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Sample records for generation study preliminary

  1. Substitute CT generation from a single ultra short time echo MRI sequence: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Dowling, Jason A.; Rai, Robba; Liney, Gary P.

    2017-04-01

    In MR guided radiation therapy planning both MR and CT images for a patient are acquired and co-registered to obtain a tissue specific HU map. Generation of the HU map directly from the MRI would eliminate the CT acquisition and may improve radiation therapy planning. In this preliminary study of substitute CT (sCT) generation, two porcine leg phantoms were scanned using a 3D ultrashort echo time (PETRA) sequence and co-registered to corresponding CT images to build tissue specific regression models. The model was created from one co-registered CT-PETRA pair to generate the sCT for the other PETRA image. An expectation maximization based clustering was performed on the co-registered PETRA image to identify the soft tissues, dense bone and air class membership probabilities. A tissue specific non linear regression model was built from one registered CT-PETRA pair dataset to predict the sCT of the second PETRA image in a two-fold cross validation schema. A complete substitute CT is generated in 3 min. The mean absolute HU error for air was 0.3 HU, bone was 95 HU, fat was 30 HU and for muscle it was 10 HU. The mean surface reconstruction error for the bone was 1.3 mm. The PETRA sequence enabled a low mean absolute surface distance for the bone and a low HU error for other classes. The sCT generated from a single PETRA sequence shows promise for the generation of fast sCT for MRI based radiation therapy planning.

  2. Second generation antihistamines: assessment of the efficacy of treatment and tolerance of some preparations of this group (preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata A. Czarny-Działak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Second generation antihistamines are key medicines in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Aim of the research: To compare the effectiveness of selected antihistamines and frequency of side effects in the course of their therapy in the patient opinion. Material and methods : The study was conducted on a group of 40 patients taking rupatadine, bilastine, levocetirizine and fexofenadine. The method of diagnostic survey was used, having the character of a preliminary examination in view of the small number of people involved in the study. Results: Among the 40 patients, side effects of the medicines only appeared in 3 respondents, which is 1.2%. Conclusions : The new generation antihistamines in light of our studies appear to be safe and associated with few side effects. Due to the small number of surveyed people we treat these tests as preliminary to further analysis of the effectiveness of selected antihistamines.

  3. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  4. Automatic verification of SSD and generation of respiratory signal with lasers in radiotherapy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Source to surface distance (SSD) plays a very important role in external beam radiotherapy treatment verification. In this study, a simple technique has been developed to verify the SSD automatically with lasers. The study also suggests a methodology for determining the respiratory signal with lasers. Two lasers, red and green are mounted on the collimator head of a Clinac 2300 C/D linac along with a camera to determine the SSD. A software (SSDLas) was developed to estimate the SSD automatically from the images captured by a 12-megapixel camera. To determine the SSD to a patient surface, the external body contour of the central axis transverse computed tomography (CT) cut is imported into the software. Another important aspect in radiotherapy is the generation of respiratory signal. The changes in the lasers separation as the patient breathes are converted to produce a respiratory signal. Multiple frames of laser images were acquired from the camera mounted on the collimator head and each frame was analyzed with SSDLas to generate the respiratory signal. The SSD as observed with the ODI on the machine and SSD measured by the SSDlas software was found to be within the tolerance limit. The methodology described for generating the respiratory signals will be useful for the treatment of mobile tumors such as lung, liver, breast, pancreas etc. The technique described for determining the SSD and the generation of respiratory signals using lasers is cost effective and simple to implement. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Feasibility Study on Application of Very Large Scale-Photovoltaic Power Generation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xuehao; Zhou Xiaoxin; Bai Xiaomin; Zhang Wentao

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy photovoltaic power generation is hopeful to be applied in a large amount and possesses a certain proportion in the structure of energy in the future. In this paper, based on the forecasting of electric load demand and energy structure of power generation in the middle of 21century, the pictures of VLS-PV power generation is composed, the operation characteristic of VLS-PV power generation and the adaptability of electric power grid for it is analyzed, the ways for transmitting large amount of PV power and the economic and technical bottlenecks for applying VLS-PV power generation are discussed. Finally, the steps and suggestions for developing VLS-PV power generation and its electric power system in China are proposed.

  6. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  7. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  8. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  9. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  10. A preliminary study on the short-term efficacy of chairside computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing- generated posterior lithium disilicate crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Sven; Fischer, Sören; Sobotta, Bernhard; Klapper, Horst-Uwe; Gozdowski, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the clinical performance of chairside-generated crowns over a preliminary time period of 24 months. Forty-one posterior crowns made of a machinable lithium disilicate ceramic for full-contour crowns were inserted in 34 patients using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technique. The crowns were evaluated at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months according to modified United States Public Health Service criteria. After 2 years, all reexamined crowns (n = 39) were in situ; one abutment exhibited secondary caries and two abutments received root canal treatment. Within the limited observation period, the crowns revealed clinically satisfying results.

  11. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  12. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  13. A preliminary study on the preparation of wood-plastic composites from urban wastes generated in Merida, Mexico with potential applications as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Estrada, Ricardo H; Martínez-Tapia, Gustavo E; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; González-Chí, Pedro I; Martín-Barrera, Cesar; Duarte-Aranda, Santiago; Guillén-Mallette, Javier; Cupul-Manzano, Carlos V; Martínez-Domínguez, Osvaldo; García-Gómez, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    A preliminary study on the use of wood and plastic wastes generated in Merida, Mexico to assess their potential for the development of building materials is reported. Composites based on recycled, high-density polyethylene (R-HDPE) loaded with wood particles were prepared. The R-HDPE was collected from Merida's Separation Plant, where it was sorted from other residues, either organic or inorganic. Composites based on virgin, high-density polyethylene (V-HDPE) were also prepared to assess the effect of the R-HDPE on the composite's mechanical properties. The wood came from the trims of different varieties of the city's trees that are periodically pruned as part of the cleaning and urbanising programmes implemented by the City Council. A batch of this material was selected at random to incorporate into both the R-HDPE and V-HDPE. Different wood particle sizes were experimented with to obtain extruded composites with contents of 50% and 60% by weight of wood that were characterized under tension and impact. Flat wood-plastic extrudates with reasonable good appearance were also produced at the laboratory level as a first step to find an adequate route to scale-up the process to a pilot level to evaluate the feasibility of producing alternative building materials.

  14. The preliminary studies on preparation and characterization of bulk nanoporous zinc as a laser target candidate to generate soft x-ray

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    Mohd Lutfi Ahmad Shahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk nanoporous metal has become a reliable source to replace liquid as source to generate EUV lithography which have debris problem to tackle. A solid yet low density porous material promised a low melting point and low plasma density. The plasma density of bulk nanoporous Sn and SnO2 profile plays a key role in the generation of 13.5 nm light for an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL source from laser produced plasma (LPP. The success of this preparation method might solve problems related to EUV lithography, or even soft Xray (XUV lithography. In this paper, we present the preliminary result of preparing such ideal low density target in form of bulk metal porous.

  15. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...

  16. Muhammadiyah: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyumardi Azra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a collection of Bibliography reviewer that discuss Muhammadiyah. The following are some of the bibliography were reviewed:A.R. Sukrianta dan Abdul Munir Malkhan, Perkembangan Pemikiran Muhammadiyah dari Masa ke Masa: Menyambut Muktamar ke-41, (Yogyakarta: Dua Dimensi, 1985.A.R. Sukriyanto dan Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pergumulan Pemikiran dalam Muhammadiyah, (Yogyakarta: Sipress, 1990.Ruslan Abdul Gani. et.al., Cita dan Citra Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Panjimas, 1985.M.T. Arifin, Gagasan Pembaharuan Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1987.M.T. Arifin, Muhammadiyah: Potret yang Berubah, (Surakarta: Institut Gelanggang Pemikiran Filsafat Sosial Budaya dan Kependidikan, 1990.M. Yusron Asrofie, Kiyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan, Pemikiran dan Kepemimpinannya, (Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta Offset, 1983.Fathurrahman Djamil, Ijtihad Muhammadiyah dalam Masalah-masalah Fiqh Kontemporer, (Jakarta: Doctoral Dissertation the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN, 1994.Yunahar Ilyas. et.al., Muhammadiyah dan NU: Reorientasi Wawasan Keislaman, (Yogyakarta: LPPI UMY, LKPSM NU, & PP al-Muhsin, 1993.Musthafa kamal, Chusnan Yusuf, dan Rosyad Sholeh, Muhammadiyah sebagai Gerakan Islam, (Yogyakarta: Penerbit Persatuan, 1976.M. Rusli Karim, Muhammadiyah dalam Kritik dan Komentar, (Jakarta: Rajawali, 1986.Arbiyah Lubis, Pemikiran Muhammadiyah dan Muhammad Abduh: Suatu Studi Perbandingan, (Jakarta: Doctoral Dissertation the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN, 1989.Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pemikiran K.H. Ahmad Dahlan dan Muhammadiyah dalam Perspektif Perubahan Sosial, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 1990.Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pak AR Menjawab 245 Permasalahan dalam Islam, (Yogyakarta: Sipress, 1990.M. Din Syamsuddin, Muhammadiyah Kini dan Esok, (Jakarta: Pustaka Panjimas, 1990.H.S. Prodjokusumo, Melestarikan Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pimpinan Pusat Muhammadiyah, 1985.Yusuf Abdullah Puar, Perjuangan dan Pengabdian Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Antara, 1989.Sahlan Rosidi

  17. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  18. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  19. A database of body-only computer-generated pictures of women for body-image studies: Development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussally, Joanna M; Rochat, Lucien; Posada, Andrés; Van der Linden, Martial

    2017-02-01

    The body-shape-related stimuli used in most body-image studies have several limitations (e.g., a lack of pilot validation procedures and the use of non-body-shape-related control/neutral stimuli). We therefore developed a database of 61 computer-generated body-only pictures of women, wherein bodies were methodically manipulated in terms of fatness versus thinness. Eighty-two young women assessed the pictures' attractiveness, beauty, harmony (valence ratings), and body shape (assessed on a thinness/fatness axis), providing normative data for valence and body shape ratings. First, stimuli manipulated for fatness versus thinness conveyed comparable emotional intensities regarding the valence and body shape ratings. Second, different subcategories of stimuli were obtained on the basis of variations in body shape and valence judgments. Fat and thin bodies were distributed into several subcategories depending on their valence ratings, and a subcategory containing stimuli that were neutral in terms of valence and body shape was identified. Interestingly, at a descriptive level, the thinness/fatness manipulations of the bodies were in a curvilinear relationship with the valence ratings: Thin bodies were not only judged as positive, but also as negative when their estimated body mass indexes (BMIs) decreased too much. Finally, convergent validity was assessed by exploring the impacts of body-image-related variables (BMI, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction) on participants' judgments of the bodies. Valence judgments, but not body shape judgments, were influenced by the participants' levels of thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction. Participants' BMIs did not significantly influence their judgments. Given these findings, this database contains relevant material that can be used in various fields, primarily for studies of body-image disturbance or eating disorders.

  20. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  1. Analysis of the operation of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, A. G.

    1991-05-01

    The excitation conditions and output characteristics of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation are determined. Attention is given to the effects of the modulation parameter, the phase shift, and the aiming distance on the displacement of the generation zone, variations of the minimum starting current, the frequency shift, the oscillation amplitude, and the efficiency of the generator. It is shown that the efficiency of a generator with preliminary HF modulation can be twice as high as that of a generator without modulation.

  2. Preliminary Study on Airlift Membran—Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUNong; XINGWeihong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor named “airlift membrane-bioreactor”is discussed.For municipal wastewater reclamation,the preliminary study on airlift membrane-bioreactor shows its good performance such as high flux and lower energy consumption.The airlift membrane-bioreactor is potentially applicable in bioengineering and environmental protection fields.

  3. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  4. Institutional Repositories in India: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates various aspects of institutional repositories (IR’s) developed in India. The present study has identified the existence of 16 functional IRs some of which were not registered in any of the directories such as ROAR, Open DOAR. The study explores the timeline involved in planning, pilot testing, to system implementation of IR, exploratory activities conducted before implementing IR, its anticipated benefits.

  5. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  6. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  7. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  8. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  9. Design of Pulsed Strong Magnetic Fields Generator and Preliminary Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jun; QU Xue-min; WANG Xi-gang; LONG Kai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to designing a pulsed strong magnetic fields generator. Methods: A large value capacitor was used to store electric energy, coil was used for producing magnetic fields, main control, circuit control charge, sampling, discharge, etc. Results: The generator provided a pulsed magnetic field with the ampli-tude of intensity from 0.1-2 T and variable time interval of pulse from 4 s-1 min. It was not only to be operated easily but also performed reliably. Conclusion:The generator will be applied in special clinical diagnosis, therapy and other fields.

  10. A Preliminary Model of Infrared Image Generation for Exhaust Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the irradiance calculation of all pixels on the focal plane array, a preliminary infrared imaging prediction model of exhaust plume that have considered the geometrical and the thermal resolution of the camera was developed to understanding the infrared characteristics of exhaust plume. In order to compute the irradiance incident on each pixel, the gas radiation transfer path in the plume for the instantaneous field of view corresponds to the pixel was solved by the simultaneous equation of a enclosure cylinder which covers the exhaust plume and the line of sight. Radiance of the transfer path was calculated by radiation transfer equation for nonscattering gas. The radiative properties of combustion needed in the equation was provided by employing Malkmus model with EM2C narrow band database(25cm-1. The pressure, species concentration along the path was determination by CFD analysis. The relative irradiance intensity of each pixel was converted to color in the display according to gray map coding and hot map coding. Infrared image of the exhaust plumes from a subsonic axisymmetric nozzle with different relative position of camera and the plume was predicted with the model. By changing the parameters, such as FOV and space resolution, the image of different imaging system can be predicted.

  11. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  12. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  13. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  14. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  15. Preliminary Investigation on Generation of Electricity Using Micro Wind Turbines Placed on A Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Chaudhary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the prominent resources for renewable energy and it is traditionally extracted using stationary wind turbines. However, it can also be extracted using mini or micro wind turbines on a moving body, such as an automobile, while cruising at high speeds on freeways. If the electricity is produced using air flowing around the vehicle without affecting aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, it can be used to charge up the battery or power up additional accessories of the vehicle. For the first time, in the present work, a preliminary investigation was carried out to generate electricity by utilizing air flow on a moving car. Initially, a correlation between the car speed and wind velocity was established using an anemometer. Placing a set of two micro wind turbines along with two micro generators on the rear end of the car trunk, the present study investigated the feasibility of generating electricity from these micro wind turbines while evaluating the effect of drag force on the performance of the car through the experimental approach and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Both approaches confirmed negligible effect of drag force on the vehicle performance in terms of gas mileage and changes in drag coefficient values. Following these studies, the micro wind turbines were also tested for electricity generation at various cruising speeds of the car ranging from 50 to 80 mph on the freeways. The voltage and power generated always showed an increasing trend with increasing the car speed, however they saturated when a cut off limit was setup with the voltage controllers. A maximum voltage of 3.5 V and a maximum current of 0.8 A were generated by each micro wind turbine when a cut off limit was used along with a load consisting of four LED bulbs in parallel with 3.5 V and 0.2 A rating each. On the other hand, when the tests were repeated without using the cut-off limit, a maximum voltage of 18.91 V and a maximum current

  16. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  17. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  18. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    be unused and convert it to electricity or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the potential contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the potential for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the potential magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.

  19. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation of silicon tracking systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J F Genat; A Savoy-Navarro

    2007-12-01

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for the next generation of large area silicon tracker are presented in this paper. This paper describes the set of data delivered by these tracking systems, and the various stages of processing and data flow transmission from the front-end chip sitting on the detector to the latest stage in the data processing. How to best profit from the status of the art technologies is a major goal.

  20. Preliminary study natural gas; Foerstudie naturgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamnevik, Stefan; Carlsson, Tomas; Dyhr, Kurt

    2000-09-01

    FOA has carried out a preliminary study on natural gas for the Swedish National Energy Administration. To use natural gas as an energy source could be one step towards use of carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen content. It has a high heat of combustion, 55 MJ/kg, and a low emission of carbon dioxide, 2.8 kg/kg fuel or 0.051 kg/MJ. The carbon dioxide emission per energy unit is twice as high for coal, 75% higher for wood fuels, and 27% higher for fuel oils. The Swedish natural gas network starts at Malmoe and ends at Hyltebruk. The natural gas used is imported from Denmark by Sydgas AB. It would be possible in the future to get connections to the Russian and the Norwegian networks and also to import LNG by ship and store it to buffer the different consumption demands during summer and winter. Natural gas is non-toxic but can be suffocating due to too low oxygen content at high concentrations. Combustion with an inadequate air supply will form toxic carbon monoxide like other carbonaceous fuels. Natural gas/air mixtures may explode like other gaseous fuels. The gas is lighter than air and is therefore dispersed better than heavier gases like LPG. Natural gas is difficult to detonate unlike other gases.

  1. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  2. Study on switched reluctance generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘再平; 金英; 张慧

    2004-01-01

    The linear and non-linear math models of the switched reluctance generator (SRG) in generator mode were established in this work. The phase current and energy conversion process during generator operation were simulated by the linear math model. The non-linear math model was used to analyze the characteristics of the SRG operation in self-excitation mode and in separately-excitation mode. Some important findings on how the SRG is operated and controlled were obtained in this study, which provides theoretical basis for further design and experimental study.

  3. A vascularized nerve graft substitute generated in a chamber bioreactor- A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sinan Engin

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: According to the literature review, this is the first achievement of engineering a nerve graft substitute containing vascularized Schwann cells. Therefore, it is believed this study has yielded significant preliminary results, providing a basis for future studies. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 62-69

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Gas Generation from the Korean LILW Repository using the SMOGG Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Sun Joung [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    For the permanent disposal of 100,000 drums of LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste) for the first stage of operation (800,000 drums in the long run) in Korea, the rock-cavern repository is being constructed at Gyeongju city. During the lifetime and post-closure period of the repository, it is expected that bulk gases (e.g. hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) are mainly produced by various mechanisms such as the metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials, and radiolysis. Since gases generated have the potential threat to overpressurize the repository, which can promote the transport of radionuclide contained in groundwater and gas, it is necessary to simulate the features of gas generation from the repository using the appropriate computer code prior to the start of operation. This paper describes the preliminary evaluation of gas generation from the repository using the SMOGG code

  5. A biogeographic study of intermountain leeches : Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary report for a five year study on leeches in the intermountain west. This work began out of curiosity to determine what, besides fishes, occurred in the...

  6. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  7. Preliminary characterization of ST2G: Solar thermionic-thermoelectric generator for concentrating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Alessandro; Calvani, Paolo; Cappelli, Emilia; Orlando, Stefano; Sciti, Diletta; Yogev, Ronen; Kribus, Abraham; Trucchi, Daniele M.

    2015-06-01

    An innovative conversion module (CM) for concentrating solar power applications, named ST2G (Solar Thermionic-Thermoelectric Generator), has been developed and fabricated. The new technology is based on a solid-state converter that works at temperatures up to 1000 °C and exploits a double conversion stage: a thermionic stage and a thermoelectric one, connected thermally in series. Potentially, the CM could reach a combined solar energy-to-electrical efficiency larger than 30%, producing also additional thermal energy to be exploited as a co-generation. Different prototypes have been fabricated and the discussion on the technological key-points has been reported, relating them to the physical requirements necessary for an efficient conversion mechanism. The preliminary results obtained at a lab-level are here discussed, indicating low electrical power output, but also how to increase the performance by solving the identified issues.

  8. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  9. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  10. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Omatoyo K; Halfhide, Trina; Udom, Innocent; Gilles, Benjamin; Wolan, John; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina

    2013-01-05

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse.An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  11. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse. An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  12. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  13. Preliminary Experimental Investigation on MHD Power Generation Using Seeded Supersonic Argon Flow as Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.

  14. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  15. Modular endoprosthesis for mandibular reconstruction: a preliminary animal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Goh, B.T.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of a mandibular modular endoprosthesis after segmental resection of part of the body of the mandible was studied. This preliminary study was carried out on four pigs and four monkeys. The devices were made of a titanium alloy and were cemented in the prepared medullary spaces with polymethyl

  16. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  17. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  18. Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in children: a preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Maria, B. de; Tielens, L.K.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blockade is a well-established technique in upper limb surgery. Among the infraclavicular approaches, the vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus (VIP) block is easy to perform and has a large spectrum of nerve blockade. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine

  19. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  20. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  1. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  2. Preliminary toxicological study of Irganox 1010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    Acute oral LD/sub 50/30/ values for mice and rats receiving Irganox 1010 were found to be greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, this material would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin applicaton studies in rabbits showed the material to be nonirritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Irganox 1010 was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitizaton study in guinea pigs did not show the material to be deleterious.

  3. Preliminary toxicological study of Silastic 386 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; Holland, L.M.; Jackson, D.E.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Silastic 386 catalyst were 1225 mg/kg in mice and 4350 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be slightly to moderately toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing conjunctivitis, photophobia, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, anterior uveitis, and keratitis. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show Silastic 386 catalyst to be deleterious in this regard.

  4. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    documents the extensive evaluation which was performed on the anticipated environmental impacts of that plant. This source can be referenced in the open literature and is publicly available. The CRBRP design was also of a commercial demonstration plant size - 975 MWth - which falls in the middle of the range of ABR plant sizes being considered (250 MWth to 2000 MWth). At the time the project was cancelled, the CRBRP had progressed to the point of having completed the licensing application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and was in the process of receiving NRC approval. Therefore, it was felt that [CRBRP, 1977] provides some of the best available data and information as input to the GNEP PEIS work. CRBRP was not the source of all the information in this document. It is also expected that the CRBRP data will be bounding from the standpoint of commodity usage because fast reactor vendors will develop designs which will focus on commodity and footprint reduction to reduce the overall cost per kilowatt electric compared with the CRBR plant. Other sources used for this datacall information package are explained throughout this document and in Appendix A. In particular, see Table A.1 for a summary of the data sources used to generate the datacall information.

  5. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  6. Preliminary study of pur-revetment's application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, D.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van de Ven, M.

    2008-01-01

    PUR-revetment is a newly developed method for hydraulic application. Its structure is similar to that of open stone asphalt revetment, but the crushed stones are glued by polyurethane (PUR) instead of bitumen. To study the feasibility of applying PUR-revetment, a research based on the comparisons be

  7. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  8. Preliminary Study of Performance of TTA Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Kun; MAO; Guo-shu

    2013-01-01

    TTA(thenoyl trifluoroacetone)extraction can effectively remove large amounts of uranium in the analysis of trace neptunium in the presence of large amounts of uranium.While it is not conducive to achieve the automation of the rapid analysis of neptunium with the TTA solution,the TTA resin was prepared and its properties were studied in this work.TTA resin in this work was a kind of mixture combining styrene-divinylbenzene skeleton with TTA

  9. Microwave Influence in Fungi a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoliu, A. I.; Tufescu, F. M.; Oprica, L.; Olteanu, Z.; Creanga, D. E.

    2004-07-01

    The behavior of two cellulolytic fungus species under the influence of low intensity microwaves was studied: Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternata. Enzyme activity of dehydrogenase complex was investigated by spectrophotometric method in order to real the effect of relatively short daily exposure times. Inhibitory effect was noticed for malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in both fungi while differentiated influence was revealed in alpha ceto glutarate dehydrogenase (inhibitory in Chaetomium globosum but stimulatory in Alternaria alternata). Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was significantly stimulated in both fungi for 3 hours exposure time. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. [Preliminary study on the pharmacological action spicatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, H; Shou, Y; Wang, J; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    In this report the pharmacological action of Spicatus was studied. The results insicated that it had diureric, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects, yet had Iittle toxic side-effect. It had significant inhibitory effect on crofon oil-caused mice ear swell. It also had marked diuretic effect in orcinary rats, but had Iittie effect on uric pH the rats. It exhibited certain inhibition of Staphycoloccus aureus, Eschrichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. The maximum tolerable dose test in mice showed no marked toxic effect, LD50 > 80 g/kg.

  11. A preliminary ultrasound study of velar fronting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzinski, Sylvie M.; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging to measure velar consonant closure location, and (2) conduct a thorough study of velar fronting by measuring several productions of velar stops in the context of every English vowel. Word onset velar stops were measured in both words (CV or CVC) and nonwords (VCV) within a carrier phrase. Other coarticulatory influences were minimized by using words with no coda or labial coda consonants (e.g., ``Say a gap again,'' ``Say /oIkoI/ again''). Measurements were made at the point of maximal closure. Closure location was measured using the radial angle from the center of the ultrasound probe to the center of the velar closure. Pilot data for one subject has been analyzed to date. Closure location appears consistent across all central and back vowels. For front vowels, the degree of fronting of the velar appears to be correlated with the frontness of the vowel. Measures of closure location for diphthongs followed the back vowel pattern in the word targets. For nonwords, the closure location was influenced by the preceding diphthong offset quality and the following diphthong onset quality. Theoretical implications for the phonetics/phonology interface will be discussed.

