WorldWideScience

Sample records for generation complex including

  1. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  2. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M; Yokoyama, R; Yasuda, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  4. A design of a computer complex including vector processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi

    1982-12-01

    We, members of the Computing Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute have been engaged for these six years in the research of adaptability of vector processing to large-scale nuclear codes. The research has been done in collaboration with researchers and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer. In this research, forty large-scale nuclear codes were investigated from the viewpoint of vectorization. Among them, twenty-six codes were actually vectorized and executed. As the results of the investigation, it is now estimated that about seventy percents of nuclear codes and seventy percents of our total amount of CPU time of JAERI are highly vectorizable. Based on the data obtained by the investigation, (1)currently vectorizable CPU time, (2)necessary number of vector processors, (3)necessary manpower for vectorization of nuclear codes, (4)computing speed, memory size, number of parallel 1/0 paths, size and speed of 1/0 buffer of vector processor suitable for our applications, (5)necessary software and operational policy for use of vector processors are discussed, and finally (6)a computer complex including vector processors is presented in this report. (author)

  5. Generative complexity of Gray-Scott model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion system one reactant is constantly fed in the system, another reactant is reproduced by consuming the supplied reactant and also converted to an inert product. The rate of feeding one reactant in the system and the rate of removing another reactant from the system determine configurations of concentration profiles: stripes, spots, waves. We calculate the generative complexity-a morphological complexity of concentration profiles grown from a point-wise perturbation of the medium-of the Gray-Scott system for a range of the feeding and removal rates. The morphological complexity is evaluated using Shannon entropy, Simpson diversity, approximation of Lempel-Ziv complexity, and expressivity (Shannon entropy divided by space-filling). We analyse behaviour of the systems with highest values of the generative morphological complexity and show that the Gray-Scott systems expressing highest levels of the complexity are composed of the wave-fragments (similar to wave-fragments in sub-excitable media) and travelling localisations (similar to quasi-dissipative solitons and gliders in Conway's Game of Life).

  6. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  7. Generation of fractals from complex logistic map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Mamta [Galgotias College of Engg. and Technology, Greater Noida (India)], E-mail: mamtarsingh@rediffmail.com; Agarwal, Rashi [IEC College of Engg. and Tech., Greater Noida (India)], E-mail: agarwal_rashi@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Remarkably benign looking logistic transformations x{sub n+1} = r x{sub n}(1 - x{sub n}) for choosing x{sub 0} between 0 and 1 and 0 < r {<=} 4 have found a celebrated place in chaos, fractals and discrete dynamics. The strong physical meaning of Mandelbrot and Julia sets is broadly accepted and nicely connected by Christian Beck [Beck C. Physical meaning for Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Physica D 1999;125(3-4):171-182. Zbl0988.37060] to the complex logistic maps, in the former case, and to the inverse complex logistic map, in the latter case. The purpose of this paper is to study the bounded behavior of the complex logistic map using superior iterates and generate fractals from the same. The analysis in this paper shows that many beautiful properties of the logistic map are extendable for a larger value of r.

  8. Generation of fractals from complex logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Mamta; Agarwal, Rashi

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably benign looking logistic transformations x n+1 = r x n (1 - x n ) for choosing x 0 between 0 and 1 and 0 < r ≤ 4 have found a celebrated place in chaos, fractals and discrete dynamics. The strong physical meaning of Mandelbrot and Julia sets is broadly accepted and nicely connected by Christian Beck [Beck C. Physical meaning for Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Physica D 1999;125(3-4):171-182. Zbl0988.37060] to the complex logistic maps, in the former case, and to the inverse complex logistic map, in the latter case. The purpose of this paper is to study the bounded behavior of the complex logistic map using superior iterates and generate fractals from the same. The analysis in this paper shows that many beautiful properties of the logistic map are extendable for a larger value of r.

  9. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  10. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  11. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  12. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  13. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannie Kartapradja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband’s mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband’s mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother’s and grandmother’s CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations.

  14. Correlation/Communication complexity of generating bipartite states

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Shi, Yaoyun; Wei, Zhaohui; Zhang, Shengyu

    2012-01-01

    We study the correlation complexity (or equivalently, the communication complexity) of generating a bipartite quantum state $\\rho$. When $\\rho$ is a pure state, we completely characterize the complexity for approximately generating $\\rho$ by a corresponding approximate rank, closing a gap left in Ambainis, Schulman, Ta-Shma, Vazirani and Wigderson (SIAM Journal on Computing, 32(6):1570-1585, 2003). When $\\rho$ is a classical distribution $P(x,y)$, we tightly characterize the complexity of gen...

  15. Heat Generation by Irradiated Complex Composite Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Pengfei; Pello, Josselin

    2014-01-01

    Heating of irradiated metallic e-beam generated nanostructures was quantified through direct measurements paralleled by novel model-based numerical calculations. By comparing discs, triangles, and stars we showed how particle shape and composition determines the heating. Importantly, our results...... revealed that substantial heat is generated in the titanium adhesive layer between gold and glass. Even when the Ti layer is as thin as 2 nm it absorbs as much as a 30 nm Au layer and hence should not be ignored....

  16. Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobek, K; Banaszek, K; Karpiński, M; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R; Horodecki, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy. (paper)

  17. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  18. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  19. Nephrin regulates lamellipodia formation by assembling a protein complex that includes Ship2, filamin and lamellipodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Venkatareddy

    Full Text Available Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5' inositol phosphatase, Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics.

  20. Dystrophic Cardiomyopathy: Complex Pathobiological Processes to Generate Clinical Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XL-DCM consist of a unique clinical entity, the dystrophinopathies, which are due to variable mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a common complication of dystrophinopathies, but the onset, progression, and severity of heart disease differ among these subgroups. Extensive molecular genetic studies have been conducted to assess genotype-phenotype correlation in DMD, BMD, and XL-DCM to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases, but the results are not always conclusive, suggesting the involvement of complex multi-layers of pathological processes that generate the final clinical phenotype. Dystrophin protein is a part of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC that is localized in skeletal muscles, myocardium, smooth muscles, and neuronal tissues. Diversity of cardiac phenotype in dystrophinopathies suggests multiple layers of pathogenetic mechanisms in forming dystrophic cardiomyopathy. In this review article, we review the complex molecular interactions involving the pathogenesis of dystrophic cardiomyopathy, including primary gene mutations and loss of structural integrity, secondary cellular responses, and certain epigenetic and other factors that modulate gene expressions. Involvement of epigenetic gene regulation appears to lead to specific cardiac phenotypes in dystrophic hearts.

  1. A new generative complexity science of learning for a complex pedagogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Proposal for the SIG Chaos and Complexity Theories at AERA 2007 Title: A New Generative Complexity Science of Learning for a Complex Pedagogy Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl Introduction My paper focuses on the link between thinking

  2. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  3. Molecular diagnostics for congenital hearing loss including 15 deafness genes using a next generation sequencing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Keulenaer Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hearing loss (HL can originate from mutations in one of many genes involved in the complex process of hearing. Identification of the genetic defects in patients is currently labor intensive and expensive. While screening with Sanger sequencing for GJB2 mutations is common, this is not the case for the other known deafness genes (> 60. Next generation sequencing technology (NGS has the potential to be much more cost efficient. Published methods mainly use hybridization based target enrichment procedures that are time saving and efficient, but lead to loss in sensitivity. In this study we used a semi-automated PCR amplification and NGS in order to combine high sensitivity, speed and cost efficiency. Results In this proof of concept study, we screened 15 autosomal recessive deafness genes in 5 patients with congenital genetic deafness. 646 specific primer pairs for all exons and most of the UTR of the 15 selected genes were designed using primerXL. Using patient specific identifiers, all amplicons were pooled and analyzed using the Roche 454 NGS technology. Three of these patients are members of families in which a region of interest has previously been characterized by linkage studies. In these, we were able to identify two new mutations in CDH23 and OTOF. For another patient, the etiology of deafness was unclear, and no causal mutation was found. In a fifth patient, included as a positive control, we could confirm a known mutation in TMC1. Conclusions We have developed an assay that holds great promise as a tool for screening patients with familial autosomal recessive nonsyndromal hearing loss (ARNSHL. For the first time, an efficient, reliable and cost effective genetic test, based on PCR enrichment, for newborns with undiagnosed deafness is available.

