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Sample records for generic core scales

  1. Validation of Persian Version of PedsQL™ 4.0™ Generic Core Scales in Toddlers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Heidary, Maryam; Salehi, Fatemeh; Masaeli, Ali; Mazrooei, Amin; Varni, James W; Fallah, Zahra; Zandieh, Fariborz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the reliability, validity and feasibility of the Persian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL™ 4.0™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales in Iranian healthy students ages 7-15 and chronically ill children ages 2-18. Methods: We followed the translation methodology proposed by developer to validate Persian version of PedsQL™ 4.0™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales for children. Six hundred and sixty children and adolescents and their parents were enrolled. Sample of 160 healthy students were chosen by random cluster method between 4 regions of Isfahan education offices and 60 chronically ill children were recruited from St. Alzahra hospital private clinics. The questionnaires were fulfilled by the participants. Results: The Persian version of PedsQL™ 4.0™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales discriminated between healthy and chronically ill children (healthy students mean score was 12.3 better than chronically ill children, Presearches. It is necessary to alternate scoring for 2-4 years old questionnaire and to find a way to increase reliability for healthy children aged 8-12 years especially, according to Iranian culture. PMID:22701775

  2. PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scales for adolescents in the Yoruba language: translation and general psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Stevanović, Dejan

    2014-04-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a universally accepted concept for measuring the impact of different aspects of life on general well-being. Adaptation of existing QOL instruments to local cultures has been identified as a better strategy than development of new ones. To translate and adapt the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) to the Yoruba language and culture and to test the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument among adolescents. Psychometric properties including internal consistency reliability, construct and factorial validity of the Yoruba version of PedsQL™ were evaluated using standard procedures. The self report and proxy scales of the Yoruba PedsQL™ were developed with good cultural relevance and semantic/conceptual equivalence. Results from 527 adolescents revealed a Cronbach's coefficient which exceeded 0.7 for internal consistency reliability for all scores. The healthy subjects reported higher PedsQL™ scores than those with mental health and physical problems, which confirmed construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Psychosocial Health score, but not for the other measures. The Yoruba PedsQL™ is culturally appropriate and with good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. More work is needed regarding its factorial validity.

  3. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch

  4. Validity and reliability of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children. Methods A standard forward and backward translation procedure was used to translate the US English version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales for children into the Iranian language (Persian. The Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales was completed by 503 healthy and 22 chronically ill children aged 8-12 years and their parents. The reliability was evaluated using internal consistency. Known-groups discriminant comparisons were made, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were conducted. Results The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. All monotrait-multimethod correlations were higher than multitrait-multimethod correlations. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC between the children self-report and parent proxy-reports showed moderate to high agreement. Exploratory factor analysis extracted six factors from the PedsQL™ 4.0 for both self and proxy reports, accounting for 47.9% and 54.8% of total variance, respectively. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis for 6-factor models for both self-report and proxy-report indicated acceptable fit for the proposed models. Regarding health status, as hypothesized from previous studies, healthy children reported significantly higher health-related quality of life than those with chronic illnesses. Conclusions The findings support the initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 as a generic instrument to measure health-related quality of life of children in Iran.

  5. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory ™ generic core scales, cancer module, and multidimensional fatigue scale in long-term adult survivors of pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rhonda S; Paxton, Raheem J; Palla, Shana L; Yang, Grace; Askins, Martha A; Joy, Shaini E; Ater, Joann L

    2012-10-01

    Most health-related quality of life assessments are designed for either children or adults and have not been evaluated for adolescent and young adult survivors of pediatric cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL ™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in adult survivors of pediatric cancer. Adult survivors (n = 64; Mean age 35 year old; >2 years after treatment) completed the PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Feasibility was examined with floor and ceiling effects; and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's coefficient alpha calculations. Inter-factor correlations were also assessed. Significant ceiling effects were observed for the scales of social function, nausea, procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety, and communication. Internal consistency for all subscales was within the recommended ranges (α ≥ 0.70). Moderate to strong correlations between most Cancer Module and Generic Core Scales (r = 0.25 to r = 0.76) and between the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and Generic Core Scales (r = 0.37 to r = 0.73). The PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale appear to be feasible for an older population of pediatric cancer survivors; however, some of the Cancer Module Scales (nausea, procedural/treatment anxiety, and communication) were deemed not relevant for long-term survivors. More information is needed to determine whether the issues addressed by these modules are meaningful to long-term adult survivors of pediatric cancers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Validation of modified forms of the PedsQL generic core scales and cancer module scales for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Jane E; King, Madeleine T; Smith, Narelle F

    2009-03-01

    To validate two health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, the PedsQL Generic Core and Cancer Module adolescent forms (13-18 years), after modification for 16-25-year-old adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder. AYA patients and nominated proxies were recruited from three Sydney hospitals. Modified forms were administered by telephone or in clinics/wards. Analyses included correlations, factor analysis, and analysis of variance of known-groups (defined by the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale). Eighty-eight patients and 79 proxies completed questionnaires. Factor structures consistent with those of the unmodified forms confirmed construct validity. Cronbach's alpha ranged 0.81-0.98. Inter-scale correlations were as hypothesized, confirming discriminant validity. Statistically significant differences between groups with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms (P < 0.05) confirmed clinical validity. These modified forms provide reliable and valid measures of HRQOL in AYA with cancer or a blood disorder, suitable for clinical trials, research, and practice.

  7. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  8. Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an Evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Molly W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We sought to assess the validity and short-term responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™ for febrile illnesses evaluated in the pediatric emergency department (ED. Design Prospective cohort study of children 2–18 years discharged after ED evaluation for fever (≥ 38°C. Self-administered, parent-report of health-related quality of life (HRQOL was assessed using the PedsQL™ Acute Version, a validated HRQOL instrument. HRQOL was measured on ED presentation and at 7–10 day follow-up. At follow-up, duration of fever, child functional impairment, missed daycare/school, and disrupted family unit functioning, were assessed. Results Of 160 subjects enrolled, 97 (61% completed the study; mean follow-up was 8.7 days. Mean total HRQOL score on ED presentation was 76.4; mean follow-up score was 86.3. Compared to subjects that returned to baseline, statistically significant differences in HRQOL were noted for those with prolonged fever, child functional impairment, and relapse. Significant correlation was observed between HRQOL at follow-up and days of daycare/school missed (r = -0.35, p = .003 and days of family disruption (r = -0.43, p Conclusion The PedsQL™ appears to be a valid and responsive indicator of HRQOL for short-term febrile illnesses evaluated in the ED.

  9. Measuring health-related quality of life in children with cancer living in mainland China: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL is widely used instrument to measure pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL for children aged 2 to 18 years. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in a group of Chinese children with cancer. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module were administered to children with cancer (aged 5-18 years and parents of such children (aged 2-18 years. For comparison, a survey on a demographically group-matched sample of the general population with children (aged 5-18 and parents of children (aged 2-18 years was conducted with the PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales. Result The minimal mean percentage of missing item responses (except the School Functioning scale supported the feasibility of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module for Chinese children with cancer. Most of the scales showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach's α of exceeding 0.70, and all scales demonstrated sufficient test-retest reliability. Assessing the clinical validity of the questionnaires, statistically significant difference was found between healthy children and children with cancer, and between children on-treatment versus off-treatment ≥12 months. Positive significant correlations were observed between the scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient factorial validity. Moderate to good agreement was found between child self- and parent proxy-reports. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese Mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in children with cancer living in mainland China.

  10. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwinkle Tasha M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. Methods The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Results Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. Conclusion The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and

  11. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Limbers, Christine A; Burwinkle, Tasha M

    2007-07-16

    Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and parents utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. These findings

  12. Comparison between Utility of the Thai Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cerebral Palsy Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantilipikorn, Pinailug; Watter, Pauline; Prasertsukdee, Saipin

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being considered in the management of patients with various conditions. HRQOL instruments can be broadly classified as generic or disease-specific measures. Several generic HRQOL instruments in different languages have been developed for paediatric populations including the Pediatric Quality…

  13. Health-related quality of life in young adults in education, employment, or training: development of the Japanese version of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mei; Sato, Iori; Soejima, Takafumi; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version (PedsQL-YA-J) and determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the scales. Translation equivalence and content validity were verified using back-translation and cognitive debriefing tests. A total of 428 young adults recruited from one university, two vocational schools, or five companies completed questionnaires. We determined questionnaire feasibility, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability; checked concurrent validity against the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); determined convergent and discriminant validity with the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); described known-groups validity with regard to subjective symptoms, illness or injury requiring regular medical visits, and depression; and verified factorial validity. All scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's coefficient alpha = 0.77-0.86); test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.57-0.69); and all scales were concurrently valid with depression (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.43-0.57). The scales convergent and discriminant validity with the SF-36 and CES-D were acceptable. Evaluation of known-groups validity confirmed that the Physical Functioning scale was sensitive for subjective symptoms, the Emotional Functioning scale for depression, and the Work/School Functioning scale for illness or injury requiring regular medical visits. Exploratory factor analysis found a six-factor structure consistent with the assumed structure (cumulative proportion = 57.0%). The PedsQL-YA-J is suitable for assessing health-related quality of life in young adults in education, employment, or training, and for clinical trials and epidemiological research.

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-Year-Old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-Year-Old: The Hacettepe University Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız Kabak, Vesile; Yakut, Yavuz; Çetin, Mualla; Düger, Tülin

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. The PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module and PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered to children with cancer and their parents at Hacettepe University. Internal consistency was determined by using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability was determined by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the results of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Cronbach's alpha of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.803 to 0.873 and that of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.665 to 0.841. Test-retest ICC values of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.877 to 0.949 and those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.681 to 0.824. The correlation of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with subscale scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales showed that there were excellent to fair correlations between the two scales. The relationship between parent proxy-report and child self-report of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module had very good correlation (r=0.694, p3.0 Cancer Module in 2- to 4-year-old and 5- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-Year-Old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-Year-Old: The Hacettepe University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız Kabak, Vesile; Yakut, Yavuz; Çetin, Mualla; Düger, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: The PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module and PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered to children with cancer and their parents at Hacettepe University. Internal consistency was determined by using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability was determined by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the results of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Results: Cronbach’s alpha of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.803 to 0.873 and that of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.665 to 0.841. Test-retest ICC values of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.877 to 0.949 and those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.681 to 0.824. The correlation of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with subscale scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales showed that there were excellent to fair correlations between the two scales. The relationship between parent proxy-report and child self-report of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module had very good correlation (r=0.694, p3.0 Cancer Module in 2- to 4-year-old and 5- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. PMID:27095607

  16. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Gabriela

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1 attending outpatient clinics and (2 had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument, easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes. People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76. Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p Conclusion Results suggest that the Argentinean Spanish PedsQL™ 4.0 is suitable for research purposes in the public health setting for children over 8 years old and parents of children over 5 years old

  17. A generic scale for assessment of attitudes towards social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Nørskov, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The research field into social robotics is expanding and with it the need for consistent methods for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots. In this paper we describe the development and planned validation of the Attitudes towards social robots scale (ASOR-5): a generic questionnaire ...

  18. Scaling Limits and Generic Bounds for Exploration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermolen, Paola; Jonckheere, Matthieu; Sanders, Jaron

    2017-12-01

    We consider exploration algorithms of the random sequential adsorption type both for homogeneous random graphs and random geometric graphs based on spatial Poisson processes. At each step, a vertex of the graph becomes active and its neighboring nodes become blocked. Given an initial number of vertices N growing to infinity, we study statistical properties of the proportion of explored (active or blocked) nodes in time using scaling limits. We obtain exact limits for homogeneous graphs and prove an explicit central limit theorem for the final proportion of active nodes, known as the jamming constant, through a diffusion approximation for the exploration process which can be described as a unidimensional process. We then focus on bounding the trajectories of such exploration processes on random geometric graphs, i.e., random sequential adsorption. As opposed to exploration processes on homogeneous random graphs, these do not allow for such a dimensional reduction. Instead we derive a fundamental relationship between the number of explored nodes and the discovered volume in the spatial process, and we obtain generic bounds for the fluid limit and jamming constant: bounds that are independent of the dimension of space and the detailed shape of the volume associated to the discovered node. Lastly, using coupling techinques, we give trajectorial interpretations of the generic bounds.

  19. A generic library for large scale solution of PDEs on modern heterogeneous architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    Adapting to new programming models for modern multi- and many-core architectures requires code-rewriting and changing algorithms and data structures, in order to achieve good efficiency and scalability. We present a generic library for solving large scale partial differential equations (PDEs......), capable of utilizing heterogeneous CPU/GPU environments. The library can be used for fast proto-typing of PDE solvers, based on finite difference approximations of spatial derivatives in one, two, or three dimensions. In order to efficiently solve large scale problems, we keep memory consumption...... and memory access low, using a low-storage implementation of flexible-order finite difference operators. We will illustrate the use of library components by assembling such matrix-free operators to be used with one of the supported iterative solvers, such as GMRES, CG, Multigrid or Defect Correction...

  20. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination

  1. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra

    2016-04-01

    Regional hydrogeology is becoming increasingly important, but at the same time, scientifically sound, universal solutions for typical groundwater problems encountered on the regional scale are hard to find. While managers, decision-makers and state agencies operating on regional and national levels have always shown a strong interest in regional scale hydrogeology, researchers from academia tend to avoid the subject, focusing instead on local scales. Additionally, hydrogeology has always had a tendency to regard every problem as unique to its own site- and problem-specific context. Regional scale hydrogeology is therefore pragmatic rather than aiming at developing generic methodology (Barthel, 2014; Barthel and Banzhaf, 2016). One of the main challenges encountered on the regional scale in hydrogeology is the extreme heterogeneity that generally increases with the size of the studied area - paired with relative data scarcity. Even in well-monitored regions of the world, groundwater observations are usually clustered, leaving large areas without any direct data. However, there are many good reasons for assessing the status and predicting the behavior of groundwater systems under conditions of global change even for those areas and aquifers without observations. This is typically done by using rather coarsely discretized and / or poorly parameterized numerical models, or by using very simplistic conceptual hydrological models that do not take into account the complex three-dimensional geological setup. Numerical models heavily rely on local data and are resource-demanding. Conceptual hydrological models only deliver reliable information on groundwater if the geology is extremely simple. In this contribution, we present an approach to derive statistically relevant information for un-monitored areas, making use of existing information from similar localities that are or have been monitored. The approach combines site-specific knowledge with conceptual assumptions on

  2. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, D.

    1996-02-01

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  3. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  4. Generic, Extensible, Configurable Push-Pull Framework for Large-Scale Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian M.; Chang, Albert Y.; Freeborn, Dana J.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Woollard, David M.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    The push-pull framework was developed in hopes that an infrastructure would be created that could literally connect to any given remote site, and (given a set of restrictions) download files from that remote site based on those restrictions. The Cataloging and Archiving Service (CAS) has recently been re-architected and re-factored in its canonical services, including file management, workflow management, and resource management. Additionally, a generic CAS Crawling Framework was built based on motivation from Apache s open-source search engine project called Nutch. Nutch is an Apache effort to provide search engine services (akin to Google), including crawling, parsing, content analysis, and indexing. It has produced several stable software releases, and is currently used in production services at companies such as Yahoo, and at NASA's Planetary Data System. The CAS Crawling Framework supports many of the Nutch Crawler's generic services, including metadata extraction, crawling, and ingestion. However, one service that was not ported over from Nutch is a generic protocol layer service that allows the Nutch crawler to obtain content using protocol plug-ins that download content using implementations of remote protocols, such as HTTP, FTP, WinNT file system, HTTPS, etc. Such a generic protocol layer would greatly aid in the CAS Crawling Framework, as the layer would allow the framework to generically obtain content (i.e., data products) from remote sites using protocols such as FTP and others. Augmented with this capability, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and NPP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) Sounder PEATE (Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements) would be provided with an infrastructure to support generic FTP-based pull access to remote data products, obviating the need for any specialized software outside of the context of their existing process control systems. This extensible configurable framework was created in Java, and allows the use of

  5. Scaling of Core Material in Rubble Mound Breakwater Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.; Troch, P.

    1999-01-01

    The permeability of the core material influences armour stability, wave run-up and wave overtopping. The main problem related to the scaling of core materials in models is that the hydraulic gradient and the pore velocity are varying in space and time. This makes it impossible to arrive at a fully...... correct scaling. The paper presents an empirical formula for the estimation of the wave induced pressure gradient in the core, based on measurements in models and a prototype. The formula, together with the Forchheimer equation can be used for the estimation of pore velocities in cores. The paper proposes...... that the diameter of the core material in models is chosen in such a way that the Froude scale law holds for a characteristic pore velocity. The characteristic pore velocity is chosen as the average velocity of a most critical area in the core with respect to porous flow. Finally the method is demonstrated...

  6. Catalogue of generic plant states leading to core melt in PWRs: includes appendix 1: detailed description of sequences leading to core melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Task Group on thermal-hydraulic system behaviour was given a mandate from PWG 2 on Coolant System-Behaviour with the approval of CSNI to deal with the topic of Accident Management. A writing group was set up to identify generic plant states leading to core melt for pressurized water reactors (PWR) and find 'possible approaches to accident management measures' (AM-Measures) for dealing with them. From a matrix of 15 initiating events and 12 system failures (i.e. from 180 possibilities), 32 event sequences have been identified as leading to core melt. Each sequence has been divided into characteristic plant state intervals according to safety function challenges. For each of the 141 defined characteristic plant state intervals, the members of the Writing Group made proposals for AM-Measures

  7. Generic Containment: Detailed comparison of containment simulations performed on plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelm, St.; Klauck, M.; Beck, S.; Allelein, H.-J.; Preusser, G.; Sangiorgi, M.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Bakalov, I.; Bleyer, A.; Bentaib, A.; Kljenak, I.; Stempniewicz, M.; Kostka, P.; Morandi, S.; Ada del Corno, B.; Bratfisch, C.; Risken, T.; Denk, L.; Parduba, Z.; Paci, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Consequent implementation of the recommendations derived from the OECD/NEA ISP-47. • Phenomenological code-to-code comparison performed on plant scale. • Systematic identification and elimination of the user effect. • Identification of fundamental differences in the model basis. • Application to PAR system analysis. - Abstract: One outcome of the OECD/NEA ISP-47 activity was the recommendation to elaborate a ‘Generic Containment’ in order to allow comparing and rating the results obtained by different lumped-parameter models on plant scale. Within the European SARNET2 project ( (http://www.sar-net.eu)), such a Generic Containment nodalisation, based on a German PWR (1300 MW el ), was defined. This agreement on the nodalisation allows investigating the remaining differences among the results, especially the ‘user-effect’, related to the modelling choices, as well as fundamental differences in the underlying model basis in detail. The methodology applied in order to compare the different code predictions consisted of a series of three benchmark steps with increasing complexity as well as a systematic comparison of characteristic variables and observations. This paper summarises the benchmark series, the lessons learned during specifying the steps, comparing and discussing the results and finally gives an outlook on future steps

  8. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michelle R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent-related validity of the Core Nurse Resource Scale. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to obtain a sample of 149 nurses and nursing staff [Registered Nurse (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPNs) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNAs)] working in long-term care facilities. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and bivariate correlations were used to evaluate validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale with 18 items on three factors, accounting for 52% of the variance in scores. Internal consistency reliability for the composite and Core Nurse Resource Scale factors ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The Core Nurse Resource Scale composite scale and subscales correlated positively with a measure of work engagement (r=0.247-0.572). The initial psychometric evaluation of the Core Nurse Resource Scale demonstrates it is a sound measure. Further validity and reliability assessment will need to be explored and assessed among nurses and other nursing staff working in other practice settings. The intent of the Core Nurse Resource Scale is to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological and social resources of the nursing work environment, to identify workplaces at risk for disengaged (low work engagement) nursing staff and to provide useful diagnostic information to healthcare administrators interested in interventions to improve the nursing work environment. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Scale economies in a series of generic interim SNF storage facilities - 15104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-economic, cost-engineering model of a centralized (Generic Interim Storage Facility - GISF) facility to monitor LWR irradiated fuel with particular attention to scale economies (e.g., to compare the likely costs at a power plant site or at regional, national and international facilities). This paper is based on the cost estimates of the Private Fuel Services Facility (PFSF) on the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians' Reservation in Utah, licensed by the US NRC in 2006 to centralize storage of 40.000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) for 20 to 40 years. Assuming movement of the 40.000 MTHM every 40 years to a new facility, the levelized costs are 144 dollars/kg without high security and physical protection, and 208 dollars/kg with high security through 2111 (assuming disposal within a century), or about 0.50 dollars/MWh to 0.75 dollars/MWh depending on the burnup and thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant. This cost estimate is generalized to explore scale economies for facilities with and without high security and physical protection. There are declining levelized costs with increasing size to 120.000 MTHM without high security, and to 500.000 MTHM with high security, i.e., the higher the level of security, the stronger the economies of scale. (author)

  10. Scaling laws for HTGR core block seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of scaling laws, physical modeling, and seismic testing of a model designed to represent a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) core consisting of graphite blocks. The establishment of the proper scale relationships for length, time, force, and other parameters is emphasized. Tests to select model materials and the appropriate scales are described. Preliminary results obtained from both model and prototype systems tested under simulated seismic vibration are presented

  11. Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2014-11-28

    The isomorph theory is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. If the potential energy as a function of all particle coordinates is denoted by U(R), this requirement translates into U(Ra) < U(Rb) ⇒ U(λRa) < U(λRb). Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

  12. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstün Bedirhan T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels. While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. Methods The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire. ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Results Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. Conclusion The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.

  13. Qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes de São Paulo: confiabilidade e validade da versão brasileira do questionário genérico Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM versão 4.0 Quality of life of children and adolescents from São Paulo: reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM version 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Klatchoian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a confiabilidade e a validade da versão brasileira do questionário genérico Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM (PedsQL TM 4.0 e mensurar a qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e de pacientes com doenças reumáticas. MÉTODOS: No processo de validação, seguimos a metodologia proposta pelos idealizadores da versão original em inglês do questionário PedsQL TM 4.0. O instrumento foi administrado por entrevista em dois grupos: 240 crianças e adolescentes aparentemente saudáveis de São Paulo (SP e 105 pacientes com doenças reumáticas crônicas, pareados por idade, e aos respectivos pais ou responsáveis. O questionário foi aplicado nos cuidadores e nas crianças separadamente e no mesmo dia. RESULTADOS: Os valores do teste alfa de Cronbach situaram-se entre 0,6 e 0,9 para todas as dimensões, demonstrando uma consistência interna adequada. Os pacientes com doenças reumáticas apresentaram uma redução significativa na qualidade de vida quando comparados com as crianças saudáveis (p OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM (PedsQL TM 4.0 Generic Core Scales and measure the quality of life of healthy children and adolescents and patients with rheumatic diseases. METHODS: We followed the translation methodology proposed by the developer of the original English version of the PedsQL TM 4.0. The instrument was administered by interviews in two groups: 240 apparently healthy children and adolescents from São Paulo (SP, Brazil and 105 patients with chronic rheumatic diseases, matched by age, as well as to their respective parents or caregivers. The parent proxy-report was administered to the children's parents or caregivers separately on the same day. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha values were between 0.6 and 0.9 for all dimensions, demonstrating adequate internal consistency. Patients with rheumatic diseases reported

  14. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM ... OpenFOAM to replace some of the Fluent simulations. The fidelity of the Fluent code has been carefully validated, but the accuracy of parts of the... OpenFOAM code have not been so extensively tested. To test the accuracy of the OpenFOAM software, CFD simulations have been performed on the DSTO

  15. Validation of the generic medical interview satisfaction scale: the G-MISS questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Michel, Pierre; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal

    2017-02-14

    Patients have about seven medical consultations a year. Despite the importance of medical interviews in the healthcare process, there is no generic instrument to assess patients' experiences in general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. The main objective was to validate a questionnaire assessing patients' experiences with medical consultations in various practices. The G-MISS study was a prospective multi-center trial that enrolled patients from May to July 2016. A total of 2055 patients were included from general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. Patients filled out a questionnaire assessing various aspects of their experience and satisfaction within 1 week after their medical interview. The validation process relied on item response theory. Internal validity was examined using exploratory factorial analysis. The statistical model used the root mean square error of approximation, confirmatory fit index, and standard root mean square residual as fit indices. Scalability and reliability were assessed with the Rasch model and Cronbach's alpha coefficients, respectively. Scale properties across the three subgroups were explored with differential item functioning. The G-MISS final questionnaire contained 16 items, structured in three dimensions of patients' experiences: "Relief", "Communication", and "Compliance". A global index of patients' experiences was computed as the mean of the dimension scores. All fit indices from the statistical model were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.06). The overall scalability had a good fit to the Rasch model. Each dimension was reliable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.73 to 0.86. Differential item functioning across the three consultation settings was negligible. Patients undergoing medical or surgical specialties reported higher scores in the "Relief" dimension compared with general practice (83.0 ± 11.6 or 82.4 ± 11.6 vs. 73.2 ± 16

  16. A new generic approach for estimating the concentrations of down-the-drain chemicals at catchment and national scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, V.D.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Hydrological Risks and Resources, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: vke@ceh.ac.uk; Rees, H.G. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Hydrological Risks and Resources, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Fox, K.K. [University of Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whelan, M.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    A new generic approach for estimating chemical concentrations in rivers at catchment and national scales is presented. Domestic chemical loads in waste water are estimated using gridded population data. River flows are estimated by combining predicted runoff with topographically derived flow direction. Regional scale exposure is characterised by two summary statistics: PEC{sub works}, the average concentration immediately downstream of emission points, and, PEC{sub area}, the catchment-average chemical concentration. The method was applied to boron at national (England and Wales) and catchment (Aire-Calder) scales. Predicted concentrations were within 50% of measured mean values in the Aire-Calder catchment and in agreement with results from the GREAT-ER model. The concentration grids generated provide a picture of the spatial distribution of expected chemical concentrations at various scales, and can be used to identify areas of potentially high risk. - A new grid-based approach to predict spatially-referenced freshwater concentrations of domestic chemicals.

  17. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  18. Design of a Generic and Flexible Data Structure for Efficient Formulation of Large Scale Network Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large......The formulation of Enterprise-Wide Optimization (EWO) problems as mixed integer nonlinear programming requires collecting, consolidating and systematizing large amount of data, coming from different sources and specific to different disciplines. In this manuscript, a generic and flexible data...... problems, while ensuring at the same time data consistency and quality at the application stage....

  19. The Chado Natural Diversity module: a new generic database schema for large-scale phenotyping and genotyping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Menda, Naama; Redmond, Seth; Buels, Robert M; Friesen, Maren; Bendana, Yuri; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Lapp, Hilmar; Lee, Taein; MacCallum, Bob; Bett, Kirstin E; Cain, Scott; Clements, Dave; Mueller, Lukas A; Main, Dorrie

    2011-01-01

    Linking phenotypic with genotypic diversity has become a major requirement for basic and applied genome-centric biological research. To meet this need, a comprehensive database backend for efficiently storing, querying and analyzing large experimental data sets is necessary. Chado, a generic, modular, community-based database schema is widely used in the biological community to store information associated with genome sequence data. To meet the need to also accommodate large-scale phenotyping and genotyping projects, a new Chado module called Natural Diversity has been developed. The module strictly adheres to the Chado remit of being generic and ontology driven. The flexibility of the new module is demonstrated in its capacity to store any type of experiment that either uses or generates specimens or stock organisms. Experiments may be grouped or structured hierarchically, whereas any kind of biological entity can be stored as the observed unit, from a specimen to be used in genotyping or phenotyping experiments, to a group of species collected in the field that will undergo further lab analysis. We describe details of the Natural Diversity module, including the design approach, the relational schema and use cases implemented in several databases.

  20. Development of the Transport Class Model (TCM) Aircraft Simulation From a Sub-Scale Generic Transport Model (GTM) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom, flat-earth dynamics, non-linear, and non-proprietary aircraft simulation was developed that is representative of a generic mid-sized twin-jet transport aircraft. The simulation was developed from a non-proprietary, publicly available, subscale twin-jet transport aircraft simulation using scaling relationships and a modified aerodynamic database. The simulation has an extended aerodynamics database with aero data outside the normal transport-operating envelope (large angle-of-attack and sideslip values). The simulation has representative transport aircraft surface actuator models with variable rate-limits and generally fixed position limits. The simulation contains a generic 40,000 lb sea level thrust engine model. The engine model is a first order dynamic model with a variable time constant that changes according to simulation conditions. The simulation provides a means for interfacing a flight control system to use the simulation sensor variables and to command the surface actuators and throttle position of the engine model.

  1. Generic finite size scaling for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Fiore, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Based on quasistationary distribution ideas, a general finite size scaling theory is proposed for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we show that quantities such as response functions, cumulants, and equal area probability distributions all scale with the volume, thus allowing proper estimates for the thermodynamic limit. To illustrate these results, five very distinct lattice models displaying nonequilibrium transitions—to single and infinitely many absorbing states—are investigated. The innate difficulties in analyzing absorbing phase transitions are circumvented through quasistationary simulation methods. Our findings (allied to numerical studies in the literature) strongly point to a unifying discontinuous phase transition scaling behavior for equilibrium and this important class of nonequilibrium systems.