  12. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Fake Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is a widely used biometrics. Its extensive usage motivates imposter to fabricate fake fingerprints. Vitality detection has been proposed to prevent counterfeit finger attack. Currently the detection can be done either during the process of acquiring fingerprint image or by comparing multiple sequentially acquired images. It is an ongoing research problem to detect whether a given fingerprint image is obtained from a real or a fake fingertip. In this paper we look into the differences between real and fake fingerprints as the first step to approach this problem. Specifically, we study the effects of different imaging sensors on the sizes of templates and on the matching scores between real and fake fingerprints. We also compare the fake fingerprints made from different materials. Experiments are carried out with two publicly available fingerprint databases and the findings are reported.

  14. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  15. Generative Studies in Romance Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Jean, Ed.; Saciuk, Bohdan, Ed.

    This book represents, in part, the written record of the "Linguistic Symposium of Romance Languages: Application of Generative Grammar to Their Description and Teaching," held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, in February 1971. The aim of the Symposium was to bring forth contributions in the description of Romance languages, to draw…

  16. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  17. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  18. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  19. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  20. Parametric Fuselage Geometry Generation and Aerodynamic Performance Prediction in Preliminary Rotorcraft Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The creation of an integrated rotorcraft conceptual and preliminary design framework at DLR involved the development of geometry and fuselage aerodynamics modules at the Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology. After a short revision of the RIDE rotorcraft design environment architecture this paper focuses on the implementation of these disciplinary modules. The aim of the geometry module is to bridge the gap between conceptual and preliminary design and to allow for geometry parameter ...

  1. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  2. Development of a perturbation generator for vortex stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riester, J. E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Theory predicts vortex instability when subjected to certain types of disturbances. It was desired to build a device which could introduce controlled velocity perturbations into a trailing line vortex in order to study the effects on stability. A perturbation generator was designed and manufactured which can be attached to the centerbody of an airfoil type vortex generator. Details of design tests and manufacturing of the perturbation generator are presented. The device produced controlled perturbation with frequencies in excess of 250 Hz. Preliminary testing and evaluation of the perturbation generator performance was conducted in a 4 inch cylindrical pipe. Observations of vortex shedding frequencies from a centerbody were measured. Further evaluation with the perturbation generator attached to the vortex generator in a 2 x 3 foot wind tunnel were also conducted. Hot-wire anemometry was used to confirm the perturbation generator's ability to introduce controlled frequency fluctuations. Comparison of the energy levels of the disturbances in the vortex core was made between locations 42 chord lengths and 15 chord lengths downstream.

  3. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  4. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  5. Preliminary study on rockfall for Al Gayah site in Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aref M. O. Al-Jabali; WANG Xi-kui

    2004-01-01

    Studying the landslide and rockfall in Yemen still in its preliminary stage. Al Gayah rockfall site is a chronic problem as many other areas in the Republic of Yemen. The present authors have tried to highlight, and find best solution for this problem for the first time. Field work, collecting data and laboratory test for many rock samples such physical properties, chemical for major elements and thin section have been carried out. The physical properties performed according to ASTM, and then the result have been gotten and discussed.

  6. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND GENOTYPING OF CIAUSCOLO AUTOCHTHONOUS MICROFLORA: PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petruzzelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results of a preliminary characterization of the bacterial population of Ciauscolo, a typical Italian fermented sausage, traditionally manufactured in Marche region. The bacterial community involved in Ciauscolo fermentation was investigated using both molecular and culturebased methods. The estimation of genotypic intra-species variation of the autochthonous bacteria isolated was also evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis. Our findings revealed an high diversity of the autochthonous bacterial population investigated, both at species and strain level.

  7. Preliminary Studies on Chlorimuron Degradation in Soil by Effective Microogranisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaguang

    2006-01-01

    A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bioassay method was used for preliminary determination of chlorimuron degradation in soil by EM (effective microorganisms). Under the conditions of this study, chlorimuron half-life was greater than 30-50 days in soil containing different initial concentrations of chlorimuron. After adding EM, chlorimuron degradation half-life ranged from 10-15 days, which was about 15-30 days shorter than without EM. Chlorimuron phate and urea enhanced the ability of EM to degrade chlorimuron, but brown sugar had no significant effect.

  8. Corporate Social Disclosures in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD has been growing remarkably both in business and academic world.  Inevitably, this topic is also exposed in Southeast Asia, a big region that plays important role in global economic issue. Applying a content analysis method, this paper aims to provide preliminary findings in CSD practices throughout the companies‟ annual reports in 2007 and 2008 for countries located in Southeast Asia.  Samples were selected for listed and unlisted various type of industries, based on the information availability internet searching. The sample collection and the subjectivity during the content analysis process are the limitations in conducting this study. In general, the results show that „human resources‟ are the main information disclosed, while in contrast, „energy‟ is the main least issue disclosed in the annual reports.  However, the findings need to be interpreted with considerations since there are limited in samples. Basically, the outcomes support the major prior studies and enhancing the discussion of CSD conducting in developing countries, while at the same time describing some countries which obtained very limited in exposures. To respond the vast increasing issues of CSD practice, this preliminary study has provided a basis to see the role of every country in CSR reporting and how they could support the sustainability development globally.

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  10. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  11. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  12. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  13. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  14. Results of preliminary Microwave Multi-Applications Payload (MMAP) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the microwave multi-applications payload (MMAP) system for the Spacelab has been carried out. The initial objectives of this study have been to determine the minimum equipment requirements of the MMAP and the feasibility of placing the numerous large aperture antennas in the Spacelab. The study was begun by reviewing the experimental objectives and techniques and determining areas of commonality. Emphasis was given to the determination of common RF equipment requirements. These requirementers were considered after agreement among the experiments had been reached on limiting the number of frequencies to be used in the system. This was done so that the number of antennas, transmitters, and receivers could be minimized. The electronics system block diagram and the antenna configurations were considered in some details. It was concluded that the MMAP is feasible and can be an economical method of achieving a large number of experimental goals.

  15. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF STEREOSELECTIVITY OF MEFLOQUINE ENANTIOMERS IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Souri.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity of mefloquine enantiomers were studied in rats after oral administration of a single 50mg/Kg dose of the racemate. Pharmacokinetic parameters of (+-(RS-MFQ in blood and plasma showed no significant difference. The concentration, AUC , CLIF and VdlF of (+-(RS-enantiomerin blood were significantly higher than those for the (--(SR-enantiomer. Tlie results obtained from this study showed a reverse stereoselectivity of MFQ as compared with what reported for human. A very low amount of enantiomers excreted in urine and the excretion was not stereoselective. A preliminary study in different blood fractions showed that the accumulation of MFQ enantiomers in blood cells is stereoselective with a tendency of ( + -(RS-enatiomer for leukocytes and (--(SR-enantiomer for erythrocytes.

  16. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  17. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  18. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  19. Recurrent laryngeal nerve histopathology in spastic dysphonia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedo, H H; Izdebski, K; Townsend, J J

    1977-01-01

    Spastic dysphonia is a severe voice disorder ordinarily described as psychogenic. Organic-neurologic changes secondary to central or peripheral nervous system involvement have also been postulated and led recently to the surgical treatment of spastic dysphonia by unilateral section of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study reports the histologic findings from these resections of the RLN from patients with an average 9.5 years duration of spastic dysphonia. Thirty percent of the RLNs examined demonstrated significant abnormalities as compared to age-matched controls. Although no reactive changes were noted by light microscopy, groups of fibers which did not stain for myelin or axons were found in RLNs from patients with spastic dysphonia. A preliminary ultrastructural study of these areas in one RLN revealed sheets of unmyelinated axons. These findings suggest an organic basis for spastic dysphonia at least in some patients.

  20. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  1. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  2. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXTRACTABLE PROTEIN BINDING USING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirawan Nipithakul; Ladawan Watthanachote; Nanticha Kalapat

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of using maleic anhydride copolymer for protein binding has been carried out.The polymeric films were prepared by compression of the purified resin and annealing the film to induce efficient back formation of the anhydride groups.The properties of the film surface were analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements.The protein content was determined by Bradford assay.To obtain optimum conditions,immersion time for protein binding was examined.Results revealed that proteins can be successfully immobilized onto the film surface via covalent linkage.The efficiency of the covalent binding of the extractable protein to maleic anhydride-polyethylene film was estimated at 69.87 μtg/cm2,although the film had low anhydride content (3%) on the surface.

  4. Proscriptive Bayesian Programming and Maximum Entropy: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Carla Cavalcante

    2008-11-01

    Some problems found in robotics systems, as avoiding obstacles, can be better described using proscriptive commands, where only prohibited actions are indicated in contrast to prescriptive situations, which demands that a specific command be specified. An interesting question arises regarding the possibility to learn automatically if proscriptive commands are suitable and which parametric function could be better applied. Lately, a great variety of problems in robotics domain are object of researches using probabilistic methods, including the use of Maximum Entropy in automatic learning for robot control systems. This works presents a preliminary study on automatic learning of proscriptive robot control using maximum entropy and using Bayesian Programming. It is verified whether Maximum entropy and related methods can favour proscriptive commands in an obstacle avoidance task executed by a mobile robot.

  5. Wind Generation Feasibility Study in Bethel, AK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Humphrey, YKHC; Lance Kincaid, EMCOR Energy & Technologies

    2004-07-31

    This report studies the wind resources in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) region, located in southwestern Alaska, and the applicability of wind generation technologies to YKHC facilities.

  6. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  7. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of

  8. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  9. New perspective for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: Preliminary results at 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF increased in the last years. Compression fractures promote a progressive spine kyphosis increase, resulting in a weight shift and anterior column overload, with OVF additional risk (domino effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the OVF treatment outcome using Spine Jack ®, a titanium device for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures (PVAPs. Materials and Methods: From February 2010, a prospective randomized study was performed examining 300 patients who underwent PVAP due to OVF type A1 according to Magerl/AO spine classification. Patients enrolled in the study were divided in two homogenous groups with regards to age (65-85 years, sex, and general clinical findings. Group A included 150 patients who underwent PVAP using Spine Jack ® system; the second, group B (control group, included 150 patients treated by conventional balloon kyphoplasty. Patients underwent a clinical (visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index and radiographic follow-up, with post-operative standing plain radiogram of the spine at 1, 6, and 12 months. The radiographic parameters that were taken into account were: Post-operative anterior vertebral body height, pre-operative anterior vertebral body height, cephalic anterior vertebral body height, and caudal anterior vertebral body height. Results: Compared to the Spine Jack ® group, the kyphoplasty group required a little longer operation time (an average of 40 min-group A vs. 45 min-group B, P < 0.05 and a greater amount of polymethylmethacrylate (4.0 mL-group A vs. 5.0 mL-group B, P < 0.05;. The post-operative increase in vertebral body height was greater in the Spine Jack ® group than in the kyphoplasty group (P < 0.05. Discussion: PVAP are based on the cement injection into the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty does not allow the vertebral body height recovery. Balloon kyphoplasty allows a temporary height

  10. Interaction of turbine-generated turbulence with agricultural crops: Conceptual framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Segal, M.; Elmore, R.; Hatfield, J.; Prueger, J. H.; Taylor, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    such purposes for growing commodity agricultural crops are unknown. Suppressing effects of a premature freeze could extend the growing season by two or more weeks. Aerodynamic surface roughness influences the mean wind at hub height of wind turbines. Type of crop (e.g., corn vs. soybeans) and stage of growth will influence roughness, as will management practices (smooth surface vs. crop residue and tillage-induced roughness). Management of crop residue and snow cover influences surface albedo and hence diabatic influences on turbulent loss of momentum at the surface. We have launched a pilot project to assess the interaction of turbines with crops in Iowa by use of models and measurements. Preliminary studies show that turbulence kinetic energy in the lee of turbines may be enhanced by as much as 300% near hub height and 40% at 10 m above the ground under neutral flow conditions. Field observations of fluxes of CO2, heat, and water vapor have been made outside of wind farms, and plans call for simultaneous measurements to be made within and outside of wind farms.

  11. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  12. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  13. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  14. Preliminary investigation of the potential of harnessing tidal energy for electricity generation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S.; Seng, L.Y. [Tunku Abdul Rahman Univ. (Malaysia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Malaysia relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy demands. However, Malaysia has started to explore the use of other forms of renewable energy such as solar energy, biofuels and tidal power. This paper focused on the potential of harnessing tidal energy in Malaysia for electricity production. There are several sites with great potential for tidal energy conversion, which could supplement the energy needs of Malaysia while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Illustrations were included to show the amplitude of the main harmonic component of the tidal range around Malaysia. The main harmonic component found in the region has a maximum amplitude of 1.4 m, confirming the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia's Ocean. Since the tidal cycle is highly predictable, it has the potential to be a very reliable renewable energy source. Two main approaches are being researched internationally to harness the energy from tides, notably the barrage approach and the tidal stream approach. For the barrage approach, a physical barrier is created within the sea, and a sluice gate controls the flow of sea water. In the tidal stream approach, horizontal axis turbines are placed in the path of tidal currents to generate electricity, similar to the operation of wind turbines. This paper described the flow velocity, power output, availability of power supply and monthly yield of turbines using both the barrage and tidal stream approaches. The study showed that for the barrage approach, there are 6 sites in Malaysia where 14,970 kWH of energy can be generated monthly with a single turbine with a 5 m long blade. The tidal stream approach showed equally promising results at 2 sites. It was concluded that tidal energy is a promising form of renewable energy because of its cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. According to United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, 10 per cent of the United Kingdom's electricity needs could be

  15. Distributed generation - customer owned generation - Duke Energy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iung, Anderson M. [Duke Energy International, Geracao Paranapanema S.A., SP (Brazil). Market Analysis Dept.; Ribeiro, Paulo F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Oliveira, A.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Distributed generation (DG) is getting more attractive. Although unit costs show strong economies of scale for all generation technology types, there is a potential niche market for DG technology to drive growth in addition to environmental concern issues. Duke Energy encourages the installation of cost effective small scale costumer owned generation. The objective of this article is to evaluate some aspects of DG connection in the Duke's distribution system regarding power quality, voltage stability, system protection, power balance control policy and the economical viability. (author)

  16. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  17. Caligula-Christ: Preliminary Study of a Parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene M. Birden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caligula, at the very beginning of the Albert Camus play, conceives a very ambitious project; to surpass the gods and take their place in his empire, in order to decree impossibility. Camus has, however, gone a step further in developing the god-image of his main character through the incorporation of much Christian imagery into the scenes. This aspect of the play seems not to have been noticed by Camus scholars; there is no in-depth study of the use of this imagery. However, Camus scholar Patricia Johnson and the members of the Société des études camusiennes have noted the usefulness of the analysis presented here and the absence of it in previous research. This study, designated as “preliminary,” attempts to prompt further analyses of the question and offers different approaches. It proceeds by intertextual study of Caligula and the gospels (here referred to in Revised Standard Version and brings out aspects of the emperor’s intentions that expose a combination of perversion and similarity in relation to deity. It briefly outlines the sources of this parallel and the reasons for creating it, then details the parallels that show first the reversal of the image of Jesus, then the striking consonance. It ends with interpretations of the parallels and concludes with commentaries on the use of irony to create them.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium silicate (Li2SiO3) from waste glass: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Nichola J.; HURT, Andrew P.; Raza, Atiya

    2015-01-01

    Current environmental directives to conserve resources and to divert waste streams have generated significant interest in mineral recycling. In this respect, this preliminary study has demonstrated that lithium metasilicate can be prepared by hydrothermal reaction between waste container glass and lithium hydroxide solutions at 100 °C. Minor proportions of calcium hydroxide, calcite, lithium carbonate and tobermorite were also produced during the reaction. Percentage crystallinity and proport...

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60} Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D{sub 50}) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Bryophytes in Enggano Island, Bengkulu, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainun Nadhifah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enggano Island is one of the outer islands  that belongs to the Province of Bengkulu. Furthermore, there is very limited information about the diversity of bryophyte from Sumatera, especially in lowland forest, Enggano Island. The aim of this research was to provide the initial information related to the diversity of bryophytes in Enggano. The research was conducted in six forests i.e. primary, secondary and degraded forests. The results showed that 32 number of collection from 14 families, 21 genera, and 32 species were identified. Leceuneaceae was common family for liverworts while the mosses family was dominated by Hypnaceae. None of the hornworts were found in this study. Some species identified (Taxyphyllum sp., Vesicularia sp., Riccardia sp., and Thuidium sp. have the potential benefit and biological activity. Two genera were new records to Sumatra, Gongylanthus, and Symphyogyna. Moreover, Gongylanthus sp. and Symphyogyna sp. have important records related to the habitat.How to CiteNadhifah, A., & Surya, M. I. (2016. A Preliminary Study of Bryophytes in Enggano Island, Bengkulu, Indonesia. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 201-205.

  3. Preliminary Study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of any Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for geodetic applications. Therefore, this work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan. The model is created using gravimetric data and the GravSoft program. The validation of this model is done by using GPS measurements and precise leveling at Amman area. However, a comparison between the Global Geopotential Models OSU91A and EGM96 showed great discrepancies through the presented results. Also, presenting the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. Nevertheless, the error margin; obtained in this initial study of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurement; is about (10cm, in tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40cm.

  4. Numerical studies of helical CMF generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R.; McGlaun, J.M.; Thompson, S.L.; Cnare, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    The COMAG-III code has been used to model the dynamic behavior of a small CMF generator having a helical coil. The results have been compared with experiments which employed light pipe diagnostics of the explosive timing together with flash radiography to time correlate the mechanical behavior with the previously reported electrical output. The code has also been used to study and compare the importance of various loss mechanisms in these generators including ohmic heating and the flux lost be the switching action of the armature. A parameter study in which the injection current was varied is described. The possible importance of electrical breakdown is also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  7. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ropert-Coudert

    Full Text Available Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  8. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  9. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  10. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  11. Preliminary Study on Diverse Carbon Utilization by Transformant Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger have been widely recognized as producer of metabolites and reported as good expression hosts for homologous and heterologous proteins. For recombinant expression systems, nature of metabolite production would change when the expression host system is modified via plasmid development. In order to study the diversity of carbon utilization of transformant A.niger and their relation to specific carbon sources that could trigger mannanase production, a new screening system was introduced using Biolog technique to evaluate the growth of the transformant performed on 95 carbon sources. As a result, the transformed A.niger were found able to utilize dextrin and other 27 carbohydrates with majority preferred carbohydrates were identified as monosaccharide, oligosaccharides and some sugar alcohols as the best chosen carbon sources for growth. The relative simplicity and global carbon sources underlying in the biolog system for screening of carbon source make it as a useful tool for the preliminary screening and identification of carbon sources in order to select the best carbon source for medium development.

  12. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  13. A preliminary study looking at parental emotions following cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Flora; Graham, John; Crocker, Susan

    2007-06-01

    This preliminary research investigated the emotions of parents with cochlear implanted children. The object for the research was first to compare four emotions engendered in parents of deaf children before and after cochlear implantation. Second, to monitor changes in these emotions during a period of up to four years after implantation. Third, to see whether any of the emotions studied was significantly more prominent than the others, and fifth to identify any differences in emotions that were related to the gender of parents. A self-report questionnaire was given to 112 participants of whom 53 replied. There were equal groups of parents in two categories, those with children up to two years after implantation, and those two to four years after implantation. The responses were interpreted using parametric statistics. The results highlight that grief is the strongest emotional condition that parents experience before and up to two years after implantation, alongside family adjustments. Parents of the up to two years after implantation group generally have stronger feelings and are less satisfied than parents in the over two years implanted group. Finally, fathers use denial more than mothers. Considerations for future research and implications for paediatric cochlear implant teams will be discussed.

  14. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-10-12

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  15. VEGF Expression in Patellar Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027

  16. Platform for dynamic tests: preliminary studies, design and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Campuzano

    . The platform was built and has been done a preliminary experimental study to obtain the first natural frequencies.

  17. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  18. Preliminary Numerical Investigations of Entropy Generation in Electric Machines Based on a Canonical Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Eger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes numerically the entropy generation induced by forced convection in a canonical configuration. The configuration itself includes two well known fluid dynamic problems: (1 an external flow (flow around a cylinder, Kármán flow; and (2 an internal flow (flow between two concentric rotating cylinders, Couette flow. In many daily engineering issues (e.g., cooling of electric machines, a combination of these problems occurs and has to be investigated. Using the canonical configuration, the fields of entropy generation are analyzed in this work for a constant wall heat flux but varying two key parameters (Reynolds numbers Re∞ and Re0. The entropy generation due to conduction shows an absolute minimum around Re0 = 10,000. The same minima can be found by a detailed analysis of the temperature profile. Thus, entropy generation seems to be a suitable indicator for optimizing heat exchange processes and delivers a large amount of information concerning fluid and heat transport.

  19. Two Mentor Practices that Generate Teacher Reflection without Explicit Solicitations: Some Preliminary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Hansun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Despite the push for fostering reflective practices in teacher education in the last 20 years, true reflection remains rare (Farr, 2011). Based on a detailed analysis of four mentor-teacher meetings in a graduate TESOL program, I show how specific mentor practices generate teacher reflection without explicit solicitations. Findings of this study…

  20. Geothermal gradients and geothermal oil generation in southern Iraq: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Local geothermal gradients in South Iraq were used in calculating the time-temperature indices of source rock maturation, as modified by Waples (1980). Accordingly, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and probably Paleozoic rocks are calculated to be within the thermal petroleum generative zone in several parts of southern Iraq.

  1. A preliminary study of a negative hydrogen PIG-type ion source for the compact cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; LONG Ji-Dong; DONG Pan; WANG Tao; WEI Tao; HE Xiao-Zhong; ZHANG Kai-Zhi; SHI Jin-Shui

    2012-01-01

    A Penning ion gauge (PIG)-type ion source has been used for the generation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) as the internal ion source of the compact cyclotron.The discharge characteristics of the ion source are systematically studied for hydrogen operation at different discharge currents and gas flow rates on the prototype cyclotron.The preliminary study results for the low DC voltage H- extraction measurements are presented in this paper.The H- beam current is measured by the order of magnitude from several tens to hundreds of microamperes at different parameter conditions.The discussion and analysis for the experimental results are good for improving the design and working stability of the ion source.

  2. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  3. Next Generation UAV Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring: project developments, preliminary outcome and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. E.; Townsend, P. A.; Mandl, D.; Ly, V. T.; Kingdon, C.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Corp, L. A.; Ong, L.; Nagol, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This investigation contributes for bridging the gap in Earth observation between field and airborne measurements. We will reduce the risk of operating science grade instruments from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), by developing robust methods to make well-characterized spectral measurements for integration, calibration and validation with NASAs science quality satellite and airborne data. Because of the potential for rapid deployment, spatially explicit data from UASs can be acquired irrespective of many of the cost, scheduling and logistic limitations to satellite or piloted aircraft missions. Provided that the measurements are suitably calibrated and well characterized, this opens up opportunities for calibration/validation activities not currently available. There is considerable interest in UASs from the agricultural and forestry industries but there is a need to identify a workflow that yields calibrated comparisons through space and time. The goal of our effort is to ensure that optical high spectral resolution measurements from UAV's are collected and processed in a fashion that allows ready integration with or comparison to NASA satellite and airborne data and derived products. We target the consistent retrieval of calibrated surface reflectance, as well as biological parameters including nutrient and chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic capacity. We will test our technology and protocols first using spatially-resolved discrete point measurements characterizing canopy VNIR reflectance and solar-induced fluorescence, followed by imaging spectroscopy. A Rapid Data Assimilation and delivery system will be developed, based on SensorWeb Intelligent Payload Module for high speed onboard processing. The deployment of UAS sensors at sites such as flux towers will facilitate measrurement validation and parameter retrieval, than is possible by foot, from sensors fixed to a tower, or irregular aircraft missions. We will report preliminary

  4. Preliminary design of axial flow hydrocarbon turbine/generator set for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B.; Samurin, N.A.; Shields, J.R.

    1979-05-01

    This report outlines the design of a 65 MW (e) gross turbine generator set in which a hydrocarbon gas mixture is used as the motive fluid. The turbine generator set is part of a geothermal binary cycle electric power plant proposed for the Heber site in the Imperial Valley, California. Aerodynamic design considerations and estimated unit performance for three hydrocarbon gas mixtures are presented. Real gas properties and equations of state are reviewed as they affect the turbine design and the thermodynamic cycle. The mechanical designs for the casing, rotor dynamics, shaft sealing and unit construction are detailed. Support systems such as the lube and seal supply system, turbine controls, etc., are reviewed. An extensive hydrocarbon turbine general specification is also included.

  5. Preliminary Possibility of Utilising Renewable Energy for Domestic Electricity Generation in Rural and Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of domestic/home power generation technologies utilizing sustainable/renewable energies in rural and regional Australia. Applicability will cover several aspects such as sustainability and viability. The question is why renewable/sustainable energy? Energy is the keystone of nature and society. Human civilization was spawned eventually by building machines that could use energy stored in fossil fuels. Since the Industrial Revolution the population, econom...