  4. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  5. CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Fergal J; Verniere, Mélanie; Devocelle, Marc; Bernard, Elise; Shields, Denis C; Chubb, Anthony J

    2011-04-25

    We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural commercially available amino acids. The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. The stand-alone software, and the Web interface for evaluating these empirical properties of a single peptide, are available at http://bioware.ucd.ie .

  6. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colovati Mileny ES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1, mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement.

  7. Synthesis of sp3-rich scaffolds for molecular libraries through complexity-generating cascade reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flagstad, Thomas; Min, Geanna; Bonnet, K.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient strategy for the synthesis of complex small molecules from simple building blocks is presented. Key steps of the strategy include tandem Petasis and Diels–Alder reactions, and divergent complexity-generating cyclization cascades from a key dialdehyde intermediate. The methodology...

  8. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  9. Kolmogorov complexity, pseudorandom generators and statistical models testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, Jan; Boček, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 747-759 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Kolmogorov complexity * pseudorandom generators * statistical models testing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2002

  10. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  11. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  12. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  13. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  14. A range of complex probabilistic models for RNA secondary structure prediction that includes the nearest-neighbor model and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R

    2012-02-01

    The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.

  15. How to include frequency dependent complex permeability Into SPICE models to improve EMI filters design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixdenier, Fabien; Yade, Ousseynou; Martin, Christian; Bréard, Arnaud; Vollaire, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters design is a rather difficult task where engineers have to choose adequate magnetic materials, design the magnetic circuit and choose the size and number of turns. The final design must achieve the attenuation requirements (constraints) and has to be as compact as possible (goal). Alternating current (AC) analysis is a powerful tool to predict global impedance or attenuation of any filter. However, AC analysis are generally performed without taking into account the frequency-dependent complex permeability behaviour of soft magnetic materials. That's why, we developed two frequency-dependent complex permeability models able to be included into SPICE models. After an identification process, the performances of each model are compared to measurements made on a realistic EMI filter prototype in common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) to see the benefit of the approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with the measured ones especially in the middle frequency range.

  16. New Algorithm of Automatic Complex Password Generator Employing Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Jasim Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the occurred increasing in information sharing, internet popularization, E-commerce transactions, and data transferring, security and authenticity become an important and necessary subject. In this paper an automated schema was proposed to generate a strong and complex password which is based on entering initial data such as text (meaningful and simple information or not, with the concept of encoding it, then employing the Genetic Algorithm by using its operations crossover and mutation to generated different data from the entered one. The generated password is non-guessable and can be used in many and different applications and internet services like social networks, secured system, distributed systems, and online services. The proposed password generator achieved diffusion, randomness, and confusions, which are very necessary, required and targeted in the resulted password, in addition to the notice that the length of the generated password differs from the length of initial data, and any simple changing and modification in the initial data produces more and clear modification in the generated password. The proposed work was done using visual basic programing language.

  17. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derafshian, Mehdi; Amjady, Nima

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  19. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  20. Entropy-based generating Markov partitions for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2018-03-01

    Finding the correct encoding for a generic dynamical system's trajectory is a complicated task: the symbolic sequence needs to preserve the invariant properties from the system's trajectory. In theory, the solution to this problem is found when a Generating Markov Partition (GMP) is obtained, which is only defined once the unstable and stable manifolds are known with infinite precision and for all times. However, these manifolds usually form highly convoluted Euclidean sets, are a priori unknown, and, as it happens in any real-world experiment, measurements are made with finite resolution and over a finite time-span. The task gets even more complicated if the system is a network composed of interacting dynamical units, namely, a high-dimensional complex system. Here, we tackle this task and solve it by defining a method to approximately construct GMPs for any complex system's finite-resolution and finite-time trajectory. We critically test our method on networks of coupled maps, encoding their trajectories into symbolic sequences. We show that these sequences are optimal because they minimise the information loss and also any spurious information added. Consequently, our method allows us to approximately calculate the invariant probability measures of complex systems from the observed data. Thus, we can efficiently define complexity measures that are applicable to a wide range of complex phenomena, such as the characterisation of brain activity from electroencephalogram signals measured at different brain regions or the characterisation of climate variability from temperature anomalies measured at different Earth regions.

  1. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  2. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  3. Classical evolution and quantum generation in generalized gravity theories including string corrections and tachyons: Unified analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2005-01-01

    We present cosmological perturbation theory based on generalized gravity theories including string theory correction terms and a tachyonic complication. The classical evolution as well as the quantum generation processes in these varieties of gravity theories are presented in unified forms. These apply both to the scalar- and tensor-type perturbations. Analyses are made based on the curvature variable in two different gauge conditions often used in the literature in Einstein's gravity; these are the curvature variables in the comoving (or uniform-field) gauge and the zero-shear gauge. Applications to generalized slow-roll inflation and its consequent power spectra are derived in unified forms which include a wide range of inflationary scenarios based on Einstein's gravity and others

  4. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these

  5. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Fonner, Virginia A.; O'Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990-2012, examining secondary references, and hand searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of 5,218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with 6 conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in South or Southeast Asia, and 3 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N=6), female sex workers/bar workers (N=3), and youth/orphans (N=3). All studies targeted females except 2 among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with 2 group-randomized trials and 2 individual-randomized trials. All interventions except 3 included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these interventions may have important effects

  6. Advanced exergy-based analyses applied to a system including LNG regasification and electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George; Boyano, Alicia; Gantiva, Camilo [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) will contribute more in the future than in the past to the overall energy supply in the world. The paper discusses the application of advanced exergy-based analyses to a recently developed LNG-based cogeneration system. These analyses include advanced exergetic, advanced exergoeconomic, and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses in which thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction), costs, and environmental impacts have been split into avoidable and unavoidable parts. With the aid of these analyses, the potentials for improving the thermodynamic efficiency and for reducing the overall cost and the overall environmental impact are revealed. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate (a) the potential for generating electricity while regasifying LNG and (b) some of the capabilities associated with advanced exergy-based methods. The most important subsystems and components are identified, and suggestions for improving them are made. (orig.)

  7. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  8. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  10. DNA copy number, including telomeres and mitochondria, assayed using next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA copy number variations occur within populations and aberrations can cause disease. We sought to develop an improved lab-automatable, cost-efficient, accurate platform to profile DNA copy number. Results We developed a sequencing-based assay of nuclear, mitochondrial, and telomeric DNA copy number that draws on the unbiased nature of next-generation sequencing and incorporates techniques developed for RNA expression profiling. To demonstrate this platform, we assayed UMC-11 cells using 5 million 33 nt reads and found tremendous copy number variation, including regions of single and homogeneous deletions and amplifications to 29 copies; 5 times more mitochondria and 4 times less telomeric sequence than a pool of non-diseased, blood-derived DNA; and that UMC-11 was derived from a male individual. Conclusion The described assay outputs absolute copy number, outputs an error estimate (p-value, and is more accurate than array-based platforms at high copy number. The platform enables profiling of mitochondrial levels and telomeric length. The assay is lab-automatable and has a genomic resolution and cost that are tunable based on the number of sequence reads.

  11. A NEW GENERATION OF PARSEC-COLIBRI STELLAR ISOCHRONES INCLUDING THE TP-AGB PHASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marigo, Paola; Aringer, Bernhard; Chen, Yang; Dussin, Marco; Nanni, Ambra; Pastorelli, Giada; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Trabucchi, Michele; Bladh, Sara; Montalbán, Josefina; Girardi, Léo; Bressan, Alessandro; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Wood, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new generation of PARSEC–COLIBRI stellar isochrones that includes a detailed treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase, covering a wide range of initial metallicities (0.0001 < Z i < 0.06). Compared to previous releases, the main novelties and improvements are use of new TP-AGB tracks and related atmosphere models and spectra for M and C-type stars; inclusion of the surface H+He+CNO abundances in the isochrone tables, accounting for the effects of diffusion, dredge-up episodes and hot-bottom burning; inclusion of complete thermal pulse cycles, with a complete description of the in-cycle changes in the stellar parameters; new pulsation models to describe the long-period variability in the fundamental and first-overtone modes; and new dust models that follow the growth of the grains during the AGB evolution, in combination with radiative transfer calculations for the reprocessing of the photospheric emission. Overall, these improvements are expected to lead to a more consistent and detailed description of properties of TP-AGB stars expected in resolved stellar populations, especially in regard to their mean photometric properties from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We illustrate the expected numbers of TP-AGB stars of different types in stellar populations covering a wide range of ages and initial metallicities, providing further details on the “C-star island” that appears at intermediate values of age and metallicity, and about the AGB-boosting effect that occurs at ages close to 1.6-Gyr for populations of all metallicities. The isochrones are available through a new dedicated web server.