  2. Generic mechanism of optimal energy transfer efficiency: a scaling theory of the mean first-passage time in exciton systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianlan; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-05-17

    An asymptotic scaling theory is presented using the conceptual basis of trapping-free subspace (i.e., orthogonal subspace) to establish the generic mechanism of optimal efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting systems. A quantum state orthogonal to the trap will exhibit noise-assisted transfer, clarifying the significance of initial preparation. For such an initial state, the efficiency is enhanced in the weak damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ 1/Γ), and suppressed in the strong damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ Γ), analogous to Kramers turnover in classical rate theory. An interpolating expression ⟨t⟩ = A/Γ + B + CΓ quantitatively describes the trapping time over the entire range of the dissipation strength, and predicts the optimal efficiency at Γ(opt) ∼ J for homogenous systems. In the presence of static disorder, the scaling law of transfer time with respect to dephasing rate changes from linear to square root, suggesting a weaker dependence on the environment. The prediction of the scaling theory is verified in a symmetric dendrimer system by numerically exact quantum calculations. Though formulated in the context of excitation energy transfer, the analysis and conclusions apply in general to open quantum processes, including electron transfer, fluorescence emission, and heat conduction.

  3. Fitting the Generic Multi-Parameter Crossover Model: Towards Realistic Scaling Estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; E.H. Dooijes; F.C.A. Groen; M.M. Novak; T. G. Dewey

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe primary concern of fractal metrology is providing a means of reliable estimation of scaling exponents such as fractal dimension, in order to prove the null hypothesis that a particular object can be regarded as fractal. In the particular context to be discussed in this contribution,

  4. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  5. Scaling NS-3 DCE Experiments on Multi-Core Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    MPTCP) using the same software in DCE. In the experiment, only two wireless links ( LTE and Wi-Fi) are setup to examine MPTCP, resulting in limited...performance drop on the blade server. Our investigation then turned to other straightforward measures including the following: • We reduced the amount...simulation with varying numbers of cores and measured the run time. To pin the simulation to a specific set of cores, we switched from using 0:00   2:00

  6. A common and optimized age scale for Antarctic ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrenin, F.; Veres, D.; Landais, A.; Bazin, L.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Toye Mahamadou Kele, H.; Wolff, E.; Martinerie, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dating ice cores is a complex problem because 1) there is a age shift between the gas bubbles and the surrounding ice 2) there are many different ice cores which can be synchronized with various proxies and 3) there are many methods to date the ice and the gas bubbles, each with advantages and drawbacks. These methods fall into the following categories: 1) Ice flow (for the ice) and firn densification modelling (for the gas bubbles); 2) Comparison of ice core proxies with insolation variations (so-called orbital tuning methods); 3) Comparison of ice core proxies with other well dated archives; 4) Identification of well-dated horizons, such as tephra layers or geomagnetic anomalies. Recently, an new dating tool has been developped (DATICE, Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010), to take into account all the different dating information into account and produce a common and optimal chronology for ice cores with estimated confidence intervals. In this talk we will review the different dating information for Antarctic ice cores and show how the DATICE tool can be applied.

  7. Multi-scale simulations of droplets in generic time-dependent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Felix; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Toschi, Federico

    2017-11-01

    We study the deformation and dynamics of droplets in time-dependent flows using a diffuse interface model for two immiscible fluids. The numerical simulations are at first benchmarked against analytical results of steady droplet deformation, and further extended to the more interesting case of time-dependent flows. The results of these time-dependent numerical simulations are compared against analytical models available in the literature, which assume the droplet shape to be an ellipsoid at all times, with time-dependent major and minor axis. In particular we investigate the time-dependent deformation of a confined droplet in an oscillating Couette flow for the entire capillary range until droplet break-up. In this way these multi component simulations prove to be a useful tool to establish from ``first principles'' the dynamics of droplets in complex flows involving multiple scales. European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 642069. & European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program, ERC Grant Agreement No 339032.

  8. Some comments on mapping from disease-specific to generic health-related quality-of-life scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari

    2013-01-01

    An article by Lu et al. in this issue of Value in Health addresses the mapping of treatment or group differences in disease-specific measures (DSMs) of health-related quality of life onto differences in generic health-related quality-of-life scores, with special emphasis on how the mapping is affected by the reliability of the DSM. In the proposed mapping, a factor analytic model defines a conversion factor between the scores as the ratio of factor loadings. Hence, the mapping applies to convert true underlying scales and has desirable properties facilitating the alignment of instruments and understanding their relationship in a coherent manner. It is important to note, however, that when DSM means or differences in mean DSMs are estimated, their mapping is still of a measurement error-prone predictor, and the correct conversion coefficient is the true mapping multiplied by the reliability of the DSM in the relevant sample. In addition, the proposed strategy for estimating the factor analytic mapping in practice requires assumptions that may not hold. We discuss these assumptions and how they may be the reason we obtain disparate estimates of the mapping factor in an application of the proposed methods to groups of patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  10. Large scale reflood test with cylindrical core test facility (CCTF). Core I. FY 1979 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Akimoto, Hajime; Okubo, Tsutomu; Sudoh, Takashi; Hirano, Kenmei

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the results of analysis of the data obtained in the CCTF Core I test series (19 tests) in FY. 1979 as an interim report. The Analysis of the test results showed that: (1) The present safety evaluation model on the reflood phenomena during LOCA conservatively represents the phenomena observed in the tests except for the downcomer thermohydrodynamic behavior. (2) The downcomer liquid level rose slowly and it took long time for the water to reach a terminal level or the spill-over level. It was presume that such a results was due to an overly conservative selection of the ECC flow rate. This presumption will be checked against a future test result for an increased flow rate. The loop-seal-water filling test was unsuccessful due to a premature power shutdown by the core protection circuit. The test will be conducted again. The tests to be performed in the future are summerized. Tests for investigation of the refill phenomena were also proposed. (author)

  11. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  12. Core and Peripheral Criteria of Video Game Addiction in the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, St?le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16?74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted...

  13. Burnup dependent core neutronic calculations for research and training reactors via SCALE4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombakoglu, M.; Cecen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the full core modelling is performed to improve neutronic analyses capability for nuclear research reactors using SCALE4.4 code system. KENOV.a module of SCALE4.4 code system is utilized for full core neutronic analysis. The ORIGEN-S module is coupled with the KENOV.a module to perform burnup dependent neutronic analyses. Results of neutronic calculations for 1 st cycle of Cekmece TR-2 research reactor are presented. In particular, coupling of KENOV.a and ORIGEN-S modules of SCALE4.4 is discussed. The preliminary results of 2-D burnup dependent neutronic calculations are also given. These results are extended to burnup dependent core calculations of TRIGA Mark-II research reactors. The code system developed here is similar to the code system that couples MCNP and ORIGEN2.(author)

  14. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  15. Scale model study of the seismic response of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Rhorer, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of scale models to study the dynamics of a system of graphite core blocks used in certain nuclear reactor designs is described. Scaling laws, material selecton, model instrumentation to measure collision forces, and the response of several models to simulated seismic excitation are covered. The effects of Coulomb friction between the blocks and the clearance gaps between the blocks on the system response to seismic excitation are emphasized

  16. Modeling the Power Variability of Core Speed Scaling on Homogeneous Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a family of power models that can capture the nonuniform power effects of speed scaling among homogeneous cores on multicore processors. These models depart from traditional ones, which assume that individual cores contribute to power consumption as independent entities. In our approach, we remove this independence assumption and employ statistical variables of core speed (average speed and the dispersion of the core speeds to capture the comprehensive heterogeneous impact of subtle interactions among the underlying hardware. We systematically explore the model family, deriving basic and refined models that give progressively better fits, and analyze them in detail. The proposed methodology provides an easy way to build power models to reflect the realistic workings of current multicore processors more accurately. Moreover, unlike the existing lower-level power models that require knowledge of microarchitectural details of the CPU cores and the last level cache to capture core interdependency, ours are easier to use and scalable to emerging and future multicore architectures with more cores. These attributes make the models particularly useful to system users or algorithm designers who need a quick way to estimate power consumption. We evaluate the family of models on contemporary x86 multicore processors using the SPEC2006 benchmarks. Our best model yields an average predicted error as low as 5%.

  17. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  18. PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I.; St Clair, R.; Orr, D.

    2012-01-01

    The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

  19. PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); St Clair, R.; Orr, D. [Duke Energy, 526 S. Church St, Charlotte, NC 28202 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

  20. A reduced scale two loop PWR core designed with particle swarm optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos A. Souza; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Cunha, Joao J.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced scale experiments are often employed in engineering projects because they are much cheaper than real scale testing. Unfortunately, designing reduced scale thermal-hydraulic circuit or equipment, with the capability of reproducing, both accurately and simultaneously, all physical phenomena that occur in real scale and at operating conditions, is a difficult task. To solve this problem, advanced optimization techniques, such as Genetic Algorithms, have been applied. Following this research line, we have performed investigations, using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Technique, to design a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power and non accidental operating conditions. Obtained results show that the proposed methodology is a promising approach for forced flow reduced scale experiments. (author)

  1. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  2. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  3. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C. L.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hill, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2'' diameter x 11'' long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315, which is designed to provide mass

  4. Comparison of steam-generator liquid holdup and core uncovery in two facilities of differing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, F.; Schultz, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on Run SB-CL-05, a test similar to Semiscale Run S-UT-8. The test results show that the core was uncovered briefly during the accident and that the rods overheated at certain core locations. Liquid holdup on the upflow side of the steam-generator tubes was observed. After the loop seal cleared, the core refilled and the rods cooled. These behaviors were similar to those observed in the Semiscale run. The Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) Run SB-CL-06 is a counterpart test to Semiscale Run S-LH-01. The comparison of the results of both tests shows similar phenomena. The similarity of phenomena in these two facilities build confidence that these results can be expected to occur in a PWR. Similar holdup has now been observed in the 6 tubes of Semiscale and in the 141 tubes of LSTF. It is now more believable that holdup may occur in a full-scale steam generator with 3000 or more tubes. These results confirm the scaling of these phenomena from Semiscale (1/1705) to LSTF (1/48). The TRAC results for SB-CL-05 are in reasonable agreement with the test data. TRAC predicted the core uncovery and resulting rod heatup. The liquid holdup on the upflow side of the steam-generator tubes was also correctly predicted. The clearing of the loop seal allowed core recovery and cooled the overheated rods just as it had in the data. The TRAC analysis results of Run SB-CL-05 are similar to those from Semiscale Run S-UT-8. The ability of the TRAC code to calculate the phenomena equally well in the two experiments of different scales confirms the scalability of the many models in the code that are important in calculating this small break

  5. The FRIGG project: From intermediate galactic scales to self-gravitating cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Context. Understanding the detailed structure of the interstellar gas is essential for our knowledge of the star formation process. Aim. The small-scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) is a direct consequence of the galactic scales and making the link between the two is essential. Methods: We perform adaptive mesh simulations that aim to bridge the gap between the intermediate galactic scales and the self-gravitating prestellar cores. For this purpose we use stratified supernova regulated ISM magneto-hydrodynamical simulations at the kpc scale to set up the initial conditions. We then zoom, performing a series of concentric uniform refinement and then refining on the Jeans length for the last levels. This allows us to reach a spatial resolution of a few 10-3 pc. The cores are identified using a clump finder and various criteria based on virial analysis. Their most relevant properties are computed and, due to the large number of objects formed in the simulations, reliable statistics are obtained. Results: The cores' properties show encouraging agreements with observations. The mass spectrum presents a clear powerlaw at high masses with an exponent close to ≃-1.3 and a peak at about 1-2 M⊙. The velocity dispersion and the angular momentum distributions are respectively a few times the local sound speed and a few 10-2 pc km s-1. We also find that the distribution of thermally supercritical cores present a range of magnetic mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratios, typically between ≃0.3 and 3 indicating that they are significantly magnetized. Investigating the time and spatial dependence of these statistical properties, we conclude that they are not significantly affected by the zooming procedure and that they do not present very large fluctuations. The most severe issue appears to be the dependence on the numerical resolution of the core mass function (CMF). While the core definition process may possibly introduce some biases, the peak tends to

  6. Scaling gysela code beyond 32K-cores on bluegene/Q***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigot J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gyrokinetic simulations lead to huge computational needs. Up to now, the semi- Lagrangian code Gysela performed large simulations using a few thousands cores (8k cores typically. Simulation with finer resolutions and with kinetic electrons are expected to increase those needs by a huge factor, providing a good example of applications requiring Exascale machines. This paper presents our work to improve Gysela in order to target an architecture that presents one possible way towards Exascale: the Blue Gene/Q. After analyzing the limitations of the code on this architecture, we have implemented three kinds of improvement: computational performance improvements, memory consumption improvements and disk i/o improvements. As a result, we show that the code now scales beyond 32k cores with much improved performances. This will make it possible to target the most powerful machines available and thus handle much larger physical cases.

  7. The Destabilization of Protected Soil Organic Carbon Following Experimental Drought at the Pore and Core scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Tfaily, M. M.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bailey, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    The movement of water and solutes through the pore matrix controls the distribution and transformation of carbon (C) in soils. Thus, a change in the hydrologic connectivity, such as increased saturation, disturbance or drought, may alter C mineralization and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes to the atmosphere. While these processes occur at the pore scale, they are often investigated at coarser scale. This project investigates pore- and core-scale soil C dynamics with varying hydrologic factors (simulated precipitation, groundwater-led saturation, and drought) to assess how climate-change induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity influences the destabilization of protected C in soils. Surface soil cores (0-15 cm depth) were collected from the Disney Wilderness Preserve, Florida, USA where water dynamics, particularly water table rise and fall, appear to exert a strong control on the emissions of GHGs and the persistence of soil organic matter in these soils. We measured CO2 and CH4 from soils allowed to freely imbibe water from below to a steady state starting from either field moist conditions or following experimental drought. Parallel treatments included the addition of similar quantities of water from above to simulate precipitation. Overall respiration increased in soil cores subjected to drought compared to field moist cores independent of wetting type. Cumulative CH4 production was higher in drought-induced soils, especially in the soils subjected to experimental groundwater-led saturation. Overall, the more C (from CO2 and CH4) was lost in drought-induced soils compared to field moist cores. Our results indicate that future drought events could have profound effects on the destabilization of protected C, especially in groundwater-fed soils. Our next steps focus on how to accurately capture drought-induced C destabilization mechanisms in earth system models.

  8. Harnessing Petaflop-Scale Multi-Core Supercomputing for Problems in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K. J.; Daughton, W.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The particle-in-cell kinetic plasma code VPIC has been migrated successfully to the world's fastest supercomputer, Roadrunner, a hybrid multi-core platform built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. How this was achieved will be described and examples of state-of-the-art calculations in space science, in particular, the study of magnetic reconnection, will be presented. With VPIC on Roadrunner, we have performed, for the first time, plasma PIC calculations with over one trillion particles, >100× larger than calculations considered "heroic" by community standards. This allows examination of physics at unprecedented scale and fidelity. Roadrunner is an example of an emerging paradigm in supercomputing: the trend toward multi-core systems with deep hierarchies and where memory bandwidth optimization is vital to achieving high performance. Getting VPIC to perform well on such systems is a formidable challenge: the core algorithm is memory bandwidth limited with low compute-to-data ratio and requires random access to memory in its inner loop. That we were able to get VPIC to perform and scale well, achieving >0.374 Pflop/s and linear weak scaling on real physics problems on up to the full 12240-core Roadrunner machine, bodes well for harnessing these machines for our community's needs in the future. Many of the design considerations encountered commute to other multi-core and accelerated (e.g., via GPU) platforms and we modified VPIC with flexibility in mind. These will be summarized and strategies for how one might adapt a code for such platforms will be shared. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Bowers is a LANL Guest Scientist; he is presently at D. E. Shaw Research LLC, 120 W 45th Street, 39th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

  9. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  10. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  11. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  12. TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Buiron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new deep ice core drilling program, TALDICE, has been successfully handled by a European team at Talos Dome, in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica, down to 1620 m depth. Using stratigraphic markers and a new inverse method, we produce the first official chronology of the ice core, called TALDICE-1. We show that it notably improves an a priori chronology resulting from a one-dimensional ice flow model. It is in agreement with a posteriori controls of the resulting accumulation rate and thinning function along the core. An absolute uncertainty of only 300 yr is obtained over the course of the last deglaciation. This uncertainty remains lower than 600 yr over Marine Isotope Stage 3, back to 50 kyr BP. The phasing of the TALDICE ice core climate record with respect to the central East Antarctic plateau and Greenland records can thus be determined with a precision allowing for a discussion of the mechanisms at work at sub-millennial time scales.

  13. The development and validation of the core competencies scale (CCS) for the college and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Bin; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Edginton, Christopher R; Chin, Ming Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Core Competencies Scale (CCS) using Bok's (2006) competency framework for undergraduate education. The framework included: communication, critical thinking, character development, citizenship, diversity, global understanding, widening of interest, and career and vocational development. The sample comprised 70 college and university students. Results of analysis using Rasch rating scale modelling showed that there was strong empirical evidence on the validity of the measures in contents, structure, interpretation, generalizability, and response options of the CCS scale. The implication of having developed Rasch-based valid and dependable measures in this study for gauging the value added of college and university education to their students is that the feedback generated from CCS will enable evidence-based decision and policy making to be implemented and strategized. Further, program effectiveness can be measured and thus accountability on the achievement of the program objectives.

  14. Large-scale Instability during Gravitational Collapse with Neutrino Transport and a Core-Collapse Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the energy released in the gravitational collapse of the cores of massive stars is carried away by neutrinos. Neutrinos play a pivotal role in explaining core-collape supernovae. Currently, mathematical models of the gravitational collapse are based on multi-dimensional gas dynamics and thermonuclear reactions, while neutrino transport is considered in a simplified way. Multidimensional gas dynamics is used with neutrino transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation to study the role of multi-dimensional effects. The possibility of large-scale convection is discussed, which is interesting both for explaining SN II and for setting up observations to register possible high-energy (≳10MeV) neutrinos from the supernova. A new multi-dimensional, multi-temperature gas dynamics method with neutrino transport is presented.

  15. Deriving micro- to macro-scale seismic velocities from ice-core c axis orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerch, Johanna; Diez, Anja; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf

    2018-05-01

    One of the great challenges in glaciology is the ability to estimate the bulk ice anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers, which is needed to improve our understanding of ice-sheet dynamics. We investigate the effect of crystal anisotropy on seismic velocities in glacier ice and revisit the framework which is based on fabric eigenvalues to derive approximate seismic velocities by exploiting the assumed symmetry. In contrast to previous studies, we calculate the seismic velocities using the exact c axis angles describing the orientations of the crystal ensemble in an ice-core sample. We apply this approach to fabric data sets from an alpine and a polar ice core. Our results provide a quantitative evaluation of the earlier approximative eigenvalue framework. For near-vertical incidence our results differ by up to 135 m s-1 for P-wave and 200 m s-1 for S-wave velocity compared to the earlier framework (estimated 1 % difference in average P-wave velocity at the bedrock for the short alpine ice core). We quantify the influence of shear-wave splitting at the bedrock as 45 m s-1 for the alpine ice core and 59 m s-1 for the polar ice core. At non-vertical incidence we obtain differences of up to 185 m s-1 for P-wave and 280 m s-1 for S-wave velocities. Additionally, our findings highlight the variation in seismic velocity at non-vertical incidence as a function of the horizontal azimuth of the seismic plane, which can be significant for non-symmetric orientation distributions and results in a strong azimuth-dependent shear-wave splitting of max. 281 m s-1 at some depths. For a given incidence angle and depth we estimated changes in phase velocity of almost 200 m s-1 for P wave and more than 200 m s-1 for S wave and shear-wave splitting under a rotating seismic plane. We assess for the first time the change in seismic anisotropy that can be expected on a short spatial (vertical) scale in a glacier due to strong variability in crystal-orientation fabric (±50 m s-1 per 10 cm

  16. GCFR 1/20-scale PCRV central core cavity closure model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.; Dougan, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been conducting structural response tests of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) closures for the 300-MW(e) gas-cooled fast reactor demonstration power plant. This report describes the third in a series of tests of small-scale closure plug models. The model represents a redesign of the central core cavity closure plug. The primary objective was to demonstrate structural performance and ultimate load capacity of the closure plug. Secondary objectives included obtaining data on crack development and propagation and on mode of failure of the composite structure

  17. Comparison of prestellar core elongations and large-scale molecular cloud structures in the Lupus I region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poidevin, Frédérick [UCL, KLB, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angile, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canãda, Madrid (Spain); Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca, E-mail: fpoidevin@iac.es [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    Turbulence and magnetic fields are expected to be important for regulating molecular cloud formation and evolution. However, their effects on sub-parsec to 100 parsec scales, leading to the formation of starless cores, are not well understood. We investigate the prestellar core structure morphologies obtained from analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE 350 μm maps of the Lupus I cloud. This distribution is first compared on a statistical basis to the large-scale shape of the main filament. We find the distribution of the elongation position angle of the cores to be consistent with a random distribution, which means no specific orientation of the morphology of the cores is observed with respect to the mean orientation of the large-scale filament in Lupus I, nor relative to a large-scale bent filament model. This distribution is also compared to the mean orientation of the large-scale magnetic fields probed at 350 μm with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope for Polarimetry during its 2010 campaign. Here again we do not find any correlation between the core morphology distribution and the average orientation of the magnetic fields on parsec scales. Our main conclusion is that the local filament dynamics—including secondary filaments that often run orthogonally to the primary filament—and possibly small-scale variations in the local magnetic field direction, could be the dominant factors for explaining the final orientation of each core.

  18. Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbaert, An; Pfeifer, Catherine; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2017-02-01

    As a result of population growth, urbanization and climate change, agricultural systems around the world face enormous pressure on the use of resources. There is a pressing need for wide-scale innovation leading to development that improves the livelihoods and food security of the world's population while at the same time addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. A variety of promising climate-smart interventions have been identified. However, what remains is the prioritization of interventions for investment and broad dissemination. The suitability and adoption of interventions depends on a variety of bio-physical and socio-economic factors. Also their impacts, when adopted and out-scaled, are likely to be highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity expresses itself not only spatially and temporally but also in terms of the stakeholders affected, some might win and some might lose. A mechanism that can facilitate a systematic, holistic assessment of the likely spread and consequential impact of potential interventions is one way of improving the selection and targeting of such options. In this paper we provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, we demonstrate each of the steps and how they are interlinked. The framework is applicable in many different forms, scales and settings. It has a wide applicability beyond the examples presented and we hope to stimulate readers to integrate the concepts in the planning process for climate-smart agriculture, which invariably involves multi-stakeholder, multi-scale and multi-objective decision-making.

  19. DETAILED INTERSTELLAR POLARIMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE PIPE NEBULA AT CORE SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O.; Girart, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We use R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for about 12,000 background field stars in 46 fields of view toward the Pipe nebula to investigate the properties of the polarization across this dark cloud. Based on archival Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we estimate that the surveyed areas present total visual extinctions in the range 0.6 mag ≤ A V ≤ 4.6 mag. While the observed polarizations show a well-ordered large-scale pattern, with polarization vectors almost perpendicularly aligned to the cloud's long axis, at core scales one sees details that are characteristics of each core. Although many observed stars present degrees of polarization that are unusual for the common interstellar medium (ISM), our analysis suggests that the dust grains constituting the diffuse parts of the Pipe nebula seem to have the same properties as the normal Galactic ISM. Estimates of the second-order structure function of the polarization angles suggest that most of the Pipe nebula is magnetically dominated and that turbulence is sub-Alvenic. The Pipe nebula is certainly an interesting region to investigate the processes that prevailed during the initial phases of low-mass stellar formation.

  20. LACOMERA - large scale experiments on core degradation, melt retention and coolability at the Forschungszentrum Karslruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, A.; Alsmeyer, H.; Meyer, L.

    2003-01-01

    The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is a 3 year shared-cost action within the Fifth Framework Programme which started in September 2002. The overall objectives of the LACOMERA project are to provide research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to large scale experimental facilities at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe which shall be used to increase the knowledge of the quenching of a degraded core and regaining melt coolability in the reactor pressure vessel, of possible melt dispersion to the cavity, of molten core concrete interaction and of ex-vessel melt coolability. One major aspect is to understand how these events affect the safety of European reactors so as to lead to soundly-based accident management procedures. The project will bring together interested partners of different European member states in the area of severe accident analysis and control, with the goal to increase the public confidence in the use of nuclear energy. Moreover, partners from the newly associated states should be included as far as possible, and therefore the needs of Eastern, as well as Western, reactors will be considered in LACOMERA project. The project offers a unique opportunity to get involved in the networks and activities supporting VVER safety, and for Eastern experts to get an access to large scale experimental facilities in a Western research organisation to improve understanding of material properties and core behaviour under severe accident conditions. As a result of the first call for proposals a project on air ingress test in the QUENCH facility has been selected. A second call for proposals is opened with a deadline of 31 December 2003. (author)

  1. Surveying the Dense Gas in Barnard 1 and NGC 1333 from Cloud to Core Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee; Teuben, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Looney, Leslie; Rosolowsky, Erik; Classy Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The CARMA Large Area Star formation Survey (CLASSy) is mapping molecular emission across large areas of the nearby Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. With an angular resolution of 7 arcsec, CLASSy probes dense gas on scales from a few thousand AU to parsecs with CARMA-23 and single-dish observations. The resulting maps of N2H+, HCN, and HCO+ J=1-0 trace the kinematics and structure of the high-density gas in regions covering a wide range of intrinsic star formation activity. This poster presents an overview of three completed CLASSy fields, NGC 1333, Barnard 1, and Serpens Main, and then focuses on the dendrogram analysis that CLASSy is using to characterize the emission structure. We have chosen a dendrogram analysis over traditional clump finding because dendrograms better encode the hierarchical nature of cloud structure and better facilitate analysis of cloud properties across the range of size scales probed by CLASSy. We present a new dendrogram methodology that allows for non-binary mergers of kernels, which results in a gas hierarchy that is more true to limitations of the S/N in the data. The resulting trees from Barnard 1 and NGC 1333 are used to derive physical parameters of the identified gas structures, and to probe the kinematic relationship between gas structures at different spatial scales and evolutionary stages. We derive a flat relation between mean internal turbulence and structure size for the dense gas in both regions, but find a difference between the magnitude of the internal turbulence in regions with and without protostars; the dense gas in the B1 main core and NGC 1333 are characterized by mostly transonic to supersonic turbulence, while the B1 filaments and clumps southwest of the main core have mostly subsonic turbulence. These initial results, along with upcoming work analyzing the completed CLASSy observations, will be used to test current theories for star formation in turbulent molecular clouds.

  2. Exploring Hardware Support For Scaling Irregular Applications on Multi-node Multi-core Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, Simone; Ceriani, Marco; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Palermo, Gianluca; Raffo, Luigi

    2013-06-05

    With the recent emergence of large-scale knowledge dis- covery, data mining and social network analysis, irregular applications have gained renewed interest. Classic cache-based high-performance architectures do not provide optimal performances with such kind of workloads, mainly due to the very low spatial and temporal locality of the irregular control and memory access patterns. In this paper, we present a multi-node, multi-core, fine-grained multi-threaded shared-memory system architecture specifically designed for the execution of large-scale irregular applications, and built on top of three pillars, that we believe are fundamental to support these workloads. First, we offer transparent hardware support for Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) to provide a large globally-shared address space with no software library overhead. Second, we employ multi-threaded multi-core processing nodes to achieve the necessary latency tolerance required by accessing global memory, which potentially resides in a remote node. Finally, we devise hardware support for inter-thread synchronization on the whole global address space. We first model the performances by using an analytical model that takes into account the main architecture and application characteristics. We describe the hardware design of the proposed cus- tom architectural building blocks that provide support for the above- mentioned three pillars. Finally, we present a limited-scale evaluation of the system on a multi-board FPGA prototype with typical irregular kernels and benchmarks. The experimental evaluation demonstrates the architecture performance scalability for different configurations of the whole system.