  6. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  7. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  8. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  9. Preliminary design study of a quiet, high flow fan (QHF) stage. [turbofans - quiet engine program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.; Kisner, L. S.; Delaney, R. A.; Beguhn, A. A.; Frye, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts selected to reduce fan generated noise in a turbofan are presented. Near-sonic flow at the fan inlet to reduce upstream propagated noise and the use of long-chord vanes to reduce downstream noise is discussed. The near-sonic condition at the rotor inlet plane was achieved by designing for high specific mass flow and by maintaining the high flow at reduced power by variable stators and variable fan exhaust nozzle. The long-chord vanes reduce response to unsteady flow. The acoustic design showed that long-chord stators would significantly reduce turbofan source noise and that other stator design parameters have no appreciable effect on noise for the spacing and chord length of the turbofan design. Four rig flow paths studied in the aerodynamic preliminary design are discussed. Noise prediction results indicate that a turbofan powered aircraft would be under federal air regulations levels without any acoustic treatment.

  10. Mobile biofeedback of heart rate variability in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschky, Katrin; Druschky, Achim

    2015-09-01

    Biofeedback of heart rate variability (HRV) was applied to patients with diabetic polyneuropathy using a new mobile device allowing regularly scheduled self-measurements without the need of visits to a special autonomic laboratory. Prolonged generation of data over an eight-week period facilitated more precise investigation of cardiac autonomic function and assessment of positive and negative trends of HRV parameters over time. Statistical regression analyses revealed significant trends in 11 of 17 patients, while no significant differences were observed when comparing autonomic screening by short-term HRV and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline and after the 8 weeks training period. Four patients showed positive trends of HRV parameters despite the expected progression of cardiac autonomic dysfunction over time. Patient compliance was above 50% in all but two patients. The results of this preliminary study indicate a good practicality of the handheld device and suggest a potential positive effect on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in reinfo

  12. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  13. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  14. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  15. Finite element modelling of the tricuspid valve: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanella, Marco; Votta, Emiliano; Lemma, Massimo; Antona, Carlo; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The incomplete efficacy of current surgical repair procedures of the tricuspid valve (TV) demands a deeper comprehension of the physiological TV biomechanics. To this purpose, computational models can provide quantitative insight into TV biomechanical response and allow analysing the role of each TV substructure. We present here a three-dimensional finite element model of the tricuspid valve that takes into account most of its peculiar features. Experimental measurements were performed on human and porcine valves to obtain a more detailed TV anatomical framework. To overcome the complete lack of information on leaflets mechanical properties, we performed a sensitivity analysis on the parameters of the adopted non-linear hyperelastic constitutive model, hypothesizing three different parameter sets for three significant collagen fibre distributions. Results showed that leaflets' motion and maximum principal stress distribution were almost insensitive to the different material parameters considered. Highest stresses (about 100kPa) were located near the annulus of the anterior and septal leaflets, while the posterior leaflet experienced lower stresses (about 55kPa); stresses at the commissures were nearly zero. Conversely, changes in constitutive parameters deeply affected leaflets' strains magnitude, but not their overall pattern. Strains computed assuming that TV leaflets tissue are reinforced by a sparse and loosely arranged network of collagen fibres fitted best experimental data, thus suggesting that this may be the actual microstructure of TV leaflets. In a long-term perspective, this preliminary study aims at providing a starting point for the development of a predictive tool to quantitatively evaluate TV diseases and surgical repair procedures.

  16. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  17. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  18. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  19. Grasslands contaminant study selenium in algae and wintering and resident waterfowl and waterbirds : preliminary summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary summary of a study of contaminants in waterbirds and in the western grasslands of Merced County. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to...

  20. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  1. Preliminary Research Results for the Generation and Diagnostics of High Power Ion Beams on FLASH II Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailiang; Qiu, Aici; Sun, Jianfeng; He, Xiaoping; Tang, Junping; Wang, Haiyang; Li, Hongyu; Li, Jingya; Ren, Shuqing; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Guoguang

    2004-12-01

    The preliminary experimental results of the generation and diagnostics of high-power ion beams of FLASH II accelerator are reported. The high-power ion beams presently are being produced in a pinched diode. The method for enhancing the ratio of ion to electron current is to increase the electron residing time by pinching the electron flow. Furthermore, electron beam pinching can be combined with electron reflexing to achieve ion beams with even higher efficiency and intensity. The anode plasma is generated by anode foil bombarded with electron and anode foil surface flashover. In recent experiments on FLASH II accelerator, ion beams have been produced with a current of 160 kA and an energy of 500 keV corresponding to an ion beam peak power of about 80 GW. The ion number and current of high power ion beams were determined by monitoring delayed radioactivity from nuclear reactions induced in a 12C target by the proton beams. The prompt γ-rays and diode bremsstrahlung x-rays were measured with a PIN semi-conductor detector and a plastic scintillator detector. The current density distribution of ion beam were measured with a biased ion collector array. The ion beams were also recorded with a CR-39 detector.

  2. Preliminary Research Results for the Generation and Diagnostics of High Power Ion Beams on FLASH II Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海亮; 邱爱慈; 孙剑锋; 何小平; 汤俊萍; 王海洋; 李洪玉; 李静雅; 任书庆; 欧阳小平; 张国光

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary experimental results of the generation and diagnostics of high power ion beams on FLASH II accelerator are reported. The high-power ion beams presently are being produced in a pinched diode. The method for enhancing the ratio of ion to electron current is to increase the electron residing time by pinching the electron flow. Furthermore, electron beam pinching can be combined with electron reflexing to achieve ion beams with even higher efficiency and intensity. The anode plasma is generated by anode foil bombarded with electronand anode foil surface flashover. In recent experiments on FLASH II accelerator, ion beams have been produced with a current of 160 kA and anen ergy of 500 keV corresponding to an ion beam peak power of about 80 GW. The ion number ard current of high power ion beams were determined by monitoring delayed radioactivity from nuclear reactions induced in a 12C target by the proton beams. The prompt γ-rays and diode bremsstrahlung X-rays were measured with a PIN semi-conductor detector and a plastic scintillator detector. The current density distribution of ion beam were measured with a biased ion collector array. The ion beams were also recorded with a CR-39 detector.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Remote Triggered Seismicity in Northern Baja California Generated by the 2011, Tohoku-Oki, Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ortega, V.; Castro, R. R.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    We analyze possible variations of seismicity in the northern Baja California due to the passage of seismic waves from the 2011, M9.0, Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake. The northwestern area of Baja California is characterized by a mountain range composed of crystalline rocks. These Peninsular Ranges of Baja California exhibits high microseismic activity and moderate size earthquakes. In the eastern region of Baja California shearing between the Pacific and the North American plates takes place and the Imperial and Cerro-Prieto faults generate most of the seismicity. The seismicity in these regions is monitored by the seismic network RESNOM operated by the Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE). This network consists of 13 three-component seismic stations. We use the seismic catalog of RESNOM to search for changes in local seismic rates occurred after the passing of surface waves generated by the Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake. When we compare one month of seismicity before and after the M9.0 earthquake, the preliminary analysis shows absence of triggered seismicity in the northern Peninsular Ranges and an increase of seismicity south of the Mexicali valley where the Imperial fault jumps southwest and the Cerro Prieto fault continues.

  4. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  6. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  7. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  8. Using the drinking water of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland for power generation - Preliminary study; Turbinage des eaux potables de la commune de St-Gingolph. 1{sup ere} partie: Source de la Tine - Palier superieur. 2{sup e} partie: Sources de la Tine et de Clarive - Palier inferieur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukhliss, H.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated report subdivided in two parts presents the preliminary study of a project aiming at installing two small-scale hydroelectric schemes on the drinking water supply network of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland. The upper-spring (La Tine) water can be used in a 44 kW hydro power scheme (elevation difference: 121 m; water volume through the turbine: 1,240,000 m{sup 3}/y). This water could be added to the one from the Clarive spring, enabling the installation a second hydro power scheme with a power of 291 kW (elevation difference: 337 m; water volume through the turbine: 2,740'000 m{sup 3}/y). The estimated cost of the produced electricity is attractive: CHF 0.16/kWh for the La Tine scheme; CHF 0.11 for the Clarive scheme. The author recommends the construction of both schemes.

  9. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  10. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    1/2 OS CO ton NO. S3L TECHNICAL REPORT 4991 PRELIMINARY SUJDfES ON PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD BREAKDOWN OF LEAD AZIDE L AVRAMI M. BUMS D. DOWNS...Introduction Background A. Contact Effects B. Pulsed Electric Field Measurements Experimental A. Contact Effects B. Pulsed Electric Fields Discussion...B. Pulsed Electric Field Measurements The application of pulsed electric fields to lead azide does not exactly simulate the conditions experienced

  11. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  12. Methodology and a preliminary data base for examining the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    An analytical model was developed to assess and examine the health effects associated with the production of electricity from uranium and coal fuels. The model is based on a systematic methodology that is both simple and easy to check, and provides details about the various components of health risk. A preliminary set of data that is needed to calculate the health risks was gathered, normalized to the model facilities, and presented in a concise manner. Additional data will become available as a result of other evaluations of both fuel cycles, and they should be included in the data base. An iterative approach involving only a few steps is recommended for validating the model. After each validation step, the model is improved in the areas where new information or increased interest justifies such upgrading. Sensitivity analysis is proposed as the best method of using the model to its full potential. Detailed quantification of the risks associated with the two fuel cycles is not presented in this report. The evaluation of risks from producing electricity by these two methods can be completed only after several steps that address difficult social and technical questions. Preliminary quantitative assessment showed that several factors not considered in detail in previous studies are potentially important. 255 refs., 21 figs., 179 tabs.

  13. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  14. Column flotation monitoring based on electrical capacitance volume tomography: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Didied; Harjanto, Sri; Nugraha, Harisma; Huda, Mahfudz Al; Taruno, Warsito Purwo

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study of column flotation monitoring process using electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) was conducted. ECVT was one of the monitoring systems which based on the capacitance measurement. It was used to understand the phenomenon that occurs inside the column in a three-dimensional (3-D) image. A linear back projection (LBP) algorithm technique was used to reconstruct the 3-D ECVT images from all measurement data obtained in this study. As a preliminary study, the effect of gas injection in the two-phase (liquid and gas) system was conducted. This study is conducted to assess the possibility of ECVT system in the monitoring of column flotation process. The experiments were conducted by using column flotation with 5 cm diameter and 150 cm height in which a sparger was installed at the bottom of column to inject air inside the column. 32-CH rectangular ECVT sensor was installed at 13 cm above the sparger and placed around the column. The gas injection variations used were 2-7 l/min with interval 1 l/min and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Based on the signal and image analysis, the signals and 3-D ECVT images showed differences when the gas injection was varied. An increase in gas injection will decrease the fluctuation of signal intensity which correlates to the 3-D ECVT images. Average signals obtained by ECVT when given gas injection variations were in the range of 440.09 to 453.62 mV from high to low gas injection. Based on these results, ECVT has a prospect as an imaging tool to monitor the column flotation process. And also, hopefully, based on the analysis of 3-D images generated by ECVT system, the metallurgical performance would be analyzed in the further researches.

  15. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  16. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  17. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  18. Preliminary study of superconducting bulk magnets for Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    Recent development shows that melt-processed YBaCuO (Y123) or Rare Earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field, leading to high field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train. We discuss a superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train in the aspect of a preliminary design of the bulk magnet and also processing for (L)REBaCuO bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties.

  19. [Generation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particle Vaccine and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Protective Efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Ruikun; Huang, Shaomei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jinliang; Zhu, Bibo; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-03-01

    The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.

  20. A preliminary metagenomic study of puer tea during pile fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Changyong; Chen, Chaoyin; Ge, Feng; Liu, Diqiu; Zhao, Shenglan; Chen, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Up to now, there has been no report on the taxonomic and functional analysis of the microbial community in fermenting puer tea by pyrosequencing. In this study, metagenomic pyrosequencing was first used in fermenting puer tea to delineate a relatively comprehensive overview of the microbial taxonomy while also preliminarily characterising the functional ontologies of microbial genes present in puer tea pile fermentation. A total of 251 738 pyrosequencing reads (9197 contigs and 145 402 singletons) were generated by pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed three dominant bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (30.08%), Proteobacteria (24.47%) and Firmicutes (20.23%), and one dominant eukaryotic phylum, Ascomycota (15.21%) [corrected]. A total of 58 664 hits were categorised into 28 functional subsystems based on the SEED database. Moreover, two categories, 'metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides' and 'biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites', were selectively analysed and 69 enzyme genes were presented in 16 pathways. The dominant microbes of puer tea fermentation were bacteria in the present study, and yeasts rather than moulds accounted for the overwhelming majority of Eukaryota. The analysis of functional genes and metabolic pathways will be helpful for further study of the mechanism of puer tea fermentation at molecular level. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Identification of feigned mental retardation using the new generation of malingering detection instruments: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Lili O; Berry, David T R; Clark, Jessica A; Sollman, Myriam J; Cardi, Michelle; Hopkins, Jaclyn; Werline, Dellynda

    2007-12-01

    A recent Supreme Court decision--Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)--prohibiting the execution of mentally retarded (MR) defendants may have raised the attractiveness of feigning this condition in the criminal justice system. Unfortunately, very few published studies have addressed the detection of feigned MR. The present report compared results from tests of intelligence, psychiatric feigning, and neurocognitive faking in a group of 26 mild MR participants (MR) and 25 demographically matched community volunteers asked to feign MR (CVM). Results showed that the CVM suppressed their IQ scores to approximate closely the level of MR participants. WAIS-III and psychiatric malingering measures were relatively ineffective at discriminating feigned from genuine MR. Although neurocognitive malingering tests were more accurate, their reduced specificity in MR participants was of potential concern. Revised cutting scores, set to maintain a Specificity rate of about .95 in MR clients, were identified, although they require cross-validation. Overall, these results suggest that new cutting scores will likely need to be validated to detect feigned MR using current malingering instruments.

  2. CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses.

  3. Explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agee, F.J.; Lehr, F.M. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Vigil, M.; Kaye, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudet, J.; Shiffler, D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Plasma jet generators have been designed and tested which used an explosive driver and shocktube with a rectangular cross section that optimize the flow velocity and electrical conductivity. The latest in a series of designs has been tested using a reactive load to diagnose the electrical properties of the MHD generator/electromagnet combination. The results of these tests indicate that the plasma jet/MHD generator design does generate a flow velocity greater than 25 km/s and produces several gigawatts of pulsed power in a very small package size. A larger, new generator design is also presented.

  4. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  5. Preliminary study on the RF tuning of CSNS DTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Li, A.-Hong; Xiao, Yong-Chuang; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Hua-Chang; Gong, Ke-Yun; Fu, Shi-Nian

    2014-02-01

    In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2 MV/m to 3.1 MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than ±2% with the standard deviation of 1% for the beam dynamics; the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After successful alignment, RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and eleven post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped field and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.

  6. Preliminary Study on the RF tuning of CSNS DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xuejun; Xiao, Yongchuang; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Huachang; Gong, Keyun; Fu, Shinan

    2013-01-01

    In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2MV/m to 3.1MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than 2 % with the standard deviation of 1 % for the beam dynamics. And the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After the successful alignment, the RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and 11 post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped filed and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.

  7. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  8. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  9. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara, Rodrigues; Tiago, Dias; Florbela, Pereira; Ilda, Santos Sanches; Susana, Gaudêncio

    2014-01-01

    .... Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2...

  10. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  11. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE IN UNIVERSITY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARISOVÁ, Klára

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot written about the benefits of communities of practice (CoP in university. The benefit of the communities of practice was described with respect to teachers’ qualification and teaching competencies influencing students implicitly as well as to areas related to the students themselves. Many studies prove the fact that the process of learning is of a social character (e.g. Lave, Wenger, 1991. That is why the communities of practice present suitable environment for collaborative learning which makes the process of generating, sharing and storing knowledge easier. The present paper defines on a theoretical level the concept of the communities of practice and moreover, provides a brief overview of the latest research in the communities of practice with regard to education. Another part of the article focuses on the pre-research of the communities of practice at Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS. Although the authors conform with the opinion that the communities of practice are a natural feature and spontaneously develop wherever there is a need for sharing implicit or tacit knowledge, the pre-research focused on the verification of this premise in order to continue in the research of a quantitative character. The existence of the communities of practice was verified on the basis of fundamental characteristics following Wenger’s model. Other characteristics, considered significant in relation to the communities of practice by McDermott were also investigated. Based on a group interview the existence of the communities of practice of the students at FEM at CULS has been verified and a conceptual model was created. The determined work prerequisites will be investigated in another phase of the research.

  12. Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 2: Conceptual and Preliminary Design, Book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline configuration and determined the weights, costs and sizes of each subsystem, are described. The development and optimization of the wind turbine generator are presented through the description of the ten intermediate configurations between the conceptual and final designs. Analyses of the system's load and dynamics are presented.

  13. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MINING UNDER STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴侃; 何国清; 曹立明

    1991-01-01

    The expert system MUST (Mining Under Structures) shown in this paper and established by the authors is a preliminary expert system to solve the policy-making problems formining under structures by means of computers instead of humanbeing. Based on the experience of relative experts,the authors established a knowledge base about the minings under structures ,researched into reasonable method to simulate thinking processes of human experts when they are solvin8 the problems, established the network of an expert system and named it'MUST system'MUST system uses the method of the structural system analysis approach. A kind of methods of Turbo Prolog and Fortran 77 language alternations is designed to meet the needs of exchange information within the MUST system. Based on this kind of methods MUST system has been constructed and realised on IBM-PC computer. For verifying the correctness. suitability and reliablity of MUST system,some practical examples of minings under structures were tentatively solved using MUST system ,whose results are satisfactory.

  14. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhang; Gen-Rong Liu; Yue-Fei Wang; Ye-Ping Li; Ya-Jun Zhang; Liang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the seg-ments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for cali-bration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophas-ing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  15. Preliminary study on mechanics-based rainfall kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiuqin Ms.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A raindrop impact power observation system was employed to observe the real-time raindrop impact power during a rainfall event and to analyze the corresponding rainfall characteristics. The experiments were conducted at different simulated rainfall intensities. As rainfall intensity increased, the observed impact power increased linearly indicating the power observation system would be satisfactory for characterizing rainfall erosivity. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity (Momentum=MV, which is related to the observed impact power value. Since there is no significant difference between momentum and impact power, observed impact power can represent momentum for different rainfall intensities. The relationship between momentum and the observed impact power provides a convenient way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy. The value of rainfall kinetic energy based on the observed impact power was higher than the classic rainfall kinetic energy. The rainfall impact power based kinetic energy and the classic rainfall kinetic energy showed linear correlation, which indicates that the raindrop impact power observation system can characterize rainfall kinetic energy. The article establishes a preliminary way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy by using the real-time observed momentum, providing a foundation for replacing the traditional methods for estimating kinetic energy of rainstorms.

  16. PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF CEFPIROME: FOURTH GENERATION CEPHALOSPORIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momin M. A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on oral kinetics ( B lood and tissues after single therapeutic dose of cefpirome (20mg/kg oral in rats of either sex and on some biochemical parameters, tissue residue, and spermatozoa motility in male rats after cefpirome administration (20mg/kg oral bid 7days were undertaken so that generated data could be extrapolated to humans. For kinetic studies, 24 Wister rats of either sex, 3 months of age, (180 – 210 gm were used (Groups I – IV; n=6. Blood samples collected from each animal of Group I - IV at 0 h to serve as predrug control. All the groups (I - IV received cefpirome 20 mg /kg once orally as a single dose. At the end of 1, 4, 12, and 24 hour post oral administration, Groups I, II, III, and IV were utilized for kinetic studies. Blood samples were collected from each animal and vital organs namely brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and heart, were studied for drug analysis and determination of weight. For biochemical parameters, tissue residue and spermatozoa motility, 12male rats were randomly divided into Groups A and B (n=6. Group B received cefpirome (20mg/kg orally bid 7 days while Group A served as control. Biochemical parameters [Blood glucose, protein, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alanine transaminase (ALT, and hemoglobin] were measured at 0 and 7 th day while sperm co unt ( T otal, live and dead and mean organ weight ( S tudy and control group and tissue residue of drug were evaluated at the end of treatment. Absorption of cefpirome was observed at 2h and reached a maximum at 4h and persisted in blood till 24h. Eliminatio n half - life in lung was highest followed by heart, liver, kidney, and spleen while t ½, k in plasma was very low suggesting more affinity of cefpirome for tissues than blood. Blood glucose, protein, AST, and ALT activities were not significantly altered but the hemoglobin level and total and live sperm count decreased significantly in the study group compared to the control group. Residual level

  17. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    A flat wall-like thermoelectric generation system is developed for applications in exhaust heat of kilns. The design of the whole experimental setup is presented. The essential performance of the thermoelectric generation system is tested, including open-circuit voltage, output power, and system....... System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  18. Utilization of Optimal Study Design for Maternal and Fetal Sheep Propofol Pharmacokinetics Study: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004

  19. Preliminary Study of BAC Library Construction in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwit WUTHISUTHIMETHAVEE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of shrimp genome information is necessary for shrimp genetic studies and large-insert DNA clones, bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs serve as valuable tools for obtaining genomic sequences. The construction of a BAC library was achieved from this preliminary study of P. monodon. High molecular weight (HMW genomic DNA was isolated from abdominal muscle and the resulting hemocytes were of high quality and sufficient quantity for a BAC library construction. This BAC library was constructed from hemocyte HMW genomic DNA fragments ranging between 100 and 300 kb ligated to a pBAC-lac vector. The average insert size of the BAC clones was calculated as 100 kb ranging from 40 - 150 kb with over 50 % of the clones containing inserts larger than 100 kb. This BAC library contained approximately 60,000 BAC clones representing a 3-fold coverage of the haploid shrimp genome size. Furthermore, the consistency of BAC clones was also proven as no apparent rearrangements were observed before and after 100 generations in serial growth. From the above result, it is essential to improve the insert size and clone numbers of the BAC library to be a powerful tool in the future.

  20. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    . The NDSN system concept presented in this report is intended to serve as a point of discussion -- a strawman, if you will. It is a feasible solution to what we perceive to be the objectives of the NDSN, but it is not a unique solution. Current technology offers a variety of choices in meeting design objectives. We have examined some but not all of these choices. Although our fundamental concept of the NDSN is based on current technology, we have anticipated developments in several fields where state-of-the-art is evolving rapidly, notably satellite communications and database management. If the installation of the NDSN is delayed 5 - 10 years, we anticipate that the methods proposed to record, communicate, and manage the data may change, but it is likely that the fundamental data requirements will be the same. Therefore, in this study we have concentrated more on the types of data that will be generated at the NDSN stations and less on specific hardware that might be used in the data system. When the NDSN is budgeted, a second, more hardware-oriented design study may be needed.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  2. A study to solve the variability of wind generation through integration of large-scale hydraulic generation; Um estudo para resolver a variabilidade da geracao eolica atraves da integracao em larga escala com geracao hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerik, Emanuel Leonardus van; Steinberger, Johann Michael; Aredes, Mauricio [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica

    2010-07-01

    The optimal deployment of wind generation with the hydro generation is being investigated as a viable option to assist in resolving the constraints coming ahead as a consequence of the tendency of recovery in the Brazilian Amazon basin for expansion of generating facilities. It is in the validity of this research that this work is focused. The value is shown of feasibility studies of using water power generation to offset the variability of wind generation when it is deployed on a large scale. Preliminary results are presented for the variability of wind generation at various cycles, the variability of the availability of hydropower. (author)

  3. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover 70 % of the Earth´s surface and harbor most of the planet´s biodiversity. However the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2]. As a consequence, the ecological role of actinomycetes and their marine ecosystems may no longer be neglected. It is crucial to move our research efforts into ocean regions for which we know little or nothing about the indigenous microbial diversity. The Portuguese Archipelago, Madeira is located in the Macaronesian Atlantic region, emerging from the African tectonic plate, found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira ridge, has a unique biogeography and biodiversity. These distinctive characteristics combined with the fact that Madeira have never been explored, as far as indigenous marine actinomycetes are concerned, makes it from the scientific point of view, the perfect target for our studies. From 662 marine sediment samples collected along Madeira Archipelago (Figure 1 during June of 2012, covering depths from 10-1310 m, a total of 421 actinomycete strains were isolated. In a previous study, an assemblage of 82 strains was selected for taxonomic identification, having into account representative morphological diversity characteristics of the actinomycetes, isolated from Madeira Archipelago. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was observed that the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Salinispora were predominant, 81% [3]. Additionally, in a recent study, our team selected 168 strains with Salinispora look-alike morphological features. From these 28 strains were identified as belonging to the seawater-obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Representing the first report of Salinispora spp. in the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean

  4. Preliminary studies of Pliocene speleothems from the Nullarbor Plain, southwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, Safana; Drysdale, Russell; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John

    2015-04-01

    The Pliocene (~2.58-5.33 Ma) is an important time interval for study of the Earth's climate system due to its potential as an analogue for future climates. However, there is a significant lack of terrestrial archives of palaeoclimate information for this period, and even fewer reliable estimates of palaeotemperature. There is also a distinct lack of data from Southern Hemisphere locations. This project is part of a larger study that aims to address these gaps by providing palaeohydrological and palaeotemperature reconstructions for the Pliocene using speleothems obtained from caves beneath the Nullarbor Plain, southern Australia. While to date, studies have largely focused on broad scale features for the entire Pliocene, this project will provide high-resolution records for specific time intervals (i.e. individual stalagmite growth periods) within this time frame. This research will provide a unique dataset of Pliocene climate that will have practical applications in informing the next generation of climate models future climate change. U-Pb dating of numerous Nullarbor speleothems shows that their growth spans from the late Miocene, through the Pliocene, and into the Pleistocene (Woodhead et al. in prep). A preliminary high-resolution study of two stalagmites (BT and M2) from Matilda Cave, both dated using the U-Pb method, will be presented. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses were undertaken on both stalagmites. Modern rainfall samples from the region will be used to isotopically fingerprint dominant sources of modern precipitation, providing a basis on which to interpret conditions at the time of speleothem deposition. The presence of fluid inclusions suitable for analysis appears to be variable both spatially within the cave, and temporally. Thus sample BT provided water contents consistently too low for accurate fluid inclusion analyses, while sample M2 provided utilisable water contents during some growth periods but not in others. While the

  5. Preliminary design studies for a 100 MW Energy Amplifier prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Amplifier (EA) is a new concept of fission system based on a subcritical assembly sustained with the neutrons generated by proton beam impact on a heavy element (spallation). This concept, proposed by the Nobel Laureate C. Rubbia (Rubbia, 1995), has remarkable capabilities in the nuclear energy field. First, it can be used to transmute radioactive wastes with a high efficiency alleviating the requirements of the geological repositories, and, second, it provides a massive energy source with the intrinsic safety derived from the use of a subcritical system and an almost null production of long-lived radioactive wastes. EA concept principles have been successfully tested by two experiments at CERN: FEAT (Andriamonge, 1995), that proved there is a net energy gain, by comparing the energy needed by the accelerator with the generated one by fission in the subcritical system. The second experiment, TARC (Abanades, 1997; Arnould, 1999) demonstrated the capability to transmute radioactive elements. The next...