  12. A NEW GENERATION OF PARSEC-COLIBRI STELLAR ISOCHRONES INCLUDING THE TP-AGB PHASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigo, Paola; Aringer, Bernhard; Chen, Yang; Dussin, Marco; Nanni, Ambra; Pastorelli, Giada; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Trabucchi, Michele; Bladh, Sara; Montalbán, Josefina [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, via Bonomea 365, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Rosenfield, Philip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Wood, Peter R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-01-20

    We introduce a new generation of PARSEC–COLIBRI stellar isochrones that includes a detailed treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase, covering a wide range of initial metallicities (0.0001 < Z {sub i} < 0.06). Compared to previous releases, the main novelties and improvements are use of new TP-AGB tracks and related atmosphere models and spectra for M and C-type stars; inclusion of the surface H+He+CNO abundances in the isochrone tables, accounting for the effects of diffusion, dredge-up episodes and hot-bottom burning; inclusion of complete thermal pulse cycles, with a complete description of the in-cycle changes in the stellar parameters; new pulsation models to describe the long-period variability in the fundamental and first-overtone modes; and new dust models that follow the growth of the grains during the AGB evolution, in combination with radiative transfer calculations for the reprocessing of the photospheric emission. Overall, these improvements are expected to lead to a more consistent and detailed description of properties of TP-AGB stars expected in resolved stellar populations, especially in regard to their mean photometric properties from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We illustrate the expected numbers of TP-AGB stars of different types in stellar populations covering a wide range of ages and initial metallicities, providing further details on the “C-star island” that appears at intermediate values of age and metallicity, and about the AGB-boosting effect that occurs at ages close to 1.6-Gyr for populations of all metallicities. The isochrones are available through a new dedicated web server.

  13. CHP in Switzerland from 1990 to 1998. Thermal power generation including combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a study on thermal power generation in Switzerland show that combined heat and power (CHP) systems have grown rapidly. Statistics are presented on the development of CHP-based power and also on thermal power stations without waste heat usage. Figures are given for gas and steam turbine installations, combined gas and steam turbine stations and motor-driven CHP units. Power production is categorised, separating small and large (over 1 Megawatt electrical) power generation facilities. On-site, distributed power generation at consumers' premises and the geographical distribution of plant is described

  14. Pinning Synchronization of Linear Complex Coupling Synchronous Generators Network of Hydroelectric Generating Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel linear complex system for hydroturbine-generator sets in multimachine power systems is suggested in this paper and synchronization of the power-grid networks is studied. The advanced graph theory and stability theory are combined to solve the problem. Here we derive a sufficient condition under which the synchronous state of power-grid networks is stable in disturbance attenuation. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the results by the IEEE 39 bus system.

  15. Generation of two-dimensional binary mixtures in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are an excellent model system for strong coupling phenomena. Under certain conditions the dust particles immersed into the plasma form crystals which can be analyzed in terms of structure and dynamics. Previous experiments focussed mostly on monodisperse particle systems whereas dusty plasmas in nature and technology are polydisperse. Thus, a first and important step towards experiments in polydisperse systems are binary mixtures. Recent experiments on binary mixtures under microgravity conditions observed a phase separation of particle species with different radii even for small size disparities. This contradicts several numerical studies of 2D binary mixtures. Therefore, dedicated experiments are required to gain more insight into the physics of polydisperse systems. In this contribution first ground based experiments on two-dimensional binary mixtures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the requirements for the generation of such systems which involve the consideration of the temporal evolution of the particle properties. Furthermore, the structure of these two-component crystals is analyzed and compared to simulations. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG in the framework of the SFB TR24 Greifswald Kiel, Project A3b.

  16. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially improved safety profile compared to other aminoglycosides. This study assessed plazomicin MICs and MBCs in four Brucella spp. reference strains. Like other aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols, plazomicin MBC values equaled MIC values ...

  17. Combustion modeling including heat loss using flamelet generated manifolds: a validation study in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottino, G.M.; Fancello, A.; Falcone, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    In numerical combustion applications the Flamelet Generated Manifolds technique (FGM) is being used at an increasingly number of occasions. This technique is an approach to reduce the chemistry efficiently and accurately. In the present work FGM is coupled to an OpenFOAM-based CFD solver. The

  18. A synthetic NO reduction cycle on a bis(pyrazolato)-bridged dinuclear ruthenium complex including photo-induced transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Hiura, Junko; Tsuchii, Chika; Kodama, Mika; Matsumoto, Naoki; Umakoshi, Keisuke

    2018-05-17

    A synthetic NO reduction cycle (2NO + 2H+ + 2e- → N2O + H2O) on a dinuclear platform {(TpRu)2(μ-pz)2} (Tp = HB(pyrazol-1-yl)3) was achieved, where an unusual N-N coupling complex was included. Moreover, an interesting photo-induced conversion of the N-N coupling complex to an oxido-bridged complex was revealed.

  19. A pragmatic approach to including complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis Louw van Zyl International Aerospace Symposium of South Africa 14 to 16 September, 2015 Stellenbosch, South Africa Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Problem statement..., the square of the angular frequencies in radians per second) [ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }fxKxCxM =++ &&& [ ]{ } [ ]{ } 0=+ xKxMs2 Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Structural Dynamics (continued) • The corresponding eigenvectors are real...

  20. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  1. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  2. Imagining Complex Numbers by Generating, Interpreting and Representing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Enzo

    2017-01-01

    Ever since their serendipitous discovery by Italian mathematicians trying to solve cubic equations in the 16th century, imaginary and complex numbers have been difficult topics to understand. Here the word complex is used to describe something consisting of a number of interconnecting parts. The different parts of a complex number are the…

  3. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  4. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1999-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Klotho: a humeral mediator in CSF and plasma that influences longevity and susceptibility to multiple complex disorders, including depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, M G; Remaley, A T; Gold, P W

    2016-08-30

    Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a significant decrease in lifespan. The Klotho-deficient mouse dies prematurely at 8-9 weeks of age. At 4-5 weeks of age, a syndrome resembling human ageing emerges consisting of atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, cognitive disturbances and alterations of hippocampal architecture. Several deficits in Klotho-deficient mice are likely to contribute to these phenomena. These include an inability to defend against oxidative stress in the central nervous system and periphery, decreased capacity to generate nitric oxide to sustain normal endothelial reactivity, defective Klotho-related mediation of glycosylation and ion channel regulation, increased insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and a disturbed calcium and phosphate homeostasis accompanied by altered vitamin D levels and ectopic calcification. Identifying the mechanisms by which Klotho influences multiple important pathways is an emerging field in human biology that will contribute significantly to understanding basic physiologic processes and targets for the treatment of complex diseases. Because many of the phenomena seen in Klotho-deficient mice occur in depressive illness, major depression and bipolar disorder represent illnesses potentially associated with Klotho dysregulation. Klotho's presence in CSF, blood and urine should facilitate its study in clinical populations.

  8. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability. Please see related article BMC Medicine, 2011, 9:87

  9. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-19

    Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability.

  10. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  11. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagu...