  3. Calculation of mixed HEU-LEU cores for the HOR research reactor with the scale code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leege, P.F.A. de; Gibcus, H.P.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Vries, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    The HOR reactor of Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI), Delft, The Netherlands, will be converted to use low enriched fuel (LEU) assemblies. As there are still many usable high enriched (HEU) fuel assemblies present, there will be a considerable reactor operation time with mixed cores with both HEU and LEU fuel assemblies. At IRI a comprehensive reactor physics code system and evaluated nuclear data is implemented for detailed core calculations. One of the backbones of the IRI code system is the well-known SCALE code system package. Full core calculations are performed with the diffusion theory code BOLD VENTURE, the nodal code SILWER, and the Monte Carlo code KENO Va. Results are displayed of a strategy from a HEU core to a mixed HEU-LEU core and eventually a LEU core. (author)

  4. Development of an integrated generic model for multi-scale assessment of the impacts of agro-ecosystems on major ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belem, Mahamadou; Saqalli, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions. A case study in Burkina Faso is examined to assess the environmental and economic performances of semi-continuous and continuous farming systems. Results show that the semi-continuous system using organic fertilizer and fallowing practices contribute better to environment preservation and food security than the more economically performant continuous system. In addition, this study showed that farmers heterogeneity could play an important role in agricultural policies planning and assessment. In addition, the results showed that MOWASIA is an effective tool for designing, analysing the impacts of agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Recent progress in the LACOMERA Project (Large-Scale Experiments on Core Degradation, Melt Retention and Coolability) at the Forschungszentrum Karslruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, A.; Alsmeyer, H.; Eppinger, B.; Meyer, L.; Steinbrueck, M.

    2004-01-01

    The LACOMERA Project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) is a 3 year action within the 5 th Framework Programme of the EU. The overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO-H, and COMET which can be used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. As a result of two calls for proposals, seven organisations from four countries are expected to profit from the LACOMERA Project participating in preparation, conduct and analysis of the following experiments: QUENCH-L1: Air ingression impact on core degradation. The test has provided unique data for the investigation of air ingress phenomenology in conditions as representative as possible of the reactor case regarding the source term. QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test will be of a generic interest for all reactor types, providing a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. LIVE-L1: Simulation of melt relocation into the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) lower head for VVER conditions. The experiment will provide important information on the melt pool behaviour during the stages of air circulation at the outer RPV surface with a subsequent flooding of the lower head. LIVE-L2: Transient corium spreading and its impact on the heat fluxes to the RPV wall and on the final shape of the melt in the RPV lower head. The test will address the questions of melt stabilisation and the effects of crust formation near the RPV wall for a nonsymmetrical melt pool shape. COMET-L1: Long-term 2D concrete ablation in siliceous concrete cavity at intermediate decay heat power level with

  6. The (mismeasurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri J. Kajonius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698. We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500 and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT. Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49. The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were

  7. Results of fission product release from intermediate-scale MCCI [molten core-concrete interaction] tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    A program of reactor-material molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests and related analyses are under way at Argonne National Laboratory under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The particular objective of these tests is to provide data pertaining to the release of nonvolatile fission products such as La, Ba, and Sr, plus other aerosol materials, from the coupled thermal-hydraulic and chemical processes of the MCCI. The first stages of the program involving small and intermediate-scale tests have been completed. Three small-scale tests (/approximately/5 kg corium) and nine intermediate-scale tests (/approximately/30 kg corium) were performed between September 1985 and September 1987. Real reactor materials were used in these tests. Sustained internal heat generation at nominally 1 kW per kg of melt was provided by direct electrical heating of the corium mixture. MCCI tests were performed with both fully and partially oxidized corium mixtures that contained a variety of nonradioactive materials such as La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO to represent fission products. Both limestone/common sand and basaltic concrete basemats were used. The system was instrumented for characterization of the thermal hydraulic, chemical, gas release, and aerosol release processes

  8. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  9. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Coupon, Jean, E-mail: elinorm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. dEcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2017-02-10

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  10. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.; Coupon, Jean

    2017-01-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  11. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying

  12. Scaling of a Fast Fourier Transform and a pseudo-spectral fluid solver up to 196608 cores

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Anando G.

    2017-11-04

    In this paper we present scaling results of a FFT library, FFTK, and a pseudospectral code, Tarang, on grid resolutions up to 81923 grid using 65536 cores of Blue Gene/P and 196608 cores of Cray XC40 supercomputers. We observe that communication dominates computation, more so on the Cray XC40. The computation time scales as Tcomp∼p−1, and the communication time as Tcomm∼n−γ2 with γ2 ranging from 0.7 to 0.9 for Blue Gene/P, and from 0.43 to 0.73 for Cray XC40. FFTK, and the fluid and convection solvers of Tarang exhibit weak as well as strong scaling nearly up to 196608 cores of Cray XC40. We perform a comparative study of the performance on the Blue Gene/P and Cray XC40 clusters.

  13. Scaling of a Fast Fourier Transform and a pseudo-spectral fluid solver up to 196608 cores

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Abhishek; Samtaney, Ravi; Hadri, Bilel; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present scaling results of a FFT library, FFTK, and a pseudospectral code, Tarang, on grid resolutions up to 81923 grid using 65536 cores of Blue Gene/P and 196608 cores of Cray XC40 supercomputers. We observe that communication dominates computation, more so on the Cray XC40. The computation time scales as Tcomp∼p−1, and the communication time as Tcomm∼n−γ2 with γ2 ranging from 0.7 to 0.9 for Blue Gene/P, and from 0.43 to 0.73 for Cray XC40. FFTK, and the fluid and convection solvers of Tarang exhibit weak as well as strong scaling nearly up to 196608 cores of Cray XC40. We perform a comparative study of the performance on the Blue Gene/P and Cray XC40 clusters.

  14. A Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Controller for a Generic Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Presented here is a Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) architecture for a generic transport aircraft. At its core, this architecture features a three-axis, non-linear, dynamic-inversion controller. Command inputs for this baseline controller are provided by pilot roll-rate, pitch-rate, and sideslip commands. This paper will first thoroughly present the baseline controller followed by a description of the PMRAC adaptive augmentation to this control system. Results are presented via a full-scale, nonlinear simulation of NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  15. Opportunistic Computing with Lobster: Lessons Learned from Scaling up to 25k Non-Dedicated Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Li, Wenzhao; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Yannakopoulos, Anna; Tovar, Benjamin; Donnelly, Patrick; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    We previously described Lobster, a workflow management tool for exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources for computation in HEP. We will discuss the various challenges that have been encountered while scaling up the simultaneous CPU core utilization and the software improvements required to overcome these challenges. Categories: Workflows can now be divided into categories based on their required system resources. This allows the batch queueing system to optimize assignment of tasks to nodes with the appropriate capabilities. Within each category, limits can be specified for the number of running jobs to regulate the utilization of communication bandwidth. System resource specifications for a task category can now be modified while a project is running, avoiding the need to restart the project if resource requirements differ from the initial estimates. Lobster now implements time limits on each task category to voluntarily terminate tasks. This allows partially completed work to be recovered. Workflow dependency specification: One workflow often requires data from other workflows as input. Rather than waiting for earlier workflows to be completed before beginning later ones, Lobster now allows dependent tasks to begin as soon as sufficient input data has accumulated. Resource monitoring: Lobster utilizes a new capability in Work Queue to monitor the system resources each task requires in order to identify bottlenecks and optimally assign tasks. The capability of the Lobster opportunistic workflow management system for HEP computation has been significantly increased. We have demonstrated efficient utilization of 25 000 non-dedicated cores and achieved a data input rate of 30 Gb/s and an output rate of 500GB/h. This has required new capabilities in task categorization, workflow dependency specification, and resource monitoring.

  16. Evolution of - and Core-Dominated Lava Flows Using Scaling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, A.; Rust, A.; Sparks, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the front evolution of simple lava flows on a slope using scaling arguments. For the retarding force acting against gravity, we analyzed three different cases: a flow controlled by a Newtonian viscosity, a flow controlled by the yield strength of a diffusively growing crust and a flow controlled by its core yield strength. These models were tested using previously published data of front evolution and volume discharge of 10 lava flow eruptions from 6 different volcanoes. Our analysis suggests that for basaltic eruptions with high effusion rate and low crystal content, (Hawaiian eruptions), the best fit of the data is with a Newtonian viscosity. For basaltic eruptions with lower effusion rates (Etna eruptions) or long duration andesitic eruptions (Lonquimay eruption, Chile) the flow is controlled by the yield strength of a growing crust. Finally, for very high crystalline lavas (Colima, Santiaguito) the flow is controlled by its core yield strength. The order of magnitude of the viscosities from our analysis is in the same range as previous studies using field measurements on the same lavas. The yield strength values for the growing crust and core of the flow are similar and with an order of magnitude of 10^5 Pa. This number is similar to yield strength values found in lava domes by different authors. The consistency of yield strength ~10^5 Pa is because larger stresses cause fracturing of very crystalline magma, which drastically reduces its effective strength. Furthermore, we used a 2-D analysis of a Bingham fluid flow on a slope to conclude that, for lower yield strength values, the flow is controlled mainly by its plastic viscosity and the lava can be effectively modelled as Newtonian. Our analysis provides a simple tool to evaluate the main controlling forces in the evolution of a lava flow, as well as the magnitude of its rheological properties, for eruptions of different compositions and conditions and may be useful to predict the evolution of

  17. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰

    2001-01-01

    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  18. Qualification of a full plant nodalization for the prediction of the core exit temperature through a scaling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu; Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez.quiroga@upc.edu; Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Qualification of full scale nuclear reactors by means of a scaling methodology. • Scaling of RELAP5 calculations to full scale power plants. - Abstract: System codes and their necessary power plant nodalizations are an essential step in thermal hydraulic safety analysis. In order to assess the safety of a particular power plant, in addition to the validation and verification of the code, the nodalization of the system needs to be qualified. Since most existing experimental data come from scaled-down facilities, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. The Group of Thermal Hydraulic Studies at Technical University of Catalonia has developed a scaling-up methodology (SCUP) for the qualification of full-scale nodalizations through a systematic procedure based on the extrapolation of post-test simulations of Integral Test Facility experiments. In the present work, the SCUP methodology will be employed to qualify the nodalization of the AscóNPP, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), for the reproduction of an important safety phenomenon which is the effectiveness of the Core Exit Temperature (CET) as an Accident Management (AM) indicator. Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET measurements are used as a criterion for the initiation of safety operational procedures during accidental conditions in PWR. However, the CET response has some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling simply because the measurement is not taken in the position where the cladding exposure occurs. In order to apply the SCUP methodology, the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 3, an SBLOCA in the hot leg, has been selected as a starting point. This experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF), a facility operated by the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and was focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of AM actions triggered by

  19. Evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in advanced design of the small scale VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Murakami, Tomoyuki.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes the evaluation of effective coolant flow rate in the advanced design of the small scale VHTR core. The analytical design study was carried out after the 2nd stage of detailed design in order to reduce the cost of construction. The summary of the analytical results are as follows: (1) Crossflow loss coefficient of flange type fuel block having 0.1 mm of sealing gap is about 100 times higher than that of dowel type block adopted in the 2nd stage of detailed design. (2) In case that coolant channel outer diameter is 52 mm and hydraulic diameter is 6 mm, the effective coolant flow rates using flange and dowel type fuel blocks are 80 % and 70 % respectively. Because the crossflow loss coefficients of dowel type are lower than that of flange type. (3) The effective coolant flow rate, when crossflow loss coefficients are distributed along with the axial direction, agrees well with that using mean value of crossflow loss coefficient i.e. 5 x 10 11 m -4 . (author)

  20. Spatial scaling of core and dominant forest cover in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Different organisms respond to spatial structure in different terms and across different spatial scales. As a consequence, efforts to reverse habitat loss and fragmentation through strategic habitat restoration ought to account for the different habitat density and scale requirements of various taxonomic groups. Here, we estimated the local density of floodplain forest surrounding each of ~20 million 10-m forested pixels of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains by using moving windows of multiple sizes (1–100 ha). We further identified forest pixels that met two local density thresholds: 'core' forest pixels were nested in a 100% (unfragmented) forested window and 'dominant' forest pixels were those nested in a >60% forested window. Finally, we fit two scaling functions to declines in the proportion of forest cover meeting these criteria with increasing window length for 107 management-relevant focal areas: a power function (i.e. self-similar, fractal-like scaling) and an exponential decay function (fractal dimension depends on scale). The exponential decay function consistently explained more variation in changes to the proportion of forest meeting both the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria with increasing window length than did the power function, suggesting that elevation, soil type, hydrology, and human land use constrain these forest types to a limited range of scales. To examine these scales, we transformed the decay constants to measures of the distance at which the probability of forest meeting the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria was cut in half (S 1/2, m). S 1/2 for core forest was typically between ~55 and ~95 m depending on location along the river, indicating that core forest cover is restricted to extremely fine scales. In contrast, half of all dominant forest cover was lost at scales that were typically between ~525 and 750 m, but S 1/2 was as long as 1,800 m. S 1/2 is a simple measure that (1) condenses information derived from multi-scale

  1. Development of a coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic tool with multi-scale capabilities and applications to HPLWR core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Lanfranco; Starflinger, Joerg; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Advanced analysis and design techniques for innovative reactors are addressed. → Detailed investigation of a 3 pass core design with a multi-physics-scales tool. → Coupled 40-group neutron transport/equivalent channels TH core analyses methods. → Multi-scale capabilities: from equivalent channels to sub-channel pin-by-pin study. → High fidelity approach: reduction of conservatism involved in core simulations. - Abstract: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a thermal spectrum nuclear reactor cooled and moderated with light water operated at supercritical pressure. It is an innovative reactor concept, which requires developing and applying advanced analysis tools as described in the paper. The relevant water density reduction associated with the heat-up, together with the multi-pass core design, results in a pronounced coupling between neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses, which takes into account the strong natural influence of the in-core distribution of power generation and water properties. The neutron flux gradients within the multi-pass core, together with the pronounced dependence of water properties on the temperature, require to consider a fine spatial resolution in which the individual fuel pins are resolved to provide precise evaluation of the clad temperature, currently considered as one of the crucial design criteria. These goals have been achieved considering an advanced analysis method based on the usage of existing codes which have been coupled with developed interfaces. Initially neutronic and thermal-hydraulic full core calculations have been iterated until a consistent solution is found to determine the steady state full power condition of the HPLWR core. Results of few group neutronic analyses might be less reliable in case of HPLWR 3-pass core than for conventional LWRs because of considerable changes of the neutron spectrum within the core, hence 40 groups transport theory has been preferred to the

  2. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  3. The validity of generic trends on multiple scales in rock-physical and rock-mechanical properties of the Whitby Mudstone, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, L.A.N.R.; Primarini, M.I.W.; Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.

    Finding generic trends in mechanical and physical rock properties will help to make predictions of the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales. Understanding the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales is important for the successful development of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper presents

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of sediment cores: a multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Maxim; Van Daele, Maarten; Boone, Marijn; Anselmetti, Flavio; Cnudde, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    Downscaling is a method used in building-material research, where several imaging methods are applied to obtain information on the petrological and petrophysical properties of materials from a centimetre to a sub-micrometre scale (De Boever et al., 2015). However, to reach better resolutions, the sample size is necessarily adjusted as well. If, for instance, X-ray micro computed tomography (µCT) is applied on the material, the resolution can increase as the sample size decreases. In sedimentological research, X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a commonly used technique (Cnudde & Boone, 2013). The ability to visualise materials with different X-ray attenuations reveals structures in sediment cores that cannot be seen with the bare eye. This results in discoveries of sedimentary structures that can lead to a reconstruction of parts of the depositional history in a sedimentary basin (Van Daele et al., 2014). Up to now, most of the CT data used for this kind of research are acquired with a medical CT scanner, of which the highest obtainable resolution is about 250 µm (Cnudde et al., 2006). As the size of most sediment grains is smaller than 250 µm, a lot of information, concerning sediment fabric, grain-size and shape, is not obtained when using medical CT. Therefore, downscaling could be a useful method in sedimentological research. After identifying a region of interest within the sediment core with medical CT, a subsample of several millimetres diameter can be taken and imaged with µCT, allowing images with a resolution of a few micrometres. The subsampling process, however, needs to be considered thoroughly. As the goal is to image the structure and fabric of the sediments, deformation of the sediments during subsampling should be avoided as much as possible. After acquiring the CT data, image processing and analysis are performed in order to retrieve shape and orientation parameters of single grains, mud clasts and organic material. This single-grain data can

  5. Validation of PWR core seismic models with shaking table tests on interacting scale 1 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallet, E.; Bolsee, G.; Ladouceur, B.; Goubin, T.; Rigaudeau, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel assembly mechanical strength must be justified with respect to the lateral loads under accident conditions, in particular seismic loads. This justification is performed by means of time-history analyses with dynamic models of an assembly row in the core, allowing for assembly deformations, impacts at grid locations and reactor coolant effects. Due to necessary simplifications, the models include 'equivalent' parameters adjusted with respect to dynamic characterisation tests of the fuel assemblies. Complementing such tests on isolated assemblies by an overall model validation with shaking table tests on interacting assemblies is obviously desirable. Seismic tests have been performed by French CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) on a row of six full scale fuel assemblies, including two types of 17 x 17 12ft design. The row models are built according to the usual procedure, with preliminary characterisation tests performed on a single assembly. The test-calculation comparisons are made for two test configurations : in air and in water. The relatively large number of accelerograms (15, used for each configuration) is also favourable to significant comparisons. The results are presented for the impact forces at row ends, displacements at mid assembly, and also 'statistical' parameters. Despite a non-negligible scattering in the results obtained with different accelerograms, the calculations prove realistic, and the modelling process is validated with a good confidence level. This satisfactory validation allows to evaluate precisely the margins in the seismic design methodology of the fuel assemblies, and thus to confirm the safety of the plants in case of seismic event. (author)

  6. Micro-positron emission tomography for measuring sub-core scale single and multiphase transport parameters in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, Christopher; Benson, Sally M.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate descriptions of heterogeneity in porous media are important for understanding and modeling single phase (e.g. contaminant transport, saltwater intrusion) and multiphase (e.g. geologic carbon storage, enhanced oil recovery) transport problems. Application of medical imaging to experimentally quantify these processes has led to significant progress in material characterization and understanding fluid transport behavior at laboratory scales. While widely utilized in cancer diagnosis and management, cardiology, and neurology, positron emission tomography (PET) has had relatively limited applications in earth science. This study utilizes a small-bore micro-PET scanner to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in two heterogeneous Berea sandstone cores. The cores are discretized into axial-parallel streamtubes, and using the reconstructed micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity measurements, it is possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Second spatial moment analysis enables measurement of sub-core solute dispersion during both single phase and multiphase experiments. A numerical simulation model is developed to verify the assumptions of the streamtube dimension reduction technique. A variation of the reactor ratio is presented as a diagnostic metric to efficiently determine the validity of the streamtube approximation in core and column-scale experiments. This study introduces a new method to quantify sub-core permeability, relative permeability, and dispersion. These experimental and analytical methods provide a foundation for future work on experimental measurements of differences in transport behavior across scales.

  7. Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Chappellaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka) and characterized...... that when ice sheets are extensive, Antarctica does not necessarily warm during the whole GS as the thermal bipolar seesaw model would predict, questioning the Greenland ice core temperature records as a proxy for AMOC changes throughout the glacial period....

  8. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  9. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers....... The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in...

  10. Crustal concealing of small-scale core-field secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Olsen, Nils; Thebault, E.

    2009-01-01

    of internal origin happen to be detectable now in spherical harmonic degrees up to, perhaps, 16. All of these changes are usually attributed to changes in the core field itself, the secular variation, on the ground that the lithospheric magnetization cannot produce such signals. It has, however, been pointed...... out, on empirical grounds, that temporal changes in the field of internal origin produced by the induced part of the lithospheric magnetization could dominate the core field signal beyond degree 22. This short note revisits this issue by taking advantage of our improved knowledge of the small...... cause of the observed changes in the field of internal origin up to some critical degree, N-C, is indeed likely to be the secular variation of the core field, but that the signal produced by the time-varying lithospheric field is bound to dominate and conceal the time-varying core signal beyond...

  11. Large-scale fluid motion in the earth's outer core estimated from non-dipole magnetic field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Masaki; Honkura, Yoshimori

    1989-01-01

    Fluid motions in the Earth's outer core can be estimated from magnetic field data at the Earth's surface based on some assumptions. The basic standpoint here is that the non-dipole magnetic field is generated by the interaction between a strong toroidal magnetic field, created by differential rotation, and the convective motion in the outer core. Large-scale convective motions are studied to express them in terms of the poloidal velocity field expanded into a series of spherical harmonics. The radial distribution of differential rotation is estimated from the balance between the effective couple due to angular momentum transfer and the electromagnetic couple. Then the radial dependence of the toroidal magnetic field is derived from the interaction between the differential rotation thus estimated and the dipole magnetic field within the outer core. Magnetic field data are applied to a secular variation model which takes into account the fluctuations of the standing and drifting parts of the non-zonal magnetic field. The velocity field in the outer core is estimated for two cases. It is revealed that the pattern of convective motions is generally characterized by large-scale motions in the quasi-steady case. In the non-steady case, the magnitude of the velocity field is much larger, indicating a more dynamic feature. (N.K.)

  12. Centennial-scale records of total organic carbon in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lin, Jia; Hong, Yuehui; Yuan, Lirong; Liu, Jinzhong; Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling is a significant factor that controls climate change. The centennial-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) contents and its sources in marginal sea sediments may reflect the influence of human activities on global climate change. In this study, two fine-grained sediment cores from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass of the South Yellow Sea were used to systematically determine TOC contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. These results were combined with previous data of black carbon and 210Pb dating from which we reconstructed the centennial-scale initial sequences of TOC, terrigenous TOC (TOCter) and marine autogenous TOC (TOCmar) after selecting suitable models to correct the measured TOC (TOCcor). These sequences showed that the TOCter decreased with time in the both cores while the TOCmar increased, particularly the rapid growth in core H43 since the late 1960s. According to the correlation between the Huanghe (Yellow) River discharge and the TOCcor, TOCter, or TOCmar, we found that the TOCter in the two cores mainly derived from the Huanghe River and was transported by it, and that higher Huanghe River discharge could strengthen the decomposition of TOCmar. The newly obtained initial TOC sequences provide important insights into the interaction between human activities and natural processes.

  13. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  14. Large-scale synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with magnetic, optical and anti-oxidation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung-Che; Chen, Dong-Hwang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-14

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of Ni-core/Ag-shell (Ni at Ag) nanoparticles by the successive hydrazine reduction of nickel chloride and silver nitrate in ethylene glycol using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a protective agent are described. The resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 6.2 nm and a shell thickness of 0.85 nm, without significant change in the nickel concentration of 0.25-25 mM for the Ag coating. Also, both Ni cores and Ag nanoshells had an fcc structure and PEI was capped on the particle surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. In addition, the Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited a characteristic absorption band at 430 nm and were nearly superparamagnetic. Based on the weight of Ni cores, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were obtained as 17.2 emu g{sup -1}, 4.0 emu g{sup -1} and 81 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, the resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited better anti-oxidation properties than Ni nanoparticles did due to the protection of the Ag nanoshells.

  15. Scaling analysis of the coupled heat transfer process in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1986-08-01

    The differential equations representing the coupled heat transfer from the solid nuclear core components to the helium in the coolant channels are scaled in terms of representative quantities. This scaling process identifies the relative importance of the various terms of the coupled differential equations. The relative importance of these terms is then used to simplify the numerical solution of the coupled heat transfer for two bounding cases of full-power operation and depressurization from full-system operating pressure for the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. This analysis rigorously justifies the simplified system of equations used in the nuclear safety analysis effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. Investigation of Large Scale Cortical Models on Clustered Multi-Core Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Playstation 3 with 6 available SPU cores outperforms the Intel Xeon processor (with 4 cores) by about 1.9 times for the HTM model and by 2.4 times...runtime breakdowns of the HTM and Dean models respectively on the Cell processor (on the Playstation 3) and the Intel Xeon processor ( 4 thread...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  17. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  18. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  19. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  20. ELT-scale Adaptive Optics real-time control with thes Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David R.; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a solution to the increased computational demands of Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) scale adaptive optics (AO) real-time control with the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing (KNL) Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. The computational demands of an AO real-time controller (RTC) scale with the fourth power of telescope diameter and so the next generation ELTs require orders of magnitude more processing power for the RTC pipeline than existing systems. The Xeon Phi contains a large number (≥64) of low power x86 CPU cores and high bandwidth memory integrated into a single socketed server CPU package. The increased parallelism and memory bandwidth are crucial to providing the performance for reconstructing wavefronts with the required precision for ELT scale AO. Here, we demonstrate that the Xeon Phi KNL is capable of performing ELT scale single conjugate AO real-time control computation at over 1.0kHz with less than 20μs RMS jitter. We have also shown that with a wavefront sensor camera attached the KNL can process the real-time control loop at up to 966Hz, the maximum frame-rate of the camera, with jitter remaining below 20μs RMS. Future studies will involve exploring the use of a cluster of Xeon Phis for the real-time control of the MCAO and MOAO regimes of AO. We find that the Xeon Phi is highly suitable for ELT AO real time control.

  1. How in-situ combustion process works in a fractured system : two-dimensional, core and block scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaei, H.; Renard, G. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Lyon (France); Quintard, M.; Debenest, G. [L' Inst. de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Kamp, A.M. [Centre Huile Lourde Ouvert et Experimental CHLOE, Pau (France)

    2008-10-15

    Core and matrix block scale simulations of in situ combustion (ISC) processes in a fractured reservoir were conducted. ISC propagation conditions and oil recovery mechanisms were studied at core scale, while the 2-D behaviour of ISC was also studied at block-scale in order to determine dominant processes for combustion propagation and the characteristics of different steam fronts. The study examined 2-phase combustion in a porous medium containing a solid fuel as well as 2-D conventional dry combustion methods. The aim of the study was to predict ISC extinction and propagation conditions as well as to understand the mechanisms of oil recovery using ISC processes. The simulations were also used to develop up-scaling guidelines for fractured systems. Computations were performed using different oxygen diffusion and matrix permeability values. The effect of each production mechanism was studied separately. The multi-phase simulations showed that ISC in fractured reservoirs is feasible. The study showed that ISC propagation is dependent on the oxygen diffusion coefficient, while matrix permeability plays an important role in oil production. Oil production was governed by gravity drainage and thermal effects. Heat transfer due to the movement of combustion front velocity in the study was minor when compared to heat transfer by conduction and convection. It was concluded that upscaling methods must also consider the different zones distinguished for oil saturation and temperatures. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Tree ring and ice core time scales around the Santorini eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfroth, Elin; Muscheler, Raimund; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie

    2010-05-01

    When studying cosmogenic radionuclides in ice core and tree ring archives around the Santorini eruption a ~20 year discrepancy was found between the records (Muscheler 2009). In this study a new 10Be dataset from the NGRIP ice core is presented. It has a resolution of 7 years and spans the period 3752-3244 BP (1803-1295 BC). The NGRIP 10Be record and the previously published 10Be GRIP record were compared to the IntCal datasets to further investigate the discrepancy between the ice core and tree ring chronologies. By modelling the 14C production rate based on atmospheric 14C records a comparison could be made to the 10Be flux which is assumed to represent the 10Be production rate. This showed a time shift of ~23 years between the records. The sensitivity of the results to changes in important model parameters was evaluated. Uncertainties in the carbon cycle model cannot explain a substantial part of the timing differences. Potential influences of climate and atmospheric processes on the 10Be deposition were studied using δ18O from the respective cores and GISP2 ice core ion data. The comparison to δ18O revealed a small but significant correlation between 10Be flux and δ18O when the 14C-derived production signal was removed from the 10Be curves. The ion data, as proxies for atmospheric circulation changes, did not show any correlations to the 10Be record or the 10Be/14C difference. When including possible data uncertainties there is still a minimum discrepancy of ~10 years between the 10Be ice core and the 14C tree ring record. Due to lack of alternative explanations it is concluded that the ice core and/or the tree ring chronologies contains unaccounted errors in this range. This also reconciles the radiocarbon 1627-1600 BC (Friedrich et al., 2006) and ice core 1642±5 BC (Vinther et al., 2006) datings of the Santorini eruption. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., & Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to

  3. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2017-06-21

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  4. Cost assessment of a generic magnetic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Delene, J.G.; Parsly, L.F.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    A generic reactor model is used to examine the economic viability of generating electricity by magnetic fusion. The simple model uses components that are representative of those used in previous reactor studies of deuterium-tritium-burning tokamaks, stellarators, bumpy tori, reversed-field pinches (RFPs), and tandem mirrors. Conservative costing assumptions are made. The generic reactor is not a tokamak; rather, it is intended to emphasize what is common to all magnetic fusion rectors. The reactor uses a superconducting toroidal coil set to produce the dominant magnetic field. To this extent, it is not as good an approximation to systems such as the RFP in which the main field is produced by a plasma current. The main output of the study is the cost of electricity as a function of the weight and size of the fusion core - blanket, shield, structure, and coils. The model shows that a 1200-MW(e) power plant with a fusion core weight of about 10,000 tonnes should be competitive in the future with fission and fossil plants. Studies of the sensitivity of the model to variations in the assumptions show that this result is not sensitively dependent on any given assumption. Of particular importance is the result that a fusion reactor of this scale may be realized with only moderate advances in physics and technology capabilities

  5. Microfracture pattern compared to core-scale fractures in the borehole of Soultz-sous-Forets granite, Rhine graben, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezayes, C.; Villemin, T. [Universite de Savoie (France). Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, UPRES-A CNRS 5025; Pecher, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, UPRES-A CNRS 5025

    2000-07-01

    Microfractures appearing in thin section as fluid inclusion trails in quartz crystals were studied in four core samples of Soultz-sous-Forets granite. Their orientations in four series of three mutually perpendicular thin sections were estimated using a previously described apparent dip method and a new method involving measurements of strike and apparent dips. Three samples display three microfracture sets and one sample displays two sets. In all samples, one set is nearly vertical and strikes N-S. In two samples, one and two sets are nearly vertical and strike E-W. In two samples, two sets strike NW-SE: one is vertical, the other dips gently to the NE (or SW). Comparing microfracture and mesofractures sets in the same cores shows that (1) the N-S microfacture set is always dominant at both scales and (2) all other microfracture sets have no mesoscopic counterpart. The N-S microfracture sets could have been created during E-W extension of earliest Cenozoic age (Rhine Graben rifting). Differences between the two scales are explained by a {sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 2} switching which occurred at the crystal scale and generated mutually perpendicular cracks.