  6. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKAGE IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY AGAINST TYPE B OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs is one of the causes of economic loss in the livestock industry. This economic loss would be as a direct result when animals poisoned by BoNTs or indirectly when the livestock products are contaminated by BoNTs, which end up with the products are banned by authority. Therefore a routine surveillance of BoNTs in the farm and in livestock product processing industry is urgently needed. One of the most relatively quick and accurate methods to perform a routine detection of the presence of BoNTs is enzyme-linkage immunosorbant assay (ELISA. In this article we describe the results of the development of ELISA, using polyclonal antibodies against BoNTs-B produced locally. Antibodies were generated from six Balb/c mice with standard immunological methods. Mice were immunized three times for a period of 8 weeks with a commercial type B Clostridium botulinum toxoid at a dose of 100 ng per mouse per injection. The resulting antibody was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation 50% (w/v technique and a protein A column method. The results of this preliminary study indicated that the developed ELISA method capable of detecting type B Clostridium botulinum toxin up to 1.0 ng/ml.

  8. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.......Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  9. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

  10. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  11. Preliminary study of first motion from nuclear explosions recorded on seismograms in the first zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J.H.; Mangan, G.B.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded more than 300 seismograms from more than 50 underground nuclear explosions. Most were recorded at distances of less than 1,000 km. These seismograms have been studied to obtain travel times and amplitudes which have been presented in reports on crustal structure and in a new series of nuclear shot reports. This report describes preliminary studies of first motion of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions. Visual inspection of all seismograms was made in an attempt to identify the direction of first motion, and to estimate the probability of recording detectable first motion at various distances for various charge sizes and in different geologic environments. In this study, a characteristic pattern of the first phase became apparent on seismograms where first motion was clearly recorded. When an interpreter became familiar with this pattern, he was frequently able to identify the polarity of the first arrival even though the direction of first motion could not be seen clearly on the seismogram. In addition, it was sometimes possible to recognize this pattern for secondary arrivals of larger amplitude. These qualitative visual observations suggest that it might be possible to define a simple criterion that could be used in a digital computer to identify polarity, not only of the first phase, but of secondary phases as well. A short segment of recordings near the first motion on 56 seismograms was digitized on an optical digitizer. Spectral analyses of these digitized recordings were made to determine the range of frequencies present, and studies were made with various simple digital filters to explore the nature of polarity as a function of frequency. These studies have not yet led to conclusive results, partly because of inaccuracies resulting from optical digitization. The work is continuing, using an electronic digitizer that will allow study of a much larger sample of more accurately digitized data.

  12. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  13. Application of the LEPS technique for Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF in Southern Italy: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results for a Limited area model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS, based on RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System, for eight case studies of moderate-intense precipitation over Calabria, the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula. LEPS aims to transfer the benefits of a probabilistic forecast from global to regional scales in countries where local orographic forcing is a key factor to force convection. To accomplish this task and to limit computational time in an operational implementation of LEPS, we perform a cluster analysis of ECMWF-EPS runs. Starting from the 51 members that form the ECMWF-EPS we generate five clusters. For each cluster a representative member is selected and used to provide initial and dynamic boundary conditions to RAMS, whose integrations generate LEPS. RAMS runs have 12-km horizontal resolution. To analyze the impact of enhanced horizontal resolution on quantitative precipitation forecasts, LEPS forecasts are compared to a full Brute Force (BF ensemble. This ensemble is based on RAMS, has 36 km horizontal resolution and is generated by 51 members, nested in each ECMWF-EPS member. LEPS and BF results are compared subjectively and by objective scores. Subjective analysis is based on precipitation and probability maps of case studies whereas objective analysis is made by deterministic and probabilistic scores. Scores and maps are calculated by comparing ensemble precipitation forecasts against reports from the Calabria regional raingauge network. Results show that LEPS provided better rainfall predictions than BF for all case studies selected. This strongly suggests the importance of the enhanced horizontal resolution, compared to ensemble population, for Calabria for these cases. To further explore the impact of local physiographic features on QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting, LEPS results are also compared with a 6-km horizontal resolution deterministic forecast. Due

  14. Experimental study of the turbulent field behind a perforated vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, C.; Lemenand, T.; Della Valle, D.; Al Shaer, A.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the wake vortex arising behind a perforated tab on the mixing process in heat exchangers and chemical reactors is analyzed. The preliminary step of this study, i.e., investigation of the turbulent field generated by a single perforated tab, is presented here. For this aim, laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are conducted downstream from a perforated trapezoidal vortex generator placed in a wind tunnel. It is shown that two shear layers are generated by the tab. The first shear layer is located at the upper edge of the tab, and the other is ejected from the perforation edges. These shear layers are characterized by high turbulent kinetic energy levels, which are profitable for meso-mixing enhancement. Finally, a spectral study shows that the turbulent macro-scale is nearly the same for typical locations in the shear layers shed from the tab and perforation edges.

  15. Studies of interfaces and vapors with Optical Second Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, Christopher Shane [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-01

    Optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been applied to the study of soap-like molecules adsorbed to the water-air interface. By calibrating the signal from a soluble monolayer with that of an insoluble homolog, absolute measurements of the surface density could be obtained and related to the bulk concentration and surface tension. We could then demonstrate that the soluble surfactant forms a single monolayer at the interface. Furthermore, it deviates significantly from the ideal case in that its activity coefficients are far from 1, yet those coefficients remain constant over a broad range of surface pressures. We present evidence of a first-order phase transition taking place during the adsorption of this soluble monolayer. We consider the effects of the non-ideal behavior and the phase transition on the microscopic model of adsorption, and formulate an alternative to the Langmuir picture of adsorption which is just as simple, yet it can more easily allow for non-ideal behavior. The second half of this thesis considers the problem of SHG in bulk metal vapors. The symmetry of the vapor forbids SHG, yet it has been observed. We consider several models whereby the symmetry of the vapor is broken by the presence of the laser and compare their predictions to new observations we have made using a few-picosecond laser pulse. The two-lobed output beam profile shows that it is the vapor-plus-beam combination whose symmetry is important. The dependence on vapor pressure demonstrates the coherent nature of the radiation, while the dependence on buffer gas pressure hints at a change of the symmetry in time. The time-dependence is measured directly with a preliminary pump-probe measurement. The magnitude and intensity dependence of the signal are also measured. All but one of the models are eliminated by this comparison.

  16. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  17. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  18. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  19. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  20. A Preliminary Study of the Western Zhou Building Foundations at Yuntang in Fufeng, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良高; 王巍; 丁晓雷

    2003-01-01

    From autumn 1999 through the year 2000, Zhouyuan Archaeological Team excavated a set of Western Zhou building foundations, which was well preserved and uniquely designed. It is significantly valuable for the research on the ritual system of the Western Zhou Dynasty. We here by try to make a preliminary study on its structure and function with reference of historical literature.

  1. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: a pragmatic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  2. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  3. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  4. Feasibility of pulse oximetry in the initial prehospital management of victims of drowning : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenij, Leonard J.; de Vries, Wiebe; Schwarte, Lothar; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Immediate delivery of oxygen is the most important treatment for victims of drowning at the rescue site. Monitoring oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry is potentially useful, but its use may be limited by poor peripheral perfusion due to hypothermia. This preliminary study explores the feasib

  5. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  6. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  7. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: A pragmatic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  8. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  9. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  10. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the s

  11. Early Language and Literacy Development among Young English Language Learners: Preliminary Insights from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the preliminary findings of a two-staged empirical study aimed at gaining insights into the variables salient in the early language and literacy development of young English language learners (ELL). Increasingly, young ELL, whether foreign-born or Canadian-born, arrive at school with little developed English-language…

  12. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  13. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  14. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  15. Preliminary Study on the Determination of ~(235)U and ~(239)Pu Using Delayed Neutron Counting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary study on the fast measurements of 235U and 239Pu in samples containing 235U, 239Pu and 235U-239Pu mixture using delayed neutron counting method is introduced. All samples were irradiated for 30 s using the 30 kW Miniature Neutron

  16. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  17. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-21

    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  18. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  20. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime(®) manufactured by Revlon(®) consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I' (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I' (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  1. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan Chetan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostical parameters for the all three parts of Cassia sophera L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physicochemical constants, extractive values of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents were studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.

  3. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  4. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  5. Preliminary design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for APR-1400 with power generation and desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Won Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to explore the capabilities of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for a cogeneration system for APR-1400 application. Three concepts of the S-CO{sub 2} simple recuperated co-generation cycle were designed. A supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is recently receiving significant attention as a promising power conversion system in wide range of energy applications due to its high efficiency and compact footprint. The main reason why the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has these advantages is that the compressor operates near the critical point of CO{sub 2} (30.98 .deg. C, 7.38MPa) to reduce the compression work significantly compared to the other Brayton cycles. In this study, the concept of replacing the entire steam cycle of APR-1400 with the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is evaluated. The power generation purpose S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are redesigned to generate power and provide heat to the desalination system at the same time. The performance of these newly suggested cycles are evaluated in this paper. The target was to deliver 147MW heat to the desalination process. The thermal efficiencies of the three concepts are not significantly different, but the 3{sup rd} concept is relatively simpler than other cycles because only an additional heat exchanger is required. Although the 2{sup nd} concept is relatively complicated in comparison to other concepts, the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the DHX are higher than that of the others. As shown in the results, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are not easy to outperform the steam cycle with very simple layout and general design points under APR-1400 operating condition. However, this study shows that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles can be designed as a co-generation cycle while producing the target desalination heat with a simple configuration. In addition, it was also found that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can achieve higher cycle thermal efficiency than the steam power cycle under

  6. A preliminary study of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the RAON injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I. S.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S. J.; Heo, J. I.; Jin, H. C.; Park, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have built and tested an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator of Newness (RAON) injector. Fully superconducting magnets were developed for the ECR ion source. First, an oxygen plasma was ignited, and a preliminary highly-charged oxygen beam was extracted. Next, a 100 μA beam current of oxygen 5+ was extracted when a 1 kW microwave power was injected using a 28 GHz gyrotron. Finally, an off-site test facility was proposed to test the components of the injector by using heavy-ion beams generated by the ECR ion source.

  7. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; London, J.E.; Drake, G.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for mice and rats receiving Sylgard 184 curing agent were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 curing agent was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious.

  8. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin in mice and rats were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated this material to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious in this regard.

  9. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8. The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

  10. A preliminary study on limnological stock assessment, productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    productivity and potential fish yield of Omi Dam,. Nigeria ... the world over through growing populations, intensification of .... The concentration of organic substances in water and ... The mean dissolved oxygen recorded in this study is 5.12.

  11. Features and Functions of Journals: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study is intended to describe the features and functions of journals written by EFL learners. The features described include the contents and organization of the journals. The functions examined in this study include sense of purpose and sense of audience in writing. The subjects of the study were students of the first semester who took English intensive course at the English Department of IKIP MALANG. The results of content analysis indicate that journals that the students write contain various themes. Analysis on paragraph organization indicates that paragraphs in the journals generally show adequate development. This study also shows that the student journals reflect sense of purpose and sense of audience in writing.

  12. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERVICOVAGINAL PEROXIDASES AS INDICATORS FOR OVULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANGHong-Fa; HANZi-Yan; LIANGZang-Guang; XIESu-Xiang

    1989-01-01

    There were many studies using cervicovaginal peroxidases to predict ovulation. Some resuits suggested that cervieovaginal peroxidases are reliable indicators for ovulation; but others did not. The present study was designed to determine whether the change patterns of ccrvicovaginal guaiacul peroxidase activity in fertile period of Chinese women can also be served as a basis for development of a technique to predict ovulation time in natural family planning.

  13. Identification of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures in mammary gland adipose tissue: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunish eMohanan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PAD4-mediated hypercitrullination of histone H4 arginine 3 (H4R3 has been previously found to promote the formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET in inflamed tissues and the resulting histone H4 citrulline 3 (H4Cit3 modification is thought to play a key role in extracellular trap (ET formation by promoting chromatin decondensation. In addition to neutrophils, macrophages have also recently been found to generate functional extracellular traps (METs. However, a role for PADs in ET formation in macrophages has not been previously described. Transcripts for PAD2 and PAD4 are found in mature macrophages and these cells can be induced to citrullinate proteins, thus raising the possibility that PADs may play a direct role in ET formation in macrophages via histone hypercitrullination. In breast and visceral white adipose tissue from obese patients, infiltrating macrophages are often seen to surround dead adipocytes forming characteristic crown-like structures (CLS and the presence of these lesions is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators. In light of these observations, we have initiated studies to test whether PADs are expressed in CLS macrophages and whether these macrophages might form METs. Our preliminary findings show that PAD2 (and to a lesser extent, PAD4 is expressed in both in the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and in CLS lesions. Additionally, we provide evidence that macrophage-derived extracellular histones are seen around presumptive macrophages within CLS lesions and that these histones contain the H4Cit3 modification. These initial findings support our hypothesis that obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation promotes the formation of METs within CLS lesions via PAD-mediated histone hypercitrullination. Subsequent studies are underway to further validate these findings and to investigate the role in PAD-mediated MET formation in CLS function in the mammary gland.

  14. An overview of industrial and organisational psychology research in South Africa: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline of industrial and organisational psychology by means of research is a core academic focus.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008.Motivation for study: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fields of interest of academics, which often lead to an overemphasis on specific subdisciplines at the expense of others. This research aims to critically review dominant trends in the research focus areas in the field, in the light of present challenges in the changing work context. Recommendations are also made for possible future research.Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented published and accredited South African research in the field (n = 2501.Main findings: Although there has been a proportional decline in personnel psychology research since 1990, there has been a proportional increase in both organisational psychology and employee wellness research since 1980 and 1990, respectively. Some areas of the industrial and organisational psychology field appear to be consistently under-researched.Practical implications: The insights derived from the findings can be used by academia and researchers in the field to plan future research initiatives.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insights that contribute to the body of knowledge concerned with the industrial and organisational psychology field in the South African context.

  15. Preliminary study on aerobic granular biomass formation with aerobic continuous flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Andik; Soewondo, Prayatni; Handajani, Marissa; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi

    2017-03-01

    A paradigm shift in waste processing is done to obtain additional benefits from treated wastewater. By using the appropriate processing, wastewater can be turned into a resource. The use of aerobic granular biomass (AGB) can be used for such purposes, particularly for the processing of nutrients in wastewater. During this time, the use of AGB for processing nutrients more reactors based on a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Studies on the use of SBR Reactor for AGB demonstrate satisfactory performance in both formation and use. SBR reactor with AGB also has been applied on a full scale. However, the use use of SBR reactor still posses some problems, such as the need for additional buffer tank and the change of operation mode from conventional activated sludge to SBR. This gives room for further reactor research with the use of a different type, one of which is a continuous reactor. The purpose of this study is to compare AGB formation using continuous reactor and SBR with same operation parameter. Operation parameter are Organic Loading Rate (OLR) set to 2,5 Kg COD/m3.day with acetate as substrate, aeration rate 3 L/min, and microorganism from Hospital WWTP as microbial source. SBR use two column reactor with volumes 2 m3, and continuous reactor uses continuous airlift reactor, with two compartments and working volume of 5 L. Results from preliminary research shows that although the optimum results are not yet obtained, AGB can be formed on the continuous reactor. When compared with AGB generated by SBR, then the characteristics of granular diameter showed similarities, while the sedimentation rate and Sludge Volume Index (SVI) characteristics showed lower yields.

  16. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  17. Anaerobic culture by Total Air Barrier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sarkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor study with obligate anaerobes, inoculated platescontaining suitable reduced media need handling andincubation under strict anaerobic condition. Instead ofensuring a confined oxygen free chamber for placing seededplates, same purpose may be achieved by creating total airbarrier to the surface.MethodUpper moist surface of freshly prepared anaerobic media inPetri plates were intimately covered with very thintransparent bacteriological inert sterile polyester sheets.Stock culture of Bacteroides fragilis, ATCC 23745 andClostridium sporogenes, ATCC 11437 were grown in cookedmeat broth and then sub-cultured on respective plates, afterlifting the cover sheets. Sheets were again covered andincubated at 37oC ordinary incubator. To performantimicrobial susceptibility test, similarly covered seededplates with well inoculums were inverted en-block afterstripping sides with the help of a spatula. Now antibiotic diskswere placed on upper bare surfaces. After short pre-diffusion,plates were incubated keeping inoculated surface below.Same study was performed by conventional method usingGaspak.ResultsGood growths were noted in both sets of the study;however discrete colonies appeared more flat in nature intest set. Almost identical zones of inhibition were noted inboth sets of sensitivity study. Seven days old growths incovered blood agar plates were found viable when subculturedin cooked meat broths.ConclusionIsolation, identification and susceptibility study for mostclinically important obligate anaerobes may be performedby simple barrier method after appropriatestandardization.

  18. Blastocyst cryopreservation using solid surface vitrification: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan S Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blastocyst cryopreservation program using solid surface vitrification. Setting: This study took place in a university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles over a 4-year period between 2006 and 2010 were studied. The cryopreservation policy followed was a vitrification protocol performed at the blastocyst stage, using a solid surface (nonimmersion method. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. Results: Eighty-one women underwent 86 frozen embryo transfer cycles. Of the 240 blastocysts warmed, 204 survived giving a cryosurvival rate of 85% (204/240. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer were 47%, 29%, 12%, 16%, and 23% respectively. Of the 20 live births, there were 16 singletons and 4 twins. Eleven boys and 13 girls were delivered with no major or minor abnormality detected. Conclusion(s: The blastocyst vitrification protocol using the solid surface method is effective with results comparable to fresh blastocyst transfers. While retaining the rapid cooling effect, the nonimmersion technique eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission. Larger studies with long-term follow-up data would further confirm the efficacy and safety of this method of vitrification.

  19. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  20. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  1. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin: curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 (100 parts encapsulating resin plus 10 parts curing agent) were greater than 5 g/kg in rats and mice. According to classical guidelines, the mixture would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the mixture to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation tests, also in the rabbit, showed the Sylgard 184 mixture to be a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in the guinea pig demonstrated the mixture to be a very mild sensitizer in two of six animals.

  2. Preliminary studies for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Doets, M; Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; van den Brand, Jo

    2000-01-01

    We lay down some general considerations which will serve as a starting point for design studies of a realistic LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. Based on these considerations, we propose a design strategy and identify issues to be further studied. In particular we try to outline some boundary conditions imposed by LHC and LHCb on the vacuum system. We discuss two possibilities for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. The preferred strategy uses a differentially pumped vacuum system with the silicon detectors separated from the beam line vacuum. Some estimations on static vacuum pressures and gas flows are presented.

  3. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  4. Preliminary studies of inhibitions in Aspergillus flavus with extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of lichens on the growth of lower Phycomycetes and. Neurospora ... have indicated the possible use of plant as well as lichen extracts in the control of plant diseases. The extraction, ... under light microscope (*400 objective) for the emergence of germ tube. .... artificial fungicide develop, this study has shown that extracts of ...

  5. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  6. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    the Buffalo Ornithological Society . Although these groups are not planning agencies, they represent an important trend in land use planning. The groups...Buffalo Historical Society , 1902. Wilson , Carroll L. Coal: Bridge to the Future, Report of the World Coal Study. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company... Wilson , 1980) PLANNING CONSTRAINTS Federal policy on multiobjective planning, derived from both legislative and executive authorities, establishes and

  7. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  8. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report; Foerstudie Malaa. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  9. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  10. Preliminary studies in the genus Entoloma in Tasmania - I

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Genevieve M.; Noordeloos, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes 33 new species of Entoloma from wet and dry forests in Tasmania, Australia, based on 8 years of intensive collecting, description and study of the Entoloma mycota. As such it is a precursor to a monographic treatment of the Entolomataceae of Tasmania, to be published in the next few years.

  11. Preliminary studies in the genus Entoloma in Tasmania - I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gates, Genevieve M.; Noordeloos, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes 33 new species of Entoloma from wet and dry forests in Tasmania, Australia, based on 8 years of intensive collecting, description and study of the Entoloma mycota. As such it is a precursor to a monographic treatment of the Entolomataceae of Tasmania, to be published in the next

  12. Study and Preliminary Analysis of Test of Aerosol Migration Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Lin-lin; SUN; Xue-ting; WEI; Yan-song

    2015-01-01

    TAMM(test of aerosol migration mechanism)is one of the important aspects of Studies on Migration Mechanism of the Source Term under Severe Accident,which is a significant research of the National Large Advanced PWR Research Program.The main task researches the

  13. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM JATROPHA CURCUS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are ubiquitously reported from the living tissues of healthy plant parts from every host studied so far. These microbes attributed significantly in upraising the caliber of the host to counteract against the different stresses and herbivores, and also some times to improve the host fitness. This study presenting here the endophytic mycoflora of Jatropha curcus, which remain less explored. A total of eighteen species of fungi were isolated from leaf, stem, and roots of Jatropha curcus. The root was heavily colonized by the genera like Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus spp. The leaf tissues however showed somewhat greater diversity of endophytic colonization. Drechslera, Curvularia, Bipolaris, Alternaria, and Aspergillus sp. were dominant in to the leaf tissues with strong presence of an unidentified genus. The species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was more pronounced in the leaf tissues rather than the root and stem. This study reaffirms the fact that endophytes are host and tissues specific. In this regard, the endophytic fungi received in this study, may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds similar to those of vinca alkaloid group.

  14. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-08-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube.

  15. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response of...

  16. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Renewable energy sources have gained much attention due to the recent energy crisis and ... system for the most energy capture for this case study to be a rotor speed of 5.5rad/s at a height of 10m. .... Thesis, Faculty of California Polytechnic.

  17. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  18. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  19. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  20. A Study in generative process : The art of theorizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation is an inquiry in the process of generativity. The study was inspired by the notion that generative process is vital for the continuous renewal of possibility in our personal, social and organized existence. Generativity is defined in the following two dimensions: an idea, event, or

  1. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  2. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  3. Cetaceans and fisheries in Kenya coastal waters: a preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Omondi, E.

    1995-01-01

    Of all marine resources characteristic of the Kenyan coast, marine mammals are least studied singly or in association with other resources. In this paper, available records on cetacean catches by district between 1978-1991 inclusive were used to assess the status and trend of their fishery, distribution, and interaction with sharks, clupeids and tuna landings. Spartial and temporal variations in takes were evident. The Mombasa district led in total catch (62.2 tons) while the Tana River distr...

  4. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Schlager, and S.M. Hussain. 2009. Cyrstal Structure Mediates Mode of Cell Death in TiO2. Nanotoxicity. J Nanopart Res. 11(6):1361-1374. Cao, C.J., K...Mouse Keratinocytes. J Nanopart Res. 11:15-24. Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-0EJ5-11 (FY12 Continuation) B-1 Appendix B - Figures 10 - 1 . 0 0 10 - 0 . 7 5

  5. V. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ISOZYMES OF SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  6. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  7. Preliminary Study of Mental Retardation in Rovira (Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Celis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available limitationsin performance, significant deficiencyin intelligence and adaptative behavior, causingclinical and social disability. Most patients withmental retardation in Colombia do not receiveclinical genetics evaluation. The aims of thepresent study are to evaluate and characterizea group of patients with mental retardationfrom the population of Rovira. The presentstudy included twenty five patients with mentalretardation from Rovira (Tolima whichwere studied by clinical examination, metabolicscreening (ferric chloride, nitrosonaphtol,silver nitroprusiate, dinitrophenylhydrazineand benedict and cytogenetics (G-Bandingkariotype. Pesticide detection was perfomedby random sampling of water and tomatoes intwenty different places of water distribution,the center of the town and crop fields. A familywith three affected sibs (two females, onemale with mental retardation was identified,suggesting a genetic component. Metabolicscreening was negative and karyotypes werenormal. The analyses performed for organophosphateswere positive in 100% of the samples.Carbamates were positive in 60% of thewater source and 100% of tomato samples. Allthe samples tested were negative for organochlorides.Further studies as molecular fragile-X test, will be performed.