  12. Causal-implicative relationships in the Serbian hypotaxis (Complex of generative complex sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dojčil P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the causal-implicative relationships in the segmented complex sentences with a “closed” (asymmetric, mandatory bi-situational generative (conditional semantic structure on the corpus of the Serbian language. The generative (conditional semantic structure consists of meaningfully interconnected antecedents and consequents that are based on the principle of subordination. These sentences are characterized with a general causal link due to the specific implicative relationship between the segments that can be realized within dependent clauses with diverse categorically-differential semantics (i.e. causal, consecutive, final, conditional and concessive. The author reaches a conclusion that the given implicative relationships (P ⇒ Q, P ⇐ Q/Q ⇒ P, P ⇔Q, P ⇒ Q´ Δ P´ ⇒ Q represent, in fact, semantic invariants of generative complex sentences. It is pointed out that the structure, formation and functioning of these relationships (sentences are always determined by the interconnectedness of syntax and lexicon. They are based on a general causal adverbial meaning of the conjunctions in a subordinate clause, which are also used to determine the adverbial semantics of a sentence as a whole. The article discusses in particular the aspectual-temporal correlations that are realized in complex sentences with a generative structure. It has been noted very often in the literature that there is no differentiation made among all of the types of the hypothetical conditionality - real, eventual, potential and unreal. The paper analyzes taxis of simultaneity and succession (anteriority/posteriority of the main and subordinate clause predicates in conditional sentences as a special type of the relative-temporal relationships within the same temporal plan. In order to interpret these correlations, the Serbian data was compared to the data in Russian and Polish. It is noted that the Northern Slavic languages (in this case Russian and

  13. The Paramyxovirus Polymerase Complex as a Target for Next-Generation Anti-Paramyxovirus Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family includes major human and animal pathogens, including measles virus, mumps virus, and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, as well as the emerging zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses. In the United States, RSV is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations due to viral infectious disease. Despite their clinical significance, effective drugs for the improved management of paramyxovirus disease are lacking. The development of novel anti-paramyxovirus therapeutics is therefore urgently needed. Paramyxoviruses contain RNA genomes of negative polarity, necessitating a virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp complex for replication and transcription. Since an equivalent enzymatic activity is absent in host cells, the RdRp complex represents an attractive druggable target, although structure-guided drug development campaigns are hampered by the lack of high-resolution RdRp crystal structures. Here, we review the current structural and functional insight into the paramyxovirus polymerase complex in conjunction with an evaluation of the mechanism of activity and developmental status of available experimental RdRp inhibitors. Our assessment spotlights the importance of the RdRp complex as a premier target for therapeutic intervention and examines how high-resolution insight into the organization of the complex will pave the path towards the structure-guided design and optimization of much-needed next-generation paramyxovirus RdRp blockers.

  14. Re-docking scheme for generating near-native protein complexes by assembling residue interaction fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Uchikoga

    Full Text Available Interaction profile method is a useful method for processing rigid-body docking. After the docking process, the resulting set of docking poses could be classified by calculating similarities among them using these interaction profiles to search for near-native poses. However, there are some cases where the near-native poses are not included in this set of docking poses even when the bound-state structures are used. Therefore, we have developed a method for generating near-native docking poses by introducing a re-docking process. We devised a method for calculating the profile of interaction fingerprints by assembling protein complexes after determining certain core-protein complexes. For our analysis, we used 44 bound-state protein complexes selected from the ZDOCK benchmark dataset ver. 2.0, including some protein pairs none of which generated near-native poses in the docking process. Consequently, after the re-docking process we obtained profiles of interaction fingerprints, some of which yielded near-native poses. The re-docking process involved searching for possible docking poses in a restricted area using the profile of interaction fingerprints. If the profile includes interactions identical to those in the native complex, we obtained near-native docking poses. Accordingly, near-native poses were obtained for all bound-state protein complexes examined here. Application of interaction fingerprints to the re-docking process yielded structures with more native interactions, even when a docking pose, obtained following the initial docking process, contained only a small number of native amino acid interactions. Thus, utilization of the profile of interaction fingerprints in the re-docking process yielded more near-native poses.

  15. Re-docking scheme for generating near-native protein complexes by assembling residue interaction fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ohue, Masahito; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Interaction profile method is a useful method for processing rigid-body docking. After the docking process, the resulting set of docking poses could be classified by calculating similarities among them using these interaction profiles to search for near-native poses. However, there are some cases where the near-native poses are not included in this set of docking poses even when the bound-state structures are used. Therefore, we have developed a method for generating near-native docking poses by introducing a re-docking process. We devised a method for calculating the profile of interaction fingerprints by assembling protein complexes after determining certain core-protein complexes. For our analysis, we used 44 bound-state protein complexes selected from the ZDOCK benchmark dataset ver. 2.0, including some protein pairs none of which generated near-native poses in the docking process. Consequently, after the re-docking process we obtained profiles of interaction fingerprints, some of which yielded near-native poses. The re-docking process involved searching for possible docking poses in a restricted area using the profile of interaction fingerprints. If the profile includes interactions identical to those in the native complex, we obtained near-native docking poses. Accordingly, near-native poses were obtained for all bound-state protein complexes examined here. Application of interaction fingerprints to the re-docking process yielded structures with more native interactions, even when a docking pose, obtained following the initial docking process, contained only a small number of native amino acid interactions. Thus, utilization of the profile of interaction fingerprints in the re-docking process yielded more near-native poses.

  16. Generation of complete electronic nuclear medicine reports including static, dynamic and gated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or

  17. Generation of Long-time Complex Signals for Testing the Instruments for Detection of Voltage Quality Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Dragan; Simić, Milan; Kokolanski, Zivko; Denić, Dragan; Dimcev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Software supported procedure for generation of long-time complex test sentences, suitable for testing the instruments for detection of standard voltage quality (VQ) disturbances is presented in this paper. This solution for test signal generation includes significant improvements of computer-based signal generator presented and described in the previously published paper [1]. The generator is based on virtual instrumentation software for defining the basic signal parameters, data acquisition card NI 6343, and power amplifier for amplification of output voltage level to the nominal RMS voltage value of 230 V. Definition of basic signal parameters in LabVIEW application software is supported using Script files, which allows simple repetition of specific test signals and combination of more different test sequences in the complex composite test waveform. The basic advantage of this generator compared to the similar solutions for signal generation is the possibility for long-time test sequence generation according to predefined complex test scenarios, including various combinations of VQ disturbances defined in accordance with the European standard EN50160. Experimental verification of the presented signal generator capability is performed by testing the commercial power quality analyzer Fluke 435 Series II. In this paper are shown some characteristic complex test signals with various disturbances and logged data obtained from the tested power quality analyzer.

  18. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  19. Line probe assay for differentiation within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evaluation on clinical specimens and isolates including Mycobacterium pinnipedii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Bek, Dorte; Rasmussen, Erik Michael

    2009-01-01

    A line probe assay (GenoType MTBC) was evaluated for species differentiation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We included 387 MTBC isolates, 43 IS6110 low-copy MTBC isolates, 28 clinical specimens with varying microscopy grade, and 30 isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria...

  20. Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianjun; Gao Ziyou; Sun Huijun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

  1. Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    alongshore winds favoring upwelling circulation. As for the other EBUS (e.g., Humboldt, Benguela, and Canary Currents ), equatorward winds drive...Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents , Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests...environments OBJECTIVES The central scientific questions are how the eddies control the persistent currents by their eddy-induced momentum and buoyancy fluxes

  2. Organizational memory and forgetfulness generating vulnerabilities in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between organizational memory and forgetfulness in the generation of operational vulnerabilities, based on a case study carried out with a highly specialized technical team from a multinational company of the automotive sector. The article starts with the presentation of the complexitycontext of the Brazilian automotive sector in the last decades. It then goes on to discuss the theoretical referential on learning organizations, organizational memory and forgetfulness and organizations with high operational reliability characteristics. Finally, a case study is presented, carried out based on the theoretical concepts described in the body of the article, showing the contradictions and evidence of this relationship.

  3. Generation of clusters in complex dynamical networks via pinning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kezan; Fu Xinchu; Small, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world networks show community structure, i.e., groups (or clusters) of nodes that have a high density of links within them but with a lower density of links between them. In this paper, by applying feedback injections to a fraction of network nodes, various clusters are synchronized independently according to the community structure generated by the group partition of the network (cluster synchronization). This control is achieved by pinning (i.e. applying linear feedback control) to a subset of the network nodes. Those pinned nodes are selected not randomly but according to the topological structure of communities of a given network. Specifically, for a given group partition of a network, those nodes with direct connections between groups must be pinned in order to achieve cluster synchronization. Both the local stability and global stability of cluster synchronization are investigated. Taking the tree-shaped network and the most modular network as two particular examples, we illustrate in detail how the pinning strategy influences the generation of clusters. The simulations verify the efficiency of the pinning schemes used in this paper

  4. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  5. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermo-economic optimization of the impact of renewable generators on poly-generation smart-grids including hot thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Greco, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a poly-generation grid including thermal storage and renewable generators. ► We analyze the impact of random renewable generators on the grid performance. ► We carry out the grid optimization using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. ► We present the importance of the storage system to optimize the RES impact. - Abstract: In this paper, the impact of not controllable renewable energy generators (wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels) on the thermo-economic optimum performance of poly-generation smart grids is investigated using an original time dependent hierarchical approach. The grid used for the analysis is the one installed at the University of Genoa for research activities. It is based on different prime movers: (i) 100 kWe micro gas turbine, (ii) 20 kWe internal combustion engine powered by gases to produce both electrical and thermal (hot water) energy and (iii) a 100 kWth adsorption chiller to produce cooling (cold water) energy. The grid includes thermal storage tanks to manage the thermal demand load during the year. The plant under analysis is also equipped with two renewable non-controllable generators: a small size wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels. The size and the management of the system studied in this work have been optimized, in order to minimize both capital and variable costs. A time-dependent thermo-economic hierarchical approach developed by the authors has been used, considering the time-dependent electrical, thermal and cooling load demands during the year as problem constraints. The results are presented and discussed in depth and show the strong interaction between fossil and renewable resources, and the importance of an appropriate storage system to optimize the RES impact taking into account the multiproduct character of the grid under investigation.