  6. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  7. Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Capron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka and characterized by short Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events. Recent and new results obtained on the EPICA and NorthGRIP ice cores now precisely describe the rapid variations of Antarctic and Greenland temperature during MIS 5 (73.5–123 ka, a time period corresponding to relatively high sea level. The results display a succession of abrupt events associated with long Greenland InterStadial phases (GIS enabling us to highlight a sub-millennial scale climatic variability depicted by (i short-lived and abrupt warming events preceding some GIS (precursor-type events and (ii abrupt warming events at the end of some GIS (rebound-type events. The occurrence of these sub-millennial scale events is suggested to be driven by the insolation at high northern latitudes together with the internal forcing of ice sheets. Thanks to a recent NorthGRIP-EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML common timescale over MIS 5, the bipolar sequence of climatic events can be established at millennial to sub-millennial timescale. This shows that for extraordinary long stadial durations the accompanying Antarctic warming amplitude cannot be described by a simple linear relationship between the two as expected from the bipolar seesaw concept. We also show that when ice sheets are extensive, Antarctica does not necessarily warm during the whole GS as the thermal bipolar seesaw model would predict, questioning the Greenland ice core temperature records as a proxy for AMOC changes throughout the glacial period.

  8. From clouds to cores to envelopes to disks: a multi-scale view of magnetized star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles; Plambeck, R. L.; TADPOL survey Team

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in the formation of stars. However, that importance has been called into question by previous observations showing misalignment between protostellar outflows and magnetic fields (B-fields), as well as inconsistency in field morphology between 10,000 and 1000 AU scales. To investigate these inconsistencies, we used the 1.3 mm full-Stokes polarimeter — which I tested, installed, and calibrated for CARMA, a mm-wave interferometer — to map dust polarization with ~2.5" resolution toward 29 star-forming cores and 8 star-forming regions as part of the TADPOL survey. We find that a subset of the sources have consistent B-field orientations between the large 20") scales measured by single-dish submm bolometers and the small scales measured by CARMA. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations (measured by CARMA), presumably because the B-fields are less twisted by dynamic effects. However, even in these sources, which seem to have retained the memory of the global B-field direction, the fields in the cores are misaligned with the disks and outflows in the central protostars — a key result of the TADPOL survey. Furthermore, the cores with lower polarization fractions tend to have B-fields that are perpendicular to outflows, which suggests that in these sources the B-fields have lost the memory of the larger-scale global field, and have been wrapped up by core rotation. This is an important result for disk formation theory, as it suggests that field misalignment may indeed be the solution to the magnetic braking catastrophe. Finally, we find that all sources exhibit the so-called “polarization hole” effect, where the polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. When this effect was seen in low-resolution single-dish maps, it was attributed to the averaging of unresolved structure in the plane of the sky. However, the higher resolution maps we present here resolve these

  9. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  10. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity.

  11. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, Barry; Maldonado, Ivan

    2014-01-23

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity.

  12. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, Barry; Maldonodo, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity

  13. The Symptom Checklist-core depression (SCL-CD6) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Leineweber, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Major depressive disorders are common, with substantial impact on individuals/society. Brief scales for depression severity, based on a small number of characteristics all of which are necessary for diagnosis, have been recommended in self-reported versions for clinical work or research whe...

  14. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene

    2017-03-01

    the USL in several new areas: (l) A five-fold reduction in the measurement space for unified temperature-strain apparatuses through extrapolation of minimum datasets; (2) Combination of data from separate temperature and strain apparatuses, which provides flexibility and productive use of more limited data; and (3) Full conductor characterization from as little as a single I c(B) curve when a few core parameters have been measured in a similar conductor. Default core scaling parameter values are also given, based on analysis of a wide range of practical Nb3Sn conductors.

  15. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  16. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  17. Metallographic post-test investigations for the scaled core-meltdown-experiments FOREVER-1 and -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Boehmert, J.

    2000-08-01

    FOREVER (Failure Of Reactor Vessel Rentention) experiments have been carried out in order to simulate the behaviour the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel under the conditions of a depressurized core melt down scenario. In particular the creep behaviour and the vessel failure mode have been investigated. Metallographic post test investigations have complemented the experimental programme. Samples of different height positions of the vessel of the FOREVER-C1 and -C2 experiments were metallographically examined and characteristic microstructural appearances were identified. Additionally samples with ineffected microstructure were annealed at different temperatures and cooled by different rates and afterwards investigated. In this way the microstructural effects of the temperature regime, the thermomechanical loads and the environmental attack could be characterized. Remarkable effects were characteristic for the FOREVER-C2 experiment where the highest-loaded region below the welding joint reached temperatures of approx. 1100 C and a strong creep damage occurred. In the FOREVER-C1 experiment creep damage could not be observed and the maximum temperature did not exceed 900 C. Environmental attack generated decarburization and oxidation but the effect was restricted to a narrow surface layer. There was almost no chemical interaction between the oxidic melt and the vessel material. (orig.)

  18. Ex-vessel boiling experiments: laboratory- and reactor-scale testing of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention. Pt. II. Reactor-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Slezak, S.E.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.77-88 (1997). This paper summarizes the results of a reactor-scale ex-vessel boiling experiment for assessing the flooded cavity design of the heavy water new production reactor. The simulated reactor vessel has a cylindrical diameter of 3.7 m and a torispherical bottom head. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling mainly results from the gravity head, which in turn results from flooding the side of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid-solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion. The results show that, under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity will be effective for in-vessel core retention in the heavy water new production reactor. The results also demonstrate that the heat dissipation requirement for in-vessel core retention, for the central region of the lower head of an AP-600 advanced light water reactor, can be met with the flooded cavity design. (orig.)

  19. A core framework and scenario for deep GHG reductions at the city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Michael; Chandler, Chelsea; Erickson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trends in increasing urbanization, paired with a lack of ambitious action on larger scales, uniquely position cities to resume leadership roles in climate mitigation. While many cities have adopted ambitious long-term emission reduction goals, few have articulated how to reach them. This paper presents one of the first long-term scenarios of deep greenhouse gas abatement for a major U.S. city. Using a detailed, bottom-up scenario analysis, we investigate how Seattle might achieve its recently stated goal of carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The analysis demonstrates that a series of ambitious strategies could achieve per capita GHG reductions of 34% in 2020, and 91% in 2050 in Seattle's “core” emissions from the buildings, transportation, and waste sectors. We examine the pros and cons of options to get to, or beyond, net zero emissions in these sectors. We also discuss methodological innovations for community-scale emissions accounting frameworks, including a “core” emissions focus that excludes industrial activity and a consumption perspective that expands the emissions footprint and scope of policy solutions. As in Seattle, other communities may find the mitigation strategies and analytical approaches presented here are useful for crafting policies to achieve deep GHG-reduction goals. - Highlights: ► Cities can play a pivotal role in mitigating climate change. ► Strategies modeled achieve per-capita GHG reductions of 91% by 2050 in Seattle. ► We discuss methodological innovations in community-scale accounting frameworks. ► We weigh options for getting to, or beyond, zero GHG emissions. ► Other cities may adapt these measures and analytical approaches to curb emissions

  20. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J; Persson, Björn N; Rosenberg, Patricia; Garcia, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck's questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the

  1. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  2. Large-Scale Flows and Magnetic Fields Produced by Rotating Convection in a Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Planetary Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-12-01

    Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

  3. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  4. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm 2 across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests

  5. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  6. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  7. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  8. Multilevel parallel strategy on Monte Carlo particle transport for the large-scale full-core pin-by-pin simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Li, G.; Wang, W.; Shangguan, D.; Deng, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Strategy of multilevel hybrid parallelism of JCOGIN Infrastructure on Monte Carlo Particle Transport for the large-scale full-core pin-by-pin simulations. The particle parallelism, domain decomposition parallelism and MPI/OpenMP parallelism are designed and implemented. By the testing, JMCT presents the parallel scalability of JCOGIN, which reaches the parallel efficiency 80% on 120,000 cores for the pin-by-pin computation of the BEAVRS benchmark. (author)

  9. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: an open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (Pautistic disorder.

  10. Genome-scale portrait and evolutionary significance of human-specific core promoter tri- and tetranucleotide short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaripanah, N; Adelirad, F; Delbari, A; Sahaf, R; Abbasi-Asl, T; Ohadi, M

    2018-04-05

    While there is an ongoing trend to identify single nucleotide substitutions (SNSs) that are linked to inter/intra-species differences and disease phenotypes, short tandem repeats (STRs)/microsatellites may be of equal (if not more) importance in the above processes. Genes that contain STRs in their promoters have higher expression divergence compared to genes with fixed or no STRs in the gene promoters. In line with the above, recent reports indicate a role of repetitive sequences in the rise of young transcription start sites (TSSs) in human evolution. Following a comparative genomics study of all human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database, here we provide a genome-scale portrait of human-specific short- and medium-size (≥ 3-repeats) tri- and tetranucleotide STRs and STR motifs in the critical core promoter region between - 120 and + 1 to the TSS and evidence of skewing of this compartment in reference to the STRs that are not human-specific (Levene's test p human-specific transcripts was detected in the tri and tetra human-specific compartments (mid-p genome-scale skewing of STRs at a specific region of the human genome and a link between a number of these STRs and TSS selection/transcript specificity. The STRs and genes listed here may have a role in the evolution and development of characteristics and phenotypes that are unique to the human species.

  11. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  12. Century-scale high-resolution black carbon records in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Hong, Yuehui; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Lirong; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) has received increasing attention in the last 20 years because it is not only an absorbent of toxic pollutants but also a greenhouse substance, preserving fire-history records, and more importantly, acting as an indicator of biogeochemical cycles and global changes. By adopting an improved chemothermal oxidation method (WXY), this study reconstructed the century-scale high-resolution records of BC deposition from two fine-grained sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in the South Yellow Sea. The BC records were divided into five stages, which exhibited specific sequences with three BC peaks at approximately 1891, 1921, and 2007 AD, representing times at which the first heavy storms appeared just after the termination of long-term droughts. The significant correlation between the times of the BC peaks in the cores and heavy storms in the area of the Huanghe (Yellow) River demonstrated that BC peaks could result from markedly strengthened sedimentation due to surface runoff, which augmented the atmospheric deposition. Stable carbon isotope analysis indicated that the evident increase in carbon isotope ratios of BC in Stage 5 might have resulted from the input of weathered rock-derived graphitic carbon cardinally induced by the annual anthropogenic modulation of water-borne sediment in the Huanghe River since 2005 AD. Numerical calculations demonstrated that the input fraction of graphitic carbon was 22.97% for Stage 5, whereas no graphitic carbon entered during Stages 1 and 3. The obtained data provide new and important understanding of the source-sink history of BC in the Yellow Sea.

  13. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  14. Generic Reed Solomon Encorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.

  15. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  16. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  17. Comparison of generic-to-brand switchback patterns for generic and authorized generic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy

    2018-01-01

    Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for

  18. The psychometric properties of a shortened Dutch version of the consequences scale used in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Bruyn

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug misuse among college students has been studied extensively and has been clearly identified as a public health problem. Within more general populations alcohol misuse remains one of the leading causes of disease, disability and death worldwide. Conducting research on alcohol misuse requires valid and reliable instruments to measure its consequences. One scale that is often used is the consequences scale in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS. However, psychometric studies on the CADS are rare and the ones that do exist report varying results. This article aims to address this imbalance by examining the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CADS in a large sample of Flemish university and college students.The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds', measuring alcohol use among students. In total, 19,253 students participated (22.1% response rate. The CADS scale was measured using 19 consequences, and participants were asked how often they had experienced these on a 6-point scale. Firstly, the factor structure of the CADS was examined. Two models from literature were compared by performing confirmatory factor analyses (CFA and were adapted if necessary. Secondly, we assessed the composite reliability as well as the convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity.The two-factor model, identifying personal consequences (had a hangover; got nauseated or vomited; missed a class and social consequences (got into an argument or fight; been criticized by someone I know; done something I later regretted; been hurt or injured was indicated to be the best model, having both a good model fit and an acceptable composite reliability. In addition, construct validity was evaluated to be acceptable, with good discriminant validity, although the convergent validity of the factor measuring 'social consequences' could be improved. Concurrent validity was evaluated as good.In deciding

  19. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  20. Test of small-scale central-core-cavity closure for a 300-MW(e) GCFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.; Dougan, J.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, model tests are conducted to verify the design of the PCRV for a 300 MW(e) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Prominent features of the 1:20-scale central core cavity model included a close pitched array of fifty-five penetration tubes, forty-four segmented gusset/bearing plate assemblies, and intermeshed reinforcing steel. The closure model which was designed for a maximum cavity pressure (MCP) of 10.08 MPa was initially tested by applying 10 pressurization cycles from essentially no load to the MCP with strain and deflection data obtained during each cycle. This was followed by pressurization cycles to 32.8 MPa, 41.3 MPa, 48.3 MPa, 58.4 MPa and 79.3 MPa. At a pressure of 79.3 MPa an end cap on a penetration tube developed leaks and the test was terminated. An inelastic analysis was conducted to provide an estimate of the ultimate strength of the closure plug and to determine the potential mode of failure

  1. BWR modeling capability and Scale/Triton lattice-to-core integration of the Nestle nodal simulator - 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, J.; Hernandez, H.; Maldonado, G.I.; Jessee, M.; Popov, E.; Clarno, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the status of recent and substantial enhancements made to the NESTLE nodal core simulator, a code originally developed at North Carolina State University (NCSU) of which version 5.2.1 has been available for several years through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) software repository. In its released and available form, NESTLE is a seasoned, well-developed and extensively tested code system particularly useful to model PWRs. In collaboration with NCSU, University of Tennessee (UT) and ORNL researchers have recently developed new enhancements for the NESTLE code, including the implementation of a two-phase drift-flux thermal hydraulic and flow redistribution model to facilitate modeling of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) as well as the development of an integrated coupling of SCALE/TRITON lattice physics to NESTLE so to produce an end-to-end capability for reactor simulations. These latest advancements implemented into NESTLE as well as an update of other ongoing efforts of this project are herein reported. (authors)

  2. A flow test for calibrating 177 core tubes of 1/5-scale reactor flow model for Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Jang, Ho Cheol; Cheong, Jong Sik; Kuh, Jung Eui

    1990-01-01

    A flow test was performed to find out the hydraulic characteristics of every one of 177 core tubes, representing a fuel assembly respectively, as a preparatory step of 1/5 scale reactor flow model test for Yonggwang Nuclear Units (hereafter YGN) 3 and 4. The axial hydraulic resistance of the fuel assembly was simulated in the square core tube with six orifice plates positioned along the tube length; core support structure below each fuel assembly was done in the core upstream geometry section of the test loop. For each core tube the pressure differentials across the inlet, exit orifice plate and overall tube length were measured, along with the flow rates and temperatures of the test fluid. The measured pressure drops were converted to pressure loss or flow metering coefficients. The metering coefficient of the inlet orifice plate was sensitive to the configuration and location of the upstream geometry. The hydraulic resistance of the core tubes were reasonably coincided with a target value and consistent. The polynomial curve fits of the calibrated coefficients for the 177 core tubes were obtained with reasonable data scatters

  3. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  4. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  5. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  6. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  7. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  8. A scaling study of the natural circulation flow of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of a 1400MW PWR for designing a scale-down test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Bo. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A scaling study on the steady state natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of 1400MWe PWR is described. The scaling criteria for reproducing the same thermalhydraulic characteristics of the natural circulation flow as the prototype core catcher cooling system in the scale-down test facility is derived and the resulting natural circulation flow characteristics of the prototype and scale-down facility analyzed and compared. The purpose of this study is to apply the similarity law to the prototype EU-APR1400 core catcher cooling system and the model test facility of this prototype system and derive a relationship between the heating channel characteristics and the down-comer piping characteristics so as to determine the down-comer pipe size and the orifice size of the model test facility. As the geometry and the heating wall heat flux of the heating channel of the model test facility will be the same as those of the prototype core catcher cooling system except the width of the heating channel is reduced, the axial distribution of the coolant quality (or void fraction) is expected to resemble each other between the prototype and model facility. Thus using this fact, the down-comer piping design characteristics of the model facility can be determined from the relationship derived from the similarity law

  9. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  10. A refined TALDICE-1a age scale from 55 to 112 ka before present for the Talos Dome ice core based on high-resolution methane measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schüpbach

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A precise synchronization of different climate records is indispensable for a correct dynamical interpretation of paleoclimatic data. A chronology for the TALDICE ice core from the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica has recently been presented based on methane synchronization with Greenland and the EDC ice cores and δ18Oice synchronization with EDC in the bottom part (TALDICE-1. Using new high-resolution methane data obtained with a continuous flow analysis technique, we present a refined age scale for the age interval from 55–112 thousand years (ka before present, where TALDICE is synchronized with EDC. New and more precise tie points reduce the uncertainties of the age scale from up to 1900 yr in TALDICE-1 to below 1100 yr over most of the refined interval and shift the Talos Dome dating to significantly younger ages during the onset of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Thus, discussions of climate dynamics at sub-millennial time scales are now possible back to 110 ka, in particular during the inception of the last ice age. Calcium data of EDC and TALDICE are compared to show the impact of the refinement to the synchronization of the two ice cores not only for the gas but also for the ice age scale.

  11. Pt monolayer shell on hollow Pd core electrocatalysts: Scale up synthesis, structure, and activity for the oxygen reduction reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmirovic Miomir B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on synthesis, characterization and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR kinetics of Pt monolayer shell on Pd(hollow, or Pd-Au(hollow core electrocatalysts. Comparison between the ORR catalytic activity of the electrocatalysts with hollow cores and those of Pt solid and Pt hollow nanoparticles has been obtained using the rotating disk electrode technique. Hollow nanoparticles were made using Ni or Cu nanoparticles as sacrificial templates. The Pt ORR specific and mass activities of the electrocatalysts with hollow cores were found considerably higher than those of the electrocatalysts with the solid cores. We attribute this enhanced Pt activity to the smooth surface morphology and hollow-induced lattice contraction, in addition to the mass-saving geometry of hollow particles.

  12. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  13. Large-scale drivers of Caucasus climate variability in meteorological records and Mt El'brus ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachek, Anna; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ekaykin, Alexey; Ginot, Patrick; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Legrand, Michel; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Preunkert, Susanne

    2017-05-01

    A 181.8 m ice core was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt El'brus (43°20'53.9'' N, 42°25'36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009 (Mikhalenko et al., 2015). Here, we report on the results of the water stable isotope composition from this ice core with additional data from the shallow cores. The distinct seasonal cycle of the isotopic composition allows dating by annual layer counting. Dating has been performed for the upper 126 m of the deep core combined with 20 m from the shallow cores. The whole record covers 100 years, from 2013 back to 1914. Due to the high accumulation rate (1380 mm w.e. year-1) and limited melting, we obtained isotopic composition and accumulation rate records with seasonal resolution. These values were compared with available meteorological data from 13 weather stations in the region and also with atmosphere circulation indices, back-trajectory calculations, and Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) data in order to decipher the drivers of accumulation and ice core isotopic composition in the Caucasus region. In the warm season (May-October) the isotopic composition depends on local temperatures, but the correlation is not persistent over time, while in the cold season (November-April), atmospheric circulation is the predominant driver of the ice core's isotopic composition. The snow accumulation rate correlates well with the precipitation rate in the region all year round, which made it possible to reconstruct and expand the precipitation record at the Caucasus highlands from 1914 until 1966, when reliable meteorological observations of precipitation at high elevation began.

  14. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  15. Algorithms and data structures for massively parallel generic adaptive finite element codes

    KAUST Repository

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Today\\'s largest supercomputers have 100,000s of processor cores and offer the potential to solve partial differential equations discretized by billions of unknowns. However, the complexity of scaling to such large machines and problem sizes has so far prevented the emergence of generic software libraries that support such computations, although these would lower the threshold of entry and enable many more applications to benefit from large-scale computing. We are concerned with providing this functionality for mesh-adaptive finite element computations. We assume the existence of an "oracle" that implements the generation and modification of an adaptive mesh distributed across many processors, and that responds to queries about its structure. Based on querying the oracle, we develop scalable algorithms and data structures for generic finite element methods. Specifically, we consider the parallel distribution of mesh data, global enumeration of degrees of freedom, constraints, and postprocessing. Our algorithms remove the bottlenecks that typically limit large-scale adaptive finite element analyses. We demonstrate scalability of complete finite element workflows on up to 16,384 processors. An implementation of the proposed algorithms, based on the open source software p4est as mesh oracle, is provided under an open source license through the widely used deal.II finite element software library. © 2011 ACM 0098-3500/2011/12-ART10 $10.00.

  16. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  17. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  18. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  19. Full Core Criticality Modeling of Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Using the SCALE6.0 and MCNP5 Code Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.; Trontl, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the next generation of innovative nuclear energy systems. It was selected among a group of more than 100 prototypes and his commercial availability is expected by 2030. GFR has common goals of the rest GIF advanced reactor types: economy, safety, proliferation resistance, availability and sustainability. Several GFR fuel design concepts such as plates, rod pins and pebbles are currently being investigated in order to meet the high temperature constraints characteristic for a GFR working enviroment. In the previous study we have compared the fuel depletion results for heterogeneous GFR fuel assembly (FA), obtained with TRITON6 sequence of SCALE6.0 code system, with the MCNPX-CINDER90 and TRIPOLI-4-D codes. Present work is a continuation of neutronic criticality analysis of heterogeneous FA and full core configurations of a GFR concept using 3-D Monte Carlo codes KENO-VI/SCALE6.0 and MCNP5. The FA is based on a hexagonal mesh of fuel rods (uranium and plutonium carbide fuel, silicon carbide clad, helium gas coolant) with axial reflector thickness being varied for the purpose of optimization. Three reflector materials were analysed: zirconium carbide (ZrC), silicon carbide (SiC) and natural uranium. ZrC has been selected as a reflector material, having the best contribution to the neutron economy and to the reactivity of the core. The core safety parameters were also analysed: a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity was verified for the heavy metal fuel and coolant density loss. Criticality calculations of different FA active heights were performed and the reflector thickness was also adjusted. Finally, GFR full core criticality calculations using different active fuel rod heights and fixed ZrC reflector height were done to find the optimal height of the core. The Shannon entropy of the GFR core fission distribution was proved to be

  20. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  1. In-situ observation of Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles in the atomic scale by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xusheng; Liu, Shoujie; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Jie; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhiyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, Augosto

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles play an important role in potential industrial applications, such as catalysis, optoelectronics, information storage and biological labeling. Herein, homogeneous Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles with the averaged size of 8 nm have been synthesized by chemical methods. Cu atoms diffusion process, which motivated by heating, was observed in-situ by using temperature-dependent x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Results show that Cu diffuse gradually from Cu core to Pt shell in these nanoparticles with increasing temperature. We also found the surface ligand (O) bonded Pt at the room temperature and were removed gradually by heating the sample. The analysis of the diffusion process in bimetallic nanoparticles will provide important guideline for their designing and tuning.

  2. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  3. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  4. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  5. Dynamic Voltage-Frequency and Workload Joint Scaling Power Management for Energy Harvesting Multi-Core WSN Node SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheduling and power management solution for energy harvesting heterogeneous multi-core WSN node SoC such that the system continues to operate perennially and uses the harvested energy efficiently. The solution consists of a heterogeneous multi-core system oriented task scheduling algorithm and a low-complexity dynamic workload scaling and configuration optimization algorithm suitable for light-weight platforms. Moreover, considering the power consumption of most WSN applications have the characteristic of data dependent behavior, we introduce branches handling mechanism into the solution as well. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can operate in real-time on a lightweight embedded processor (MSP430, and that it can make a system do more valuable works and make more than 99.9% use of the power budget.

  6. Experimental identification of nonlinear coupling between (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence and an MHD mode in the core of a superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P. J.; Li, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, X. D.; Wu, G. J.; Xu, L. Q.; Chen, R.; Li, Q.; Zhao, H. L.; Zhang, J. Z.; Shi, T. H.; Wang, Y. M.; Lyu, B.; Hu, L. Q.; Li, J.; The EAST Team

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present clear experimental evidence of core region nonlinear coupling between (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence and an magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) mode during the current ramp-down phase in a set of L-mode plasma discharges in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST, Wan et al (2006 Plasma Sci. Technol. 8 253)). Density fluctuations of broadband microturbulence (k\\perpρi˜2{-}5.2 ) and the MHD mode (toroidal mode number m = -1 , poloidal mode number n = 1 ) are measured simultaneously, using a four-channel tangential CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostic in core plasmas. The nonlinear coupling between the broadband microturbulence and the MHD mode is directly demonstrated by showing a statistically significant bicoherence and modulation of turbulent density fluctuation amplitude by the MHD mode.

  7. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2008-09-01

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance comparison

  8. LeMMINGs - I. The eMERLIN legacy survey of nearby galaxies. 1.5-GHz parsec-scale radio structures and cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, R. D.; Williams, D. R. A.; McHardy, I. M.; Beswick, R. J.; Argo, M. K.; Dullo, B. T.; Knapen, J. H.; Brinks, E.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Aalto, S.; Alberdi, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Corbel, S.; Evans, R.; Fenech, D. M.; Green, D. A.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Körding, E.; Kharb, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mundell, C. G.; Panessa, F.; Peck, A. B.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Saikia, D. J.; Saikia, P.; Shankar, F.; Spencer, R. E.; Stevens, I. R.; Uttley, P.; Westcott, J.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first data release of high-resolution (≤0.2 arcsec) 1.5-GHz radio images of 103 nearby galaxies from the Palomar sample, observed with the eMERLIN array, as part of the LeMMINGs survey. This sample includes galaxies which are active (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions [LINER] and Seyfert) and quiescent (H II galaxies and absorption line galaxies, ALGs), which are reclassified based upon revised emission-line diagrams. We detect radio emission ≳0.2 mJy for 47/103 galaxies (22/34 for LINERS, 4/4 for Seyferts, 16/51 for H II galaxies, and 5/14 for ALGs) with radio sizes typically of ≲100 pc. We identify the radio core position within the radio structures for 41 sources. Half of the sample shows jetted morphologies. The remaining half shows single radio cores or complex morphologies. LINERs show radio structures more core-brightened than Seyferts. Radio luminosities of the sample range from 1032 to 1040 erg s-1: LINERs and H II galaxies show the highest and lowest radio powers, respectively, while ALGs and Seyferts have intermediate luminosities. We find that radio core luminosities correlate with black hole (BH) mass down to ˜107 M⊙, but a break emerges at lower masses. Using [O III] line luminosity as a proxy for the accretion luminosity, active nuclei and jetted H II galaxies follow an optical Fundamental Plane of BH activity, suggesting a common disc-jet relationship. In conclusion, LINER nuclei are the scaled-down version of FR I radio galaxies; Seyferts show less collimated jets; H II galaxies may host weak active BHs and/or nuclear star-forming cores; and recurrent BH activity may account for ALG properties.

  9. Promoting and regulating generic medicines: Brazil in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize Massard da Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Promoting the use of generic drugs can constitute a core instrument for countries’ national pharmaceutical policies, one that reduces drug expenditure while expanding health care access. Despite the potential importance of such policy measures and the differences among national practices, scholars embarking on comparative analysis lack a roadmap for determining which dimensions of generic drug policy to assess and compare. This report fills that gap by considering national rules and regulations across four dimensions deemed crucial to any evaluation: demonstrated therapeutic equivalence; pharmaceutical packaging and labeling; drug prescription; and drug substitution. Furthermore, this report examines how the diverse interests of public and private sector stakeholders might shape generic drug policy and its implementation. To illustrate the challenges and conflicts behind policy development and implementation, this report focuses on the case of Brazil.

  10. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...... of the model is illustrated through simulations and flight verifications.  ...

  11. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  12. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  13. TRAC code assessment using data from SCTF Core-III, a large-scale 2D/3D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Shire, P.R.; Harmony, S.C.; Rhee, G.