  8. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  9. Motor Empathy in Individuals With Psychopathic Traits: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvatskaya, Yelena; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2016-10-01

    The present laboratory study examined motor empathy in male and female individuals, who were either high or low on psychopathic traits, drawn from a nonclinical university population. Past findings suggest that psychopathic individuals are impaired in affective empathy, but findings on impairments in cognitive empathy are mixed. Research on motor empathy in psychopathy is scarce. The authors hypothesized that individuals high on psychopathic traits would have deficient motor empathy (similar to affective empathy) related to valenced emotion stimuli because of the automatic nature of motor empathy. Potential participants completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). Participants were chosen for the study on the basis of their PPI-R scores. All participants viewed photographic images drawn from a well-established set of stimuli (the International Affective Picture System) and were video recorded while doing so. Intensity for eight emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sad, joy, surprise, and neutral) in participants' facial expressions was measured objectively using an automated program, the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox. Individuals high on psychopathic traits as compared with low PPI-R scorers displayed significantly less emotional congruence when viewing negative images. The study results suggest that deficits in motor empathy related to psychopathic trait levels are relatively restricted to negative emotions.

  10. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.

  11. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  12. Mukha Mo: A Preliminary Study on Filipino Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jonathan O. Taduran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the universality hypothesis on facial expression judgment by applying cross-cultural agreement tests on Filipinos. The Facial Action Coding System constructed by Ekman and Friesen (1976 was used as basis for creating stimuli photos that 101 college student observers were madeto identify. Contextualization for each emotion was also solicited from subjects to provide qualitative bases for their judgments. The results showed that for five of the six emotions studied, excepting fear, the majority of the observers judged the expressions as predicted. The judgment of happiness supplied the strongest evidence for universality, having the highest correctness rate and inter-observer agreement. There was also high agreement among observersand between Filipinos and other cultures about the most intense and second most intense emotion signaled by each stimulus for these five emotions. Difficulty with the recognition of fear, as well as its common association with the emotion of sadness, has been found. Such findings shall serve as baseline data for the study of facial expressions in the Philippines.

  13. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  14. Microbubble generation by piezotransducer for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Alkhazal, M.; Cho, M.; Xiao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bubbles induced by blast waves or shocks are speculated to be the major cause of damages in biological cells in mild traumatic brain injuries. Microbubble collapse was found to induce noticeable cell detachment from the cell substrate, changes in focal adhesion and biomechanics. To better understand the bubble mechanism, we would like to construct a system, which allows us to clearly differentiate the impact of bubbles from that of shocks. Such a generator needs to be low profile in order to place under a microscope. A piezoelectric transducer system was designed to meet the need. The system uses either a flat or a spherical focusing piezoelectric transducer to produce microbubbles in a cuvette loaded with cell-culture medium. The transducer is placed on the side of the cuvette with its axis lining horizontally. A cover slip is placed on the top of the cuvette. The impact of the waves to the cells is minimized as the cover slip is parallel to the direction of the wave. Only bubbles from the medium reach the cover slip and interact with cells. The effect of bubbles therefore can be separated that of pressure waves. The bubbles collected on a cover slip range in size from 100 μm to 10 μm in radius, but the dominant size is 20-30 μm.

  15. Study of entropy generation in a slab with non-uniform internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haj Assad Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of entropy generation in a rectangular slab with a nonuniform internal heat generation is presented. Dimensionless local and total entropy generation during steady state heat conduction through the slab are obtained. Two different boundary conditions have been considered in the analysis, the first with asymmetric convection and the second with constant slab surface temperature. Temperature distribution within the slab is obtained analytically. The study investigates the effect of some relevant dimensionless heat transfer parameters on entropy generation. The results show that there exists a minimum local entropy generation but there does not exist a minimum total entropy generation for certain combinations of the heat transfer parameters. The results of calculations are presented graphically.

  16. Histological Subgroups in Classic Kaposi Sarcoma: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Onak Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Kaposi sarcomas (KS are vascular tumors with a low malignant potential which include overlapping infectious, immunologic, and neoplastic processes. Recently, many histological subtypes have been defined. Material and Method: In the present study, 151 cutaneous classic KS lesions in 56 patients were retrospectively evaluated with regard to histological subtypes. Determination of the subtypes was based on the predominant histopathological component in the lesion. We examined changes in epidermis and dermis along with intratumoral inflammatory response characteristics in the lesions. By defining histopathological variants of the cases, differences regarding subtypes were investigated. Results: Cases that bear the ordinary characteristics of KS and those that can not be classified otherwise, comprised 82..8% of the study group. Twenty-six cases showed consistency with the subtypes outlined in the literature in terms of their histopathological properties. The most common histological subtype was the lymphangiectatic variant in 7.3% of the cases. Bullous (2.6%, lymphangioma like (2.6%, intravascular (2%, and pyogenic granuloma like (2% variants were less common. The most uncommon histological subtype was micronodular (0.6% type. Lymphangiectatic, bullous, intravascular, and pyogenic granuloma like variants were frequently observed in the nodular stage of KSs. Lympangioma like changes were seen to be present in the early KS lesions. Lymphangiectatic type was oftenly associated with bullous component, whereas pyogenic granuloma like type demonstrated superficial ulceration and intense inflammatory response. Lymphangioma like and intravascular types exhibited a characteristic appearance, while other variants were accompanied by components belonging to different subtypes. Conclusion: In KS, histopathological subtypes can develop as a result of different pathological processes. The next stage of the current study, which is one of the

  17. A preliminary study on spatial unmasking of virtual separated sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE ZhiWen; JIN Jing

    2008-01-01

    An experimental method with headphone virtual reproduction is proposed and a series of experiments to study forward masking effect when the masker and the masked signal are spatially separated in azimuth are conducted. Then, the masking thresholds are compared with those when the masker and the masked signal source are at the same place. The results show that, although both the thresholds of 0°and±30° sound images increase with the sound pressure level (SPL) of the masker, spatial unmasking may be really observed. The maximum unmasking is as large as 15 dB. This spatial unmasking effect is mainly attributed to better-ear con-tribution.

  18. A preliminary study on spatial unmasking of virtual separated sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An experimental method with headphone virtual reproduction is proposed and a series of experiments to study forward masking effect when the masker and the masked signal are spatially separated in azimuth are conducted. Then, the masking thresholds are compared with those when the masker and the masked signal source are at the same place. The results show that, although both the thresholds of 0° and ±30° sound images increase with the sound pressure level (SPL) of the masker, spatial unmasking may be really observed. The maximum unmasking is as large as 15 dB. This spatial unmasking effect is mainly attributed to better-ear contribution.

  19. ARSENIC DEGRADATION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa FOR WATER BIOREMEDIATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Pellizzari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arsenic resistance in pure cultivations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña groundwater (Chaco province, and evaluate the possibility of its use to remove arsenic from groundwater. Strains were immobilized in natural stone and cultivated in salts broth and 1 mgAs/L. The arsenic resistance and biofilm formation were observed, obtaining interaction between cells, rock and arsenic. Arsenic removal was evaluated during 3 months and its final percentage of the experiment was 60%.

  20. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response...... of bucket foundations in different drainage conditions. Particular focus is given to the rapid loading response of the foundation (simulating a 50 year wave or emergency stop of a wind turbine). Important knowledge on the pore pressure development within and around the foundation during loading is achieved....

  1. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    literature; how- S ever, Sander et al. (1975a, b) studied the effect of N-nitrosomorpholine in a series of experiments with cress plants (Lepidiwu sativum...Adenomas by Amines or Ureas Plus Nitrite and by N-Nitroso Compounds: Effect of Ascorbate, Gallic Acid, Thiocyanate, and Caffine ," j. Nat’l Cancer instit...Washington, D.C. Garber, K. (1970), "Air Pollution by Heavy-Metal-Containing Dusts. Effects on Plants ." LandAirt, Forsch, Sonderh., 25, 59-68

  2. Preliminary Clinical Study of Intra-vas Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟雄; 袁石锦; 陈振文; 谷翊群; 李世勤

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one volunteers with implanted intravas device (IVD ) in comparison with 40 volunteers undergone no-scalpel vasectomy have been recruited for 1 to 3 years clinical follow-up study, The results demonstrate that efficacy rates of contraception in both the IVD group and the vasectomy group are 100%, Sixteen out of thirty - one volunteers (51.6% ) in the IVD group were found to have glucosidase activity in their seminal plasma 1 to 3 years after the operation. Only 12 subjects in the IVD

  3. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  4. Magnitude of relationship between burnout and absenteeism: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the influence of guilt related to a negative attitude toward patients and its relation with burnout and absenteeism. The sample consisted of 717 nursing professionals. Depersonalization was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Guilt was evaluated by one item. To estimate Absenteeism, participants were asked about the number of workdays they had missed in the past year. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses make it possible to conclude that guilt explains work absenteeism, and the interaction between depersonalization and guilt (Incr. R2 = .008, p burnout and symptoms such as absenteeism.

  5. QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS OF BRIHAT DASHAMULA TAILA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard analytical parameters of a number of Ayurvedic oils have been described in API. Brihat Dashamula Taila is one of the most commonly used oil by Ayurvedic Physicians. But there no standard analytical parameters are available in any authentic texts. Therefore this study aimed to set the quality control parameters with SOP of Brihat Dashamula Taila and found values like Refractive index (1.47 at 400C, specific gravity (0.923 at 250C Acid value (1.2, Iodine value (92.6 and Saponification value (86.34 may be considered as standard.

  6. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  8. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  9. [Preliminary study on pollination biology of Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Xu, Hongjian; Ma, Hongliang; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Current study on the pollination biology of Tulipa edulis was conducted to investigate its pollination characteristics and to provide references for artificial domestication and breeding of T. edulis. Flowering dynamics, pollinators, morphology and structure of flower were observed. Different methods were adopted to evaluate the pollen vitality, and benzidine-H2O2 method was used for estimation of the stigma receptivity. Breeding system was evaluated based on out-crossing index (OCI) , pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) and the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination studies. The flower of T. edulis showed typical characteristics of Liliaceae. The pollen remained viable to some extent during all the anthesis and peaked within three days after blossoming. Stigma acceptability peaked in the first day of blossom and dwindled away in the next four days. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, three species of Halictus are the main pollination insects. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, withal cross-pollination give priority to self-pollination, and the insects play a main role on the pollination of T. edulis, further validation are needed to judge if the wind is helpful to pollination.

  10. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  11. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  12. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  13. A preliminary study of periodontitis and vascular calcification compound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGYun; DENGJing; PanKe-qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This experiment is desired to establish a compound model of chronic periodontitis and vascular calcification,so as to study the relation of periodontal and vascular calcification.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into:control group(group C),periodontitis group(group CP),vascular calcification group(group VDN),compound group (group CP+VDN).Every groups accepted the corresponding manages to establish the animal model.Eight weeks later,al the rats were sacrificed and the fol owing items were observed:inflam-matory factor in serum were tested,Hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE)staining of vascular tissue were taken to test.Results Through detection of periodontal tissue,serum and vascular tissue,an-imal models were successful.Histopathologic observation revealed:obvious inflammation of periodontal tissue was obversed in group CP and CP+VDN.The red Mineralized nodules deposition in group VDN and CP+VDN were higher than in group C and CP(P<0.05)by HE staining,and that in group CP+VDN was significantly higher than in group VDN(P<0.05);Animals in group CP+VDN showed higher level of IL-1 in serum than that in group CP,VDN and C.Conclusion This study has demonstrated that periodontitis have some promoting ef ect on vascular cal-cification.

  14. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  15. Preliminary Study of Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From March 1997 to November 1999, 45 patients with lung cancer were treated by astereotactic radiotherapy, with 15 cases treated by a stereotactic radiotherapy alone, and 30 cases by the external radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiotherapy. The clinical target volume was 1.89-187. 26 cm3 with the median being 18. 17 cm3. The doses of plan target volume (PTV) edge was 16-30 Gy/2-3 times and the doses of center was 120 % to 150 % of PTV edge doses. The overall response rate was 84.4 % (38/45), with 11 complete response (CR) and 27 partial response (PR). This study confirmed that the stereotactic radiotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for lung cancer. For those early-stage patients who can tolerate neither operation nor even conventional radiotherapy for various reasons, it can both achieve therapeutic purpose and improve quality of life.

  16. Preliminary Exploratory Study of Different Phase II Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bertarelli, A; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Doyle, E; Ferrari, A; Keller, L; Lundgren, S; Markiewicz, T; Mauri, M; Roesler, S; Sarchiapone, L; Smith, J; Vlachoudis, V

    2008-01-01

    The LHC collimation system is installed and commissioned in different phases, following the natural evolution of the LHC performance. To improve cleaning efficiency towards the end of the low beta squeeze at 7TeV, and in stable physics conditions, it is foreseen to complement the 30 highly robust Phase I secondary collimators with low impedance Phase II collimators. At this stage, their design is not yet finalized. Possible options include metallic collimators, graphite jaws with a movable metallic foil, or collimators with metallic rotating jaws. As part of the evaluation of the different designs, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is extensively used for calculating energy deposition and studying material damage and activation. This report outlines the simulation approach and defines the critical quantities involved.

  17. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  18. Polarization in Thermal Emission from Hot Jupiters: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Yung, Yuk; Spurr, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Scattering of thermal emission from a deep, hot region by high altitude atmospheric particles induces polarization in the scattered light. However, symmetries on a spherical planet with a uniform spatial distribution of scattering particles usually result in zero net polarization. If the symmetry is broken, either by rotation induced oblateness or by spatially inhomogeneous cloud or haze particle distributions, polarization may become observable. Additionally, variation of temperatures across the planetary disc could also contribute to asymmetries, giving us a new way to measure the day-night temperature contrast on hot exoplanets. We perform modeling studies using a multiple scattering, radiative transfer model for polarized light to understand how to distinguish between various symmetry breaking phenomena and map an observed polarization to a specific atmospheric state. The models can be used to predict the most suitable candidates for observation, and once observations are available, to retrieve various parameters of interest.

  19. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  20. Proton MR spectroscopy in neuroborreliosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustymowicz, A.; Tarasow, E.; Walecki, J. [Department of Radiology, Medical Academy, Bialystok (Poland); Zajkowska, J.; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical Academy, Bialystok (Poland)

    2004-01-01

    We report results of a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study in 12 patients with neuroborreliosis. We used a PRESS sequence, placing an 8 cm{sup 3} voxel in normal-appearing white matter of the frontal lobe. Peaks indicating N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), lipids (Lip) and lactate (Lac) were identified and ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Lip/Cr, Lac/Cr calculated. Significant increases in Cho/Cr and Lip/Cr were noted. No abnormality was found in mean NAA/Cr and Lac/Cr, but in four patients there was a decreased NAA peak; mI/Cr ratio was slightly increased. Although the spectroscopic profile in patients with neuroborreliosis seems to be nonspecific, MRS might be useful for assessing tissue damage of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Eduardo G. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnolgia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: egneves@usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: poliver@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  2. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  3. Preliminary study on radiocarbon AMS dating of pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫建; 周杰; 萧家仪; D.Donahue; A.J.T.Jull

    1999-01-01

    17 samples were collected from aeolian and lacustrine profiles within the environment sensitive zone of the Loess Plateau, and an experimental method was established which is suitable for pollen extraction from aeolian sediment. A comparative study of pollen dating was carried out using the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of known age samples, and then an experiment with the pollen concentrates was performed. The results indicate that pollen that has been deposited simultaneously with sediment in a stable environment can provide reliable ages. This technique will provide a way of improving the chronological framework for the Loess Plateau since the late Pleistocene. The 14C dating was combined with field investigations, and from the geological record within this zone, evidence was extracted of four major monsoon precipitation changes during the transition from the late Pleistocene to Holoeene.

  4. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  5. Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self

  6. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  8. Wind energy in electric power production, preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lento, R.; Peltola, E.

    1984-01-01

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics estimates on the available wind energy were also made. Eight hundred wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics included is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions caused extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects to birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of the plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  9. Oxidative damage in young alcohol drinkers: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Cortés-Couto, Miriam; Martínez-Rizo, Abril Bernardette; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Velázquez-Fernández, Jesús Bernardino

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage (OD) biomarkers have been used to evaluate metabolic stress undergone by alcoholic individuals. In alcoholic patients, these biomarkers are usually measured at late stages, i.e., when the alcoholic patients are showing clear signs of impaired hepatic function. OD biomarkers are sensitive indicators of impaired metabolic function, and might be useful in early stages of alcohol consumption to identify individuals who are at greater risk of damage in later stages of alcohol consumption. The aim of the present work was to evaluate some OD biomarkers in young people at early stages of alcohol consumption. The study was carried out in a group of young people (18-23 years old) who drank alcohol, Youngsters Exposed to Alcohol (YEA) with an average intake of 118 g of ethanol/week, and a control group (CG) of non-drinkers. Blood counts, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, oxidative damage to DNA, and lipid peroxidation were determined in both groups. The anthropometric and blood parameters of both groups were similar and no clinical symptoms of hepatic damage were observed. Nevertheless, ADH activity, lipid peroxidation, and percentage of damaged DNA cells were higher in the YEA group than in the control group. In contrast, GSH-Px activity was lower in the YEA group than in the control group. Alteration in OD biomarkers can be found in individuals with 4-5 years of alcohol drinking history. To our knowledge, this is the first study giving evidence of OD in individuals at early stages of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Focal neuropathies following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseh, Hamidreza; Pourreza, Farshid; Saberi, Alia; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Kalantari, Behnam Behmardi; Falahatkar, Siavash

    2013-01-01

    Einleitung: Postoperative neurologische Komplikationen bei operativem Eingriff an Becken und Niere sind ein bekanntes klinisches Problem und deren Krankheitsverläufe sind wichtig. Wir planten diese Studie, um die Prävalenz und die Risikofaktoren derartiger Komplikationen nach perkutaner Nephrolithotomie (PCNL) zu erfassen.Material und Methoden: Von Februar bis Juli 2011 wurde eine Querschnittstudie an 68 PCNL-Fällen durchgeführt. Die demographischen Daten und die Operationsberichte wurden ausgewertet und umfassende neurologische und körperliche Untersuchungen wurden vor und nach dem chirurgischen Eingriff vorgenommen. Die Daten wurden mit der Software SPSS 18 analysiert.Ergebnisse: In die Studie einbezogen wurden 30 männliche (46,2%) und 35 (53,8%) weibliche Patienten mit einem mittleren Alter von 47,9 ± 11,47 Jahren. Bei 8 Patienten (12,31%), bei 4 Männern und 4 Frauen, wurden im Bereich des interkostalen und lumbosakralen Plexus sensorische neurologische Komplikationen gefunden. Die am häufigsten betroffenen Dermatome und Nerven waren im Bereich T 12 (8 Fälle). Es gab eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen der Dauer des chirurgischen Eingriffes und dem Vorkommen von sensorischen Komplikationen (p<0,010). Der höchste Abfall der Hämoglobinkonzentration nach dem chirurgischen Eingriff trat bei Patienten mit neurologischen Komplikationen auf (p<0,001). Es gab keine Korrelation zwischen Alter, gewähltem Zugang, Diabetes mellitus, BMI, Bluthochdruck, Lagerung der Patienten und Ort des chirurgischen Eingriffs und den beobachteten sensorischen neurologischen Komplikationen.Schlussfolgerung: Verlängerte Dauer der PCNL und erhöhter Abfall der Hämoglobinkonzentration können zu einem erhöhten Risiko für einer Neuropathie führen. Größere prospektive Studien mit retroperitonealen bildgebenden Untersuchungen und mit Verlaufskontrollen bei den Patienten werden vorgeschlagen, um diese Komplikation besser zu verstehen.

  11. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  12. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  13. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  14. Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, R. K.; Mcalister, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.

  15. What is cholera?:A preliminary study on caretakers' knowledge in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Tulsiani, Suhella; Siddique, A.; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholera has afflicted the Indian sub-continent for centuries, predominantly in West Bengal and modern-day Bangladesh. This preliminary study aims to understand the current level of knowledge of cholera in female Bangladeshi caretakers, which is important in the outcome of the disease and its spread. A pilot study was conducted among 85 women in Bangladesh using qualitative questionnaires to explore the ability of female caretakers in identifying cholera and its transmission.Findin...

  16. Journal of Island Studies: preliminary ideas from 1991, and comments from 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some preliminary thoughts were penned in 1991, on the founding of an academic journal devoted to the study of the world’s islands. This collated contribution is an opportunity to look back critically at what was advised then, and what has actually come to pass through Island Studies Journal. Russell King’s prescient report from 1991 is followed by a series of candid reflections by members of ISJ’s International Editorial Board.

  17. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G. W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  18. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  19. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Abdallahi, Mohamed Ould; Ba, Hâmpaté; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Trape, Jean-François; Salem, Ali Ould Mohamed

    2009-05-05

    Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237), the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61) and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61). Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%). Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5%) were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231) of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale) are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value. The

  20. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trape Jean-François

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Methods Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Results Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237, the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61 and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61. Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%. Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5% were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231 of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis

  1. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  2. Clinoptilolite for Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Preliminary Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutovic, Milisav; Lazovic, Milica; Vukovic-Dejanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic-Markovic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana

    2017-09-01

    A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite (natural aluminosilicate mineral) has been used to increase growth in meat-producing animals, as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, and a heavy metal remover in humans. Because of its unique cation exchanging and chelating properties, we hypothesized that clinoptilolite may be beneficial for the treatment of dyslipidemia in the manner similar to bile acid sequestrants. Thus, specific aims of this pilot study were to orally administer clinoptilolite in different doses and granule size combinations to determine magnitude and time profile of changes in blood lipids. A phase I/IIa prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, dose/granule size-ranging study (treatment phase 8 weeks, follow-up 6 weeks). Blood lipids were examined every 2 weeks. Outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Forty-one subjects (all white, mean age 57.6 ± 6.8 years, 17 women) with blood lipids above the normative limits divided into three groups. A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite was administered in three dose/grind combinations: 6 g/day of fine grind (6gF), 6 g/day of coarse grind (6gC), and 9 g/day of coarse grind (9gC). Blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and triglycerides (TG). For the 3 groups combined, all lipid fractions significantly improved after 8 weeks of treatment (20-25%, p < 0.001), which reversed to baseline after 6 weeks of clinoptilolite withdrawal. Early (week 2) and the most pronounced decrease in TC and LDLc was observed in the 6gF group (19% and 23% in week 8, respectively), with no difference in HDLc and TG between the three dose/grind groups. No side effects were reported. These pilot results suggest that oral administration of clinoptilolite may improve lipid profile in individuals with dyslipidemia, which warrants further investigations.

  3. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  4. Preliminary studies on hoof characteristics in Amiata donkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Giorgetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the biometrical, physical and chemical characteristics of Amiata donkey hoof were studied. The Amiata donkey is a local endangered breed and derives from the homonym mountain in Tuscany. This donkey, which was once used as pack animal in farms and in mines, is now involved in trekking, onotherapy and milk production. The mean hoof biometrics and its standard deviation were calculated. The physical and chemical characteristics were also estimated, through ANOVA, considering the hoof region as fixed effect: wall, white line and sole for hardness, wall and sole for chemical characteristics. The small size and healthy hoof, was basically cylindrical (crown cir./Foot plantar circ. ratio=0.9 and it showed higher hardness in wall (H=126.5± 3.3, followed by sole (H=105.2±3.3, and white line (H=74.0±3.3. The wall has shown the lower moisture content (%=11.7±3.2 and the higher content in Al, Mn, Li, Ni, Pb, Se. The positive correlation between Al, Li, Pb and Hardness has shown the hoof high resistence to toxic elements. Very interesting has seemed the negative correlation between K vs Li and Pb, to indicate the tendency of K to remove potentially harmful elements.

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF RIVETED JOINTS AT FEED FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Bielawski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints in composites materials. Static tensile test method was used. In the test one type of glass fabric was used (Interglas 92140 from which two types of composite samples were prepared. In each sample the same type of fiber with the same fiber orientation – 3 layers - was used. The samples had dimensions of 100×100 mm and thickness of approximately 1 mm. The composite probes were located in a metal frame with a screw connection which was made of screws with nominal thread pitch M5. Screws were tightened with constant torque. It was to provide an axial force to the sample during the tensile test. The frame was placed between cross-bars of tensile machine INSTRON 8516. The samples were stretched at a speed of 0.05 mm/s at a distance up to 16 mm. During the tensile test displacement of the samples and pull force were registered. Depending on the fibre orientations and the value of feed force, damage models were described. On the basis of the results the possibility of usage of aluminium rivet nuts connections in composite materials was determined.

