, while wearing yellow goggles. Other useful combinations of wavelength/goggles were 300-455 nm/orange or red goggles, and also CSS light/orange or red goggles.

  3. Genetic and biological characterization of three poultry-origin H5N6 avian influenza viruses with all internal genes from genotype S H9N2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaituo; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Gao, Ruyi; Li, Juan; Shi, Liwei; Sun, Wenqi; Liu, Dong; Gao, Zhao; Xu, Xiulong; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-04-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors. Their biological characteristics were further studied in BALB/c mice, specific-pathogen-free chickens, and mallard ducks. All three isolates had low pathogenicity in mice but were highly pathogenic to chickens, as evidenced by 100% mortality 36-120 hours post infection at a low dose of 10 3.0 EID 50 and through effective contact transmission. Moreover, all three poultry H5N6 isolates caused asymptomatic infections in ducks, which may serve as a reservoir host for their maintenance and dissemination; these migrating waterfowl could cause a potential global pandemic. Our study suggests that continuous epidemiological surveillance in poultry should be implemented for the early prevention of future influenza outbreaks.

  4. Determinant factors of gender identity: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Keeping identity private

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    information. On the other hand, consumers have expressed concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information are violated. Paradoxically, it appears that users provide personal data freely and willingly, as it has been observed on Facebook and other social networks. This study...... is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regu...

  6. Identities at Odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an interaction analytic account of how linguistic identities in internationalized workplaces in Denmark are indexed against members’ institutional positions in particular interactional settings. Where language policy may not be explicitly articulated between members, it is still....... The study uses recordings of naturally occurring interaction in different international workplace settings, and argues for greater attention to be paid to the actual language-policy practices in international workplace settings, as a entry point into developing a more nuanced understanding of the practices...

  7. Digital identity management

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Maryline

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, information technology has altered chains of value production, distribution, and information access at a significant rate. These changes, although they have shaken up numerous economic models, have so far not radically challenged the bases of our society.This book addresses our current progress and viewpoints on digital identity management in different fields (social networks, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT)), with input from experts in computer science, law, economics and sociology. Within this multidisciplinary and scientific context, having crossed analys

  8. Identity Management A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoni, Ilan; Williamson, Graham; Yip, David

    2009-01-01

    In an age in which the boundaries between the real and the virtual are becoming increasingly blurred, this timely guide teaches both the key issues of identity management as well as appropriate strategies and preventative measures for ensuring personal safety in the virtual world. In a corporate setting, it is essential to identify and control the way in which the organization deals with customers, suppliers, employees, and other users who may interact with the information systems of the company. Providing strategies for overcoming this task in real-world terms as well as questions that assist

  9. Identities in Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Clua i Fainé

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Young Catalans in London build their identity as immigrants in a close dialectic between their own imaginary about immigration in their country of origin and British perceptions of them. Given the negative stigma attached to the category of «immigrant», not all recognise themselves as such. Some simply refuse to acknowledge they belong to this category, while others use the projection of prejudices on immigrants towards Spaniards as a strategy from which they distance themselves by establishing a distinction between Catalans and Spaniards.

  10. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  11. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  12. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  13. Identity and the Management Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Dehlin, Erlend

    The paper discusses the concept of identity in relation to management. We take our starting point in Wittgenstein’s concept language games. We argue that identity is a question of using linguistic tools to construct reality. Two elements of the language game metaphor are central here: rules...... and family resemblance. As such, managing identity in organizations is closely linked to rules and family resemblance. Organizations manage identity through the definition of norms and values for right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate, to name but a few. Norms and values are important as reference...... points for constructing identities. Managing identity has become more important because the rules-of-the-game have become more unstable. Managing identity is important if the bonds between individuals and organizations are to be sustained. But this task is contradictory and paradoxical of its very nature...

  14. Online Identities and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  15. Undergraduates Achieve Learning Gains in Plant Genetics through Peer Teaching of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrispeels, H. E.; Klosterman, M. L.; Martin, J. B.; Lundy, S. R.; Watkins, J. M.; Gibson, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates who peer teach genetics will have greater understanding of genetic and molecular biology concepts as a result of their teaching experiences. Undergraduates enrolled in a non–majors biology course participated in a service-learning program in which they led middle school (MS) or high school (HS) students through a case study curriculum to discover the cause of a green tomato variant. The curriculum explored plant reproduction and genetic principles, highlighting variation in heirloom tomato fruits to reinforce the concept of the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. HS students were taught additional activities related to mole­cular biology techniques not included in the MS curriculum. We measured undergraduates’ learning outcomes using pre/postteaching content assessments and the course final exam. Undergraduates showed significant gains in understanding of topics related to the curriculum they taught, compared with other course content, on both types of assessments. Undergraduates who taught HS students scored higher on questions specific to the HS curriculum compared with undergraduates who taught MS students, despite identical lecture content, on both types of assessments. These results indicate the positive effect of service-learning peer-teaching experiences on undergraduates’ content knowledge, even for non–science major students. PMID:25452487

  16. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  17. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  18. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  19. Abstracts of the 48. Brazilian congress on genetics. Genetics in social inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in genetics is presented. Several aspects related to men, animals, plants and microorganisms are reported highlighting biological radiation effects, evolution, mutagenesis and genetic engineering. Genetic mapping, polymerase chain reaction, gene mutations, genetic diversity, DNA hybridization, DNA sequencing, plant cultivation and plant grow are studied as well

  20. On Gene Concepts and Teaching Genetics: Episodes from Classical Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the teaching of advanced high school courses or undergraduate courses for non-biology majors about genetics or history of genetics. It will probably be difficult to take the approach described here in a high school science course, although the general approach could help improve such courses. It would be ideal for a college…