    1988-01-01

    Nine tests from the SCTF Core-III configuration have been analyzed using TRAC-PF1/MOD1. The objectives of these assessment activities were to obtain a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during the refill and reflood phases of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, to determine the accuracy to which key parameters are calculated, and to identify deficiencies in key code correlations and models that provide closure for the differential equations defining thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors. Overall, the agreement between calculated and measured values of peak cladding temperature is reasonable. In addition, TRAC adequately predicts many of the trends observed in both the integral effect and separate effect tests conducted in SCTF Core-III. The importance of assessment activities that consider potential contributors to discrepancies between the measured and calculated results arising from three sources are described as those related to (1) knowledge about the facility configuration and operation, (2) facility modeling for code input, and (3) deficiencies in code correlations and models. An example is provided. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Measuring the triple O2 isotopic composition of air trapped in ice cores and quantifying thecauses of δ18Oatm Millennial Scale Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reutenauer, Corentin

    of O2 isotopologues as global tracers of past changes in the climate system. The evolution of the past atmosphere can be retrieved from the air bubbles occluded n polar ice cores back to 800 kyr. However, elemental and isotopic fractionation processes alter O2 isotope ratios during the transport......, or the reproducibility of ice core δ18Oatm measurements is estimated with 21 Late Holocene Neem (Greenland) icecore samples from the same depth. A melt-extraction method is applied on these large samples (⋍ 30 g) and δ18Oatm , δO2/N2 and δ15N are measured in an O2 /N2/Ar mixture by isotope ratio mass spectrometry...... of the analytical system to reproduce δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 is estimated as 0.028‰ (1 σ) and 0.021‰ (1 σ), respectively. Fifth, thanks to improving isotope measurement techniques, millennial scale variations of δ18Oatm and 17Δatm preserved in polar ice cores have been revealed. In particular, a systematic δ18Oatm...

  15. Generic Properties of Random Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Bianco, Simone; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tang, Chao

    2013-12-01

    Modeling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important topic in systems biology. Although there has been much work focusing on various specific systems, the generic behavior of GRNs with continuous variables is still elusive. In particular, it is not clear typically how attractors partition among the three types of orbits: steady state, periodic and chaotic, and how the dynamical properties change with network's topological characteristics. In this work, we first investigated these questions in random GRNs with different network sizes, connectivity, fraction of inhibitory links and transcription regulation rules. Then we searched for the core motifs that govern the dynamic behavior of large GRNs. We show that the stability of a random GRN is typically governed by a few embedding motifs of small sizes, and therefore can in general be understood in the context of these short motifs. Our results provide insights for the study and design of genetic networks.

  16. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  17. Structure, Mechanics and Flow Properties of Fractured Shale: Core-Scale Experimentation and In-situ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, B. F.; Karpyn, Z.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last several years, hydrocarbon exploitation and development in North America has been heavily centered on shale gas plays. However, the physical attributes of shales and their manifestation on transport properties and storage capacity remain poorly understood. Therefore, more experimentally based data are needed to fill the gaps in understanding both transport and storage of fluids in shale. The proposed work includes installation and testing of an experimental system which is capable of monitoring the dynamic evolution of shale core permeability under variable loading conditions and in coordination with X-ray microCT imaging. The goal of this study is to better understand and quantify fluid flow patterns and associated transport dynamics of fractured shale samples. The independent variables considered in this study are: mechanical loading and pore pressure. The mechanical response of shale core is captured for different loading paths. To best replicate the in-situ production scenario, the pore pressure is progressively depleted to mimic pressure decline. During the course of experimentation, permeability is estimated using the pulse-decay method under tri-axial stress boundary conditions. Simultaneously, X-ray microCT imaging is used with a tracer gas that is allowed to flow through the sample as an illuminating agent. In the presence of an illuminating agent, either Xenon or Krypton, the X-ray CT scanner can image fractures, global pathways and diffusional fronts in the matrix, as well as sorption sites that reflect heterogeneities in the sample and localized deformation. Anticipated results from these experiments will help quantify permeability evolution as a function of different loading conditions and pore pressure depletion. Also, the X-ray images will help visualize the change of flow patterns and the intensity of sorption as a function of mechanical loading and pore pressure.

  18. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald; Bagchi, Samik; Zhang, Kai; Oerther, Daniel B.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    -scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads

  19. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  20. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  1. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS): psychometric properties and associations with paranoia and grandiosity in non-clinical and psychosis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Smith, Ben; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Bashforth, Hannah; Coker, Sian; Hodgekins, Joanne; Gracie, Alison; Dunn, Graham; Garety, Philippa

    2006-06-01

    Traditional instruments that measure self-esteem may not relate directly to the schema construct as outlined in recent cognitive models. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS) aim to provide a theoretically coherent self-report assessment of schemata concerning self and others in psychosis. The scales assess four dimensions of self and other evaluation: negative-self, positive-self, negative-other, positive-other. We analysed the psychometric properties of the BCSS using a sample of 754 students recruited by email and 252 people with psychosis recruited as part of a trial of cognitive therapy. We report the internal consistency, stability and the factor structure of the scale, and the association of the BCSS with measures of self-esteem and with symptoms of paranoia and grandiosity. The BCSS have good psychometric properties and have more independence from mood than the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule. People with chronic psychosis reported extreme negative evaluations of both self and others on these scales, but their levels of self-esteem and positive evaluations of self and others were similar to the student sample. Extreme negative evaluations of self and others appear to be characteristic of the appraisals of people with chronic psychosis, and are associated with symptoms of grandiosity and paranoia in the non-clinical population. The BCSS may provide a more useful measure of schemata about self and others than traditional measures of self-esteem.

  2. Strike-slip linked core complexes: A new kinematic model of basement rock exhumation in a crustal-scale fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sven Erik; Passchier, Cees; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic core complexes usually develop as extensional features during continental crustal thinning, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15 km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140 km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE-trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and changes by more than 90 degrees from a NS-trending strike-slip zone to an EW-trending 40 degree south-dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike-slip shear zone during 40 km of horizontal strike-slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed later during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip

  3. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  4. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  5. Generic component failure data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates

  6. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  7. Metagenomic binning reveals the functional roles of core abundant microorganisms in twelve full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    and environmental factors on MAGs abundance and to investigate the methanogenic performance of the biogas plants. Prediction of the functional properties of MAGs was obtained analyzing their KEGG pathways and their carbohydrate active domains. Network analysis allowed investigation of species-species associations......The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbial ecology in twelve mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale biogas plants using a genome-centric metagenomic approach. In this study both biogas plants treating manure and those treating sludge from waste water treatment plants were considered...... and shed light on syntrophic interactions between members belonging to the anaerobic digestion dark matter (phylum Fermentibacteria). By stratifying and comparing different levels of information, it was predicted that some MAGs have a crucial role in the manure-supplemented thermophilic biogas plants...

  8. Recent advances in platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: Scale-up synthesis, structure and activity of Pt shells on Pd cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K., E-mail: ksasaki@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wang, J.X. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Naohara, H. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Marinkovic, N. [University of Delaware, Department of Chemical Engineering, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); More, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Inada, H. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Adzic, R.R., E-mail: adzic@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    We have established a scale-up synthesis method to produce gram-quantities of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts. The core-shell structure of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst has been verified using the HAADF-STEM Z-contrast images, STEM/EELS, and STEM/EDS line profile analysis. The atomic structure of this electrocatalyst and formation of a Pt monolayer on Pd nanoparticle surfaces were examined using in situ EXAFS. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst for ORR is considerably higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. The results with Pt monolayer electrocatalysts may significantly impact science of electrocatalysis and fuel-cell technology, as they have demonstrated an exceptionally effective way of using Pt that can resolve problems of other approaches, including electrocatalysts' inadequate activity and high Pt content.

  9. Dynamics of metallic contaminants at a basin scale--Spatial and temporal reconstruction from four sediment cores (Loire fluvial system, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Bourrain, X; Desmet, M

    2016-01-15

    From the 19th century, the Loire basin (France) presents potentially pollutant activities such as mining and heavy industries. This paper shows spatio-temporal distribution of trace elements in sediments at a basin-scale, based on a comparison of archived temporal signals recorded in four sedimentary cores. Anthropogenic sources contributing to sediment contamination are also characterized, using geochemical signatures recorded in river bank sediments of the most industrialized tributaries. This study highlights upstream-downstream differences concerning recorded contamination phases in terms of spatial influence and temporality of archiving processes. Such differences were related to (i) various spatial influences of contamination sources and (ii) polluted sediments dispersion controlled by transport capacity of metal-carrier phases and hydrosedimentary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A plot-scale study of firn stratigraphy at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, using ice cores, borehole video and GPR surveys in 2012-14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Pohjola, Veijo A.; Pettersson, Rickard

    2017-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of snow and firn properties on glaciers introduces uncertainty in interpretation of point and profile observations and complicates modelling of meltwater percolation and runoff. Here we present a study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of firn density and stratigraphy...... at the plot-scale (≈10 m × 10 m × 10 m) repeated annually during 2012-14 at the Lomonosovfonna icefield, Svalbard. Results from cores, video inspections in boreholes and radar grid surveys are compared. Ice layers 0.1-50 cm thick comprised ≈8% of the borehole length. Most of them are 1-3 cm thick and could...... in individual boreholes. However, the match between the high amplitude peaks in the grid-averaged radar signal and horizons of preferential ice layer formation revealed by averaging the video surveys over multiple boreholes is higher. These horizons are interpreted as buried firn layers previously exposed...

  11. Recent advances in platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: Scale-up synthesis, structure and activity of Pt shells on Pd cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wang, J.X.; Naohara, H.; Marinkovic, N.; More, K.; Inada, H.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    We have established a scale-up synthesis method to produce gram-quantities of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts. The core-shell structure of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst has been verified using the HAADF-STEM Z-contrast images, STEM/EELS, and STEM/EDS line profile analysis. The atomic structure of this electrocatalyst and formation of a Pt monolayer on Pd nanoparticle surfaces were examined using in situ EXAFS. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst for ORR is considerably higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. The results with Pt monolayer electrocatalysts may significantly impact science of electrocatalysis and fuel-cell technology, as they have demonstrated an exceptionally effective way of using Pt that can resolve problems of other approaches, including electrocatalysts' inadequate activity and high Pt content.

  12. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  13. Collective response to public health emergencies and large-scale disasters: putting hospitals at the core of community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.

  14. The generic drug user fee amendments: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Murphy, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Since the vast majority of prescription drugs consumed by Americans are off patent (‘generic’), their regulation and supply is of wide interest. We describe events leading up to the US Congress's 2012 passage of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA I) as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). Under GDUFA I, generic manufacturers agreed to pay approximately $300 million in fees each year of the five-year program. In exchange, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) committed to performance goals. We describe GDUFA I’s FDA commitments, provisions, goals, and annual fee structure and compare it to that entailed in the authorization and implementation of GDUFA II on October 1, 2017. We explain how user fees required under GDUFA I erected barriers to entry and created scale and scope economies for incumbent manufacturers. Congress changed user fees under GDUFA II in part to lessen these incentives. In order to initiate and sustain user fees under GDUFA legislation, FDA requires the submission of self-reported data on generic manufacturers including domestic and foreign facilities. These data are public and our examination of them provides an unprecedented window into the recent organization of generic drug manufacturers supplying the US market. Our results suggest that generic drug manufacturing is increasingly concentrated and foreign. We discuss the implications of this observed market structure for GDUFA II’s implementation among other outcomes. PMID:29707218

  15. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  16. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  17. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  18. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  19. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  20. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejeckam, R. B.

    1992-12-01

    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  1. Problems with the dating of sediment core using excess 210Pb in a freshwater system impacted by large scale watershed changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, Mark; Nix, Joe; Kuyper, Clark; Karunakara, N.

    2014-01-01

    Pb-210 dating of freshwater and coastal sediments have been extensively conducted over the past 40 years for historical pollution reconstruction studies, sediment focusing, sediment accumulation and mixing rate determination. In areas where there is large scale disturbance of sediments and the watershed, the vertical profiles of excess 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) could provide erroneous or less reliable information on sediment accumulation rates. We analyzed one sediment core from Hendrix Lake in southwestern Arkansas for excess 210 Pb and 137 Cs. There is no decrease in excess 210 Pb activity with depth while the 137 Cs profile indicates sharp peak corresponding to 1963 and the 137 Cs penetration depth of 137 Cs corresponds to 1952. The historical data on the accelerated mercury mining during 1931–1944 resulted in large-scale Hg input to this watershed. Using the peak Hg activity as a time marker, the obtained sediment accumulation rates agree well with the 137 Cs-based rates. Four independent evidences (two-marker events based on 137 Cs and two marker events based on Hg mining activity) result in about the same sedimentation rates and thus, we endorse earlier suggestion that 210 Pb profile always needs to be validated with at least one another independent method. We also present a concise discussion on what important factors that can affect the vertical profiles of 210 Pb xs in relatively smaller lakes

  2. Algorithms and data structures for massively parallel generic adaptive finite element codes

    KAUST Repository

    Bangerth, Wolfgang; Burstedde, Carsten; Heister, Timo; Kronbichler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    far prevented the emergence of generic software libraries that support such computations, although these would lower the threshold of entry and enable many more applications to benefit from large-scale computing. We are concerned with providing

  3. Generic analysis of kinetically driven inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Rio

    2018-04-01

    We perform a model-independent analysis of kinetically driven inflation (KDI) which (partially) includes generalized G-inflation and ghost inflation. We evaluate the background evolution splitting into the inflationary attractor and the perturbation around it. We also consider the quantum fluctuation of the scalar mode with a usual scaling and derive the spectral index, ignoring the contribution from the second-order products of slow-roll parameters. Using these formalisms, we find that within our generic framework the models of KDI which possess the shift symmetry of scalar field cannot create the quantum fluctuation consistent with the observation. Breaking the shift symmetry, we obtain a few essential conditions for viable models of KDI associated with the graceful exit.

  4. Automated analysis in generic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  5. Factors influencing agreement between child self-report and parent proxy-reports on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ generic core scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiser Christine

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situations where children are unable or unwilling to respond for themselves, measurement of quality of life (QOL is often obtained by parent proxy-report. However the relationship between child self and parent proxy-reports has been shown to be poor in some circumstances. Additionally the most appropriate statistical method for comparing ratings between child and parent proxy-reports has not been clearly established. The objectives of this study were to assess the: 1 agreement between child and parent proxy-reports on an established child QOL measure (the PedsQL™ using two different statistical methods; 2 effect of chronological age and domain type on agreement between children's and parents' reports on the PedsQL™; 3 relationship between parents' own well-being and their ratings of their child's QOL. Methods One hundred and forty-nine healthy children (5.5 – 6.5, 6.5 – 7.5, and 7.5 – 8.5 years completed the PedsQL™. One hundred and three of their parents completed these measures in relation to their child, and a measure of their own QOL (SF-36. Results Consistency between child and parent proxy-reports on the PedsQL™ was low, with Intra-Class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. Correlations were higher for the oldest age group for Total Score and Psychosocial Health domains, and for the Physical Health domain in the youngest age group. Statistically significant median differences were found between child and parent-reports on all subscales of the PedsQL™. The largest median differences were found for the two older age groups. Statistically significant correlations were found between parents' own QOL and their proxy-reports of child QOL across the total sample and within the middle age group. Conclusion Intra-Class correlation coefficients and median difference testing can provide different information on the relationship between parent proxy-reports and child self-reports. Our findings suggest that differences in the levels of parent-child agreement previously reported may be an artefact of the statistical method used. In addition, levels of agreement can be affected by child age, domains investigated, and parents' own QOL. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal predictors of levels of parent-child agreement.

  6. Generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Vogel, A.; Hansen, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD).......The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  7. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  8. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  9. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  10. GLAD: a generic lattice debugger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)

  11. SC'11 Poster: A Highly Efficient MGPT Implementation for LAMMPS; with Strong Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppelstrup, T; Stukowski, A; Marian, J

    2011-12-07

    The MGPT potential has been implemented as a drop in package to the general molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. We implement an improved communication scheme that shrinks the communication layer thickness, and increases the load balancing. This results in unprecedented strong scaling, and speedup continuing beyond 1/8 atom/core. In addition, we have optimized the small matrix linear algebra with generic blocking (for all processors) and specific SIMD intrinsics for vectorization on Intel, AMD, and BlueGene CPUs.

  12. Augmenting the core battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence scale--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2011-06-01

    Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms.

  13. Metric and structural equivalence of core cognitive abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Stephen C; Lissner, Dianne; McCarthy, Kerri A L; Weiss, Lawrence G; Holdnack, James A

    2007-10-01

    Equivalence of the psychological model underlying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) scores obtained in the United States and Australia was examined in this study. Examination of metric invariance involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the measurement model relating observed scores to latent variables are numerically equal in different samples. The assumption of metric invariance is necessary for interpretation of scores derived from research studies that seek to generalize patterns of convergent and divergent validity and patterns of deficit or disability. An Australian community volunteer sample was compared to the US standardization data. A pattern of strict metric invariance was observed across samples. In addition, when the effects of different demographic characteristics of the US and Australian samples were included, structural parameters reflecting values of the latent cognitive variables were found not to differ. These results provide important evidence for the equivalence of measurement of core cognitive abilities with the WAIS-III and suggest that latent cognitive abilities in the US and Australia do not differ.

  14. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  15. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  16. Generic communications index: User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years

  17. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  18. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  19. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  20. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  1. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...

  2. Assessment of outcome in patients undergoing surgery for intradural spinal tumor using the multidimensional patient-rated Core Outcome Measures Index and the modified McCormick Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellut, David; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Mannion, Anne F; Porchet, François

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome in patients undergoing surgical treatment for intradural spinal tumor using a patient-oriented, self-rated, outcome instrument and a physician-based disease-specific instrument. METHODS Prospectively collected data from 63 patients with intradural spinal tumor were analyzed in relation to scores on the multidimensional patient-rated Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) and the physician-rated modified McCormick Scale, before and at 3 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference between the scores on the modified McCormick Scale preoperatively and at the 3-month follow-up, though there was a trend for improvement (p = 0.073); however, comparisons between the scores determined preoperatively and at the 12-month follow-up, as well as 3- versus 12-month follow-ups, showed a statistically significant improvement in each case (p 0.05) up to 12 months postoperatively. In contrast, the overall COMI score, "worst pain," quality of life, and social disability not only showed a significant reduction from before surgery to 3 months after surgery (p 0.05), but did show a significant improvement (p = 0.011) from 3 months to 12 months after surgery. At the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, 85.2% and 83.9% of patients, respectively, declared that the surgical procedure had helped/helped a lot; 95.1% and 95.2%, respectively, declared that they were satisfied/very satisfied with their care. CONCLUSIONS COMI is a feasible tool to use in the evaluation of baseline symptoms and outcome in patients undergoing surgery for intradural spinal tumor. COMI was able to detect changes in outcome at 3 months after surgery (before changes were apparent on the modified McCormick Scale) and on later postoperative follow-up. The COMI subdomains are valuable for monitoring the patient's reintegration into society and the work environment. The addition of an item that specifically covers neurological deficits may

  3. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-06-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products.

  5. Explaining Communication Displacement and Large-Scale Social Change in Core Networks: A Cross-National Comparison of Why Bigger is Not Better and Less Can Mean More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, Keith; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison of the Uni......The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison...

  6. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  7. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  8. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  9. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  10. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  11. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs

  12. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...

  13. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  15. Feasibility of using gadolinium as a burnable poison in PWR cores. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothleder, B.M.

    1981-02-01

    As an alternative to the use of lumped burnable absorbers in PWR cores, distributed burnable absorbers are being considered for generic application. These burnable absorbers take the form of Gd 2 O 3 mixed with UO 2 in selected fuel rods (as is currently done in BWR cores). The work discussed herein concerns a three-dimensional feasibility study of the use of such distributed burnable absorbers in PWR cores. This study of distributed burnable absorbers was performed for the first cycle of a typical current design PWR using the following steps: analysis of a generic reference core design; determination of gadolinium assembly designs; determination of a generic gadolinium core design; evaluation of feasibility by examining selected parameters; and redesign of the generic gadolinium core, using axial zoning

  16. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  17. Generic lamotrigine versus brand-name Lamictal bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy: A field test of the FDA bioequivalence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Tricia Y; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Wong, Jessica; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Krumholz, Allan; Temple, Robert; Polli, James E

    2015-09-01

    To test the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioequivalence standard in a comparison of generic and brand-name drug pharmacokinetic (PK) performance in "generic-brittle" patients with epilepsy under clinical use conditions. This randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, steady-state, fully replicated bioequivalence study compared generic lamotrigine to brand-name Lamictal in "generic-brittle" patients with epilepsy (n = 34) who were already taking lamotrigine. Patients were repeatedly switched between masked Lamictal and generic lamotrigine. Intensive PK blood sampling at the end of each 2-week treatment period yielded two 12-h PK profiles for brand-name and generic forms for each patient. Steady-state area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax ), and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) data were subjected to conventional average bioequivalence (ABE) analysis, reference-scaled ABE analysis, and within-subject variability (WSV) comparisons. In addition, generic-versus-brand comparisons in individual patients were performed. Secondary clinical outcomes included seizure frequency and adverse events. Generic demonstrated bioequivalence to brand. The 90% confidence intervals of the mean for steady-state AUC, Cmax , and Cmin for generic-versus-brand were 97.2-101.6%, 98.8-104.5%, and 93.4-101.0%, respectively. The WSV of generic and brand were also similar. Individual patient PK ratios for generic-versus-brand were similar but not identical, in part because brand-versus-brand profiles were not identical, even though subjects were rechallenged with the same product. Few subjects had seizure exacerbations or tolerability issues with product switching. One subject, however, reported 267 focal motor seizures, primarily on generic, although his brand and generic PK profiles were practically identical. Some neurologists question whether bioequivalence in healthy volunteers ensures therapeutic equivalence of brand and generic antiepileptic drugs

  18. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  19. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  20. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  1. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  2. Determination and Variation of Core Bacterial Community in a Two-Stage Full-Scale Anaerobic Reactor Treating High-Strength Pharmaceutical Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haijun; Ye, Lin; Hu, Haidong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-10-28

    Knowledge on the functional characteristics and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial populations is important for better understanding of the microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactors. However, owing to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as core bacteria and putatively functionally important. In this study, using MiSeq sequencing technology, the core bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The core bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The core bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct, in that the FS core bacterial community was indicated to be more related to a higher-level fermentation process, and the SS core bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of the FS and SS core bacterial communities to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the Order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales, and Thermotogales might play key roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advance our knowledge about the core bacterial community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.

  3. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  4. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...

  5. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  6. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  7. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  8. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  9. Generic multiset programming with discrimination-based joins and symbolic Cartesian products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Larsen, Ken Friis

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents GMP, a library for generic, SQL-style programming with multisets. It generalizes the querying core of SQL in a number of ways: Multisets may contain elements of arbitrary first-order data types, including references (pointers), recur- sive data types and nested multisets......: symbolic (term) repre- sentations of multisets, specifically for Cartesian products, for facilitating dynamic symbolic computation, which intersperses algebraic simplification steps with conventional data pro- cessing; and discrimination-based joins, a generic technique for computing equijoins based...

  10. Development and validation of a tool to assess knowledge and attitudes towards generic medicines among students in Greece: The ATtitude TOwards GENerics (ATTOGEN questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Domeyer

    Full Text Available The use of generic medicines is a cost-effective policy, often dictated by fiscal restraints. To our knowledge, no fully validated tool exploring the students' knowledge and attitudes towards generic medicines exists. The aim of our study was to develop and validate a questionnaire exploring the knowledge and attitudes of M.Sc. in Health Care Management students and recent alumni's towards generic drugs in Greece.The development of the questionnaire was a result of literature review and pilot-testing of its preliminary versions to researchers and students. The final version of the questionnaire contains 18 items measuring the respondents' knowledge and attitude towards generic medicines on a 5-point Likert scale. Given the ordinal nature of the data, ordinal alpha and polychoric correlations were computed. The sample was randomly split into two halves. Exploratory factor analysis, performed in the first sample, was used for the creation of multi-item scales. Confirmatory factor analysis and Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model analysis (GLLAMM with the use of the rating scale model were used in the second sample to assess goodness of fit. An assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity was also performed.Among 1402 persons contacted, 986 persons completed our questionnaire (response rate = 70.3%. Overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.871. The conjoint use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a six-scale model, which seemed to fit the data well. Five of the six scales, namely trust, drug quality, state audit, fiscal impact and drug substitution were found to be valid and reliable, while the knowledge scale suffered only from low inter-scale correlations and a ceiling effect. However, the subsequent confirmatory factor and GLLAMM analyses indicated a good fit of the model to the data.The ATTOGEN instrument proved to be a reliable and valid tool, suitable for assessing students

  11. Combining Vertex-centric Graph Processing with SPARQL for Large-scale RDF Data Analytics

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim

    2017-06-27

    Modern applications, such as drug repositioning, require sophisticated analytics on RDF graphs that combine structural queries with generic graph computations. Existing systems support either declarative SPARQL queries, or generic graph processing, but not both. We bridge the gap by introducing Spartex, a versatile framework for complex RDF analytics. Spartex extends SPARQL to support programs that combine seamlessly generic graph algorithms (e.g., PageRank, Shortest Paths, etc.) with SPARQL queries. Spartex builds on existing vertex-centric graph processing frameworks, such as Graphlab or Pregel. It implements a generic SPARQL operator as a vertex-centric program that interprets SPARQL queries and executes them efficiently using a built-in optimizer. In addition, any graph algorithm implemented in the underlying vertex-centric framework, can be executed in Spartex. We present various scenarios where our framework simplifies significantly the implementation of complex RDF data analytics programs. We demonstrate that Spartex scales to datasets with billions of edges, and show that our core SPARQL engine is at least as fast as the state-of-the-art specialized RDF engines. For complex analytical tasks that combine generic graph processing with SPARQL, Spartex is at least an order of magnitude faster than existing alternatives.

  12. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. ... Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  13. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  14. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  15. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  16. Brand and generic medications: Are they interchangeable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazak S.; Blhareth, S.; Eqtefan, Iyad S.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2008-01-01

    Generic substitution has become a common practice since the late 1970s in the United States. At that time, many of these generics caused bioavailability problems, which fueled suspicions about their efficacy and safety and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for bioequivalence. In Saudi Arabia, the increasing number of local products raised several concerns with regard to switching from brands to generics. Our objective was to review and examine the basis of the controversy surrounding brand and generic interchangeability and to explore a practical approach in pursuing a switch. Articles indexed initially under terms such as generic medications, generic substitution, bioequivalence and bioinequivalence were identified. These terms were used to search the indexing service, MEDLINE (1966-2006). References from the extracted articles and additional data sources, including the Code of Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guidelines from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and research were also reviewed. Foe most drugs, bioequivalence testing generally should enable clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. However, for narrow therapeutic, critical dose drugs, or for highly variable drugs, safe switching between products can not be assured. These drugs need special precautions and blood level monitoring upon switching. FDA firmly believes that approved generic and brand drugs can be dispensed with the full expectation that the consumer will receive the same clinical benefit. Performing the switch process is an advisable practice to reduce health care costs in countries with strong post-marketing surveillance program, but caution is to be exercised when narrow therapeutic index drugs or highly variable drugs are prescribed. (author)

  17. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  18. SF36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans; Stolwijk-Swüste, J. M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Dekker, J.; van Dijk, G. M.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Post, B.; de Haan, R. J.; Speelman, H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. DESIGN: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. SUBJECTS:

  19. Sf36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swuste, J.M.; Beelen, J.A.J.M.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Nollet, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Design: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. Subjects:

  20. Integrated stratigraphy of the Smirra Core (Umbria-Marche Basin, Apennines, Italy) : A new early Paleogene reference section and implications for the geologic time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turtù, Antonio; Lauretano, Vittoria; Catanzariti, Rita; Hilgen, Frits J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca; Moretti, Matteo; Lourens, Lucas J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103

    2017-01-01

    Pelagic sections of the Umbria-Marche Basin, in the Northern Apennines (Italy), have provided key geological archives for studying critical intervals of early Paleogene time. In addition to classical sections, the Smirra Coring project provides a new record of relatively undisturbed sediments (~ 120

  1. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  2. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  3. Explaining parent-child (dis)agreement in generic and short stature-specific health-related quality of life reports: do family and social relationships matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Silva, Neuza

    2016-10-21

    In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK. The sample comprised 137 dyads of children/adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age, diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and one of their parents. The participants completed child- and parent-reported questionnaires on generic (KIDSCREEN-10 Index) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY Core Module). Children/adolescents also reported on social support (Oslo 3-items Social Support Scale) and parents assessed the parent-child relationships (Parental Role subscale of the Social Adjustment Scale) and burden of short stature on parents (QoLISSY- additional module). The parent-child agreement on reported HrQoL was strong (intraclass correlation coefficients between .59 and .80). The rates of parent-child discrepancies were 61.5 % for generic and 35.2 % for condition-specific HrQoL, with the parents being more prone to report lower generic (42.3 %) and condition-specific HrQoL (23.7 %) than their children. The extent of discrepancies was better explained by family and social relationships than by clinical and socio-demographic variables: poorer parent-child relationships and better children's social support were associated with larger discrepancies in generic HrQoL, while more parental burden was associated with larger discrepancies in condition-specific HrQoL reports. Regarding the direction of discrepancies, higher parental burden was significantly associated with parents

  4. Development of an Enhanced Generic Data Mining Life Cycle (DMLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Markus; Tierney, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Data mining projects are complex and have a high failure rate. In order to improve project management and success rates of such projects a life cycle is vital to the overall success of the project. This paper reports on a research project that was concerned with the life cycle development for large scale data mining projects. The paper provides a detailed view of the design and development of a generic data mining life cycle called DMLC. The life cycle aims to support all members of data mini...