  6. A preliminary study on dead geostationary satellite removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The collision between satellites IRIDIUM 33 and COSMOS 2251 indicated that the clash of two on-orbit satellites was becoming an inevitable reality. Our calculation with the two-line orbit element by NORAD showed that some two geostationary satellites had approached very close in July 2009. Therefore, more attention should be given to avoid such collisions. This paper analyzes the orbital long-term variation of a dead satellite drifting in the geostationary orbit. Also, the negative effects posed by dead satellites upon the on-orbit operational geostationary satellites are studied. Then the paper proposes a novel idea to launch a satellite sweeper whose purpose is to collect the on-orbit dead satellites and help them de-orbit to a "graveyard". The satellite sweeper consists of a parent satellite and a child satellite. The child satellite collects a dead satellite and transfers it to a higher orbit. The parent satellite stationed in the geostationary orbit is in charge of refueling the child satellite. The strategy of maneuver and rendezvous is presented and a series of formulas are derived. The analysis results show that our method to clean the geostationary orbital zone is practical and fuel-saving. With the help of just a few satellite sweepers, we can gain a clean environment of geostationary orbit environment again.

  7. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  8. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  9. Health impacts of garage workers: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.

    1994-05-01

    This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.

  10. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de São Paulo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  11. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina

    2014-06-01

    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  12. The meanings of delusions in dementia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Ben-Israel, Joshua; Garfinkel, Doron

    2011-08-30

    One of the common symptoms of dementia is delusions. Due to a biological conceptualization of the behaviors represented as delusions, these are classified as psychotic symptoms. This is a qualitative and quantitative study aiming to describe the delusions experienced by older persons with dementia and the context of occurrence, and to elucidate their etiology. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged 65 and over, diagnosed with dementia, from nine nursing homes in Israel. Participants with delusions were found to have significantly more difficulties in performing ADLs, and poorer vision and hearing. Based on assessment using the BEHAVE-AD, six categories of delusions were examined: 1. One's house is not one's home, 2. Theft, 3. Danger, 4. Abandonment, 5. Misidentification, and 6. Other non-paranoid. Common themes appeared across delusions including reality, disorientation, re-experience of past events, loneliness and insecurity, boredom, and trigger. Current results suggest that delusions may not represent psychotic symptoms for most participants, because they sometimes represented reality, or were neither firm nor incontrovertible. Thus, utilizing the term delusion relegates the person's behavior to the domain of severe psychiatric phenomena and precludes understanding its true meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  14. NEOWISE Studies of Asteroids with Sloan Photometry: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Bauer, J; Tholen, D J; McMillan, R S; Wright, E; Spahr, T; Cutri, R M; Walker, R; Mo, W; Watkins, J; Hand, E; Maleszewski, C

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S-complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically-based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 $\\mu$m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxon...

  15. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  16. A Preliminary Study of Active Region Canopies With AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Scott; Saar, S.; Muglach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Active region canopies are areas frequently accompanying active regions which have extensive horizontal magnetic fields. The large-scale canopy fields have a significant effect on the kinds of structures which can exist beneath them, and how they evolve. Using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), we developed methods to automatically identify these regions. A Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis is consistent with the idea that the long, hotter active region loops overlie quite cool, small-scale features ("fibrils"). We suggest that the overlying loops restrict the growth of underlying structures to mostly very short, cool features. We also studied evolution of canopy regions over time. In several cases, a large quiescent filament formed out of the former canopy region over the course of a few solar rotations, confirming previous suggestions. The canopy remains visible for several rotations after its active regions have begun to decay; in this time, the fibril magnetic fields gradually align in such a way as to form a filament channel. Further analysis of our large canopy database should uncover more information on the frequency and characteristics of these canopy-to-filament evolutions, as well as other canopy properties. This work is supported by the NSF REU program at SAO (grant ATM-0851866) and contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed Martin to SAO for SDO research.

  17. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  18. Procurement challenges in the Zimbabwean public sector: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Dzuke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: State Procurement Board procedures and the public procurement process have been blamed for the lagging behind of government projects that impact on public service delivery in Zimbabwe.Objectives: This article provides insight into challenges resulting from the legal framework for public procurement in Zimbabwe that detract from service delivery.Method: Empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews with five participants at five public entities, using a semi-structured interview guide. Content analysis was used to analyse the primary data.Results: The findings revealed various challenges in the public procurement process that detract from service delivery. These include a lack of strategic recognition of the procurement function and procurement policy; a lack of professional, managerial and leadership skills; a lack of appropriated funds from Treasury; and a lack of accountability in the procurement process.Conclusion: There is a dearth of research on the public procurement process and its efficiency in Zimbabwe, and this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by identifying areas through which public procurement can be improved in Zimbabwe.

  19. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

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    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  20. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

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    Wong Man

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  1. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors.

  2. Cerebrocerebellar system and Arnold's bundle: A tractographic study: preliminary results

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    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract The cerebellum, traditionally considered a structure involved in balance and movement control, was more recently recognized as important in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. These functions appear to be related to the more recent parts of the cerebellum that belong to the cerebrocerebellar system. One of the key segments of this system is the (prefronto-[penduncule]-pontine projection that represents the Arnold's bundle. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography (DTI-TR has permitted in vivo virtual dissection of white matter tracts, including those of the cerebellar. Objective: To study the fronto-[peduncule]-pontine projection (Arnold's bundle, with DTI-TR. Methods: Ten normal subjects were included (mean age 30 years. Standard acquisitions in three planes were obtained with a 1.5T GE Signa Horizon scanner, complemented with DTI acquisitions. Post-processing and analysis was performed using an ADW 4.3 workstation running Functool 4.5.3 (GE Medical Systems. A single ROI was placed on the medial third of the cerebral peduncle base, considered the site of convergence of the fibers of Arnold's bundle, bilaterally. Results: Twenty tractograms were obtained. All were constituted by a significant number of fibers in correspondence to the frontal lobe, and part of them anterior to the coronal plane at the anterior commissure, which characterizes them as associated to the prefrontal region. Conclusions: For the first time, frontal lobe related projections were systematically revealed with DTI-TR seeded from cerebral peduncle base ROIs. They showed anatomic coherence with Arnold's bundle, which includes the prefrontopontine segment of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar path, one of the components of the cerebrocerebellar system, acknowledged as fundamental for non-motor functions such as cognition, emotion and behavior.

  3. A Preliminary Study on Dust Grains in the Stratosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伯钧; 欧阳自远; 等

    1990-01-01

    Collected by means of a high-altitude scientific balloon and a self-made automatic sample collector,a total of 276 dust grains were selected for the study of shape,grain size and optical property.Some of the grains were examined by X-ray diffraction and electrom microprobe techniques,The stratospheric dust grains can be classified as 6 types:cosmic dusts,cosmic dusts(?),microtektite,natural pollutants,artificial pollutants and the unknown substances.The different types of dust grains have different characters and distinguishing symbols.Widespread in the space of the solar system,cosmic dusts are the initial substances of the solar system and ,to some degree,have recorded a great wealth of information on the early history of the solar system.So they have become one of the important objects in the field of cosmochemistry at present time,Since the 1960's,scholars of many countries have collected cosmic dusts both in the space near the earth(using rock ets,space probes and space shuttles)and in the stratosphere (using high-altitude balloons or U-2air planes).According to the shape(the scanning electron microimage),element composition(the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum)and optical properties of dust grains,the substances in the stratosphere can be classified as 5 types:cosmic dusts,alumina spheroids,terrestrial artificial pollutants,terrestrial natural pollutants and unknown substances(CDPET,1982).

  4. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1978-07-15

    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given.

  5. Paraconsistent artificial neural networks and Alzheimer disease: A preliminary study

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    Jair Minoro Abe

    Full Text Available Abstract EEG visual analysis has proved useful in aiding AD diagnosis, being indicated in some clinical protocols. However, such analysis is subject to the inherent imprecision of equipment, patient movements, electric registers, and individual variability of physician visual analysis. Objectives: To employ the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network to ascertain how to determine the degree of certainty of probable dementia diagnosis. Methods: Ten EEG records from patients with probable Alzheimer disease and ten controls were obtained during the awake state at rest. An EEG background between 8 Hz and 12 Hz was considered the normal pattern for patients, allowing a variance of 0.5 Hz. Results: The PANN was capable of accurately recognizing waves belonging to Alpha band with favorable evidence of 0.30 and contrary evidence of 0.19, while for waves not belonging to the Alpha pattern, an average favorable evidence of 0.19 and contrary evidence of 0.32 was obtained, indicating that PANN was efficient in recognizing Alpha waves in 80% of the cases evaluated in this study. Artificial Neural Networks - ANN - are well suited to tackle problems such as prediction and pattern recognition. The aim of this work was to recognize predetermined EEG patterns by using a new class of ANN, namely the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network - PANN, which is capable of handling uncertain, inconsistent and paracomplete information. An architecture is presented to serve as an auxiliary method in diagnosing Alzheimer disease. Conclusions: We believe the results show PANN to be a promising tool to handle EEG analysis, bearing in mind two considerations: the growing interest of experts in visual analysis of EEG, and the ability of PANN to deal directly with imprecise, inconsistent, and paracomplete data, thereby providing a valuable quantitative analysis.

  6. Shock absorption in lumbar disc prosthesis: a preliminary mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeHuec, J C; Kiaer, T; Friesem, T; Mathews, H; Liu, M; Eisermann, L

    2003-08-01

    Lumbar disc prostheses have been used in treating symptomatic degenerative disc diseases. A few prostheses of the ball-socket design are currently available for clinical use, the joint mechanism being materialized either with a hard polymer core or a metal-to-metal couple. Other prostheses of "shock absorber" design were not available at the time of the study. The objective of this work was to establish whether there was a difference in the shock absorption capacity between a device having an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene center core and a device having a metal-on-metal bearing. Vibration and shock loading were applied to two lumbar total disc prostheses: PRODISC, manufactured by Spine Solutions, and MAVERICK Total Disc Replacement, manufactured by Medtronic Sofamor Danek. The shock absorption capacity of the device was evaluated by comparing the input and the output force measurements. The disc prosthesis was mounted onto a test apparatus. Each side of the device was equipped with a force sensor. The input shock load and the output resulting forces were simultaneously measured and recorded. The loading force pattern included 1). a static preload of 350 N plus an oscillating vibration of 100 N with frequency sweeping from 0 to 100 Hz and 2). a sudden shock load of 250 N applied over a 0.1-second interval. Both input and output signal data were processed and were transformed into their frequency spectrums. The vibration and shock transmissibility of the device, defined as the ratio of the output spectrum over the input spectrum, were calculated in sweeping the frequency from 0 to 100 Hz. The phase deviation was calculated to characterize the shock absorber effects. For both tested devices under vibration and shock loading, the phase angle displacement between the input and the output signals was 10 degrees. Under oscillating vibration loading, both tested devices had a transmission ratio higher than 99.8%. Over the frequency interval 1-100 Hz, the

  7. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica de Cordoba, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: aiquiroga@famaf.unc.edu [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  8. Occlusal traits in developmental dyslexia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perillo L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Letizia Perillo,1 Maria Esposito,2 Mariarosaria Contiello,1 Alessandra Lucchese,3 Annamaria Chiara Santini,2 Marco Carotenuto2 1Department of Orthodontics, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to assess the orthodontic features in children affected by developmental dyslexia (DD. Patients and methods: A total of 28 children affected by DD (22 boys, six girls; mean age: 9.78 ± 1.69 years were compared with 51 healthy children (38 boys, 13 girls; mean age 9.41 ± 1.48; range 7–10 years. Reading and writing skills were evaluated along with orthodontic features. Results: The DD and control groups were not significantly different in terms of total intelligence quotient (P = 0.441 and writing skills (P = 0.805 and P = 0.240, respectively, whereas significant differences were observed between the DD group and control group in both word reading (2.018 ± 1.714 vs 0.917 ± 0.563; P = 0.000 and non-word reading (2.537 ± 1.543 vs 0.862 ± 0.244; P = 0.000. Moreover, for many orthodontic features, there was no significant difference between the two groups; only in prevalence of diastemas (57.14%, P = 0.006, midline diastemas (46.42%, P = 0.007, overbite >4 mm (71.42%, P = 0.006 and overjet >4 mm (53.57%, P = 0.001, was there a statistically significant difference. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of diastemas (odds ratio [OR] 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–11.65, midline diastemas (OR 4.68; 95% CI 1.61–13.43, an overbite >4 mm (OR 1.75; 95% CI 0.64–4.71, or an overjet >4 mm (OR 2.76; 95% CI 1.06–7.20 seems to play a role in the relationship between occlusal abnormalities and DD in children. Conclusion: Children with DD tend to present with

  9. Pentavalent rhenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid for targeted radiotherapy: synthesis and preliminary animal and human studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Lam, A.S.K. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); O`Doherty, M.J.; Kettle, A.G.; Coakley, A.J. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the kit-based synthesis of the agent on a therapeutic scale, to assess its stability in vivo, and to obtain preliminary biodistribution and dosimetry estimates, prior to evaluation of its potential as a targeted radiotherapy agent. The organ distribution of {sup 188}Re in mice was determined 2 h after injection of 3 MBq {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA prepared from eluate from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. Three patients with cancer of the prostate and three with cancer of the bronchus, all with bone metastases, were given 370 MBq {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA and imaged at 3 h and 24 h using the 155-keV {gamma}-photon (15%). Blood and urine samples were collected to determine clearance and to analyse the speciation of {sup 188}Re. Organ residence times were estimated from the scans, and used to estimate radiation doses using MIRDOSE 3. In mice, {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA was selective for bone and kidney. In patients, it showed selectivity for bone metastases (particularly those from prostate carcinoma) and kidney, but uptake in normal bone was not significantly greater than in surrounding soft tissues. Of the normal tissues the kidneys received the highest radiation dose (0.5-1.3 mGy/MBq). The images were strongly reminiscent of {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA scans in similar patients. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood and urine showed no evidence of {sup 188}Re in any chemical form other than {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA up to 24 h. In conclusion, {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA and its {sup 186}Re analogue warrant further clinical assessment as generator/kit-derived agents for treatment of painful bone metastases. These agents should also be assessed in medullary thyroid carcinoma and other soft tissue tumours which have been shown to accumulate {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA.(orig./MG) (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs.

  10. A preliminary study of visual memory and rule detection in fencing. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELOS VERTOPOULOS, CHARILAOS TSOLAKIS & MARIETTA REMOUNDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate possible differences among a group of fencers and a group of swimmers, in the visual memory task and the spatial anticipation task. 15 national level fencers (aged between 16 to 23 years and 15 swimmers of a competitive swimming club (aged between 15 to 22 years, were studied. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test (BSAT was used as a measure of executive functioning. The second test was the Visual Patterns Test (VPT, which measured visual short-term memory. The Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS was also included as an estimate of general intelligence. There was a significant difference between fencers & swimmers in the BSAT, (F=5.261, p<0.030, while the analysis of the VPT test scores showed no significant differences among groups (F=0.325 p<=0.573. In conclusion, fencers showed no better performance on visual memory, while they were superior in rule detection, comparing to swimmers. The long training fencing program, may greatly affects the speed of constitute information process as attributes of the decision making speed in national level fencers.

  11. Situações geradoras de ansiedade e estratégias para seu controle entre enfermeiras: estudo preliminar Situaciones causantes de ansiedad y estrategias para su control entre enfermeras: estudio preliminar Anxiety generating situations among nurses and strategies to control it: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Botura Leite de Barros

    2003-10-01

    . Se evidencia la necesidad de realización de otros estudios sobre este tema, buscando la propuesta de nuevas alternativas para mejorar la calidad de vida de las enfermeras.The purposes of this study were: to identify situations that are considered sources of anxiety in nurse's daily activities and to identify the conscious strategies these nurses use in order to lower the level of anxiety. The sample was composed of 54 nurses from a larger general teaching hospital that answered a questionnaire with open and closed questions. The answers pointed situations, both quotidian and unsuspected, that generate anxiety in the following areas: direct care, management and teaching. Nurses also pointed the activities they usually do in order to cope with stress, during the crisis or in their quotidian life. Findings demonstrate that even though the nurses are exposed to stressing situations that generate anxiety, they also use adequate coping strategies. We observe that more studies are needed, in order to propose new alternatives to improve nurses' quality of life.

  12. Preliminary study of quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with malaria-HIV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayentao, Kassoum; Guirou, Etienne A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Venkatesan, Meera; Plowe, Christopher V; Parsons, Teresa L; Hendrix, Craig W; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2014-03-01

    Pregnant women bear the greatest burden of malaria-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Previous studies suggest that interaction with antiretroviral drugs may compromise antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. We conducted a preliminary clinical study to assess quinine pharmacokinetics in Malian pregnant women with acute malaria who reported taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Of seven women, six had stable concentrations of nevirapine in the plasma and one had none. Quinine concentrations were lower, and its metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine higher, in the six women with nevirapine than in the one without, and quinine concentrations were below the recommended therapeutic range in 50% of the women. This preliminary observation warrants further research to understand the impact of long-term antiretroviral therapy on the treatment of acute malaria.

  13. Identification and preliminary SAR studies of (+)-Geodin as a glucose uptake stimulator for rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Seiichi; Okusa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ikenoue, Takao; Seki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    (+)-Geodin (1) was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 with activity that stimulates glucose uptake by rat adipocytes. Unlike insulin it is active in the presence of wortmannin. Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3) which are the precursors of (+)-geodin biosynthesis were also isolated from the same fungus. Preliminary SAR studies of 1 showed some analogues had enhanced activity. Especially, the activities of racemic geodin and dibromo analogue (7a) were comparable to that of the natural product. Geodin (1), a known fungal metabolite, was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 as an active substance (Fig. 1). Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3), the precursors of 1, were also isolated from the same fungal extract. In this study, preliminary mechanistic insight and SAR are reported.

  14. Development of an X-ray installation for the study of secondary electrons: preliminary measurements and calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baguena, A.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Dpto. Fisica de los Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Baguena, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We describe the calculations and preliminary measures made for the installation of a X-ray generator tube. This device is going to be used for the secondary electron production from photonic primary radiation of up to 125 keV. With this experimental system, we will study the energetic and space distribution of produced secondary electrons by obtaining its spectrum of energies and its angular distribution. This method of measurement is going to be applied in different targets of radiological, environmental and biological interest. Calculations in the present article include: theoretical yield of X-rays production of the designed equipment, necessary shielding for the radiological safety of the installation staff, and an estimated dose due to their use. Characteristics of the installation and the equipment are described with this purpose. (author)

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  16. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  17. Towards a quantitative study of the VUV photolysis of methane: preliminary experiment on trichloromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, B.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Douin, S.; Gauyacq, D.

    2010-01-01

    Photolysis of methane in Titan's stratosphere is the starting point of gas phase carbon chemistry. Quantitative studies of methane photolytic products are of utmost importance for Titan atmosphere models. With this aim, two experimental strategies are presented in this article. Preliminary results demonstrate the possibility of using CRDS absorption coupled with pulsed photolysis on the example of a halogenated derivative of methane: Trichloromethane (CHCl_3).

  18. The use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) as an alternative biomarker detection technique: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Aamir; Knapp, Martin; Lang, Irene; Köhler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biomarkers are essential part of daily medical practice. Currently, biomarkers are being used both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. There are many approaches e.g. ELISA by which biomarker levels are detected from patient samples. However, all these approaches are laborious, time consuming and expensive. There is therefore a general need for exploring new technique which can overcome these drawbacks. Here, we present a preliminary study for detection of serum biomarkers by fluo...

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: bacheschi@henet.usp.br

    2001-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  20. Can anodised zirconium implants stimulate bone formation? Preliminary study in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Katunar, Maria Rosa; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea Valeria; Ballarre, Josefina; Baca, Matías; Vottola, Carlos; Orellano, Juan C.; Schell, Hanna; Duffo, Gustavo Sergio; Cere, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties and good biocompatibility of zirconium and some of its alloys focus these materials as good candidates for biomedical applications. The attractive in vivo performance of zirconium is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer. In this preliminary study, surface modification of pure zirconium was made by anodisation in acidic media at low potentials, enhancing the barrier protection given by the oxides and the osseointegration. Electrochemical and SEM (scan...

  1. Blood pressure changes in African American patients receiving chiropractic care in a teaching clinic: a preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMasters, Kim L; Wang, Joe; York, Jennifer; Hart, John; Neely, Cheneir; Delain, Rochelle J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if a course of chiropractic care would change blood pressure measurements in African American patients and to determine if a study was feasible...

  2. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized many of the materials and components of the wind turbine generator, are described.

  3. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  5. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  6. Preliminary study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan: case study (GeoJordan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications.The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of a Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for the geodetic applications in the country. This work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for «The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan». The model is created using gravimetric data and the GRAVSOFT program. The model is validated using GPS and precise level measurements in the Amman area. Moreover, we present a comparison using the Global Geopotential Model OSU91A and the EGM96 Model and the results showed great discrepancies. We also present the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. We found that the error margin obtained in this work of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurements is about (10 cm in the tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40 cm.

  7. Preliminary Study on Management of Agricultural Scientific Research Projects in the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan LUO; Qingqun YAO; Lizhen CHEN; Yu ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Project management of agricultural scientific research institutions is an important section of agricultural scientific research plan management. It is of great significance for sustainable development of scientific research work of scientific research institutions. According to a series of opinions and notices about scientific and technological system reform issued by the state,and combining current situations of management of scientific research projects in scientific research institutions,this paper made a preliminary study on management of agricultural scientific research projects in the new trend. Finally,on the basis of the current situations of management of agricultural scientific research projects,it came up with pertinent recommendations,including strengthening communication and cooperation and actively declaring projects,strengthening preliminary planning of projects and establishing project information database,reinforcing project process management,ensuring on-time and high quality completion of projects,and strengthening learning and improving quality of management personnel.

  8. Preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation measurements for medical and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Calabretta, L; Cirrone, G A P C; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Fiorini, F; Giacoppo, F; Mairani, A; Morone, M C; Patera, V; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Ricciardi, V; Romano, F; Sala, P; Sciubba, A

    2010-01-01

    Here we report on preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation cross sections measurements useful for medical and space applications. In particular, we looked at the hadrontherapy and space radiation research. Indeed, the measure of fragmentation cross sections is an important information to estimate how this process modifies dose distributions and biological effectiveness, both inside human body and spacecraft. In this picture we started to measure the fragmentation of 12C beam accelerated by the Superconducting Cyclotron at 32 AMeV, 62 AMeV on 12C, 207Pb and 197Au at the INFN Laboratory Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). Preliminary comparison between absolute cross-sections measured for the systems: 12C+207Pb at 32AMeV and for 12C+197Au at 62AMeV is performed.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the PreFlexMS molten salt once-through steam generator dynamics and control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Stefano; Casella, Francesco; Maioli, Tommaso; Elsido, Cristina; Franzini, Davide; Ramond, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) coupled with thermal storage have the potential to guarantee both flexible and continuous energy production, thus being competitive with conventional fossil fuel and hydro power plants, in terms of dispatchability and provision of ancillary services. Hence, the plant equipment and control design have to be focused on flexible operation on one hand, and on plant safety concerning the molten salt freezing on the other hand. The PreFlexMS European project aims to introduce a molten salt Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG) within a Rankine cycle based power unit, a technology that has greater flexibility potential if compared to steam drum boilers, currently used in CSP plants. The dynamic modelling and simulation from the early design stages is, thus, of paramount importance, to assess the plant dynamic behavior and controllability, and to predict the achievable closed-loop dynamic performance, potentially saving money and time during the detailed design, construction and commissioning phases. The present paper reports the main results of the analysis carried out during the first part of the project, regarding the system analysis and control design. In particular, two different control systems have been studied and tested with the plant dynamic model: a decentralized control strategy based on PI controllers and a Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC).

  10. Sensitive endpoints in extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study versus two generation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    during critical period of development in contrast to the parental generation. Retrospective analysis of available two-generation studies, however, indicate that the assessment included in the study of other endpoints in the male offspring such as histopathology of reproductive organs and semen quality...... receives considerable attention, as it is the only OECD test guideline whereby an organism is exposed during the whole of development, from gamete stage through sexual development. The one-generation study design from 1983, OECD TG 415, is not a standard information requirement under REACH and is often...... largely disfavoured because it does not cover the full reproductive cycle, and has not been updated with the developing science. A new study design, EOGRTS, for evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of pesticides and chemicals is currently being evaluated for adoption by OECD and may replace the two...