  7. Identifying problems and generating recommendations for enhancing complex systems: applying the abstraction hierarchy framework as an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    This study adopts J. Rasmussen's (1985) abstraction hierarchy (AH) framework as an analytical tool to identify problems and pinpoint opportunities to enhance complex systems. The process of identifying problems and generating recommendations for complex systems using conventional methods is usually conducted based on incompletely defined work requirements. As the complexity of systems rises, the sheer mass of data generated from these methods becomes unwieldy to manage in a coherent, systematic form for analysis. There is little known work on adopting a broader perspective to fill these gaps. AH was used to analyze an aircraft-automation system in order to further identify breakdowns in pilot-automation interactions. Four steps follow: developing an AH model for the system, mapping the data generated by various methods onto the AH, identifying problems based on the mapped data, and presenting recommendations. The breakdowns lay primarily with automation operations that were more goal directed. Identified root causes include incomplete knowledge content and ineffective knowledge structure in pilots' mental models, lack of effective higher-order functional domain information displayed in the interface, and lack of sufficient automation procedures for pilots to effectively cope with unfamiliar situations. The AH is a valuable analytical tool to systematically identify problems and suggest opportunities for enhancing complex systems. It helps further examine the automation awareness problems and identify improvement areas from a work domain perspective. Applications include the identification of problems and generation of recommendations for complex systems as well as specific recommendations regarding pilot training, flight deck interfaces, and automation procedures.

  8. Comparison of generation 3 polyamidoamine dendrimer and generation 4 polypropylenimine dendrimer on drug loading, complex structure, release behavior, and cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Naimin; Su, Yunzhang; Hu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Hongfeng; Cheng, Yiyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers are the commercially available and most widely used dendrimers in pharmaceutical sciences and biomedical engineering. In the present study, the loading and release behaviors of generation 3 PAMAM and generation 4 PPI dendrimers with the same amount of surface amine groups (32 per dendrimer) were compared using phenylbutazone as a model drug. Methods The dendrimer-phenylbutazone complexes were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear Overhauser effect techniques, and the cytotoxicity of each dendrimer was evaluated. Results Aqueous solubility results suggest that the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer has a much higher loading ability towards phenylbutazone in comparison with the generation 4 PPI dendrimer at high phenylbutazone-dendrimer feeding ratios. Drug release was much slower from the generation 3 PAMAM matrix than from the generation 4 PPI dendrimer. In addition, the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer is at least 50-fold less toxic than generation 4 PPI dendrimer on MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Conclusion Although the nuclear Overhauser effect nuclear magnetic resonance results reveal that the generation 4 PPI dendrimer with a more hydrophobic interior encapsulates more phenylbutazone, the PPI dendrimer-phenylbutazone inclusion is not stable in aqueous solution, which poses a great challenge during drug development. PMID:22267921

  9. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  10. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  11. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  12. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  13. A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties

  14. On the automatic generation of FEM models for complex gears - A work-in-progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the development and use of a preprocessor to create a NASTRAN finite element model of a complex spur, helical, or spiral bevel gear quickly, inexpensively, and accurately. The preprocessor creates a ready to run NASTRAN input deck including the executive, case control, and bulk data sections. It generates nodes and solid elements to model spur, helical, or spiral bevel gear teeth with integral shafting. Either a complete gear shafting model or a symmetric model is created. The fundamental building block of the gear model is the base layer. The base layer is the mesh configuration of one layer of one tooth segment which is in turn duplicated, translated, and rotated to create the completed model of the gear. Once the base layer is created, the construction of the finite element model is straightforward.

  15. Comparison of new generation low-complexity flood inundation mapping tools with a hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Shahab; Tavakoly, Ahmad A.; Rajib, Mohammad Adnan; Zheng, Xing; Follum, Michael L.; Omranian, Ehsan; Fekete, Balázs M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two new generation low-complexity tools, AutoRoute and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System, HEC-RAS 2D). The assessment was conducted on two hydrologically different and geographically distant test-cases in the United States, including the 16,900 km2 Cedar River (CR) watershed in Iowa and a 62 km2 domain along the Black Warrior River (BWR) in Alabama. For BWR, twelve different configurations were set up for each of the models, including four different terrain setups (e.g. with and without channel bathymetry and a levee), and three flooding conditions representing moderate to extreme hazards at 10-, 100-, and 500-year return periods. For the CR watershed, models were compared with a simplistic terrain setup (without bathymetry and any form of hydraulic controls) and one flooding condition (100-year return period). Input streamflow forcing data representing these hypothetical events were constructed by applying a new fusion approach on National Water Model outputs. Simulated inundation extent and depth from AutoRoute, HAND, and HEC-RAS 2D were compared with one another and with the corresponding FEMA reference estimates. Irrespective of the configurations, the low-complexity models were able to produce inundation extents similar to HEC-RAS 2D, with AutoRoute showing slightly higher accuracy than the HAND model. Among four terrain setups, the one including both levee and channel bathymetry showed lowest fitness score on the spatial agreement of inundation extent, due to the weak physical representation of low-complexity models compared to a hydrodynamic model. For inundation depth, the low-complexity models showed an overestimating tendency, especially in the deeper segments of the channel. Based on such reasonably good prediction skills, low-complexity flood models can be considered as a suitable alternative for fast

  16. Complex networks generated by the Penna bit-string model: Emergence of small-world and assortative mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Maini, Philip K.

    2005-10-01

    The Penna bit-string model successfully encompasses many phenomena of population evolution, including inheritance, mutation, evolution, and aging. If we consider social interactions among individuals in the Penna model, the population will form a complex network. In this paper, we first modify the Verhulst factor to control only the birth rate, and introduce activity-based preferential reproduction of offspring in the Penna model. The social interactions among individuals are generated by both inheritance and activity-based preferential increase. Then we study the properties of the complex network generated by the modified Penna model. We find that the resulting complex network has a small-world effect and the assortative mixing property.

  17. Uranyl complexes as scaffolding or spacers for cucurbit[6]uril molecules in homo- and heterometallic species, including a uranyl-lanthanide complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuery, Pierre [NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-06-16

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) and carboxylic or sulfonic ligands under hydrothermal conditions and in the presence of additional metal cations (K{sup I} or Ce{sup III}) or cosolvents provided four complexes, which were crystallographically characterized. The compound [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(adc){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (1), where H{sub 2}adc is 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid, crystallizes in the form of a central K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} column surrounded by two one-dimensional (1D) polymeric UO{sub 2}(adc)(NO{sub 3}){sup -} chains attached to the column by nitrate bridges, with a perfect match of the repeat lengths in the two subunits. The longer 1,3-adamantanediacetic acid (H{sub 2}adac) gives the complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(adac){sub 2}(HCOOH){sub 2}].CB6.6H{sub 2}O (2), in which the 1D uranyl-containing polymer and columns of CB6 molecules form a layered arrangement held by weak CH..O hydrogen bonds. The complex formed with the dipotassium salt of methanedisulfonic acid (K{sub 2}mds), [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(mds){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}].4H{sub 2}O (3), is a 1D polymer, in which K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} units are connected to one another by doubly hydroxide-bridged uranyl dimers in which the disulfonates are terminal, chelating ligands; connection between the two subunits is solely through potassium oxo-bonding to uranyl. The complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}(CB6)(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (4) is a 1D polymer containing bridging oxalate ligands formed in situ, in which CB6 is coordinated to the lanthanide cations only; one nitrate ligand and one water ligand, hydrogen-bonded to each other, are included in the CB6 cavity, with the possible occurrence of interactions between nitrate oxygen atoms and ureido carbon atoms. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The determination of arsenic, selenium, antimony, and tin in complex environmental samples by hydride generation AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Beach, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hydride generation techniques are used routinely for the determination of As, Se, Sb and Sn in water samples. Advantages include high sensitivity, simplicity, and relative freedom from interferences. Continuous-flow designs greatly reduce analysis time as well as improve precision and allow for automation. However the accurate analysis of more complex environmental samples such as industrial sludges, soil samples, river sediments, and fly ash remains difficult. Numerous contributing factors influence the accuracy of the hydride technique. Sample digestion methods and sample preparation procedures are of critical importance. The digestion must adequately solubilize the elements of interest without loss by volatilization. Sample preparation procedures that guarantee the proper analyte oxidation state and eliminate the nitric acid and inter-element interferences are needed. In this study, difficult environmental samples were analyzed for As, Se, Sb, and Sn by continuous flow hydride generation. Sample preparation methods were optimized to eliminate interferences. The results of spike recovery studies will be presented. Data from the analysis of the same samples by graphite furnace AAS will be presented for comparison of accuracy, precision, and analysis time