  5. Thermal margin model for transition core of KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahm, Kee Yil; Lim, Jong Seon; Park, Sung Kew; Chun, Chong Kuk; Hwang, Sun Tack

    2004-01-01

    The PLUS7 fuel was developed with mixing vane grids for KSNP. For the transition core partly loaded with the PLUS7 fuels, the procedure to set up the optimum thermal margin model of the transition core was suggested by introducing AOPM concept into the screening method which determines the limiting assembly. According to the procedure, the optimum thermal margin model of the first transition core was set up by using a part of nuclear data for the first transition and the homogeneous core with PLUS7 fuels. The generic thermal margin model of PLUS7 fuel was generated with the AOPM of 138%. The overpower penalties on the first transition core were calculated to be 1.0 and 0.98 on the limiting assembly and the generic thermal margin model, respectively. It is not usual case to impose the overpower penalty on reload cores. It is considered that the lack of channel flow due to the difference of pressure drop between PLUS7 and STD fuels results in the decrease of DNBR. The AOPM of the first transition core is evaluated to be about 135% by using the optimum generic thermal margin model which involves the generic thermal margin model and the total overpower penalty. The STD fuel is not included among limiting assembly candidates in the second transition core, because they have much lower pin power than PLUS7 fuels. The reduced number of STD fuels near the limiting assembly candidates the flow from the limiting assembly to increase the thermal margin for the second transition core. It is expected that cycle specific overpower penalties increase the thermal margin for the transition core. Using the procedure to set up the optimum thermal margin model makes sure that the enhanced thermal margin of PLUS7 fuel can be sufficiently applied to not only the homogeneous core but also the transition core

  6. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic drug...

  7. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  8. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  9. EPRI spearheads generic PM recommendations for infrastructure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, David H.; Hinchcliffe, Glenn R.; Benak, Mark S.; Bridges, Martin

    2007-01-01

    All companies have at their core a vast amount of similar equipment that would benefit from solid preventive maintenance (PM) recommendations that are generic and easily adapted to meet operational conditions. The re-emergence of PM optimization methods like Reliability Centered Maintenance, further illustrates that companies in all industries recognize the positive influence that a well-focused maintenance program has on the corporate bottom line. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has long been a leader in providing universally adaptable maintenance solutions to meet the evolving needs of its membership. Nearly ten years ago, EPRI began developing the PM Basis Database, a one-of-a-kind repository of PM recommendations for basic infrastructure components (such as pumps, motors, valves, compressors), derived from equipment experts. EPRI has now made available this comprehensive body of knowledge to all industries. This paper will explore the origins and structure of the database, how these generic PM recommendations benefit every industry, and how they may be obtained. (author)

  10. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2011-10-12

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Microsatellite diversity and broad scale geographic structure in a model legume: building a set of nested core collection for studying naturally occurring variation in Medicago truncatula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronfort, Joelle; Bataillon, Thomas; Santoni, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    at representing the genetic diversity of this species with a minimum of repetitiveness. We investigate the patterns of genetic diversity and population structure in a collection of 346 inbred lines representing the breadth of naturally occurring diversity in the Legume plant model Medicago truncatula using 13...... of inbred lines and the core collections are publicly available and will help coordinating efforts for the study of naturally occurring variation in the growing Medicago truncatula community....

  13. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  14. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  15. Development of generic soil profiles and soil data development for SSI analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Josh, E-mail: jparker@nuscalepower.com [NuScale Power, 1000 NE Circle Boulevard, Suite 10310, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Khan, Mohsin; Rajagopal, Raj [ARES Corporation, 1990N California Boulevard, Suite 500, Walnut Creek, CA 94596 (United States); Groome, John [NuScale Power, 1000 NE Circle Boulevard, Suite 10310, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the approach to developing generic soil profiles for the design of reactor building for small modular reactor (SMR) nuclear power plant developed by NuScale Power. The reactor building is a deeply embedded structure. In order to perform soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses, generic soil profiles are required to be defined for the standardized Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) designs for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in a design control document (DCD). The development of generic soil profiles is based on utilization of information on generic soil profiles from the new standardized nuclear power plant designs already submitted to the NRC for license certification. Eleven generic soil profiles have been recommended, and those profiles cover a wide range of parameters such as soil depth, shear wave velocity, unit weight, Poisson's ratio, water table, and depth to rock strata. The soil profiles are developed for a range of shear wave velocities between bounds of 1000 fps and 8000 fps as inferred from NRC Standard Review Plan (NUREG 0800) Sections 3.7.1 and 3.7.2. To account for the soil degradation due to seismic events, the strain compatible soil properties are based on the EPRI generic soil degradation curves. In addition, one dimensional soil dynamic response analyses were performed to study the soil layer input motions for performing the SSI analyses.

  16. Customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur using diagnostic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, B; Reynolds, K J; Slavotinek, J P

    2008-01-01

    A method for the customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur is presented. The customization method involves two steps: acquisition of calibrated orthogonal planar radiographs; and linear scaling of the generic model based on the width of a subject's femoral condyles as measured on the planar radiographs. Planar radiographs of seven intact lower cadaver limbs were obtained. The customized generic models were validated by comparing their surface geometry with that of CT-reconstructed reference models. The overall mean error was 1.2 mm. The results demonstrate that uniform scaling as a first step in the customization process produced a base model of accuracy comparable to other models reported in the literature.

  17. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  18. A lifeline to treatment: the role of Indian generic manufacturers in supplying antiretroviral medicines to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Moon, Suerie

    2010-09-14

    Indian manufacturers of generic antiretroviral (ARV) medicines facilitated the rapid scale up of HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries though provision of low-priced, quality-assured medicines. The legal framework in India that facilitated such production, however, is changing with implementation of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, and intellectual property measures being discussed in regional and bilateral free trade agreement negotiations. Reliable quantitative estimates of the Indian role in generic global ARV supply are needed to understand potential impacts of such measures on HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries. We utilized transactional data containing 17,646 donor-funded purchases of ARV tablets made by 115 low- and middle-income countries from 2003 to 2008 to measure market share, purchase trends and prices of Indian-produced generic ARVs compared with those of non-Indian generic and brand ARVs. Indian generic manufacturers dominate the ARV market, accounting for more than 80% of annual purchase volumes. Among paediatric ARV and adult nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor markets, Indian-produced generics accounted for 91% and 89% of 2008 global purchase volumes, respectively. From 2003 to 2008, the number of Indian generic manufactures supplying ARVs increased from four to 10 while the number of Indian-manufactured generic products increased from 14 to 53. Ninety-six of 100 countries purchased Indian generic ARVs in 2008, including high HIV-burden sub-Saharan African countries. Indian-produced generic ARVs used in first-line regimens were consistently and considerably less expensive than non-Indian generic and innovator ARVs. Key ARVs newly recommended by the World Health Organization are three to four times more expensive than older regimens. Indian generic producers supply the majority of ARVs in developing countries. Future scale up using newly

  19. LMFBR core design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, J.C.; Yoh, K.C.; Suk, S.D.; Soh, D.S.; Kim, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    The design parameters of a commercial-scale fast breeder reactor which is currently under construction by regeneration of these data is preliminary analyzed. The analysis of nuclear and thermal characteristics as well as safety features of this reactor is emphasized. And the evaluation of the initial core mentioned in the system description is carried out in the areas of its kinetics and control system, and, at the same time, the flow distribution of sodium and temperature distribution of the initial FBR core system are calculated. (KAERI INIS Section)

  20. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiura, P; Vitillo, R A; Eranian, S; Levinthal, D; Kama, S

    2012-01-01

    Modern superscalar, out-of-order microprocessors dominate large scale server computing. Monitoring their activity, during program execution, has become complicated due to the complexity of the microarchitectures and their IO interactions. Recent processors have thousands of performance monitoring events. These are required to actually provide coverage for all of the complex interactions and performance issues that can occur. Knowing which data to collect and how to interpret the results has become an unreasonable burden for code developers whose tasks are already hard enough. It becomes the task of the analysis tool developer to bridge this gap. To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool, it enables software developers to take advantage of the microarchitectural methodology that has only been available to experts. The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer (GOoDA) project integrates this expertise into a profiling tool in order to lower the required expertise of the user and, being designed from the ground up with large-scale object-oriented applications in mind, it will be particularly useful for large HENP codebases

  1. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  2. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  3. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  4. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  5. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  6. Universal Scaling Relations in Scale-Free Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Hopkins, Philip F.; Grudić, Michael Y.

    2018-04-01

    A large number of astronomical phenomena exhibit remarkably similar scaling relations. The most well-known of these is the mass distribution dN/dM∝M-2 which (to first order) describes stars, protostellar cores, clumps, giant molecular clouds, star clusters and even dark matter halos. In this paper we propose that this ubiquity is not a coincidence and that it is the generic result of scale-free structure formation where the different scales are uncorrelated. We show that all such systems produce a mass function proportional to M-2 and a column density distribution with a power law tail of dA/d lnΣ∝Σ-1. In the case where structure formation is controlled by gravity the two-point correlation becomes ξ2D∝R-1. Furthermore, structures formed by such processes (e.g. young star clusters, DM halos) tend to a ρ∝R-3 density profile. We compare these predictions with observations, analytical fragmentation cascade models, semi-analytical models of gravito-turbulent fragmentation and detailed "full physics" hydrodynamical simulations. We find that these power-laws are good first order descriptions in all cases.

  7. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine Walsh; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-scale paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115–15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one core locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age"depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular core sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice cores: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2–5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of "Dansgaard"Oeschger" climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.

  8. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  9. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  10. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....

  11. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  12. Generic Checklist for Day Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium.

    This guide presents the results of research on day care monitoring methods conducted by the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium. It suggests a set of generic predictor items that can be used to monitor day care providers' compliance with standards. The predictor items are at the licensing or minimal compliance level and have been…

  13. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  14. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly in the...

  15. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  16. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  17. Generic Principles for Resolving Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an initial statement of generic principles deemed effective for addressing protracted social conflicts between identity groups. These principles are compatible with certain values for societal organization and approaches to social change, raising questions of value differences between intervenors and the host culture(s). Three case…

  18. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  19. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  20. Digging Deep: how the convergence of national-scale and field-based soil core data shines a light on sustainability of wetland carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Holmquist, J. R.; Sundquist, E. T.; Drexler, J. Z.; Bliss, N.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils have long been recognized as conditional archives of past environments, including vegetation structure, nutrient status, sediment supply and the variability in those factors. Both sedimentary processes and organic accretion processes form the soil matrix that identifies wetland soils as "hydric" while also providing archival insights. As repositories of information on net biogeochemical processes, their down-core and across-site structure can show both consistency and distinction. Through several related studies, we have been exploring the use of component-level U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil Survey data (SSURGO) to map carbon density to 1m depth across wetlands of the US, with an emphasis on coastal wetlands. To assess the accuracy of mapped carbon data from SSURGO, several field-generated datasets (public or compiled for the NASA-funded Blue Carbon Monitoring Project) have been extracted for key metrics such as dry bulk density (g/cc), organic carbon content (%C by combustion) and the combination, soil carbon density (g C /cc) with depth. These profiles indicate ecogeomorphic feedbacks of elevation, vegetation structure and biogeochemical processes through millennia, illustrating both resilience and shifts in behavior that constrain wetland extent as well as wetland function. National datasets such as SSURGO and validation datasets such as the EPA's National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) and Louisiana's Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) are publically available and have been underutilized for predicting and/or validating changes in wetland carbon dynamics. We have explored their use for interpretating and understanding changing carbon accretion rates, changing wetland extents through elevation gain or loss, and changing methane emissions. This talk will focus on insights for wetland carbon sequestration functions as determined by soil core structure, both for coastal settings and potentially for inland

  1. The physical properties of generic latanoprost ophthalmic solutions are not identical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Koch Jensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    was determined by linear regression of timed gravity flow from a vertical syringe through a 21-G cannula. The hardness of the bottles was evaluated by gradually increasing tension on a hook placed around each bottle until a drop was expelled reading the tension on an attached spring scale. RESULTS: Drop sizes...... products. Finally, the viscosity revealed a significant variability between brands. Remarkable differences were found in bottle shapes, bottle hardness and costs of the latanoprost generics. CONCLUSION: Generic latanoprost eye drops should not be considered identical to the original brand version...

  2. Rank Dynamics of Word Usage at Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent dramatic increase in online data availability has allowed researchers to explore human culture with unprecedented detail, such as the growth and diversification of language. In particular, it provides statistical tools to explore whether word use is similar across languages, and if so, whether these generic features appear at different scales of language structure. Here we use the Google Books N-grams dataset to analyze the temporal evolution of word usage in several languages. We apply measures proposed recently to study rank dynamics, such as the diversity of N-grams in a given rank, the probability that an N-gram changes rank between successive time intervals, the rank entropy, and the rank complexity. Using different methods, results show that there are generic properties for different languages at different scales, such as a core of words necessary to minimally understand a language. We also propose a null model to explore the relevance of linguistic structure across multiple scales, concluding that N-gram statistics cannot be reduced to word statistics. We expect our results to be useful in improving text prediction algorithms, as well as in shedding light on the large-scale features of language use, beyond linguistic and cultural differences across human populations.

  3. A highly active PtCu3 intermetallic core-shell, multilayered Pt-skin, carbon embedded electrocatalyst produced by a scale-up sol-gel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, M; Jovanovič, P; Pavlišič, A; Jozinović, B; Zorko, M; Rečnik, A; Chernyshova, E; Hočevar, S; Hodnik, N; Gaberšček, M

    2014-11-07

    We present a novel, scaled-up sol-gel synthesis which enables one to produce 20 g batches of highly active and stable carbon supported PtCu3 nanoparticles as cathode materials for low temperature fuel cell application. We confirm the presence of an ordered intermetallic phase underneath a multilayered Pt-skin together with firm embedment of nanoparticles in the carbon matrix.

  4. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu

    2018-03-20

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  5. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  9. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  10. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  12. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  13. Applications of ASTEC integral code on a generic CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.radu@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului 1, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [Power Engineering Department, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Short overview of the models included in the ASTEC MCCI module. • MEDICIS/CPA coupled calculations for a generic CANDU6 reactor. • Two cases taking into account different pool/concrete interface models. - Abstract: In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the corium consisting of the molten reactor core and internal structures may flow onto the concrete floor of containment building. This would cause an interaction between the molten corium and the concrete (MCCI), in which the heat transfer from the hot melt to the concrete would cause the decomposition and the ablation of the concrete. The potential hazard of this interaction is the loss of integrity of the containment building and the release of fission products into the environment due to the possibility of a concrete foundation melt-through or containment over-pressurization by the gases produced from the decomposition of the concrete or by the inflammation of combustible gases. In the safety assessment of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the consequences of such a phenomenon. The paper presents an example of application of the ASTECv2 code to a generic CANDU6 reactor. This concerns the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the containment during molten core–concrete interaction in the reactor vault. The calculations were carried out with the help of the MEDICIS MCCI module and the CPA containment module of ASTEC code coupled through a specific prediction–correction method, which consists in describing the heat exchanges with the vault walls and partially absorbent gases. Moreover, the heat conduction inside the vault walls is described. Two cases are presented in this paper taking into account two different heat transfer models at the pool/concrete interface and siliceous concrete. The corium pool configuration corresponds to a homogeneous configuration with a detailed description of the upper crust.

  14. [Intention of purchasing generic prescription drugs on the part of consumers in Asturias, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernando, Santiago; González Mieres, Celina; Díaz Martín, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    Ascertaining how consumers perceive the risk related to the use of generic prescription drugs and those factors which have the greatest impact on the intention to request a generic drug from the prescribing physician and/or the pharmacist for the purpose of determining any possible barriers or hindrances to the acceptance of generics and to gather information to aid healthcare managers in their decision-making processes. Study on prescription drug use revolving around the degree to which patients are willing to request an EFG. In this quantitative transversal study, a total of 542 individuals were individually surveyed upon exiting a healthcare center or pharmacy in Asturias. A scale for measuring the perceived risk involved in the purchase of a prescription drug including 15 attributes grouped into five aspects was included in the questionnaire. Information was also gathered regarding the intention of using generic prescription drugs and on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those surveyed. For the analysis of the results, a factorial confirmational analysis, multiple regression and univariate analysis were used. The data was processed using the EQS and SPSS statistics programs. Mean perception of the risk (scales 1-7): functional: 2.75; physical: 2.68: financial: 2.19; psychological: 1.99; social: 1.42. Factors having a bearing on the intention of requesting generic prescription drugs from their physician: psychological risk (p = 0.000). On requesting the same from their pharmacist: psychological risk (p = 0.000) and social risk (p = 0.020). The agents interested in the development on the EFG market should target their communication efforts on putting the functional and financial aspects of the manufacturer's specialties and generic specialties on the same level, but should not leave out psychological and social aspects of the consumers' purchasing behavior.

  15. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  16. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  18. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  19. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  20. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  1. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  2. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  3. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  4. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  5. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  6. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  7. Generic programming for deterministic neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagne, L.; Poncot, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of neutron transport codes via generic programming techniques. Two different Boltzmann equation approximations have been implemented, namely the Sn and SPn methods. This implementation experiment shows that generic programming allows us to improve maintainability and readability of source codes with no performance penalties compared to classical approaches. In the present implementation, matrices and vectors as well as linear algebra algorithms are treated separately from the rest of source code and gathered in a tool library called 'Generic Linear Algebra Solver System' (GLASS). Such a code architecture, based on a linear algebra library, allows us to separate the three different scientific fields involved in transport codes design: numerical analysis, reactor physics and computer science. Our library handles matrices with optional storage policies and thus applies both to Sn code, where the matrix elements are computed on the fly, and to SPn code where stored matrices are used. Thus, using GLASS allows us to share a large fraction of source code between Sn and SPn implementations. Moreover, the GLASS high level of abstraction allows the writing of numerical algorithms in a form which is very close to their textbook descriptions. Hence the GLASS algorithms collection, disconnected from computer science considerations (e.g. storage policy), is very easy to read, to maintain and to extend. (authors)

  8. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs

  9. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  10. PERFORM 60: Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mazouzi, A.; Alamo, A.; Lidbury, D.; Moinereau, D.; Van Dyck, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Multi-scale and multi-physics modelling are adopted by PERFORM 60 to predict irradiation damage in nuclear structural materials. → PERFORM 60 allows to Consolidate the community and improve the interaction between universities/industries and safety authorities. → Experimental validation at the relevant scale is a key for developing the multi-scale modelling methodology. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, materials undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational lifetime. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and potential degradation of certain essential structures of the power plant to ensure their safe and reliable operation. So far, the monitoring and mitigation of these degradation phenomena rely mainly on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the materials behaviour in a nuclear environment. Indeed, within the PERFECT project of the EURATOM framework program (FP6), a first step has been successfully reached through the development of a simulation platform that contains several advanced numerical tools aiming at the prediction of irradiation damage in both the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals using available, state-of-the-art-knowledge. These tools allow simulation of irradiation effects on the nanostructure and the constitutive behaviour of the RPV low alloy steels, as well as their fracture mechanics properties. For the more highly irradiated reactor internals, which are commonly produced using austenitic stainless steels, the first partial models were established, describing radiation effects on the nanostructure and providing a first description of the

  11. A mixed core conversion study with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a mixed core study are presented for gradual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. The key parameters show that the transition can be accomplished safely and economically. (author)

  12. Mixed core conversion study with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mixed core study are presented for gradual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. The key parameters show that the transition can be accomplished safely and economically

  13. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  14. PERFORM 60 - Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.leclercq@edf.f [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Lidbury, David [SERCO Assurance - Walton House, 404 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Van Dyck, Steven [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Material Science, Boeretang 200, BE, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Moinereau, Dominique [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Alamo, Ana [CEA Saclay, DEN/DSOE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mazouzi, Abdou Al [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, materials may undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and the potential degradations of some essential structures of the power plant to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. So far, the material databases needed to take account of these degradations in the design and safe operation of installations mainly rely on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. A first step towards this goal has been successfully reached through the development of the RPV-2 and Toughness Module numerical tools by the scientific community created around the FP6 PERFECT project. These tools allow to simulate irradiation effects on the constitutive behaviour of the reactor pressure vessel low alloy steel, and also on its failure properties. Relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the 4 years Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop multi-scale tools aimed at predicting the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals (austenitic stainless steels) and also to improve existing ones on RPV (bainitic steels). PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects: (i) RPV and (ii) internals. In addition to these technical sub-projects, the Users' Group and Training sub-project shall allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations... from Europe, USA and Japan to receive the information and training to get their own appraisal on limits and potentialities of the developed tools. An important effort will also be made to teach

  15. PERFORM 60 - Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sylvain; Lidbury, David; Van Dyck, Steven; Moinereau, Dominique; Alamo, Ana; Mazouzi, Abdou Al

    2010-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, materials may undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and the potential degradations of some essential structures of the power plant to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. So far, the material databases needed to take account of these degradations in the design and safe operation of installations mainly rely on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. A first step towards this goal has been successfully reached through the development of the RPV-2 and Toughness Module numerical tools by the scientific community created around the FP6 PERFECT project. These tools allow to simulate irradiation effects on the constitutive behaviour of the reactor pressure vessel low alloy steel, and also on its failure properties. Relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the 4 years Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop multi-scale tools aimed at predicting the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals (austenitic stainless steels) and also to improve existing ones on RPV (bainitic steels). PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects: (i) RPV and (ii) internals. In addition to these technical sub-projects, the Users' Group and Training sub-project shall allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations… from Europe, USA and Japan to receive the information and training to get their own appraisal on limits and potentialities of the developed tools. An important effort will also be made to teach young

  16. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching....... METHODS: The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients...

  17. Full-scale model development of the WWER-440 reactor fuel rod bundle for core temperature regime study under reflooding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukov, Yu.A.; Logvinov, S.A.; Levchuk, S.V.; Nakladnov, V.D.; Onshin, V.P.; Sokolov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration is given to the issues of a full scale WWER-440 fuel rod bundle imitation. An imitator contains a molybdenum heating rod inclosed in stainless steel shell. The shell diameter is 9 mm, the heated length is 2500 mm, the total len.o.th is 2855 mm. 125 fuel rod imitators are set in the bundle mock-up. The experiments were run on a test facility imitating the WWER-440 reactor primary loop, providing the conditions of the loop breaking. The mock-up thermal hydraulics has been studied during the refloodino. stage. The mock-up was heated up to predetermined initial temperature at a low power level with saturated steam cooling. Then the steam input was stopped, the power level rarapidly rised up to a given value and the cooling water injected. Simultaneously with water injection all the measured parameters monitoring was started. Both at the top spraying and combined cooling temperature oscillations in the upper and middle parts of the mock-up were observed. At the bottom reflooding the mock-up cooling down took more time, thereat temperature inthe upper part first slowly rised during reflooding then decreased and then dropped abruptly at thefront coming up [ru

  18. Generic algorithms for high performance scalable geocomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the characteristics of computing hardware have changed a lot. For example, instead of a single general purpose CPU core, personal computers nowadays contain multiple cores per CPU and often general purpose accelerators, like GPUs. Additionally, compute nodes are often grouped together to form clusters or a supercomputer, providing enormous amounts of compute power. For existing earth simulation models to be able to use modern hardware platforms, their compute intensive parts must be rewritten. This can be a major undertaking and may involve many technical challenges. Compute tasks must be distributed over CPU cores, offloaded to hardware accelerators, or distributed to different compute nodes. And ideally, all of this should be done in such a way that the compute task scales well with the hardware resources. This presents two challenges: 1) how to make good use of all the compute resources and 2) how to make these compute resources available for developers of simulation models, who may not (want to) have the required technical background for distributing compute tasks. The first challenge requires the use of specialized technology (e.g.: threads, OpenMP, MPI, OpenCL, CUDA). The second challenge requires the abstraction of the logic handling the distribution of compute tasks from the model-specific logic, hiding the technical details from the model developer. To assist the model developer, we are developing a C++ software library (called Fern) containing algorithms that can use all CPU cores available in a single compute node (distributing tasks over multiple compute nodes will be done at a later stage). The algorithms are grid-based (finite difference) and include local and spatial operations such as convolution filters. The algorithms handle distribution of the compute tasks to CPU cores internally. In the resulting model the low-level details of how this is done is separated from the model-specific logic representing the modeled system

  19. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  20. A generic coordinate system and a set of generic variables for MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.; Wiley, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last several years, profile data from nine different tokamaks have been stored in the magnetic fusion energy database (MFEDB). These data sets have come from a variety of sources and most are given in different coordinate systems. In order to attempt any intermachine analysis, it is convenient to transform these data sets into one generic coordinate system and to choose a uniform set of variable names. The authors describe the data sets from each tokamak indicating the source of the data and the coordinate system in which it is given. Next, they discuss the generic coordinate that has been adopted and show how it is implemented for each tokamak. Finally, the generic naming convention that has been adopted is discussed. It follows closely that which was used by Christiansen et al. for the ITER Global Energy Confinement H-Mode Database. For further clarification, they discuss the characteristics of the magnetic geometry given a Fourier representation of the magnetic equilibria

  1. Lattice Boltzmann methods applied to large-scale three-dimensional virtual cores constructed from digital optical borehole images of the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukop, Michael C.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-11-01

    Digital optical borehole images at approximately 2 mm vertical resolution and borehole caliper data were used to create three-dimensional renderings of the distribution of (1) matrix porosity and (2) vuggy megaporosity for the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. The renderings based on the borehole data were used as input into Lattice Boltzmann methods to obtain intrinsic permeability estimates for this extremely transmissive aquifer, where traditional aquifer test methods may fail due to very small drawdowns and non-Darcian flow that can reduce apparent hydraulic conductivity. Variogram analysis of the borehole data suggests a nearly isotropic rock structure at lag lengths up to the nominal borehole diameter. A strong correlation between the diameter of the borehole and the presence of vuggy megaporosity in the data set led to a bias in the variogram where the computed horizontal spatial autocorrelation is strong at lag distances greater than the nominal borehole size. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow across a 0.4 × 0.4 × 17 m (2.72 m3 volume) parallel-walled column of rendered matrix and vuggy megaporosity indicates a high hydraulic conductivity of 53 m s-1. This value is similar to previous Lattice Boltzmann calculations of hydraulic conductivity in smaller limestone samples of the Biscayne aquifer. The development of simulation methods that reproduce dual-porosity systems with higher resolution and fidelity and that consider flow through horizontally longer renderings could provide improved estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and help to address questions about the importance of scale.

  2. Latest developments on fibered MOPA in mJ range with hollow-core fiber beam delivery and fiber beam shaping used as seeder for large scale laser facilities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Scol, Florent; Perrin, Arnaud; Gouriou, Pierre; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is a French large scale laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion and plasma physics research. LMJ front-ends are based on fiber laser technology at nanojoule range [1]. Scaling the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way to upgrade LMJ's front ends architecture and could also be used as seeder for lasers for ELI project for example. However, required performances are so restrictive (optical-signal-to-noise ratio higher than 50 dB, temporally-shaped nanosecond pulses and spatial single-mode top-hat beam output) that such fiber systems are very tricky to build. High-energy fiber amplifiers In 2015, we have demonstrated, an all-fiber MOPA prototype able to produce a millijoule seeder, but unfortunately not 100% conform for all LMJ's performances. A major difficulty was to manage the frequency modulation used to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering, to amplitude modulation (FM-AM) conversion, this limits the energy at 170µJ. For upgrading the energy to the millijoule range, it's necessary to use an amplifier with a larger core fiber. However, this fiber must still be flexible; polarization maintaining and exhibit a strictly single-mode behaviour. We are thus developing a new amplifier architecture based on an Yb-doped tapered fiber: its core diameter is from a narrow input to a wide output (MFD 8 to 26 µm). A S² measurement on a 2,5m long tapered fiber rolled-up on 22 cm diameter confirmed that this original geometry allows obtaining strictly single-mode behaviour. In a 1 kHz repetition rate regime, we already obtain 750 µJ pulses, and we are on the way to mJ, respecting LMJ performances. Beam delivery In LMJ architecture the distance between the nanojoule fiber seeder and the amplifier stages is about 16 m. Beam delivery is achieved with a standard PM fiber, such a solution is no longer achievable with hundreds of kilowatt peak powers. An efficient way to minimize nonlinear effects is to use hollow-core (HC

  3. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  4. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1. Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality.