  11. Preliminary study of the decay heat removal strategy for the gas demonstrator allegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Gusztáv, E-mail: gusztav.mayer@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bentivoglio, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.bentivoglio@cea.fr [CEA/DEN/DM2S/STMF/LMES, F-38054, Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Improved decay heat removal strategy was adapted for the 75 MW ALLEGRO MOX core. • New nitrogen injection strategy was proposed for the DEC LOCA transients. • Preliminary CATHARE study shows that most of the investigated transients fulfill criteria. • Further improvements and optimizations are needed for nitrogen injection. - Abstract: The helium cooled Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the six reactor concepts selected in the frame of the Generation IV International Forum. Since no gas cooled fast reactor has ever been built, a medium power demonstrator reactor – named ALLEGRO – is necessary on the road towards the 2400 MWth GFR power reactor. The French Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) completed a wide range of studies during the early stage of development of ALLEGRO, and later the ALLEGRO reactor concept was developed in several European Union projects in parallel with the GFR2400. The 75 MW thermal power ALLEGRO is currently developed in the frame of the European ALLIANCE project. As a result of the collaboration between CEA and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK) new improvements were done in the safety approach of ALLEGRO. A complete Decay Heat Removal (DHR) strategy was devised, relying on the primary circuits as a first way to remove decay heat using pony-motors to drive the primary blowers, and on the secondary and tertiary circuits being able to work in forced or natural circulation. Three identical dedicated loops circulating in forced convection are used as a second way to remove decay heat, and these loops can circulate in natural convection for pressurized transients, providing a third way to remove decay heat in case of accidents when the primary circuit is still under pressure. The possibility to use nitrogen to enhance both forced and natural circulation is discussed. This DHR strategy is supported by a wide range of accident transient simulations performed using the CATHARE2 code

  12. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  13. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  14. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongsheng; Bu Xueqin; Sun Bing; Lin Guiping; Zhao Hongtao; Cai Yan; Fang Ling

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentra-tion of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT). Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  15. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  16. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  17. Impact of Text on Idea Generation: An Electroencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyun; Xiang, Wei; Chai, Chunlei; Wang, Changlu; Liu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Sketching is widely used as a creative tool, playing a significant role in industrial design. Designers commonly use sketching to generate and evaluate ideas, leading to subsequent development of the most promising ideas. The current study examined the use of text in the idea generation sketching process among novices and experts. The…

  18. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justícia JL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Luis Justícia1, Eva Baró2, Victoria Cardona3, Pedro Guardia4, Pedro Ojeda5, José Maria Olaguíbel6, José Maria Vega7, Carmen Vidal81Medical Department, Stallergenes Ibérica, Barcelona, Spain; 2Health Outcomes Research Department, 3D Health Research, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hospital Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, Spain; 5Clínica de Asma y Alergia Dres. Ojeda, Madrid, Spain; 6Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 7Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya Málaga, Spain; 8Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, SpainBackground: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT.Methods: Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed.Results: An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was

  19. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background study: Fifth year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the fifth year of the multiyear study entitled, "The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex)...

  20. [Generations of Italian nurses compared: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Gregori, Dario; Poletti, Piera

    2015-01-01

    The influence that generations have on complex nursing work environment have not been investigated yet in Italy. The majority of studies realized on this topic up to now has a small sample size and is monocentric. None Italian study has directly investigated nursing multigenerational workforce. The study aimed to investigate the existence of generational differences in Italian nurses professional within the italian context and describe their characteristics. A 33 items questionnaire devised for the purpose was administred to a sample of 317 nurses of two major Italian North-East hospital. Five dimensions were analyzed: professional space, professional role, professional culture, orientation to care, relationships among generations. Data showed statistically significant differences among nurses generations in 9 items. The dimensions with the greatest number of significant items were found to be relationship among generations (6 items), followed by orientation to care, professional space and professional role (1 item each). Results highlighted the existence of generational differences and give some information on perceptions and relationships between italian nurses generations. Being the first exploratory study on Italian nurses, it is currently impossible to compare these results with those of previous studies. Further investigation is needed to make more comparisons with international literature.

  1. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  2. Preliminary Sensitivity Study of Upper Head Nodalization for LBLOCA in APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Yoo, Seung Hun; Cho, Dae-Hyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the key-way bypass was determined to be - 0.3 %. The steady state condition which is the initial condition for LBLOCA was obtained by MARS-KS calculation. Up to now, it was assumed that the temperature of the upper dome in APR-1400 was close to that of the cold leg. However, it was found that the temperature of the upper head/dome might be a little lower than or similar to that of the hot leg through the evaluation of the detailed design data. Since the higher upper head temperature affects blowdown quenching and peak cladding temperature in the reflood phase, the nodalization for upper head should be modified. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for LBLOCA was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature was evaluated qualitatively. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for upper head in APR-1400 was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature on LBLOCA PCT was evaluated qualitatively. Through the transient calculation, it was confirmed that the upper head temperature affects the water inventory in the upper head at the early stage of LBLOCA so it does the blowdown quenching and following reflood PCT significantly. The results in this study were caused by very conservative upper head temperature determination.

  3. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  4. A preliminary model to avoid the overestimation of sample size in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E; Abraira, V; Guerra, P; Borobia, A M; Duque, B; López, J L; Mosquera, B; Lubomirov, R; Carcas, A J; Frías, J

    2013-02-01

    Often the only available data in literature for sample size estimations in bioequivalence studies is intersubject variability, which tends to result in overestimation of sample size. In this paper, we proposed a preliminary model of intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for Cmax and AUC data from randomized, crossovers, bioequivalence (BE) studies. From 93 Cmax and 121 AUC data from test-reference comparisons that fulfilled BE criteria, we calculated intersubject variability for the reference formulation and intrasubject variability from ANOVA. Lineal and exponential models (y=a(1-e-bx)) were fitted weighted by the inverse of the variance, to predict the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability. To validate the model we calculated the coefficient of cross-validation of data from 30 new BE studies. The models fit very well (R2=0.997 and 0.990 for Cmax and AUC respectively) and the cross-validation correlation were 0.847 for Cmax and 0.572 for AUC. A preliminary model analyses allow us to estimate the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for sample size calculation purposes in BE studies. This approximation provides an opportunity for sample size reduction avoiding unnecessary exposure of healthy volunteers. Further modelling studies are desirable to confirm these results especially suggestions of the higher intersubject variability range.

  5. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  6. Thermal hydraulic studies in steam generator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, V.; Suresh Kumar, V.A.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Engineering Development Group Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 500 MWe fast breeder reactor is being constructed at Kalpakkam, India. This is a sodium cooled reactor with two primary and two secondary sodium loops with total 8 steam generators. The typical advantage of fast breeder plants is the high operating temperature of steam cycles and the high plant efficiency. To produce this high pressure and high temperature steam, once through straight tube vertical sodium heated steam generators are used. The steam is generated from the heat produced in the reactor core and being transported through primary and secondary sodium circuits. The steam generator is a 25 m high middle supported steam generator with expansion bend and 23 m heat transfer length. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam aims at performing various tests on a 5.5 MWt steam generator. This vertically simulated test article is similar in all respects to the proposed 157 MWt steam generator module for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), with reduced number of tubes. Heat transfer performance tests are done with this 19 tube steam generator at various load conditions. Sodium circuit for the SGTF is equipped with oil fired heater as heat source and centrifugal sodium pump, to pump sodium at 105 m{sup 3}/hr flow rate. Other typical components like sodium to air heat exchanger, sodium purification system and hydrogen leak detection system is also present in the sodium circuit. High pressure steam produced in the steam generator is dumped in a condenser and recycled. Important tests planned in SGTF are the heat transfer performance test, stability test, endurance test and performance test of steam generator under various transients. The controlled operation of steam generator will be studied with possible control schemes. A steady state simulation of the steam generator is done with a mathematical model. This paper gives the details of heat transfer

  7. Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.; Haven, K.

    1979-12-01

    This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  8. A Preliminary Study on 1D Numerical Experiment of Water Debris Flow in Gully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve and enhance the numerical modeling methods and its application on debris flow problems,a preliminary study has been proposed in accordance with the corrected water-sediment numerical model on the premise of revised resistance and sediment capacity equations.Firstly,an overview the recent re- search achievements on numerical simulation of debris flow has been conducted,the results shown that a gener- al numerical model for debris flow can not be existed at all because the complex rheol...

  9. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  10. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants.

  11. Preliminary study on the energy coefficients of buildings; Vorstudie zur Erhebung von Energiekennzahlen von Wohnbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Bade, S. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Baumgartner, A.; Bleisch, M. [Amstein und Walthert, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study concerning the definition of a method for the cost-effective and reliable collection of data and the calculation of energy coefficients for residential buildings in Switzerland. On the basis of data already collected, typical coefficients for various types of building are proposed. Also, reasons for considerable differences between the data of various Swiss Cantons are investigated. Requirements and criteria for the judgement of the energy coefficients are discussed and the methods used by various Swiss cities and Cantons are reviewed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  12. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  13. Preliminary studies of the constructive technical viability of a refrigeration using eolica energy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge de Jesus Passinho e Silva

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho procuramos analisar o funcionamento de um compressor de freqüência variável que utilizasse a energia eólica, em São Luis do Maranhão, para manter um sistema de refrigeração funcionando. Para isto foi necessário conhecer os valores locais das velocidades de vento e escolhemos o cata vento tipo Savonius para atingirmos nosso objetivo Abstract: Preliminary studies of the constructive e technical viability, of a system of refrigeration using Eolica Energy, in order to ke...

  14. A preliminary and qualitative metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of fish from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Paula M; Santos, Felipe A; Padilha, Cilene C F; Vieira, José C S; Zara, Luiz F; de M Padilha, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish species from Amazonas, Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent evaluation of mercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra revealed mercury in two protein spots. The mercury-containing protein spots showed molecular weights of 20.8 ± 0.7 and 19.8 ± 0.5 kDa and isoelectric points of 5.6 ± 0.2 and 7.5 ± 0.3, respectively.

  15. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the age...... in subjects having concave facial profile when compared to convex (P = 0.045) and straight (P = 0.039) facial profile. BMI and arch form showed no significant relationship with MMBF. CONCLUSION: The MMBF is found to be affected by gender and some of the anthropometric features like facial form and palatal...

  16. SPANISH MULTICENTRIC STUDY ABOUT NUTRITION-INFLAMATIONhn WITH MID DILUTION (ENIMID STUDY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barril G

    2012-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: 1-The preliminary results show that MidDilution provides a good removal of small and middle molecules, increases appetite by providing a proper balance of cytokines through stimulation of antiinflamatory ones and neuropeptide Y. 2-It provides an improvement of body composition. Finally MidDilution improves nutritional parameters which leads to a better quality of life, as well as physical and mental status.

  17. Compulsive sexual behavior inventory: a preliminary study of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E; Miner, M; Ohlerking, F; Raymond, N

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study was designed to develop empirically a scale of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to test its reliability and validity in a sample of individuals with nonparaphilic CSB (N = 15), in a sample of pedophiles (N = 35) in treatment for sexual offending, and in a sample of normal controls (N = 42). Following a factor analysis and a varimax rotation, those items with factor loadings on the rotated factors of greater than .60 were retained. Three factors were identified, which appeared to measure control, abuse, and violence. Cronbach's alphas indicated that the subscales have good reliability. The 28-item scale was then tested for validity by a linear discriminant function analysis. The scale successfully discriminated the nonparaphilic CSB sample and the pedophiles from controls. Further analysis indicated that this scale is a valid measure of CSB in that there were significant differences between the three groups on the control subscale. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than the other two groups on the abuse subscale, with the other two groups not scoring significantly differently from one another. This indicated that pedophiles were more abusive than the nonparaphilic CSB individuals or the controls. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than controls on the violence subscale. Nonparaphilic individuals with compulsive sexual behavior scored slightly lower on the violence subscale, although not significantly different. As a preliminary study, there are several limitations to this study, which should be addressed, in further studies with larger sample sizes.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical, UV-VIS, HPLC and Anti-bacterial Studies on Gracilaria corticata J. Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnaveni Eahamban; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and UV-VIS, HPTC profiling and the antibacterial activity of Gracilaria corticata J. Ag extracts against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out by Harborne method. The G. corticata extracts were tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The results of the presence study showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic groups, saponins, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and sugars. Proteins, xantoproteins, coumarins and catechin did not show any positive result for their presence in any of the six extracts of Gracilaria corticata tested. The result of the present study revealed the various behavior character of Gracilaria corticata crude drug. The UV-VIS spectrum profile of Gracilaria corticata methanolic, petroleum ether, benzene and aqueous extracts profiles were recorded. The HPLC profile of Gracilaria corticata petroleum ether benzene and aqueous extracts were tabulated. The maximum (9/12 bacterial pathogens) degree of antibacterial activity was observed in isopropanol soxhlet extracts followed by isopropanol cold extracts (7/12 bacterial pathogens). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that G. corticata may be rich sources of phytoconstituents which can be isolated and further screened for different kinds of biological activities, depending on their reported therapeutic uses.

  19. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  20. Preliminary studies of a new accelerator-driven minor actinide burner in industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, No. 54, Beijing 100082 (China); Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new accelerator-driven minor actinide (MA) burner was proposed. • Comprehensive design of spallation target, fuel assembly and subcritical core was performed. • Preliminary safety analyses indicate the inherent safety of the core in the reactivity insertion (500 pcm) and beam overpower (50% increase) transients. - Abstract: Pursuing high transmutation rate of minor actinide (MA), a preliminary conceptual design of a lead-bismuth (LBE) cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) is proposed in this study. Parametric studies are performed to optimize the neutronics and thermal–hydraulics performances. The proton energy and axial position of the proton beam impact is investigated to obtain high neutron source efficiency and spallation neutron yield. The influences of MA/Pu mixing ratio and the ratio of pin pitch to diameter (P/D) are also optimized to control the burnup reactivity swing and the minimum coolant velocity for adequate cooling. To reduce the power peak, three kinds of power flattening techniques are adopted and compared. The results show that the inert matrix ratio zone loading method seems more versatile. Based on the analyses, an optimized three zone loading pattern is proposed for the 800 MWth subcritical core. The total transmutation rate of MA is 328.8 kg per effective full power year. Preliminary safety analyses based on the balance of power method (BOP) are performed and the results show that in the reactivity insertion and beam overpower transients, the core shows inherent safety, but the scram is necessary by cutting off the beam current to protect the core from possible damages caused by the loss of flow.

  1. Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....

  2. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  4. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on a spike-moss Selaginella inaequalifolia (hook. & grev.) Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varaprasadham Irudayaraj; Janaky M; Marimuthu Johnson; Nallayan Selvan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-cancer spike-mosses for the presence of various bioactivities and to identify the important bioactive chemicals present in Selaginella inaequalifolia (S.inaequalifolia ) (Hook. & Grev.) Spring. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by following the method of Brindha et al. Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: Results of preliminary phytochemical screening on five different extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water) of the spike-mossS. inaequalifolia show the presence steroids, triterpenes, phenolic group, tannin, sugars and catechin. Alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinone and reducing sugar did not show any positive result. Among the five different extracts, ethanol and chloroform extracts show the presence of maximum number (4 each) of compounds. The results on antimicrobial studies show that all the three microbes [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) ] tested are resistant to the ethanol extract and susceptible to petroleum ether extract. The petroleum ether extract shows maximum inhibition with 45 mm of inhibition zone in C. albicans. The inhibition zone in S. aureus and E. coli are 26 mm and 22 mm respectively. Conclusions: The present study shows S. inaequalifolia having potent antibacterial and anticandidal activities.

  7. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  8. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Physical and Dosimetric Optimization of Laser Equipment in Dermatology: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soriani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the correlation between clinical set-up at present used in the treatment of specific skin conditions and laser beam absorbed power in the tissue. This study focused on the CO2 and Nd-Yag laser equipment used in the daily clinical practice in the Department of Dermatology of San Gallicano Institute in Rome. Different types of tissue-equivalent material with various water and haemoglobin concentrations were tested to evaluate laser beam attenuation power. In particular, thinly sliced pork loin, of uniform consistency and without fat, was selected for its high content of haemoglobin to mimic human tissues. An optical power meter was used to measure the power or energy of a laser beam. During measurements, the tissue equivalent phantoms were positioned on the detector head and the laser beam was orthogonally oriented. The results of two experimental set-ups are reported here. The dependence of residual power (W as a function of ex vivo tissue thickness (mm for different laser output powers was studied. Data were fitted by a parametric logistic equation. These preliminary data allow for more accurately determining the energy fraction released from lasers to the tissues in order to improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  11. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  12. Hemolysis generation from a novel, linear positive displacement blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass on a six kilogram piglet: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D Scott; Eilers, Derek; Osorio Lujan, Suzanne; Bortot, Maria; Jaggers, James

    2017-05-01

    Current blood pumps used for cardiopulmonary bypass generally fall into two different pump design categories; non-occlusive centrifugal pumps and occlusive, positive-displacement roller pumps. The amount of foreign surface area of extracorporeal circuits correlates with post-operative morbidity due to systemic inflammation, leading to a push for technology that reduces the amount of foreign surfaces. Current roller pumps are bulky and the tubing forms an arc in the pumping chamber (raceway), positioning the inlet 360 degrees from the outlet, making it very difficult to place the pump closer to the patient and to efficiently reduce tubing length. These challenges put existing roller pumps at a disadvantage for use in a compact cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Centrifugal blood pumps are easier to incorporate into miniature circuit designs. However, the prime volumes of current centrifugal pump designs are large, especially for pediatric extracorporeal circuits where the prime volumes are too great to be of clinical value. We describe a preliminary report on a novel, occlusive, linear, single-helix, positive-displacement blood pump which allows for decreased prime volume and surface area of the extracorporeal circuit. This new experimental pump design was used to perfuse a 6 kilogram piglet with a pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit for two hours of continuous use. Blood samples were obtained every thirty minutes and assayed for plasma free hemolysis generation. The results from this initial experiment showed low plasma free hemoglobin generation and encourages the authors to further develop this concept.

  13. Population study of fears in two generations of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Filiptsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fear is an ancient natural reaction of a human being to a threat and it is also an adaptive feature. Obsessive fear can transfer into phobias, which lead to a clinical problem. In spite of many studies done on fear, many questions are yet not clarified. In the former Soviet Union, research on human behaviour traits was mostly tabooed. The current research will fill some gaps on the ′behavioural map′ of Ukraine in relationship to fear distributions in two successive generations of residents of Ukraine. Subjects and Methods: Eight hundred and sixty-seven residents of Ukraine, predominantly residents of Kharkov and Kharkov region participated in the study. All participants were distributed into groups of younger and older generations. Twenty-four emotional states of fear have been studied by Ivleva-Shcherbatyh questionnaire, developed and validated in Slavs samples. Results: The population analysis of 24 types of fear has shown that sex differences were found mostly among members of the younger generation. The average value of sex differences from the amplitude trait of variation made up approximately 20%. More significant differences between members of different generations have been found in females. The age dynamics of fears within each generation has been detected. Conclusions: The population analysis of fears in Ukraine has demonstrated that the strongest fears independently of the generation were related to diseases of relatives and to problems in the case of diseases of relatives.

  14. Preliminary observations of voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska began erupting on March 15, 2009, and by April 4, 2009, had produced at least 20 explosive events that generated plumes of ash and lahars. The 3,108-m high, snow- and -ice-clad stratovolcano has an ice-filled summit crater that is breached to the north. The volcano supports about 4 km3 of ice and snow and about 1 km3 of this makes up the Drift glacier on the northern side of the volcano. Explosive eruptions between March 22 and April 4, which included the destruction of at least two lava domes, triggered significant lahars in the Drift River valley on March 23 and April 4 and several smaller lahars between March 24 and March 31. High-flow marks, character of deposits, areas of inundation, and estimates of flow velocity revealed that the lahars on March 23 and April 4 were the largest of the eruption. In the 2-km-wide upper Drift River valley, average flow depths were about 3–5 m. Average peak-flow velocities were likely between 10 and 15 ms-1, and peak discharges were on the order of 104–105 m3s-1. The area inundated by lahars on March 23 was at least 100 km2 and on April 4 about 125 km2. The lahars emplaced on March 23 and April 4 had volumes on the order of 107–108 m3 and were similar in size to the largest lahar of the 1989–90 eruption. The March 23 lahars were primarily flowing slurries of snow and ice entrained from the Drift glacier and seasonal snow and tabular blocks of river ice from the Drift River valley. Only a single, undifferentiated deposit up to 5 m thick was found and contained about 80–95 percent of poorly sorted, massive to imbricate assemblages of snow and ice. The deposit was frozen soon after it was emplaced and later eroded and buried by the April 4 lahar. The lahar of April 4, in contrast, was primarily a hyperconcentrated flow, as interpreted from 1- to 6-m thick deposits of massive to horizontally stratified sand-to-fine-gravel. Rock material in the April 4 lahar deposit is predominantly

  15. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  16. A preliminary study for spatial representiveness of flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The results of eddy covariance observation system could represent the physical process at certain area of the surface. Thus point-to-area representativeness was of primary interest in flux observation. This research presents a preliminary study for flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites by the use of observation data and Flux Source Area Model (FSAM). Results show that the footprint expands and is further away from flux tower when atmosphere becomes more stable, the observation height increases, or the surfaces become smoother. This suggests that the area represented by the flux observation becomes larger. The distances from the reference point to the maximum point Smax and the minimum point x1 of source weight function (Dmax and Dmin, respectively) can be influenced by atmosphere stability which becomes longer when atmosphere is more stable. For more rough surfaces and lower observation point Dmax and Dmin become shorter. This research gives the footprint at level P=90% at ChinaFLUX sites at different atmosphere stability. The preliminary results of spatial representiveness at ChinaFLUX sites were given based on the dominant wind direction and footprint response to various factors. The study also provides some theoretical basis for data quality control and evaluating data uncertainty.

  17. [The use of MLVA for Corynebacterium diphtheriae genotyping--preliminary studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Jagielski, Marek; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of strain NCTC 13129 C. diphtheriae were investigated in order to identify tandem repeats (VNTR). From 75 VNTR loci identified in the genome 14 were selected. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized for amplification of the selected VNTR markers. Preliminary studies of usefulness of selected VNTR markers were conducted using a group of 28 C. diphtheriae strains. From 14 markers 8 were regarded as potentially useful. The diversity of individual markers ranged from 1 to 6 alleles (Simpson index from 0 to 0,746). No diversity were observed for 3 VNTR markers but it could be a results of too small group of strains analyzed in the tests. Simpson diversity index calculated for all the markers tested on 28 strains was 0,87. Results of the preliminary studies showed usefulness of MLVA for C. diphtheriae genotyping. Nevertheless, confirmation of reliability of the method should be done using a large group of strains. Moreover, the method should be compared with other genotyping methods.

  18. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  19. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  20. Study of thermoelectric systems applied to electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.; Vian, J.G.; Astrain, D.; Martinez, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de Materiales, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    A computational model has been developed in order to simulate the thermal and electric behavior of thermoelectric generators. This model solves the nonlinear system of equations of the thermoelectric and heat transfer equations. The inputs of the program are the thermoelectric parameters as a function of temperature and the boundary conditions, (room temperature and residual heat flux). The outputs are the temperature values of all the elements forming the thermoelectric generator, (performance, electric power, voltage and electric current generated). The model solves the equation system using the finite difference method and semi-empirical expressions for the convection coefficients. A thermoelectric electric power generation test bench has been built in order to validate and determine the accuracy of the computational model, which maximum error is lower than 5%. The objective of this study is to create a design tool that allows us to solve the system of equations involved in the electric generation process without needing to impose boundary conditions that are not known in the design phase, such as the temperature of the Peltier modules. With the computational model, we study the influence of the heat flux supplied as well as the room temperature on the electric power generated. (author)

  1. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  2. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  3. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom(®) (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(®) (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom(®) implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  4. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pailhé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1 [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2. The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001. In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  5. A Preliminary Study on the Radiation dose Distribution in the Pyroprocess Hot Cell Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Giyoon; Lee, Eunjoong; Lee, Jeong Tae; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seongkyu; Park, Sehwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Pyroprocessing is the promising technology for treatment of spent fuels. Because it is based on the collective recovery of TRU, it has an advantage in proliferation resistance compared to conventional aqueous processes. Development of pyroprocessing has positive effects to the public through reduction of the high-level radioactive waste and the effective use of energy resources. In Korea, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has researched pyroprocessing since 1997. The engineering scale integrated inactive pyroprocess facility (PRIDE) was constructed and test operation has been performed. A study on the preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for a larger-scale model facility is in progress. The safeguards are essential in the pyroprocessing facility for proliferation resistance. To establish the reliable safeguards, the preliminary studies on radiation resistance requirements, assessment of the safeguards system applicability, and shielding of the safeguards equipment are required. Therefore, first of all, the radiation flux and dose distribution in hot cell environment have to be studied. The previous studies focused on the neutron flux at the pyroprocessing however they are limited to the individual unit process. In this study, the flux and dose distribution of neutron and gamma-ray in the hot cell environment of the pilot pyroprocessing facility are investigated. Based on the simplified material flow of pyroprocess, the material distribution model is established. In this study, the radiation flux and dose distribution in the hot cell environment of the pilot-scale pyroprocessing facility model is investigated preliminarily by the MCNP6 simulation. Based on the established material flow model, the material composition at each stage is calculated and used for the simulation. The simple hot cell structure and process batch size were assumed based on the previous studies.