  19. Critical appraisal of first-generation renal tumor complexity scoring systems: Creation of a second-generation model of tumor complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Shoemaker, Allen; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether a combination of variables from each nephrometry system improves performance. There are 3 first-generation systems that quantify tumor complexity: R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS), preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification (PC), and centrality index (CI). Although each has been subjected to validation and comparative analysis, to our knowledge, no work has been done to combine variables from each method to optimize their performance. Scores were assigned to each of 276 patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN). Individual components of all 3 systems were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression analysis of surgery type (PN vs. RN) and combined into a "second-generation model." In multivariable analysis, each scoring system was a significant predictor of PN vs. RN (Psystems, CI was most highly correlated with surgery type (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91), followed by RNS (AUC = 0.90) and PC (AUC = 0.88). Each individual component of these scoring systems was also a predictor of surgery type (Psystem (RNS), location along the lateral rim (PC), and centrality (CI). A novel model in which these 4 variables were rescaled outperformed each first-generation system (AUC = 0.91). Optimization of first-generation models of renal tumor complexity results in a novel scoring system, which strongly predicts surgery type. This second-generation model should aid comprehension, but future work is still needed to establish the most clinically useful model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing Decision Preparedness by Adapting Scenario Complexity and Automating Scenario Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Rob; Schatz, Sae; Flore, Stephen M.; Nicholson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Klein's recognition-primed decision (RPD) framework proposes that experts make decisions by recognizing similarities between current decision situations and previous decision experiences. Unfortunately, military personnel arQ often presented with situations that they have not experienced before. Scenario-based training (S8T) can help mitigate this gap. However, SBT remains a challenging and inefficient training approach. To address these limitations, the authors present an innovative formulation of scenario complexity that contributes to the larger research goal of developing an automated scenario generation system. This system will enable trainees to effectively advance through a variety of increasingly complex decision situations and experiences. By adapting scenario complexities and automating generation, trainees will be provided with a greater variety of appropriately calibrated training events, thus broadening their repositories of experience. Preliminary results from empirical testing (N=24) of the proof-of-concept formula are presented, and future avenues of scenario complexity research are also discussed.

  1. Isolation and X-ray structures of four Rh(PCP) complexes including a Rh(I) dioxygen complex with a short O-O bond

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashi, Yukiko

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of RhCl3·H2O with tBu2P(CH2)5PtBu 2 afforded several complexes including [RhIII(H)Cl{ tBu2- P(CH2)2CH(CH2) 2PtBu2}] (1), [RhIIIHCl 2{tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2}]2 (2), [RhICl{ tBu2P(CH2)2CH=CHCH2P tBu2}] (3) and [RhICl{tBu 2PCH2C(O)CH=CHCH2PtBu2}] (4). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and 4 showed that the C=C bond on the C 5 unit of tBu2P(CH2) 5PtBu2 is bound to Rh(I) in a η2 configuration. In 4, the Rh atom has a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 consists of two rhodium( III) centers bridged by two tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2 ligands with two phosphorus atoms, one from each ligand, trans to one another. The crystal structure of the rhodium oxygen adduct with 1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphinomethyl) benzene [RhO2{ tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2}] (5) was also investigated. In this species the O2 is η2 coordinated to the Rh(I) center with asymmetric Rh-O bond lengths (2.087(7) and 1.998(8) Å). The O-O bond distance is short (1.337(11) Å) with νO-O of 990.5 cm -1. DFT calculations on complex 5 yielded two η2- O2 structures that differed in energy by only 0.76 kcal/mol. The lower energy one (5a) had near C2 symmetry, and had nearly equal Rh-O bond lengths, while the higher energy structure (5b) had near Cs symmetry and generally good agreement with the experimental structure. The calculated UV-Vis and IR spectra of complex 5 are in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and X-ray structures of four Rh(PCP) complexes including a Rh(I) dioxygen complex with a short O-O bond

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashi, Yukiko; Szalda, David J.; Grills, David C.; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of RhCl3·H2O with tBu2P(CH2)5PtBu 2 afforded several complexes including [RhIII(H)Cl{ tBu2- P(CH2)2CH(CH2) 2PtBu2}] (1), [RhIIIHCl 2{tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2}]2 (2), [RhICl{ tBu2P(CH2)2CH=CHCH2P tBu2}] (3) and [RhICl{tBu 2PCH2C(O)CH=CHCH2PtBu2}] (4). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and 4 showed that the C=C bond on the C 5 unit of tBu2P(CH2) 5PtBu2 is bound to Rh(I) in a η2 configuration. In 4, the Rh atom has a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 consists of two rhodium( III) centers bridged by two tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2 ligands with two phosphorus atoms, one from each ligand, trans to one another. The crystal structure of the rhodium oxygen adduct with 1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphinomethyl) benzene [RhO2{ tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2}] (5) was also investigated. In this species the O2 is η2 coordinated to the Rh(I) center with asymmetric Rh-O bond lengths (2.087(7) and 1.998(8) Å). The O-O bond distance is short (1.337(11) Å) with νO-O of 990.5 cm -1. DFT calculations on complex 5 yielded two η2- O2 structures that differed in energy by only 0.76 kcal/mol. The lower energy one (5a) had near C2 symmetry, and had nearly equal Rh-O bond lengths, while the higher energy structure (5b) had near Cs symmetry and generally good agreement with the experimental structure. The calculated UV-Vis and IR spectra of complex 5 are in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual Patterns of Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota, Including Predator Bacteria, over a 1-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Caballero, Juan; Vida, Rafael; Cobo, Marta; Máiz, Luis; Suárez, Lucrecia; Galeano, Javier; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Del Campo, Rosa

    2017-09-26

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities. Fifteen adult CF patients, stratified according to their pulmonary function into mild ( n = 5), moderate ( n = 9), and severe ( n = 1) disease, were recruited at the CF unit of the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain). Each patient contributed three or four induced sputum samples during a 1-year follow-up period. Lung microbiota composition was determined by both cultivation and NGS techniques and was compared with the patients' clinical variables. Results revealed a particular microbiota composition for each patient that was maintained during the study period, although some fluctuations were detected without any clinical correlation. For the first time, Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio predator bacteria were shown in CF lung microbiota and reduced-genome bacterial parasites of the phylum Parcubacteria were also consistently detected. The newly designed computational model allows us to hypothesize that inoculation of predators into the pulmonary microbiome might contribute to the control of chronic colonization by CF pathogens in early colonization stages. IMPORTANCE The application of NGS to sequential samples of CF patients demonstrated the complexity of the organisms present in the lung (156 species) and the constancy of basic individual colonization patterns, although some differences between samples from the same patient were

  4. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are niche candidate for the field of energy management as electrical generator devices. Generally, comprehensive and accurate design techniques for TEGs (thermoelectric generators), such as reduced current approach (RCA), are complex and time consuming processes....... This study develops a simple, comprehensive and accurate TEG designing technique based on RCA. The proposed method can predict the most efficient TEG architecture with more than 97% accuracy comparing to the RCA over wide range of possible temperature and zT for present TEG applications. Moreover...