  5. Generic drugs: myths, facts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.

  6. Rheumatology training experience across Europe: analysis of core competences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivera, Francisca; Ramiro, Sofia; Cikes, Nada; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Kvien, Tore K; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Mandl, Peter; Moorthy, Arumugam; Panchal, Sonia; da Silva, José A P; Bijlsma, Johannes W

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this project was to analyze and compare the educational experience in rheumatology specialty training programs across European countries, with a focus on self-reported ability. An electronic survey was designed to assess the training experience in terms of self-reported ability, existence of formal education, number of patients managed and assessments performed during rheumatology training in 21 core competences including managing specific diseases, generic competences and procedures. The target population consisted of rheumatology trainees and recently certified rheumatologists across Europe. The relationship between the country of training and the self-reported ability or training methods for each competence was analyzed through linear or logistic regression, as appropriate. In total 1079 questionnaires from 41 countries were gathered. Self-reported ability was high for most competences, range 7.5-9.4 (0-10 scale) for clinical competences, 5.8-9.0 for technical procedures and 7.8-8.9 for generic competences. Competences with lower self-reported ability included managing patients with vasculitis, identifying crystals and performing an ultrasound. Between 53 and 91 % of the trainees received formal education and between 7 and 61 % of the trainees reported limited practical experience (managing ≤10 patients) in each competence. Evaluation of each competence was reported by 29-60 % of the respondents. In adjusted multivariable analysis, the country of training was associated with significant differences in self-reported ability for all individual competences. Even though self-reported ability is generally high, there are significant differences amongst European countries, including differences in the learning structure and assessment of competences. This suggests that educational outcomes may also differ. Efforts to promote European harmonization in rheumatology training should be encouraged and supported.

  7. Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.

  8. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  9. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  10. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  11. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  12. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...... by such a network. Finally, three redundancy scenarios are discussed and compared....

  13. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  14. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  15. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  16. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  17. A EU simulation platform for nuclear reactor safety: multi-scale and multi-physics calculations, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (NURESIM project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauliac, Christian; Bestion, Dominique; Crouzet, Nicolas; Aragones, Jose-Maria; Cacuci, Dan Gabriel; Weiss, Frank-Peter; Zimmermann, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    The NURESIM project, the numerical simulation platform, is developed in the frame of the NURISP European Collaborative Project (FP7), which includes 22 organizations from 14 European countries. NURESIM intends to be a reference platform providing high quality software tools, physical models, generic functions and assessment results. The NURESIM platform provides an accurate representation of the physical phenomena by promoting and incorporating the latest advances in core physics, two-phase thermal-hydraulics and fuel modelling. It includes multi-scale and multi-physics features, especially for coupling core physics and thermal-hydraulics models for reactor safety. Easy coupling of the different codes and solvers is provided through the use of a common data structure and generic functions (e.g., for interpolation between non-conforming meshes). More generally, the platform includes generic pre-processing, post-processing and supervision functions through the open-source SALOME software, in order to make the codes more user-friendly. The platform also provides the informatics environment for testing and comparing different codes. The contribution summarizes the achievements and ongoing developments of the simulation platform in core physics, thermal-hydraulics, multi-physics, uncertainties and code integration

  18. Influencers of generic drug utilization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer N; Harris, Ilene; Frank, Gavriella; Kiptanui, Zippora; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard

    2017-08-04

    With an increase in prescription drug spending and rising drug costs there is a need to encourage the use of generic prescription drugs. However, maximizing generic drug use is not possible without the public's positive perception and meeting their informational needs about generic drugs. Thus, improving the public's confidence in, and knowledge of generic drugs on the market is critical. The objective of this systematic review is to examine and evaluate the studies focusing on the nature and extent of key factors influencing generic drug use in the United States in order to help guide policy, education and practice interventions. Using multiple search engines and key word screening criteria, empirical studies published in English between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence identified domains of key factors that influenced generic drug use across studies. Over 3000 citations met the key word screening criteria; 67 of these met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Seven domains of factors that influence generic drug utilization were identified: 1) patient-related factors, 2) formulary management or cost containment, 3) healthcare policies, 4) promotional activities, 5) educational initiatives, 6) technology, and 7) physician-related factors. Patients, physicians, pharmacists, formulary managers, and policymakers play an important role in generic drug use. Understanding the factors influencing generic drug use can help guide future policy, education, and practice interventions to increase generic drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Core seismic methods verification report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D.; Lee, T.H.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents the description and validation of the analytical methods for calculation of the seismic loads on an HTGR core and the core support structures. Analytical modeling, integration schemes, parameter assignment, parameter sensitivity, and correlation with test data are key topics which have been covered in detail. Much of the text concerns the description and the results of a series of scale model tests performed to obtain data for code correlation. A discussion of scaling laws, model properties, seismic excitation, instrumentation, and data reduction methods is also presented, including a section on the identification and calculation of statistical errors in the test data

  20. Generic risk insights for General Electric boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, R.; Taylor, J.; Chung, J.

    1991-05-01

    A methodology has been developed to extract generic risk-based information from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of General Electric boiling water rectors and applying the insights gained to plants that have not been subjected to a PRA. The available risk assessments (six plants) were examined to identify the most probable, i.e., dominant accident sequences at each plants. The goal was to include all sequences which represented at least 80% of core damage frequency. If the same plant specific dominant accident sequence appeared within this boundary in at least two plant PRAs, the sequence was considered to be a representative sequence. Eight sequences met this definition. From these sequences, the most important component failures and human error that contributed to each sequence have been prioritized. Guidance is provided to prioritize the representative sequences and modify selected basic events that have been shown to be sensitive to the plant specific design or operating variations of the contributing PRAs. This risk-based guidance can be used for utility and NRC activities including operator training, maintenance, design review, and inspections. 13 refs., 6 tabs

  1. GALE: a generic open source extensible adaptation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bra, Paul; Knutov, Evgeny; Smits, David; Stash, Natalia; Ramos, Vinicius F. C.

    2013-06-01

    This paper motivates and describes GALE, the Generic Adaptation Language and Engine that came out of the GRAPPLE EU FP7 project. The main focus of the paper is the extensible nature of GALE. The purpose of this description is to illustrate how a single core adaptation engine can be used for different types of adaptation, applied to different types of information items and documents. We illustrate the adaptive functionality on some examples of hypermedia documents. In April 2012, David Smits defended the world's first adaptive PhD thesis on this topic. The thesis, available for download and direct adaptive access at http://gale.win.tue.nl/thesis, shows that a single source of information can serve different audiences and at the same time also allows more freedom of navigation than is possible in any paper or static hypermedia document. The same can be done for course texts, hyperfiction, encyclopedia, museum, or other cultural heritage websites, etc. We explain how to add functionality to GALE if desired, to adapt the system's behavior to whatever the application requires. This stresses our main objective: to provide a technological base for adaptive (hypermedia) system researchers on which they can build extensions for the specific research they have in mind.

  2. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  3. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis The

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6, Goursat (class 6-7 and generic (class 7-7 hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  5. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  6. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  7. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  8. Guide for generic application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Toomey, G.E.; Morgan, T.A.; Darling, S.S.

    1991-02-01

    Previously completed reliability centered maintenance (RCM) studies form the basis for developing or refining a preventive maintenance program. This report describes a generic methodology that will help utilities optimize nuclear plant maintenance programs using RCM techniques. This guide addresses the following areas: history of the generic methodology development process, and use of the generic methodology for conducting system-to-system and component-to-component evaluations. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Generic transmission zeros in time-reversal symmetric single channel transport through quasi-1d systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Wh study phase coherent transport in a single channel system using the scattering matrix approach. It is show that the Friedel sum rule and the time-reversal symmetry result in the generic appearance of transmission zeros in quasi-1d systems. The transmission zeros naturally lead to abrupt phase changes (without any intrinsic energy scale) and in-phase resonances, thus providing insights to recent experiments on phase coherent transport through a quantum dot

  10. A generic hydroeconomic model to assess future water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    We developed a generic hydroeconomic model able to confront future water supply and demand on a large scale, taking into account man-made reservoirs. The assessment is done at the scale of river basins, using only globally available data; the methodology can thus be generalized. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The available quantity of water at each site is computed using the following information: runoff is taken from the outputs of CNRM climate model (Dubois et al., 2010), reservoirs are located using Aquastat, and the sub-basin flow-accumulation area of each reservoir is determined based on a Digital Elevation Model (HYDRO1k). On the demand side, agricultural and domestic demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. For the agricultural sector, globally available data on irrigated areas and crops are combined in order to determine irrigated crops localization. Then, crops irrigation requirements are computed for the different stages of the growing season using Allen (1998) method with Hargreaves potential evapotranspiration. Irrigation water economic value is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. Potential irrigated and rainfed yields are taken from LPJmL (Blondeau et al., 2007), or from FAOSTAT by making simple assumptions on yield ratios. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The method consists in building three-blocks inverse demand functions where volume limits of the blocks evolve with the level of GDP per capita. The value of water along the demand curve is determined from price-elasticity, price and demand data from the literature, using the point-expansion method, and from water costs data. Then projected demands are confronted to future water availability. Operating rules of the reservoirs and water allocation between demands are based on

  11. Predicting of biomass in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a statistical evaluation of generic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBSON B. DE LIMA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dry tropical forests are a key component in the global carbon cycle and their biomass estimates depend almost exclusively of fitted equations for multi-species or individual species data. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of statistical models through validation of estimates of aboveground biomass stocks is justifiable. In this study was analyzed the capacity of generic and specific equations obtained from different locations in Mexico and Brazil, to estimate aboveground biomass at multi-species levels and for four different species. Generic equations developed in Mexico and Brazil performed better in estimating tree biomass for multi-species data. For Poincianella bracteosa and Mimosa ophthalmocentra, only the Sampaio and Silva (2005 generic equation was the most recommended. These equations indicate lower tendency and lower bias, and biomass estimates for these equations are similar. For the species Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and for the genus Croton the specific regional equations are more recommended, although the generic equation of Sampaio and Silva (2005 is not discarded for biomass estimates. Models considering gender, families, successional groups, climatic variables and wood specific gravity should be adjusted, tested and the resulting equations should be validated at both local and regional levels as well as on the scales of tropics with dry forest dominance.

  12. Predicting of biomass in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a statistical evaluation of generic equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Robson B DE; Alves, Francisco T; Oliveira, Cinthia P DE; Silva, José A A DA; Ferreira, Rinaldo L C

    2017-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are a key component in the global carbon cycle and their biomass estimates depend almost exclusively of fitted equations for multi-species or individual species data. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of statistical models through validation of estimates of aboveground biomass stocks is justifiable. In this study was analyzed the capacity of generic and specific equations obtained from different locations in Mexico and Brazil, to estimate aboveground biomass at multi-species levels and for four different species. Generic equations developed in Mexico and Brazil performed better in estimating tree biomass for multi-species data. For Poincianella bracteosa and Mimosa ophthalmocentra, only the Sampaio and Silva (2005) generic equation was the most recommended. These equations indicate lower tendency and lower bias, and biomass estimates for these equations are similar. For the species Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and for the genus Croton the specific regional equations are more recommended, although the generic equation of Sampaio and Silva (2005) is not discarded for biomass estimates. Models considering gender, families, successional groups, climatic variables and wood specific gravity should be adjusted, tested and the resulting equations should be validated at both local and regional levels as well as on the scales of tropics with dry forest dominance.

  13. Encouraging the use of generic medicines: implications for transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Derek R; Kanavos, Panos

    2002-08-01

    Generic drugs have a key role to play in the efficient allocation of financial resources for pharmaceutical medicines. Policies implemented in the countries with a high rate of generic drug use, such as Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, are reviewed, with consideration of the market structures that facilitate strong competition. Savings in these countries are realized through increases in the volume of generic drugs used and the frequently significant differences in the price between generic medicines and branded originator medicines. Their policy tools include the mix of supply-side measures and demand-side measures that are relevant for generic promotion and higher generic use. On the supply-side, key policy measures include generic drug marketing regulation that facilitates market entry soon after patent expiration, reference pricing, the pricing of branded originator products, and the degree of price competition in pharmaceutical markets. On the demand-side, measures typically encompass influencing prescribing and dispensing patterns as well as introducing a co-payment structure for consumers/patients that takes into consideration the difference in cost between branded and generic medicines. Quality of generic medicines is a pre-condition for all other measures discussed to take effect. The paper concludes by offering a list of policy options for decision-makers in Central and Eastern European economies in transition.

  14. Generic substitution of antiretrovirals: patients' and health care providers' opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Jennifer A; O'Reilly, Eimear; O'Dea, Siobhan; Bergin, Colm; O'Leary, Aisling

    2017-10-01

    There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V.23™. Questionnaires were completed by 66 patients. Seventy-one per cent would have no concerns with the introduction of generic ARVs. An increase in frequency of administration (61%) or pill burden (53%) would make patients less likely to accept generic ARVs. There were 30 respondents to the HCP survey. Concerns included the supply chain of generics, loss of fixed dose combinations, adherence and use of older medications. An increase in dosing frequency (76%) or an increase in pill burden (50%) would make HCPs less likely to prescribe a generic ARV. The main perceived advantage was financial. Generic substitution of ARVs would be acceptable to the majority of patients and HCPs. Reinvesting savings back into HIV services would facilitate the success of such a programme.

  15. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  17. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  18. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  19. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  20. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  1. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  2. Towards a generic user support system (GUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, W.J.; Wilson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    One relevant issue confronting the operator of a nuclear power plant is information and task overload. The goal, then, of the various developers is to improve the current situations by creating an environment where the operator can perform at optimum capacity. This is to be accomplished by providing tools and techniques which reduce operator involvement in low level tasks (freeing up time for higher level cognitive tasks) and assist in information and knowledge manipulation so that high level tasks can be performed more efficiently. This paper reviews the operational environment of nuclear plants from the viewpoint of engineering design and from the viewpoint of the operators and technical support staff. Principles are advanced for a generic operator companion. These design principles are being applied to a test case: the Point Lepreau NGS secondary side central sampling system. 6 refs., 6 figs

  3. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  4. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...

  5. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  6. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  7. Optimal cut points for quality of life questionnaire-core 30 (QLQ-C30) scales: utility for clinical trials and updates of prognostic systems in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Momar; Bonnetain, Franck; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Bouché, Olivier; Dahan, Laetitia; Paoletti, Xavier; Filleron, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) has been validated as a prognostic factor for cancer patients; however, to be used in routine practice, QoL scores must be dichotomized. Cutoff points are usually based on arbitrary percentile values. We aimed to identify optimal cutoff points for six QoL scales and to quantify their added utility in the performance of four prognostic classifications in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reanalyzed data of 271 patients with advanced HCC recruited between July 2002 and October 2003 from 79 institutions in France in the CHOC trial, designed to assess the efficacy of long-acting octreotide. QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30). The scores ranged from 0 to 100. Identification of optimal cutoff points was based on the method of Faraggi and Simon [Stat Med 1996;15:2203-2213]. Improvement in the performance of prognostic classifications was studied with Harrell's C-index, the net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). We found that optimal cutoff points were 50 for global health, 58.33 for physical functioning, 66.67 for role functioning, 66.67 for fatigue, 0 for dyspnea, and 33.33 for diarrhea. The addition of QoL and clinical factors improved the performance of all four prognostic classifications, with improvement in the range of 0.02-0.09 for the C-index, 0.24-0.78 for 3-month NRI, and 0.02-0.10 for IDI. These cutoff values for QoL scales can be useful to identify HCC patients with very poor prognosis and thus improve design of clinical trials and treatment adjustment for these patients. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  9. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  10. Measuring the impact of cataract surgery on generic and vision-specific quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groessl, Erik J; Liu, Lin; Sklar, Marisa; Tally, Steven R; Kaplan, Robert M; Ganiats, Theodore G

    2013-08-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and cause visual impairment for millions of adults in the United States. We compared the sensitivity of a vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure to that of multiple generic measures of HRQOL before and at 2 time points after cataract surgery. Participants completed 1 vision-specific and 5 generic quality of life measures before cataract surgery, and again 1 and 6 months after surgery. Random effects modeling was used to measure changes over the three assessment points. The NEI-VFQ25 total score and all 11 subscales showed significant improvements during the first interval (baseline and 1 month). During the second interval (1-6 months post-surgery), significant improvements were observed on the total score and 5 of 11 NEI-VFQ25 subscales. There were significant increases in HRQOL during the first interval on some preference-based generic HRQOL measures, though changes during the second interval were mostly non-significant. None of the SF-36v2™ or SF6D scales changed significantly between any of the assessment periods. The NEI-VFQ25 was sensitive to changes in vision-specific domains of QOL. Some preference-based generic HRQOL measures were also sensitive to change and showed convergence with the NEI-VFQ25, but the effects were small. The SF-36v2™ and SF-6D did not change in a similar manner, possibly reflecting a lack of vision-related content. Studies seeking to document both the vision-specific and generic HRQOL improvements of cataract surgery should consider these results when selecting measures.

  11. Systematic identification of crystallization kinetics within a generic modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A systematic development of constitutive models within a generic modelling framework has been developed for use in design, analysis and simulation of crystallization operations. The framework contains a tool for model identification connected with a generic crystallizer modelling tool-box, a tool...

  12. When Does an Argument Use a Generic Example?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.; Ely, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We offer criteria that an observer can use to determine whether an argument that uses an example to argue for a general claim appeals to that example generically. We review existing literature on generic example and note the strengths of each contribution, as well as inconsistencies among uses of the term. We offer several examples from the…

  13. 77 FR 60125 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and certain sites and organizations identified in a generic drug submission, that they must provide... and Innovation Act (FDASIA). This notice is intended to help organizations ascertain if they need to...

  14. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  15. Is bioavailability altered in generic versus brand anticonvulsants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Ignjatovic Ristic, Dragana

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic window of anticonvulsants is not a wide one, with phenytoin being one extreme, which can be classified as a narrow therapeutic index drug, since its ratio between the least toxic and the least effective concentration is less than twofold. In order to obtain marketing authorization, a generic anticonvulsant should demonstrate relative bioequivalence with its brand-name counterpart. However, although bioequivalent, generic anticonvulsants still do not have the same bioavailability as brand-name drugs, which may lead to larger fluctuations of steady-state plasma concentrations, and sometimes to loss of seizure control if a patient is switched from brand-name to generic or from generic to generic anticonvulsant. Generic anticonvulsants are effective, safe and affordable drugs for treatment of epilepsy, and patients could be successfully treated with them from the very beginning. It is switching from brand-name to generic anticonvulsant or from one generic anticonvulsant to another that should be avoided in clinical practice, since subtle differences in bioavailability may disturb optimal degree of seizure control to which the patient was previously successfully titrated.

  16. Policies and perceptions on generic drugs: The case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Sofia-Sotiria; Katsaliaki, Korina

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of generic drugs to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge for many countries, especially during the economic crisis. The purpose of the present study is to review the Greek market of generic drugs and the decisions that shape it, to determine the factors that affect Greek patients' and doctors' attitudes about generic substitution and present a set of measures for all stakeholders based on the findings of the secondary and primary analysis. The study includes (a) an analysis of international and national reports and legislation on drugs policies and (b) a questionnaire survey of 242 hospital patients and 85 doctors regarding their perceptions on generics. A small increase in the volume of generics is recorded, yet not followed by sales value, over the recent years that the measures for promoting generics prescription took effect. Distrust from both patients and doctors was observed toward generics' effectiveness and toward the appropriateness of the regulatory authorities' quality controls. The study presents a structured set of viable measures, applicable to many countries, for promoting generic drug consumption that can lead to economic efficiency without degrading the health care quality.

  17. Generic medicines: solutions for a sustainable drug market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Godman, Brian; Simoens, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Generic medicines offer equally high-quality treatment as originator medicines do at much lower prices. As such, they represent a considerable opportunity for authorities to obtain substantial savings. At the moment, the pharmaceutical landscape is changing and many pharmaceutical companies have altered their development and commercial strategies, combining both originator and generic divisions. In spite of this, the generic medicines industry is currently facing a number of challenges: delayed market access; the limited price differential with originator medicines; the continuous downwards pressure on prices; and the negative perception regarding generic medicines held by some key stakeholder groups. This could jeopardize the long-term sustainability of the generic manufacturing industry. Therefore, governments must focus on demand-side policies, alongside policies to accelerate market access, as the generic medicines industry will only be able to deliver competitive and sustainable prices if they are ensured a high volume. In the future, the generic medicines industry will increasingly look to biosimilars and generic versions of orphan drugs to expand their business.

  18. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  19. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the difference between brand and generic medicines listed for that algorithm, and also as the median of differences between generic medicines for the same condition. Results: Three of the algorithms .... Protecting the PMBs, as a key element of the new community-rated medical schemes environment, is therefore vital.

  20. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0381] Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.'' The document published with an inadvertent error in the Dates...

  1. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  2. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a Section 230.135a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of...

  3. Development of a generic virus behavioural detector: a preview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Generic Virus Behavioral Detector (GVBD) is a system (program) that monitors various system activities; reading and writing block of disks and memory and the use of Interrupts. A technique for its realisation is presented. Key Words: Computer virus, interrupts, handlers, GVBD (Generic Virus Behavioral Detector).

  4. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. Developing competitive and sustainable Polish generic medicines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines.

  9. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  10. Development of generic key performance indicators for PMBOK® using a 3D project integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Langston

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Martin Barnes’ so-called ‘iron triangle’ circa 1969, much debate has occurred over how best to describe the fundamental constraints that underpin project success. This paper develops a 3D project integration model for PMBOK® comprising core constraints of scope, cost, time and risk as a basis to propose six generic key performance indicators (KPIs that articulate successful project delivery. These KPIs are defined as value, efficiency, speed, innovation, complexity and impact and can each be measured objectively as ratios of the core constraints. An overall KPI (denoted as s3/ctr is also derived. The aim in this paper is to set out the case for such a model and to demonstrate how it can be employed to assess the performance of project teams in delivering successful outcomes at various stages in the project life cycle. As part of the model’s development, a new PMBOK® knowledge area concerning environmental management is advanced.

  11. Towards a minimal generic set of domains of functioning and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Alarcos; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Bickenbach, Jerome; Chatterji, Somnath; Stucki, Gerold

    2014-03-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has argued that functioning, and, more concretely, functioning domains constitute the operationalization that best captures our intuitive notion of health. Functioning is, therefore, a major public-health goal. A great deal of data about functioning is already available. Nonetheless, it is not possible to compare and optimally utilize this information. One potential approach to address this challenge is to propose a generic and minimal set of functioning domains that captures the experience of individuals and populations with respect to functioning and health. The objective of this investigation was to identify a minimal generic set of ICF domains suitable for describing functioning in adults at both the individual and population levels. We performed a psychometric study using data from: 1) the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, 2) the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007/2008, and 3) the ICF Core Set studies. Random Forests and Group Lasso regression were applied using one self-reported general-health question as a dependent variable. The domains selected were compared to those of the World Health Survey (WHS) developed by the WHO. Seven domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are proposed as a minimal generic set of functioning and health: energy and drive functions, emotional functions, sensation of pain, carrying out daily routine, walking, moving around, and remunerative employment. The WHS domains of self-care, cognition, interpersonal activities, and vision were not included in our selection. The minimal generic set proposed in this study is the starting point to address one of the most important challenges in health measurement--the comparability of data across studies and countries. It also represents the first step in developing a common metric of health to link information from the general population to information

  12. Seismic response of a block-type nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.; Bennett, J.G.; Merson, J.L.

    1976-05-01

    An analytical model is developed to predict seismic response of large gas-cooled reactor cores. The model is used to investigate scaling laws involved in the design of physical models of such cores, and to make parameter studies

  13. The Impact of Information on Doctors’ Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki V. Tsaprantzi MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors’ attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors’ attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors’ attitudes toward generic drugs.

  14. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  15. An audit of generic prescribing in a general surgical department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, M

    2013-01-17

    BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive introduced a generic prescription policy to reduce costs. Despite this, generic prescription rates remain low. AIM: To audit in-patient prescription practice in a single surgical department and identify potential savings which could be realised by adherence to the generic prescribing policy. METHODS: Surgical in-patient charts were obtained at the point of discharge and their drug prescription information was recorded. RESULTS: 51 % of prescriptions involved a trade-name prescription where an appropriate generic equivalent existed. The cost implications for hospital and community patients were found to be greatly affected by substitution policies that exist at hospital pharmacy level. CONCLUSION: There is a need to promote greater adherence to generic prescribing amongst hospital doctors in line with international best practice. It can have a positive impact in terms of safe prescribing and can have cost implications at both hospital and community level.

  16. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  17. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis....... METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study based on Danish healthcare registries, including data from the introduction of generic warfarin until the repeal (January 2011-April 2015). We followed Danish warfarin users over time and compared the rate of incident hospitalizations due to excessive...... anticoagulation (i.e. increased INR or any bleeding requiring hospitalization) in periods following a recent switch to generic warfarin to the rate in periods without a recent switch. RESULTS: We included 105,751 warfarin users, filling a total of 1,539,640 prescriptions for warfarin (2.5% for generic warfarin...

  18. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  19. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  20. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  1. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author).

  2. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author)

  3. Emerging Technologies and Generic Assays for the Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Partridge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline.

  4. Modeling of ultrasonic processes utilizing a generic software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, P.; Twiefel, J.; Wallaschek, J.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of ultrasonic processes is typically characterized by a high degree of complexity. Different domains and size scales must be regarded, so that it is rather difficult to build up a single detailed overall model. Developing partial models is a common approach to overcome this difficulty. In this paper a generic but simple software framework is presented which allows to coupe arbitrary partial models by slave modules with well-defined interfaces and a master module for coordination. Two examples are given to present the developed framework. The first one is the parameterization of a load model for ultrasonically-induced cavitation. The piezoelectric oscillator, its mounting, and the process load are described individually by partial models. These partial models then are coupled using the framework. The load model is composed of spring-damper-elements which are parameterized by experimental results. In the second example, the ideal mounting position for an oscillator utilized in ultrasonic assisted machining of stone is determined. Partial models for the ultrasonic oscillator, its mounting, the simplified contact process, and the workpiece’s material characteristics are presented. For both applications input and output variables are defined to meet the requirements of the framework’s interface.

  5. Disentangling specific versus generic doping mechanisms in oxide heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, J.; Zapf, M.; Scheiderer, P.; Schütz, P.; Dudy, L.; Stübinger, M.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2017-05-01

    More than a decade after the discovery of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) at the interface between the band insulators LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) its microscopic origin is still under debate. Several explanations have been proposed, the main contenders being electron doping by oxygen vacancies and electronic reconstruction, i.e., the redistribution of electrons to the interface to minimize the electrostatic energy in the polar LAO film. However, no experiment thus far could provide unambiguous information on the microscopic origin of the interfacial charge carriers. Here we utilize a novel experimental approach combining photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with highly brilliant synchrotron radiation and apply it to a set of samples with varying key parameters that are thought to be crucial for the emergence of interfacial conductivity. Based on microscopic insight into the electronic structure, we obtain results tipping the scales in favor of polar discontinuity as a generic, robust driving force for the 2DES formation. Likewise, other functionalities such as magnetism or superconductivity might be switched in all-oxide devices by polarity-driven charge transfer.

  6. Developing a generic environmental safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been charged with implementing the United Kingdom government's policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste by planning, building and operating a geological disposal facility (GDF). Within the NDA, we - the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) - are tasked with the development of a GDF. The UK government has also decided that a process of voluntarism and partnership will be followed to identify a suitable site for the GDF. To date there is no volunteer community and the site selection process to find a volunteer host community is under review. RWMD has an ongoing role to provide advice to UK radioactive waste producers on the conditioning and packaging of wastes and to undertake disposability assessments of waste packaging proposals to determine their suitability for eventual disposal in a GDF. We also need to demonstrate our confidence that a GDF would be safe. Therefore RWMD has published a generic Environmental Safety Case (ESC) (NDA, 2010) to demonstrate that we are confident that a GDF could be developed to meet the guidelines set down by the environmental regulators (EA/NIEA, 2009) in a range of geological settings. The ESC includes reference case calculations that are used as a benchmark for disposability assessments. (author)

  7. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, D., E-mail: denis.michel@live.fr [Universite de Rennes1-IRSET, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 13, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2016-01-21

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  8. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  9. 78 FR 74175 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  10. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  11. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  12. Validation of Generic Models for Variable Speed Operation Wind Turbines Following the Recent Guidelines Issued by IEC 61400-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Honrubia-Escribano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts are currently being made by several international working groups focused on the development of generic, also known as simplified or standard, wind turbine models for power system stability studies. In this sense, the first edition of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61400-27-1, which defines generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, was published in February 2015. Nevertheless, the correlations of the IEC generic models with respect to specific wind turbine manufacturer models are required by the wind power industry to validate the accuracy and corresponding usability of these standard models. The present work conducts the validation of the two topologies of variable speed wind turbines that present not only the largest market share, but also the most technological advances. Specifically, the doubly-fed induction machine and the full-scale converter (FSC topology are modeled based on the IEC 61400-27-1 guidelines. The models are simulated for a wide range of voltage dips with different characteristics and wind turbine operating conditions. The simulated response of the IEC generic model is compared to the corresponding simplified model of a wind turbine manufacturer, showing a good correlation in most cases. Validation error sources are analyzed in detail, as well. In addition, this paper reviews in detail the previous work done in this field. Results suggest that wind turbine manufacturers are able to adjust the IEC generic models to represent the behavior of their specific wind turbines for power system stability analysis.