  6. Preliminary Results on Growing Second Generation Biofuel Crop Miscanthus X Giganteus at The Polluted Military Site in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidlisnyuk Valentina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi-field research on using second-generation biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus for restoration of former military site in Kamenetz-Podilsky, Ukraine was carried out during two vegetation seasons. Despite high metal pollution of soil, in particular, by Fe, Mn, Ti, and Zr, no growth inhibition was observed. The concentrations followed pattern soil > roots > stems > leaves. Accumulation of particular metals in roots was different: Fe, Mn and Ti were accumulated rather palpably after the first vegetation season and less tangible after the second one. Cu, Pb and Zn were less accumulative in both vegetation seasons, and for As and Pb the accumulative concentrations were very small. Accumulations in the aboveground parts of the plant in comparison to roots were significantly lower in case of Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr and even statistically comparable to zero in case of As, Pb and Zr. Calculated translocation ratio of metals in the plant’s parts preferably indicated lack of metals’ hyper accumulation. Generally, no correlations were observed between concentrations of metals in the soil and in the upper plant’s parts. The research confirmed the ability of Miscanthus x giganteus to grow on the military soils predominantly contaminated by metals.

  7. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  8. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds.

  9. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  10. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-02-15

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk.

  11. Test plan for preliminary study of inorganic contaminant removal from RMA groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.; Terkonda, P.; Weeks, N.

    1978-02-01

    This document consists of a major report on inorganic contaminant removal from ground water. In this plan, WES has been requested by the OPM-CDIR to conduct a literature review and preliminary laboratory treatability studies on various source waters at RMA. Recommendation is that the determination of suitable treatment processes be based on both engineering and economic analysis and that the processes be compatible with the organic contaminant treatment processes under study (activated carbon adsorption and ultraviolet/ozone oxidation). The amendment to the test plan presents the inorganic treatment processes found from the literature to be applicable to the inorganic contaminants in RMA ground water and outlines the bench scale study to be conducted at WES using the potential processes. The rest of the document is correspondence and reports on various water treatability.

  12. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, David G

    2013-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included.

  13. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  14. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Scannapieco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  15. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  16. Preliminary study to improve the performance of SCWR-M during loss-of-flow accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.J., E-mail: xiaojingliu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Chai, X.; Xiong, J.B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Validation of the ATHLET-SC code to the safety analysis for SCWR. • Loss of flow accident analysis for SCWR-M is performed. • The passive design parameter is optimized. • The optimized SCWR-M design shows a better safety performance. - Abstract: The SCWR-M is one of the conceptual core designs with mixed neutron spectrum (fast and thermal), which is developed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Some preliminary calculations of this new conceptual SCWR indicate the SCWR-M system gets better safety characteristics compared to other single spectrum supercritical water cooled reactors. Loss of flow accident (LOFA) is of particular importance among the abnormal events and accidents for SCWR-M. In order to perform the preliminary study to improve the current SCWR-M safety design, this paper presents the validation results of the ATHLET-SC code and optimization work for safety system design parameters of the ICS, ACC, GDCS based on LOFA analysis. The better performance of the optimized design parameters are demonstrated by comparison with the previous design.

  17. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  18. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI. We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients.

  19. Marine magnetic studies in the northern Bay of Bengal, preliminary results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, D.G.; Mittal, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.

    The bathymetric and total magnetic intensity data collected along six E-W tracks were analysed and presented as stacked anomaly profiles. A first order basement configuration model was generated across the Bay of Bengal. The model studies indicate...

  20. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  1. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  2. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  3. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  4. Using Financial Ratios to Select Companies for Tax Auditing: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghescu, Dorina; Kallio, Minna; Back, Barbro

    Tax auditing procedures include an investigation of the accounting records of a company and of other sources of information in order to assess whether the taxation has been based on correct and complete information. When there are found discrepancies between the accounting information and the real situation, the taxation should be corrected so that the eventual tax defaults are assessed and debited. The paper analyzes to what extent the financial performance of a company can be used as an indicator of tax defaults. We focus on one type of tax, namely employer's contribution, and four financial ratios. We evaluate the model in a study of Finnish companies by using a binomial logistic regression analysis. The study is exploratory and at a preliminary stage.

  5. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  6. A possible approach to 14MeV neutron moderation: A preliminary study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, D; Pilotti, R; Pietropaolo, A

    2017-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) interactions produce almost monochromatic neutrons with about 14MeV energy. These neutrons are used in benchmark experiments as well as for neutron cross sections assessment in fusion reactors technology. The possibility to moderate 14MeV neutrons for purposes beyond fusion is worth to be studied in relation to projects of intense D-T sources. In this preliminary study, carried out using the MCNP Monte Carlo code, the moderation of 14MeV neutrons is approached foreseeing the use of combination of metallic materials as pre-moderator and reflectors coupled to standard water moderators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  8. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON REMOVAL OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs from various components of the environment is an important issue, which currently much attention is paid to. Conventional methods used for their elimination are often ineffective and require additional solutions. For this reason, studies are being conducted on the possibility of using advanced methods of oxidation, which also includes ultrasonic waves. The work includes an assessment of the applicability of the sonochemical method to the oxidation of dibutyl phthalate. Presents results of tests on the effectiveness of the ultrasonic field with a fixed frequency of 20 kHz. The effect of pH, sonication time and amplitude on the process of decomposition were investigated. To the isolation of analyte was used solid phase extraction (SPE. The degree of reduction of dibutyl phthalate was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Preliminary studies have shown the efficacy of the use of ultrasound to remove of dibutyl phthalate.

  9. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  10. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  11. Physiological and Behavioural Responses in Piglets Submitted to Castration: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lonardi

    2011-12-01

    Movement latency was measured for all treatments. Rectal temperature was measured before treatments H and CTD, and 1, 3, 5, 24 hours later. Blood samples for cortisol and lactate determination were collected 1 hour before treatments H and CTD, right after and 3, 5, 24 hours later. The significant increase of movement latency for CTD compared to H showed that pain can be assessed by this type of measure. Rectal temperature was significantly affected by time (P < 0.01 but not by treatment likely due to several factors that might have confounded the studied effect. Cortisol was significantly affected by interaction time*treatment (P < 0.01 particularly due to the high peak for CTD right after the surgical procedure. Lactate was modified only by time (P < 0.01. This preliminary study suggests that a non invasive and easy measure such as movement latency is a promising method to assess pain in piglets after surgical castration and tail docking.

  12. Preliminary study of spectral features of normal and malignant cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, M.; Farooq, W. A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study the fluorescence emission spectra of normal and malignant cell cultures were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, corresponding to the higher fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (due to tryptophan) of three malignant cells and normal cells. Similarly, Stokes shift spectra were recorded for normal and malignant cell cultures with a shift, Δλ, of 70 nm. The Stokes shift shows the existence of discriminating features between normal and carcinoma cell lines due to the higher concentration of phenylalanine and tryptophan in carcinoma cell lines which are completely absent in normal cell lines. Hence, both the emission spectra and the Stokes shift spectra showed considerably different spectral features between the normal and malignant cells. The preliminary studies indicate the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection using the spectral features of biofluorophores.

  13. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio [Dipartimento POLCOMING, Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Luca Masala, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Meloni, Francesco [Unità operativa di Diagnostica per immagini Asl n. 1, Ospedale Civile SS Annunziata, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Battista Meloni, Giovanni [Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  14. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  15. Comparative Study of Different Stochastic Weather Generators for Long-Term Climate Data Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Mehan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate is one of the single most important factors affecting watershed ecosystems and water resources. The effect of climate variability and change has been studied extensively in some places; in many places, however, assessments are hampered by limited availability of long-term continuous climate data. Weather generators provide a means of synthesizing long-term climate data that can then be used in natural resource assessments. Given their potential, there is the need to evaluate the performance of the generators; in this study, three commonly used weather generators—CLImate GENerator (CLIGEN, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG, and Weather Generators (WeaGETS were compared with regard to their ability to capture the essential statistical characteristics of observed data (distribution, occurrence of wet and dry spells, number of snow days, growing season temperatures, and growing degree days. The study was based on observed 1966–2015 weather station data from the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB, from which 50 different realizations were generated, each spanning 50 years. Both CLIGEN and LARS-WG performed fairly well with respect to representing the statistical characteristics of observed precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures, although CLIGEN tended to overestimate values at the extremes. This generator also overestimated dry sequences by 18%–30% and snow-day counts by 12%–19% when considered over the entire WLEB. It (CLIGEN was, however, well able to simulate parameters specific to crop growth such as growing degree days and had an added advantage over the other generators in that it simulates a larger number of weather variables. LARS-WG overestimated wet sequence counts across the basin by 15%–38%. In addition, the optimal growth period simulated by LARS-WG also exceeded that obtained from observed data by 16%–29% basin-wide. Preliminary results with WeaGETS indicated that additional evaluation is

  16. Preliminary laboratory studies of the optical scattering properties of the crystal clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saunders

    Full Text Available Ice crystal clouds have an influence on the radiative budget of the earth; however, the exact size and nature of this influence has yet to be determined. A laboratory cloud chamber experiment has been set up to provide data on the optical scattering behaviour of ice crystals at a visible wavelength in order to gain information which can be used in climate models concerning the radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. A PMS grey-scale probe is used to monitor simultaneously the cloud microphysical properties in order to correlate these closely with the observed radiative properties. Preliminary results show that ice crystals scatter considerably more at 90° than do water droplets, and that the halo effects are visible in a laboratory-generated cloud when the ice crystal concentration is sufficiently small to prevent masking from multiple scattering.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics · Climatology · Radiative process · Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry

  17. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  18. Blogging with the Facebook Generation: Studying Abroad with Gen Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Greg; Gray, Tonia

    2012-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies create opportunities for distance learning with particular promise for students while they are on international exchange. The current generation of students departing for study abroad is electronically literate or "digital natives", who have thoroughly integrated internet and communication technologies into their…

  19. STUDY ON SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN KUANTAN, MALAYSIA: ITS POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahir Zahari,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, most of the municipal solid waste goes to the landfill or dumping sites. The non-hazardous and general industrial waste are often treated together. The existing dumping sites mostly are not properly engineered and managed. Pollutants that are released or discharged from the disposal sites could contaminate groundwater system, flora and fauna which will eventually cause direct and indirect impact to human’s life (Mahmood, 2000. Presently, the amount of solid waste was produced in Kuantan is about 500 tons daily,consisting of 60% domestic waste and 40% of industrial and construction waste. However, the present sanitary landfill is nearly filled up (Ismail, 2006. In order to overcome this problem, an alternative by using incineration (waste to energy system should be applied. By using this technology, solid waste will combusted to generate energy from burning heat. A study was conducted in Kuantan area to determine the daily solid waste generation. These waste generated rates were then calculated for the energy conversion. The results indicated that average value of total energy produced from solid waste of Kuantan is 19.3808kWh for year 2008 and 17.8942kWh foryear 2009 and could be utilized as electricity, in order to save amount of energy and cost used.

  20. Thrombin generation in the Glasgow Myocardial Infarction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiel Smid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thrombin is a key protease in coagulation also implicated in complex pathology including atherosclerosis. To address the role of thrombin in relation to myocardial infarction (MI we explored thrombin generation analysis in plasma from patients and controls that had participated in the Glasgow MI Study (GLAMIS. METHODS: Thrombin generation at 1 and 2 pM TF and with and without thrombomodulin (TM was performed on plasmas from 356 subjects (171 cases, 185 age and sex matched controls from GLAMIS collected between 3 and 9 months after the MI event. RESULTS: Although thrombin generation was slightly delayed in cases (lag time increased from 3.3 to 3.6 min at the highest trigger, the overall potential to generate thrombin was increased by 7% for the ETP and by 15% for the peak height (both at the 1 pM TF trigger in cases. Addition of TM did not reveal differences. Furthermore, an increased thrombin generation was associated with MI [normalized ETP: adjusted OR for the highest percentile = 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5 and normalized peak height: adjusted OR = 2.6 (1.3-5.0] at the lowest trigger; normalized ETP and peak height being 2.1 (1.1-3.8 and 2.0 (1.0-4.1 at the higher 2 pM trigger. CONCLUSION: In GLAMIS, patients with a previous MI had an increased thrombin generation compared to controls. The absence of a clear difference in TM reduction suggests an unaltered anticoagulant activity in these patients. Further research is needed in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms of enhanced thrombin generation after MI.

  1. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  2. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  3. [Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair "IPOM" vs "open tension free". Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, M; De Milito, R; Spaziani, E; Chiaretti, M; Manili, G; Capitano, S; Di Filippo, A; Simi, M

    2003-12-01

    The authors report the preliminary results of a prospective comparison of IPOM (group A) and "open tension free" (group B) hernioplasty in 50 patients having a mono or bilateral primitive hernia. In group A (26 patients) hernia repair was performed using "Gore-Tex DualMesh Plus biomaterial with holes Corduroy" and in group B (24 patients) using the patch and plug technique with Marlex prosthesis. No intraoperative complications occurred and, in group A, no conversion was necessary. Four minor complications were obser-ved in group A (10.8%): 3 seromas and 1 transient paresthesia; 5 in group B (16%): 4 hematomas and 1 wound infection (p=n.s.). In group A only 2 patients (7.6%) needed analgesics after the first 24 hours and 12 patients (50%) in group B (p<0.001). Mean resumption of normal activity was 8 days in group A and 17 days in group B (p<0.001). At a 12-month-follow-up, no recurrence was reported in both groups. The results of this prospective randomized study show that IPOM may be not only a feasible and effective procedure in the treatment of recurrent and bilateral hernia or when hernia repair is performed during other laparoscopic procedures, but also in particular cases of primitive hernia such as in very active young males or heavy duty workers. However it is necessary to definitely ascertain the true incidence of recurrence in non limited series and in longer follow-up and the preliminary results of this study encourage the authors to complete the randomized study.

  4. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Lucas; Bezerra, Ewertton; Paladino, Kayo; dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni; Priego Quesada, Jose I.; Rossato, Mateus

    2016-11-01

    Training with blood flow restriction could lead to an effect on skin temperature. Additionally, this effect could be higher in people with lower physical fitness level due to their lower capacity of heat loss. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to evaluate the effects of training experience on the acute and chronic thermal skin responses after performing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. The study included ten men, of these, five were trained. All subjects performed tests and re-tests for maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) through unilateral leg extensions (right thigh at 45 ± 6.7 kg and left thigh at 45.5 ± 8.1 kg, p > 0.05). The protocol consisted of four sets to concentric failure, with one-minute rest intervals between sets at an intensity corresponding to 40% of 1 RM. There were 7-day intervals between experimental sessions (150 mmHg versus unrestricted flow restriction). The thermal images were made before the protocol (pre), immediately after the end of the series (post), and 24 h afterward (post 24 h). When comparing temperature variation (Δ exercise and Δ 24 h) between groups, it was observed that the trained participants showed a greater drop in temperature 24 h after exercise with 150 mmHg restriction (confidence interval: 95% of Δ 24 h [-0.2 to -0.9 °C]) compared to untrained subjects (p = 0.006 and ES > 1.5, confidence interval: 95% Δ 24 h [-0.1 to 0.6 °C].) In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that training experience interferes with the chronic cutaneous thermal temperature of the anterior thigh when strength training associated with blood flow restriction 150 mmHg was performed.

  5. PMK-2. Experimental study on steam generator behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezsoel, G.; Szabados, L.; Trosztel, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The PMK-2 is a full pressure scaled-down model of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, with a 1:2070 scaling ratio for the volume and power. It has a steam generator model which is a vertical section of the horizontal steam generator. The model has hot and cold collectors similarly to the steam generators of the plant. The heat transfer tubes are horizontal tubes. There are 82 rows of tubes and the elevations, as well as the heat transfer surface distribution is the same as in the plant. The elevation of the feed water supply is similar to that of the plant. To study the temperature distribution in both the primary and the secondary side several thermocouples are built in, in addition to the overall instrumentation of the loop which has again a high number of measurement channels. Paper gives a description and results of SPE-4, with special respect to the steam generator behaviour in both steady state and transient conditions. Axial distribution of coolant and feedwater temperatures are given for the primary and the secondary side of hot and cold collectors and the temperature distribution in the centre of steam generator. (orig.).

  6. Generating physical symptoms from visual cues: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Zoukas, Serafim

    2009-12-01

    This experimental study explored whether the physical symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness could be generated by visual cues, whether they varied in the ease with which they could be generated and whether they were related to negative affect. Participants were randomly allocated by group to watch one of three videos relating to cold (e.g. ice, snow, wind), pain (e.g. sporting injuries, tattoos) or itchiness (e.g. head lice, scratching). They then rated their self-reported symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness as well as their negative affect (depression and anxiety). The researcher recorded their observed behaviour relating to these symptoms. The results showed that the interventions were successful and that all three symptoms could be generated by the visual cues in terms of both self-report and observed behaviour. In addition, the pain video generated higher levels of anxiety and depression than the other two videos. Further, the degree of itchiness was related to the degree of anxiety. This symptom onset process also showed variability between symptoms with self-reported cold symptoms being greater than either pain or itchy symptoms. The results show that physical symptoms can be generated by visual cues indicating that psychological factors are not only involved in symptom perception but also in symptom onset.

  7. Preliminary research on overmoded high-power millimeter-wave Cerenkov generator with dual-cavity reflector in low guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hu; Wu, Ping [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Chen, Changhua; Ning, Hui; Tan, Weibing; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Song, Zhimin; Cao, Yibing; Du, Zhaoyu [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents preliminary research on a V-band overmoded Cerenkov generator with dual-cavity reflector operating in a low guiding magnetic field. It is found that the fluctuation of the electron envelope in the low guiding magnetic field can be predicted using an equivalent coaxial model of a foilless diode, and a dual-cavity reflector based on the model matching method can provide strong reflection at the front end of the overmoded structures so that any microwave power that leaks into the diode region can be effectively suppressed. Numerical simulations indicate that the control of the beam envelope and the use of the dual-cavity reflector ease generator operation in the low guiding magnetic field. In the experimental research, the fluctuation of the annular electron beam with the outer radius of 7.5 mm measures approximately 0.7 mm, which is in good agreement with the theoretical results. The disturbance caused by power leaking from the overmoded slow wave structure is eliminated by the dual-cavity reflector. With accurate fabrication and assembly processes, an operating frequency of 61.6 GHz is attained by the fifth harmonic heterodyne method, and the output power is measured to be approximately 123 MW by the far-field measurement method at a diode voltage of 445 kV, a beam current of 4.45 kA, and under a guiding magnetic field of 1.45 T. The output mode is measured using an array of neon flash bulbs, and the pulse shortening phenomenon is both observed and analyzed.

  8. Thermal structure of Venus upper atmosphere by a ground-to-thermosphere GCM: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, G.; Lebonnois, S.; Salmi, L.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Eymet, V.; Forget, F.

    2014-04-01

    We present here preliminary results of the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of Venus simulated by a ground-to thermosphere General Circulation Model (GCM). The GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) [1] has been recently improved and extended vertically from 100 to 150 km, with the inclusion of the physical processes which mostly contribute to the thermal balance in the mesosphere/thermosphere of Venus (i.e near IR heating by CO2, 15 μm thermal cooling, extreme UV heating, thermal conduction). We also focus on recent Venus Express and ground-based temperature measurements above 100 km, both at daytime and nighttime, and we interpret the observed main features with the help of model simulations. This ongoing study may indicate that both radiative and dynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the thermal structure of those upper layers of Venus atmosphere.

  9. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  10. Effects of sensitive electrical stimulation based cueing in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Sijobert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD. 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU. An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD.

  11. A preliminary study on butterflies of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary, Pathankot, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of the butterfly diversity of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary (Pathankot, Punjab India was conducted from 10–11 November 2011.  A total of 40 species belonging to 31 genera was recorded, including Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer, a new species added to the butterfly fauna of Punjab.  Species richness was greatest for the family Nymphalidae, with 22 species, followed by Pieridae with 10 species,  Lycaenidae with four, and Papilionidae and Hesperiidae with two each.  An analysis of relative abundances revealed that of the 40 species reported, 19 were classed as common, 15 as less common and the remaining six species as uncommon.  Observations on their occurrence in different habitats revealed 13 species prefer scrubby habitat, 13 scrubby and grassy habitat, seven grassy habitats and the remaining seven scrubby and riverine habitats. 

  12. Small hydro project in Wohlen, Bern - Preliminary study; Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke. KWKW Hofenmuehle, Wohlen BE - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritschi, M.; Spescha, P.

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the preliminary project study for the refurbishment of an existing small hydropower installation in Wohlen, Bern, Switzerland. The installation is in the Hofenmuehle, a listed mill complex dating from the first half of the nineteenth century. The headrace channel has already been refurbished by a community service group. The high level of financial effort and the idealism of the owner families are noted. The existing installations are described in detail. The refurbishment of the technical equipment and the associated work such as water-flow measurements are discussed. Cost estimates and environmental aspects are presented and discussed as are the financing of the refurbishment work and the cost-covering remuneration for the power produced. A possible increase in the power produced and the associated water-usage concession are discussed.

  13. Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Mark S; Dorn, Jessy D; Ahuja, Ashish K; Caspi, Avi; Filley, Eugene; Dagnelie, Gislin; Salzmann, Joël; Santos, Arturo; Duncan, Jacque; daCruz, Lyndon; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Eliott, Dean; McMahon, Matthew J; Greenberg, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    The Argus II 60 channel epiretinal prosthesis has been developed in order to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. To date the device has been implanted in 21 subjects as part of a feasibility study. In 6 month post-implantation door finding and line tracking orientation and mobility testing, subjects have shown improvements of 86% and 73%, respectively, for system on vs. system off. In high-contrast Square Localization tests using a touch screen monitor 87% of tested subjects performed significantly better with the system on compared with off. These preliminary results show that the Argus II system provides some functional vision to blind subjects.

  14. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniella M; Franciosi, Aline I; Pezzini, Paula C F; Guérios, Simone D

    2015-08-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m(2), SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m(2) (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction.

  15. Prescription-event monitoring. A preliminary study of benoxaprofen and fenbufen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, W H

    1984-01-01

    Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) has been established at the Drug Surveillance Research Unit of the University of Southampton as a low-cost technique for ascertaining the pattern of events, whether drug-related or not, in large general practice cohorts. The reporting of "events" without the need for an opinion about the probability that they may be adverse drug reactions (ADRs) removes much of the uncertainty inherent in voluntary ADR reporting systems. Numerators (adverse events) and denominators (the number of prescriptions), enable estimates of incidence to be derived from the data. Where related drugs are studied concurrently, differences in the pattern of events may signal important differences in their safety or efficacy . A successful large-scale preliminary exercise involving nearly 9 000 doctors and 16 000 patients is described.

  16. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  17. Occupational stress and personality traits in multiple sclerosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concetta Incerti, Chiara; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Argento, Ornella; Pisani, Valerio; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Ferraro, Elisabetta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Benedict, Ralph H B; Nocentini, Ugo

    2015-07-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, causing a wide range of neurological and psychological symptoms. Impairment of ambulation and cognition in particular are associated with work difficulties and unemployment. Although many aspects of work status have been investigated in MS, there are no reports on factors that predict the development of occupational stress, prior to job loss. The aim of this preliminary study was to ascertain if personality traits predispose MS patients to occupational stress. We evaluated 26 MS patients using physical disability scales and self-report questionnaires focused on mood, fatigue, and personality [measured with the NEO Five Factor Inventory]. The primary outcome measure was the Occupational Stress Indicator [OSI]. Results showed significant positive correlations (ppersonality dispositions in the hope that employment may be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  19. Structural study and preliminary biological evaluation on the collagen hydrogel crosslinked by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Xin; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    Under γ-irradiation, concentrated collagen solutions yielded collagen hydrogels and liquid products. The molecular structure of collagen hydrogels and the source of the liquid products were studied. Furthermore, preliminary biological properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that crosslinking occurred to form collagen hydrogel and the crosslinking density increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose, and the collagen hydrogels showed enhanced mechanical properties. Meanwhile, collagen underwent radiation degradation and water was squeezed out from hydrogel by contraction of hydrogel, yielding liquid products. Collagen hydrogels induced by γ-irradiation maintained the backbone structure of collagen, and tyrosine partially involved in crosslinking. The irradiated collagen hydrogels have higher denatured temperature, can promote fibroblasts proliferation, and their degradation rate in vivo depended on the absorbed dose. The comprehensive results suggested that the collagen hydrogels prepared by radiation crosslinking preserved the triple helical conformation, possessed improved thermal stability and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, which is expected to favor its application as biomaterials.

  20. A PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL ASSAY OF HARIDRA KHANDA GRANULES: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Varsha M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Haridra Khanda is mentioned in the management of skin diseases like Urticaria (Udarda Shitpitta Kotha. Most of the ingredients are having properties to control allergic condition and improve Vyadhikshamatva (Immuno-modulatory. Pratishyaya (Rhinitis is one of the common problem since ancient days; among all type of Rhinitis, Vataja type simulates the Allergic Rhinitis in modern medical literature of ENT. To overcome the problem of fungus formation in Khanda and AvalehaKalpana, Haridra Khanda has been prepared in granules form. In this study, effort has been done to overcome from the controversy regarding ingredients in the finished product and tried to make it standardized as per guidelines of API. Pharmacognostically authenticated raw drugs were used for the preparation of granules and it was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative analysis of Physico – chemical parameters. It is inferred that the formulation meets the minimum qualitative standards as reported in the API and AFI at a preliminary level.