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  6. Criteria for the design of the control room complex for a nuclear power generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This Standard addresses the central control room of a nuclear power generating station and the overall complex in which this room is housed. It is not intended to cover special or normally unattended control rooms, such as those provided for radioactive waste handling or for emergency shutdown operations. The nuclear power generating station control room complex provides a protective envelope for plant operating personnel and for instrument and control equipment vital to the operation of the plant during normal and abnormal conditions. In this capacity, the control room complex must be designed and constructed to meet the following criteria contained in Appendix A of 10CFR50, General Design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: (1) Criterion 2: design bases for protection against natural phenomena; (2) Criterion 3: fire protection; (3) Criterion 4: environmental and missile design bases; (4) Criterion 5: sharing of structures, systems and components (multiunit stations only); and (5) Criterion 19: control room

  7. Learning and inference using complex generative models in a spatial localization task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Knill, David C; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has established that, under relatively simple task conditions, human observers integrate uncertain sensory information with learned prior knowledge in an approximately Bayes-optimal manner. However, in many natural tasks, observers must perform this sensory-plus-prior integration when the underlying generative model of the environment consists of multiple causes. Here we ask if the Bayes-optimal integration seen with simple tasks also applies to such natural tasks when the generative model is more complex, or whether observers rely instead on a less efficient set of heuristics that approximate ideal performance. Participants localized a "hidden" target whose position on a touch screen was sampled from a location-contingent bimodal generative model with different variances around each mode. Over repeated exposure to this task, participants learned the a priori locations of the target (i.e., the bimodal generative model), and integrated this learned knowledge with uncertain sensory information on a trial-by-trial basis in a manner consistent with the predictions of Bayes-optimal behavior. In particular, participants rapidly learned the locations of the two modes of the generative model, but the relative variances of the modes were learned much more slowly. Taken together, our results suggest that human performance in a more complex localization task, which requires the integration of sensory information with learned knowledge of a bimodal generative model, is consistent with the predictions of Bayes-optimal behavior, but involves a much longer time-course than in simpler tasks.

  8. Application of a non-contiguous grid generation method to complex configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; McIlwain, S.; Khalid, M.

    2003-01-01

    An economical non-contiguous grid generation method was developed to efficiently generate structured grids for complex 3D problems. Compared with traditional contiguous grids, this new approach generated grids for different block clusters independently and was able to distribute the grid points more economically according to the user's specific topology design. The method was evaluated by applying it to a Navier-Stokes computation of flow past a hypersonic projectile. Both the flow velocity and the heat transfer characteristics of the projectile agreed qualitatively with other numerical data in the literature and with available field data. Detailed grid topology designs for 3D geometries were addressed, and the advantages of this approach were analysed and compared with traditional contiguous grid generation methods. (author)

  9. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D 2 O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps

  10. Complex of GRAD programs for analytical calculation of radiation defects generation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, A.L.; Zabolotnyj, V.T.; Babaev, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Complex of programms for analytical calculation of generation of radiation defects (GRAD) in solids, and also of their recombination during cascade area relaxation and postradiation annealing, of mass removing by atomic collisions in volume (mixing) and through the surface (sputtering), of structure - phase state and property changes is suggested. The complex volume is less than 10 KBytes and it may be realized by computer of any type. Satisfactional agreement with more wide range of experimental data in comparison with tradition models is obtained. 27 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed 3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P 30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive differentiator among hospitals. Thus, the usefulness of statistical methods for operating room management should be expected to be heterogeneous among hospitals. Our results also show that "large teaching hospital" alone is an insufficient description for accurate prediction of the extent to which a hospital sustains the

  12. Complexation studies with 90Y from a novel 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Pandey, U.; Banerjee, S.; Samuel, G.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Achuthan, P.V.; Chitnis, R.R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Some features of a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator which employs supported liquid membrane (SLM) to separate carrier-free 90 Y from 90 Sr present in the high level waste of the spent fuel of reactor are described. After ascertaining the purity of 90 Y particularly with respect to 90 Sr breakthrough, its complexation was studied with a few oxo/aza donor ligands, such as DTPA, EDTMP, DOTA, TETA and a cyclic phosphonate, CTMP. These studies were primarily carried out to adjudge the quality of the 90 Y obtained from a novel 90 Sr- 90 Y generator and ascertain its usability for labelling biomolecules such as antibodies and peptides. The DOTA complexes are most stable at 37 C in human serum; they appear to be ideal bifunctional chelating agent for use in radioimmunotherapy with 90 Y. (orig.)

  13. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  14. A terminal fluoride ligand generates axial magnetic anisotropy in dysprosium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norel, Lucie [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes) - UMR 6226, Rennes (France); Darago, Lucy E.; Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Olshansky, Jacob H.; Long, Jeffrey R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Le Guennic, Boris; Rigaut, Stephane [Univ Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes) - UMR 6226, Rennes (France)

    2018-02-12

    The first dysprosium complexes with a terminal fluoride ligand are obtained as air-stable compounds. The strong, highly electrostatic dysprosium-fluoride bond generates a large axial crystal-field splitting of the J=15/2 ground state, as evidenced by high-resolution luminescence spectroscopy and correlated with the single-molecule magnet behavior through experimental magnetic susceptibility data and ab initio calculations. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Stabilization and control of tie-line power flow of microgrid including wind generation by distributed energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M.G.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    High penetration of wind generation in electrical microgrids causes fluctuations of tie-line power flow and significantly affects the power system operation. This can lead to severe problems, such as system frequency oscillations, and/or violations of power lines capability. With proper control, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) integrated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to significantly enhance the dynamic security of the power system. This paper proposes the use of a SMES system in combination with a DSTATCOM as effective distributed energy storage (DES) for stabilization and control of the tie-line power flow of microgrids incorporating wind generation. A new detailed model of the integrated DSTATCOM-SMES device is derived and a novel three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed control schemes is fully validated using MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  16. Grayscale lithography-automated mask generation for complex three-dimensional topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, James; Ratnayake, Dilan; McKenna, Curtis; Walsh, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Grayscale lithography is a relatively underutilized technique that enables fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) microstructures in photosensitive polymers (photoresists). By spatially modulating ultraviolet (UV) dosage during the writing process, one can vary the depth at which photoresist is developed. This means complex structures and bioinspired designs can readily be produced that would otherwise be cost prohibitive or too time intensive to fabricate. The main barrier to widespread grayscale implementation, however, stems from the laborious generation of mask files required to create complex surface topography. We present a process and associated software utility for automatically generating grayscale mask files from 3-D models created within industry-standard computer-aided design (CAD) suites. By shifting the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) design onus to commonly used CAD programs ideal for complex surfacing, engineering professionals already familiar with traditional 3-D CAD software can readily utilize their pre-existing skills to make valuable contributions to the MEMS community. Our conversion process is demonstrated by prototyping several samples on a laser pattern generator-capital equipment already in use in many foundries. Finally, an empirical calibration technique is shown that compensates for nonlinear relationships between UV exposure intensity and photoresist development depth as well as a thermal reflow technique to help smooth microstructure surfaces.

  17. The complex reaction kinetics of neptunium including redox and extraction process in 30% TBP-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhang; Zhan-yuan Liu; Xian-ming Zhou; Li Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the complex and dynamic neptunium process chemistry in the TBP-HNO_3 system, the kinetics involved reversible redox reaction and extraction mass transfer was investigated. The results indicates that the mass transfer rate of Np(VI) is much faster than the redox reaction in aqueous solution. The concentrations of nitric acid and nitrous acid not only can change the Np(V) oxidation reaction and Np(VI) reduction reaction rate, but also can ultimately determine the distribution of neptunium extraction equilibrium. The variety of temperature can only influence the extraction equilibrium time, but cannot alter the equilibrium state of neptunium. (author)

  18. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-04-25

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P 5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals.