  13. Innovation strategies for generic drug companies: moving into supergenerics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm S F

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that market generic products generally are not regarded as innovators, but rather as companies that produce copies of originator products to be launched at patent expiration. However, many generics companies have developed excellent scientific innovative skills in an effort to circumvent the defense patents of originator companies. More patents per product, in terms of both drug substances (process patents and polymorph patents) and formulations, are issued to generics companies than to companies that are traditionally considered to be 'innovators'. This quantity of issued patents highlights the technical knowledge and skill sets that are available in generics companies. In order to adopt a completely innovative model (ie, the development of NCEs), a generics company would require a completely new set of skills in several fields, including a sufficient knowledge base, project and risk management experience, and capability for clinical data evaluation. However, with relatively little investment, generics companies should be able to progress into the so-called 'supergeneric' drug space - an area of innovation that reflects the existing competencies of both innovative and generics companies.

  14. Generic drug policy in Australia: a community pharmacy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Grahame

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a commentary, from a community pharmacy perspective, on the policy environment for the pharmacy sector in Australia, with a particular focus on present challenges arising from proposals to achieve substantial PBS cost savings from an anticipated surge of new generic drugs. Some $2 billion of medicines currently on the PBS will come off patent in the next 4 years. This growth comes from a low base where generics currently account for only 15% of the total PBS budget. Remuneration for PBS dispensing is fixed through five year agreements with the government, so trading terms on generics are important for the cross-subsidy of other dispensing activities and professional services. These trading terms (discounts provided by generics suppliers) have become part of the overall cost and revenue structure of pharmacies. Despite these arrangements, generic substitution rates in Australia are lower than in most comparable countries, which the government views as an opportunity to promote generic use. The future of generic drug supply via the PBS is important to allow consumers access to medications at the lowest possible price and to provide space for PBS listing of new and expensive drugs. But considerations of PBS reform need to take account of the role and viability of community pharmacy sector as provider of pharmaceuticals in a timely and efficient manner to Australian residents. PMID:17543112

  15. Impact of alternative interventions on changes in generic dispensing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Frank, Richard G; Kaddis, Atheer; Rothenberg, Barbara M; McNeil, Barbara J

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000-2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase.

  16. Differences in rates of switchbacks after switching from branded to authorized generic and branded to generic drug products: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Dejene, Sara; Khan, Nazleen F; Lii, Joyce; Rogers, James R; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Bohn, Justin; Connolly, John; Fischer, Michael A; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Gagne, Joshua J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To compare rates of switchbacks to branded drug products for patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients, appearance, and excipients as the branded product, with patients switched from branded to generic drug products, which have the same active ingredients as the branded product but may differ in appearance and excipients. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Private (a large commercial health plan) and public (Medicaid) insurance programs in the US. Participants Beneficiaries of a large US commercial health insurer between 2004 and 2013 (primary cohort) and Medicaid beneficiaries between 2000 and 2010 (replication cohort). Main outcome measures Patients taking branded products for one of the study drugs (alendronate tablets, amlodipine tablets, amlodipine-benazepril capsules, calcitonin salmon nasal spray, escitalopram tablets, glipizide extended release tablets, quinapril tablets, and sertraline tablets) were identified when they switched to an authorized generic or a generic drug product after the date of market entry of generic drug products. These patients were followed for switchbacks to the branded drug product in the year after their switch to an authorized generic or a generic drug product. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for demographics, including age, sex, and calendar year. Inverse variance meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted hazard ratios across all drug products. Results A total of 94 909 patients switched from branded to authorized generic drug products and 116 017 patients switched from branded to generic drug products and contributed to the switchback analysis. Unadjusted incidence rates of switchback varied across drug products, ranging from a low of 3.8 per 100 person years (for alendronate tablets) to a high of 17.8 per 100 person years (for amlodipine

  17. Are Branded and Generic Extended-Release Ropinirole Formulations Equally Efficacious? A Rater-Blinded, Switch-Over, Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Bosnyák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the branded and a generic extended-release ropinirole formulation in the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD. Of 22 enrolled patients 21 completed the study. A rater blinded to treatment evaluated Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale, Nonmotor Symptoms Assessment Scale, and a structured questionnaire on ropinirole side effects. Besides, the patients self-administered EQ-5D, Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2, and Beck Depression Inventories. Branded and generic ropinirole treatment achieved similar scores on all tests measuring severity of motor symptoms (primary endpoint, UPDRS-III: 27.0 versus 28.0 points, P=0.505. Based on patient diaries, the lengths of “good time periods” were comparable (10.5 and 10.0 hours for branded and generic ropinirole, resp., P=0.670. However, generic ropinirole therapy achieved almost 3.0 hours shorter on time without dyskinesia (6.5 versus. 9.5 hours, P<0.05 and 2.5 hours longer on time with slight dyskinesia (3.5 versus. 1.0 hours, P<0.05 than the branded ropinirole did. Except for gastrointestinal problems, nonmotor symptoms were similarly controlled. Patients did not prefer either formulation. Although this study has to be interpreted with limitations, it demonstrated that both generic and branded ropinirole administration can achieve similar control on most symptoms of PD.

  18. Business engineering. Generic Software Architecture in an Object Oriented View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MURESAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The generic software architecture offers a solution for the the information system's development and implementation. A generic software/non-software model could be developed by integrating the enterprise blueprint concept (Zachman and the object oriented paradigm (Coad's archetype concept. The standardization of the generic software architecture for various specific software components could be a direction of crucial importance, offering the guarantee of the quality of the model and increasing the efficiency of the design, development and implementation of the software. This approach is also useful for the implementation of the ERP systems designed to fit the user’s particular requirements.

  19. The European strategy for fast reactor core static mechanics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.H.; Di Francesca, R.; Coors, D.; Steenberghe, T. van

    1987-01-01

    The strategy is designed to meet the needs of participating European countries by achieving the following objectives: To provide generic information and data on the static mechanics of all styles of core of interest, validate codes and optimise new designs. To endorse specific features of SPX2 and SNR2 designs. To provide the new facilities which are needed. To present the programme of work required and timescale. (orig./HP)

  20. Floquet–Magnus theory and generic transient dynamics in periodically driven many-body quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Tomotaka; Mori, Takashi; Saito, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states in the long-time limit irrespective of dynamical details, which kills all the specific properties of the system. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a general framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In our analysis, we focus on the Floquet–Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a certain time-scale. Our theory reveals an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed. We discuss several dynamical phenomena, such as the effect of small integrability breaking, efficient numerical simulation of periodically driven systems, dynamical localization and thermalization. Especially on thermalization, we discuss a generic scenario on the prethermalization phenomenon in periodically driven systems. -- Highlights: •A general framework to describe transient dynamics for periodically driven systems. •The theory is applicable to generic quantum many-body systems including long-range interacting systems. •Physical meaning of the truncation of the Floquet–Magnus expansion is rigorously established. •New mechanism of the prethermalization is proposed. •Revealing an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed.

  1. Floquet–Magnus theory and generic transient dynamics in periodically driven many-body quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Tomotaka, E-mail: tomotaka.phys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); WPI, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mori, Takashi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, Keiji [Department of Physics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states in the long-time limit irrespective of dynamical details, which kills all the specific properties of the system. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a general framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In our analysis, we focus on the Floquet–Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a certain time-scale. Our theory reveals an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed. We discuss several dynamical phenomena, such as the effect of small integrability breaking, efficient numerical simulation of periodically driven systems, dynamical localization and thermalization. Especially on thermalization, we discuss a generic scenario on the prethermalization phenomenon in periodically driven systems. -- Highlights: •A general framework to describe transient dynamics for periodically driven systems. •The theory is applicable to generic quantum many-body systems including long-range interacting systems. •Physical meaning of the truncation of the Floquet–Magnus expansion is rigorously established. •New mechanism of the prethermalization is proposed. •Revealing an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed.

  2. Does educational intervention improve doctors’ knowledge and perceptions of generic medicines and their generic prescribing rate? A study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of an educational intervention on doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines and their generic (international non-proprietary name) prescribing practice. Methods: This is a single-cohort pre-/post-intervention pilot study. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Perak, Malaysia. All doctors from the internal medicine department were invited to participate in the educational intervention. The intervention consisted of an interactive lecture, an educational booklet and a drug list. Doctors’ knowledge and perceptions were assessed by using a validated questionnaire, while the international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was assessed by screening the prescription before and after the intervention. Results: The intervention was effective in improving doctors’ knowledge towards bioequivalence, similarity of generic medicines and safety standards required for generic medicine registration (p = 0.034, p = 0.034 and p = 0.022, respectively). In terms of perceptions towards generic medicines, no significant changes were noted (p > 0.05). Similarly, no impact on international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was observed after the intervention (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about generic medicines before the intervention. Moreover, international non-proprietary name prescribing was not a common practice. However, the educational intervention was only effective in improving doctors’ knowledge of generic medicines. PMID:26770747

  3. Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3): A cloud-based infrastructure for generic processing of SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, K.; Arko, S. A.; Buechler, B.; Hogenson, R.; Herrmann, J.; Geiger, A.

    2016-12-01

    A problem often faced by Earth science researchers is how to scale algorithms that were developed against few datasets and take them to regional or global scales. One significant hurdle can be the processing and storage resources available for such a task, not to mention the administration of those resources. As a processing environment, the cloud offers nearly unlimited potential for compute and storage, with limited administration required. The goal of the Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3) project was to demonstrate the utility of the Amazon cloud to process large amounts of data quickly and cost effectively, while remaining generic enough to incorporate new algorithms with limited administration time or expense. Principally built by three undergraduate students at the ASF DAAC, the HyP3 system relies on core Amazon services such as Lambda, the Simple Notification Service (SNS), Relational Database Service (RDS), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Storage Service (S3), and Elastic Beanstalk. The HyP3 user interface was written using elastic beanstalk, and the system uses SNS and Lamdba to handle creating, instantiating, executing, and terminating EC2 instances automatically. Data are sent to S3 for delivery to customers and removed using standard data lifecycle management rules. In HyP3 all data processing is ephemeral; there are no persistent processes taking compute and storage resources or generating added cost. When complete, HyP3 will leverage the automatic scaling up and down of EC2 compute power to respond to event-driven demand surges correlated with natural disaster or reprocessing efforts. Massive simultaneous processing within EC2 will be able match the demand spike in ways conventional physical computing power never could, and then tail off incurring no costs when not needed. This presentation will focus on the development techniques and technologies that were used in developing the HyP3 system. Data and process flow will be shown

  4. Chemical freezeout parameters within generic nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdel; Yassin, Hayam; Abo Elyazeed, Eman R.

    2018-06-01

    The particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions seems to be created in a dynamically disordered system which can be best described by an extended exponential entropy. In distinguishing between the applicability of this and Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) in generating various particle-ratios, generic (non)extensive statistics is introduced to the hadron resonance gas model. Accordingly, the degree of (non)extensivity is determined by the possible modifications in the phase space. Both BG extensivity and Tsallis nonextensivity are included as very special cases defined by specific values of the equivalence classes (c, d). We found that the particle ratios at energies ranging between 3.8 and 2760 GeV are best reproduced by nonextensive statistics, where c and d range between ˜ 0.9 and ˜ 1 . The present work aims at illustrating that the proposed approach is well capable to manifest the statistical nature of the system on interest. We don't aim at highlighting deeper physical insights. In other words, while the resulting nonextensivity is neither BG nor Tsallis, the freezeout parameters are found very compatible with BG and accordingly with the well-known freezeout phase-diagram, which is in an excellent agreement with recent lattice calculations. We conclude that the particle production is nonextensive but should not necessarily be accompanied by a radical change in the intensive or extensive thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and temperature. Only, the two critical exponents defining the equivalence classes (c, d) are the physical parameters characterizing the (non)extensivity.

  5. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  6. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  7. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  8. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  9. Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about brand-name drugs. Resources Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs can help you find lower-cost generic drugs. ... produced by Consumers Union and Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs , a public information project supported by grants from ...

  10. Optimal, Generic Planning of Maintenance and Inspection of Steel Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue damage is an important deterioration mechanism for steel bridges. This paper describes a simplified and generic approach for reliability and risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details. Fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their loading charact...

  11. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  12. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  13. Generic immunosuppression in transplantation: current evidence and controversial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Sandra; Kim, Miae; Phillips, Karen; Gabardi, Steven

    2015-05-01

    The overall success of organ transplantation in the 21st century has been predicated, in part, on the use of newer, more potent, and selective immunosuppressive agents. However, the high cost of lifelong immunosuppression represents a financial burden for many patients. In the past 15 years, regulatory agencies in Europe and America have approved several generic immunosuppressants. One concern is whether the conversion between innovator and generic immunosuppressants will prove to be problematic. This manuscript aims to compare and contrast the bioequivalence requirements among regulatory authorities in the USA, Europe, and Canada, evaluate published studies of generic immunosuppressants in transplant recipients, summarize consensus statements made by transplant organizations and discuss how to engage patients in discussion regarding the choice between innovator and generic immunosuppressants.

  14. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20 th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.

  15. Generic communications index. Listings of communications 1971-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemeyer, D; Towle, H

    1991-05-01

    As part of its program to feed back information on operating experience to industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues generic communications called bulletins (about 5/yr), circulars (now discontinued), generic letters (about 20/yr), and information notices (about 100/yr). The report presents an updated Generic Communications Index (GCI; previously published in NUREG/CR-4690, Vol. 1, December 1987) of all such communications from 1971, when such documentation started, to 1989. The GCI consists of records, one for each communication, containing fields for identification number, title, NRC technical contact, general system or topic, specific component or topic, cause or defect, potential effect, remarks, and vendors involved. To facilitate information retrieval, the report also contains topical listings of generic communications numbers. (author)

  16. Patients' concern about their medicine after a generic switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the possible association between patients' concerns about their medicine and generic switch. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey was carried out comprising responses from 2217 randomly selected persons aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern...... Denmark, who had redeemed generically substitutable drugs in September 2008. For each patient, we focused on the purchase of one generically substitutable drug (index drug). We applied the specific concerns subscale from the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) to analyse lack of confidence....... RESULTS: No statistically significant associations were found between concerns about the index medicine and the generic switch (-0.02 95% CI: -0.10; 0.05). Viewing medicines as harmful in general was associated with increased concerns (BMQ general harm: 0.39 95% CI: 0.30; 0.47 and BMQ general overuse: 0...

  17. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, M.; Bairavi, V. G.; Sasikumar, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.. PMID:21430959

  18. A generic reclassification of the Afrotropical Bolboceratini (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    1984-01-01

    The generic classification of the Afrotropical Bolboceratini is discussed. Fourteen genera are recognized, five of them new: Bolboceratellus, Bolbodius, Bolboceratex, Namibiobolbus and Meridiobolbus. Microbolbus Vulcano et al. is synonymized with Mimobolbus Vulcano et al. Bolbaffroides and

  19. The generics in transplantation and the rules on their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Marwan

    2003-06-01

    By definition a product identified by its official chemical name rather than an advertised brand name is called a generic. If a drug exert its pharmacological effects at the same site, have the same potency, same dosage form and same bioavailability as a brand name, reference listed drug (RLD), is considered as a generic. However inactive ingredients can differ between brand name and generic. It is through the regulations of the FDA that the generics gained many ground in the drug market, they currently account to more than 42% of the total prescription in the USA. These regulations include the abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) for the registration process and drug substitution at the pharmacy level without patient or physician consent. This coupled with a keen interest of third party payers and the health authorities to reduce the high transplant health budget (over 2 Billion US $) made it a necessity to introduce the generics into the field of transplantation. Using the above mentioned definition we can theoretically say that all anti-lymphocytes, produced in the same animal species, are generic of each. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies that are directed against the same target and have the same bioavailability are also consider generics to each other. Of all the immunosuppressive drugs that have been introduced into the field of transplantation none has been as dominant as Cyclosporine. Cyclosporine became and still is the backbone for any immunosuppressive protocol. In the year 1992, Consupren, the first, non-FDA approved, generic to Sandimmun was introduced. Although Consupren was not bioequivalent to Neoral, however, long-term results in kidney transplantation have been similar for both drugs. The introduction of Consupren resulted in a near 40% reduction in the total cost of immunosuppressive therapy. Interestingly the cost of the brand name drug Neoral was also reduced by 20%. The cost reduction allowed the introduction of the new immunosuppressive

  20. DISCOURSE AWARENESS IN IMPROVING NON-NATIVE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN GENERIC WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the importance of teaching discourse patterns to non-native university students. I used particular discourse patterns in teaching generic writing to undergraduate students at the Gulf University for Science and Technology, GUST, in Kuwait. The assumption of this study was that undergraduate non-native students should be aware of the importance of discourse patterns in generic writing. This hidden tactic is not obvious unless consciously taught to them. To study the importance of generic patterns, I opted to teach discourse patterns that are used in newspaper editorials, the rationale of which was that students would grasp discourse patterns and apply them to their own writing. I chose two groups of students randomly, one of which was an experimental group and the second of which was a control group. I conducted a detailed analysis afterwards to examine the validity of my assumption. I taught the experimental group the chosen model of analysis, and instructed the control group to read sample editorials, and write their own editorials afterwards. The results of this experiment were substantial. Based on the level of compliance with the suggested format, triads, movements, and artifacts in newspaper editorials, students in the experimental group were evaluated on a scale of 0 to 10. The performance of the experimental group was above average, 75.3%, in comparison to the control group that complied quite poorly with the chosen model, < 30 %.

  1. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change.We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces.We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower.We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  4. Generic and Brand Advertising Strategies in a Dynamic Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Frank M. Bass; Anand Krishnamoorthy; Ashutosh Prasad; Suresh P. Sethi

    2005-01-01

    To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We ...

  5. GENERIC DRUG IN GLOBAL MARKET AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar*, Bharti Mangla2, Satbir Singh, Arapna Rana

    2017-01-01

    Different regulatory authorities regulate the drug development in various countries of the world. Various Regulatory authority for generic drug application Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Health Product and Food Branch (HPFB) Central Drug Standard of Organization (CDSO). Generic manufacturers may file an abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by ori...

  6. Consumers' views on generic medicines: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed A A; Shafie, Asrul A; Jamshed, Shazia; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    To review the literature on consumers' knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the use of generic medicines. A narrative review of studies conducted from 1970 to 2008 on consumers perceptions and views towards generic medicines was performed. An extensive literature search was undertaken using indexing services available at the authors' institution library. The following keywords were used for the search: brand, generic, multisource, medications, medicines, drugs, pharmaceuticals and consumers, customers, and patients. Electronic databases searched were Medline, Inside Web, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Springer Link, JSTOR, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. These electronic databases were searched for full text papers published in English from 1970 to October 2008. Twenty studies were identified. Eleven were from the USA, four were from Europe, two were from Canada and one each was from Australia, Brazil and Malaysia. In general, consumers showed mixed reactions towards the use of generic medicines. This was evident from the divergence of views observed by country development level, consumers' socioeconomic characteristics, drug product characteristics, pharmaceutical reimbursement system, policy environment, contact with health care professionals, past experience with medications, and knowledge of the seriousness of a medical condition. Patient confidence and knowledge pertaining to generic medicines use have increased over the past four decades, especially in developed countries. Mass educational efforts, financial incentives, and greater communication among patients and health care professionals were seen as major drivers to the uptake of generic medicines among consumers.

  7. Leveraging consumer's behaviour to promote generic drugs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Cristina; Luceri, Beatrice; Vergura, Donata Tania

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to fill the lack of knowledge regarding a more grounded exploration of the consumer's decision-making process in the context of generic drugs. In this perspective, a model, within the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), for studying the consumers' purchase intention of generic drugs was developed. An online survey on 2,222 Italian people who bought drugs in the past was conducted. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling (SEM). Almost all the constructs considered in the model, except the perceived behavioural control, contribute to explain the consumer's purchase intention of generic drugs, after controlling for demographic variables (age, income, education). Specifically, attitude, subjective norm, past behaviour, self-identity and trust in the pharmacist have a positive influence on the intention to buy generic drugs. On the contrary, perceived risk towards products and brand sensitivity act negatively. The results of the present study could be useful to public policy makers in developing effective policies and educational campaigns aimed at promoting generic drugs. Specifically, marketing efforts should be directed to inform consumers about the generic drugs' characteristics to mitigate the perceived risk towards these products and to raise awareness during their decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generic drugs: Review and experiences from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization-Health Action International (WHO-HAI tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice. We share our experience in running a community pharmacy for an urban health center in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala State, which is run solely on generic medicines. The drug availability at the community pharmacy was 73.3% when analyzed using WHO-HAI tool and the savings for the final consumers were up to 93.1%, when compared with most-selling brand of the same formulation.

  9. [Generic drugs and the consumption trends of antihypertensives in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada El Azizi, Ghizlane; Ahid, Samir; Ghanname, Imane; Ghannam, Imane; Belaiche, Abdelmajid; Hassar, Mohammed; Cherrah, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of consumption of antihypertensive drugs generic among 1991-2010, to assess the impacts after the institution of Mandatory Health Insurance and the marketing of generic drugs. We used sales data from the Moroccan subsidiary of IMS Health Intercontinental Marketing Service. Consumption of generic antihypertensive drugs increased from 0.08 to 10.65 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day between 1991 and 2010. In 2010, generic of the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) represented 4.08 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (82.09%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) by 2.40 DDD/1 000 inhabitants/day (48.29%). The generics market of CCBs is the most dominant and represented in 2010, 79.21% in volume and 62.58% in value. In developing countries like Morocco, the generic drug is a key element for access to treatment especially for the poor population. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, B.; Lederman, L.

    1988-01-01

    Reliability data are an essential part of probabilistic safety assessment. The quality of data can determine the quality of the study as a whole. It is obvious that component failure data originated from the plant being analyzed would be most appropriate. However, in few cases complete reliance on plant experience is possible, mainly because of the rather limited operating experience. Nuclear plants, although of different design, often use fairly similar components, so some of the experience could be combined and transferred from one plant to another. In addition information about component failures is available also from experts with knowledge on component design, manufacturing and operation. That bring us to the importance of assessing generic data. (Generic is meant to be everything that is not plant specific regarding the plant being analyzed). The generic data available in the open literature, can be divided in three broad categories. The first one includes data base used in previous analysis. These can be plant specific or updated from generic with plant specific information (latter case deserve special attention). The second one is based on compilation of plants' operating experience usually based on some kind of event reporting system. The third category includes data sources based on expert opinions (single or aggregate) or combination of expert opinions and other nuclear and non-nuclear experience. This paper reflects insights gained in compiling data from generic data sources and highlights advantages and pitfalls of using generic component reliability data in PSAs

  11. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant.......The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  13. Coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer: Novel configuration scheme and the effects of a noise-contaminated external signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Antonio; Aven, John; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Bulsara, Adi

    2007-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that unidirectional coupling can induce oscillations in overdamped and undriven nonlinear dynamical systems that are non-oscillatory when uncoupled; in turn, this has been shown to lead to new mechanisms for weak (compared to the energy barrier height) signal detection and amplification. The potential applications include fluxgate magnetometers, electric field sensors, and arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) rings. In the particular case of the fluxgate magnetometer, we have developed a ''coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer'' (CCFM); this device has been realized in the laboratory and its dynamics used to quantify many properties that are generic to this class of systems and coupling. The CCFM operation is underpinned by the emergent oscillatory behavior in a unidirectionally coupled ring of wound ferromagnetic cores, each of which can be treated as an overdamped bistable dynamic system when uncoupled. In particular, one can determine the regimes of existence and stability of the (coupling-induced) oscillations, and the scaling behavior of the oscillation frequency. More recently, we studied the effects of a (Gaussian) magnetic noise floor on a CCFM system realized with N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores. In this Letter, we first introduce a variation on the basic CCFM configuration that affords a path to enhanced device sensitivity, particularly for N>=3 coupled elements. We then analyze the response of the basic CCFM configuration as well as the new setup to a dc target signal that has a small noisy component (or ''contamination'')

  14. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  16. A cross-sectional survey of pharmacists to understand their personal preference of brand and generic over-the-counter medications used to treat common health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira; Slack, Marion; Cooley, Janet; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan

    2016-01-01

    Consumers are hesitant in choosing generic medications as they are under the assumption that they are not as safe nor effective as brand medications. However, pharmacists do have the education and training to know that this is not the case. The aim of this study was to determine pharmacists' preference of generic versus brand over-the-counter (OTC) medication for their personal use as self-treatment for various health symptoms. A prospective, cross sectional study was conducted on 553 licensed pharmacists who were presumed to have expertise in the use of generic and brand name OTC medications. In a single Southwestern state in the United States, from December 2014 to January 2015, a web-based questionnaire was sent to pharmacists to explore their preference of brand and generic medications based on various health symptoms. Thirty-one brand-generic medication pairs were used to identify which medication type pharmacists preferred when asked about nine health symptoms. Frequency counts of pharmacists' preference of a brand medication or a generic OTC medication overall and for each of the nine health symptoms were determined. Chi-squared analyses and one-way ANOVA were conducted to determine if there were any differences between the preferences of brand and generic OTC medications across each symptom. The study overall showed that pharmacists preferred generic OTC medications to brand OTC medications (62 to 5 %, respectively). Based on an 11-point rating scale, pharmacists were likely to take OTC generic medications (as their choice of self-treatment) when presented with health symptoms (mean = 7.32 ± 2.88). In addition, pharmacists chose generic OTC medications over brand medications regardless of health symptoms (p brand name OTC medications for self-treating a variety of health symptoms. These study findings support the theory that expertise affects preference for generic versus brand name OTC medications. This information can be used to provide

  17. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  18. Least Squares Approach to the Alignment of the Generic High Precision Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Renstrom, Pawel Brückman; Haywood, Stephen

    2006-04-01

    A least squares method to solve a generic alignment problem of a high granularity tracking system is presented. The algorithm is based on an analytical linear expansion and allows for multiple nested fits, e.g. imposing a common vertex for groups of particle tracks is of particular interest. We present a consistent and complete recipe to impose constraints on either implicit or explicit parameters. The method has been applied to the full simulation of a subset of the ATLAS silicon tracking system. The ultimate goal is to determine ≈35,000 degrees of freedom (DoF's). We present a limited scale exercise exploring various aspects of the solution.

  19. Systematic substrate adoption methodology (SAM) for future flexible, generic pharmaceutical production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn

    2013-01-01

    (APIs) for early delivery campaigns. Of these candidates only a few will be successful such that further development is required to scale-up the process. Systematic computer-aided methods and tools are required for faster manufacturing of these API candidates. In this work, a substrate adoption...... methodology (SAM) for a series of substrates with similar molecular functionality has been developed. The objective is to achieve “flexible, fast and future” pharmaceutical production processes by adapting a generic modular process template. Application of the methodology is illustrated through a case study...

  20. WIRED 4 - A Generic Event Display Plugin for JAS 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donszelmann, M.

    2004-01-01

    WIRED 4 is an experiment independent event display plugin module for the JAS 3 (Java Analysis Studio) generic analysis framework. Both WIRED and JAS are written in Java. WIRED, which uses HepRep (HEP Representables for Event Display) as its input format, supports viewing of events using either conventional 3D projections as well as specialized projections, such as a fish-eye or a ρ-Z projection. Projections allow the user to scale, rotate, position or change parameters on the plot as he wishes. All interactions are handled as separate edits which can be undone and/or redone, so the user can try out things and get back to a previous situation. All edits are scriptable by any of the scripting languages supported by JAS, such as pnuts, jython or java itself. Hits and tracks can be picked to display physics information and cuts can be made on physics parameters to allow the user to filter the number of objects drawn into the plot. Multiple event display plots can be laid out on pages combined with histograms and other plots, available from JAS itself or from other plugin modules. Configuration information on the state of all plots can be saved and restored allowing the user to save his session, share it with others or later continue where he left off. This version of WIRED is written to be easily extensible by the user/developer. Projections, representations, interaction handlers and edits are all services and new ones can be added by writing additional plugins. Both JAS 3 and WIRED 4 are built on top of the FreeHEP Java Libraries, which support a multitude of vector graphics output formats, such as PostScript, PDF, SVG, SWF and EMF, allowing document quality output of event display plots and histograms