  19. The value of extended pedigrees for next-generation analysis of complex disease in the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Prongay, Kamm; Ferguson, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Complex diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, among many others) pose the biggest threat to human health worldwide and are among the most challenging to investigate. Susceptibility to complex disease may be caused by multiple genetic variants (GVs) and their interaction, by environmental factors, and by interaction between GVs and environment, and large study cohorts with substantial analytical power are typically required to elucidate these individual contributions. Here, we discuss the advantages of both power and feasibility afforded by the use of extended pedigrees of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for genetic studies of complex human disease based on next-generation sequence data. We present these advantages in the context of previous research conducted in rhesus macaques for several representative complex diseases. We also describe a single, multigeneration pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques and a sample biobank we have developed for genetic analysis of complex disease, including power of this pedigree to detect causal GVs using either genetic linkage or association methods in a variance decomposition approach. Finally, we summarize findings of significant heritability for a number of quantitative traits that demonstrate that genetic contributions to risk factors for complex disease can be detected and measured in this pedigree. We conclude that the development and application of an extended pedigree to analysis of complex disease traits in the rhesus macaque have shown promising early success and that genome-wide genetic and higher order -omics studies in this pedigree are likely to yield useful insights into the architecture of complex human disease.

  20. Shut-down margin study for the next generation VVER-1000 reactor including 13 x 13 hexagonal annular assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, Farshad; Mirvakili, S. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Shut-Down Margin (SDM) for the next generation annular fuel core of typical VVER-1000, 13 x 13 assemblies are calculated. → The MCNP-5 code is run for many cases with different core burn up at various core temperatures. → There is a substantial drop in SDM in the case of annular fuel for the same power level. → SDM for our proposed VVER-1000 annular pins is calculated for specific average fuel burn up values at the BOC, MOC, and EOC. - Abstract: Shut-Down Margin (SDM) for the next generation annular fuel core of typical VVER-1000, 13 x 13 assemblies are calculated as the main aim of the present research. We have applied the MCNP-5 code for many cases with different values of core burn up at various core temperatures, and therefore their corresponding coolant densities and boric acid concentrations. There is a substantial drop in SDM in the case of annular fuel for the same power level. Specifically, SDM for our proposed VVER-1000 annular pins is calculated when the average fuel burn up values at the BOC, MOC, and EOC are 0.531, 11.5, and 43 MW-days/kg-U, respectively.

  1. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  2. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  3. Experimental validation of control strategies for a microgrid test facility including a storage system and renewable generation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The paper is aimed at describing and validating some control strategies in the SYSLAB experimental test facility characterized by the presence of a low voltage network with a 15 kW-190 kWh Vanadium Redox Flow battery system and a 11 kW wind turbine. The generation set is connected to the local...... network and is fully controllable by the SCADA system. The control strategies, implemented on a local pc interfaced to the SCADA, are realized in Matlab-Simulink. The main purpose is to control the charge/discharge action of the storage system in order to present at the point of common coupling...... the desired power or energy profiles....

  4. Generation of tooth-periodontium complex structures using high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancong; Li, Yongliang; Shi, Ruirui; Zhang, Siqi; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yan; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Wei, Shicheng

    2017-06-08

    A number of studies have shown that tooth-like structures can be regenerated using induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. However, few studies have reported the regeneration of tooth-periodontium complex structures, which are more suitable for clinical tooth transplantation. We established an optimized approach to induce high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mES cells by temporally controlling bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) function and regenerated tooth-periodontium complex structures in vivo. First, immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the watershed of skin and the oral ectoderm. LDN193189 was then used to inhibit the BMP4 receptor around the watershed, followed by the addition of exogenous BMP4 to promote BMP4 function. The generated dental epithelium was confirmed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The generated epithelium was ultimately combined with embryonic day 14.5 mouse mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. After 4 weeks, the tooth-periodontium complex structure was examined by micro-computed tomography (CT) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Our study found that the turning point of oral ectoderm differentiation occurred around day 3 after the embryoid body was transferred to a common culture plate. Ameloblastin-positive dental epithelial cells were detected following the temporal regulation of BMP4. Tooth-periodontium complex structures, which included teeth, a periodontal membrane, and alveolar bone, were formed when this epithelium was combined with mouse dental mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. Micro-CT and H&E staining revealed that the generated tooth-periodontium complex structures shared a similar histological structure with normal mouse teeth. An optimized induction method was established to promote the differentiation of mES cells into dental

  5. Laboratory results of stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes in a complex environment - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Olivier; Pavageau, Ellen-Mary; Vaillant, Francois [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components Department, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Bouvier, Odile de [EDF Nuclear Engineering Division, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les Domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, 93206 Saint Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking occurs in the flow-restricted areas on the secondary side of steam generator tubes of Pressured Water Reactors (PWR), where water pollutants are likely to concentrate. Chemical analyses carried out during the shutdowns gave some insight into the chemical composition of these areas, which has evolved during these last years (i.e. less sodium as pollutants). It has been modeled in laboratory by tests in two different typical environments: the sodium hydroxide and the sulfate environments. These models satisfactorily describe the secondary side corrosion of steam generator tubes for old plant units. Furthermore, a third typical environment - the complex environment - which corresponds to an All Volatile Treatment (AVT) environment containing alumina, silica, phosphate and acetic acid has been recently studied. This particular environment satisfactorily reproduces the composition of the deposits observed on the surface of the steam generator tubes as well as the degradation of the tubes. A review of the recent laboratory results obtained by considering the complex environment are presented here. Several tests have been carried out in order to study initiation and propagation of secondary side corrosion cracking for some selected materials in such an environment. 600 Thermally Treated (TT) alloy reveals to be less sensitive to secondary side corrosion cracking than 600 Mill Annealed (MA) alloy. Finally, the influence of some related factors like stress, temperature and environmental factors are discussed. (authors)

  6. Laboratory results of stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes in a complex environment - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, Olivier; Pavageau, Ellen-Mary; Vaillant, Francois; Bouvier, Odile de

    2004-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking occurs in the flow-restricted areas on the secondary side of steam generator tubes of Pressured Water Reactors (PWR), where water pollutants are likely to concentrate. Chemical analyses carried out during the shutdowns gave some insight into the chemical composition of these areas, which has evolved during these last years (i.e. less sodium as pollutants). It has been modeled in laboratory by tests in two different typical environments: the sodium hydroxide and the sulfate environments. These models satisfactorily describe the secondary side corrosion of steam generator tubes for old plant units. Furthermore, a third typical environment - the complex environment - which corresponds to an All Volatile Treatment (AVT) environment containing alumina, silica, phosphate and acetic acid has been recently studied. This particular environment satisfactorily reproduces the composition of the deposits observed on the surface of the steam generator tubes as well as the degradation of the tubes. A review of the recent laboratory results obtained by considering the complex environment are presented here. Several tests have been carried out in order to study initiation and propagation of secondary side corrosion cracking for some selected materials in such an environment. 600 Thermally Treated (TT) alloy reveals to be less sensitive to secondary side corrosion cracking than 600 Mill Annealed (MA) alloy. Finally, the influence of some related factors like stress, temperature and environmental factors are discussed. (authors)

  7. Designing Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula for the Next Generation Science Standards in High School Science Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a curriculum and instruction framework for computer-supported teaching and learning about complex systems in high school science classrooms. This work responds to a need in K-12 science education research and practice for the articulation of design features for classroom instruction that can address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS recently launched in the USA. We outline the features of the framework, including curricular relevance, cognitively rich pedagogies, computational tools for teaching and learning, and the development of content expertise, and provide examples of how the framework is translated into practice. We follow this up with evidence from a preliminary study conducted with 10 teachers and 361 students, aimed at understanding the extent to which students learned from the activities. Results demonstrated gains in students’ complex systems understanding and biology content knowledge. In interviews, students identified influences of various aspects of the curriculum and instruction framework on their learning.

  8. Sizing, techno-economic and generation management analysis of a stand alone photovoltaic power unit including storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallouli, Rihab; Krichen, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the mismatch between the load demand and the intermittent solar energy, a stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen system and an optimal control scheme are designed to maintain the high system efficiency. Based on meteorological and the load demand data, a system sizing technique is proposed to establish the minimum capacity of the system components, which are a photovoltaic (PV) panel, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a battery bank and an alkaline electrolyzer (Elz). An accurate energy management scheme that is utilized during power transfer is proposed to meet the economic requirements. Case studies are used to verify the efficiency of the energy management strategy and system sizing technique. Simulation results illustrate a simple solution to the design and processing of stand-alone PV-hydrogen (PV-H 2 ) systems. -- Highlights: ► We study a stand alone PV-hydrogen system comprising renewable devices. ► A PV generator, a battery bank, a fuel cell and an electrolyzer are modeled. ► Power management taking into account the economic arrangement and the operating conditions to ensure energy availability is proposed.

  9. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  10. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    containing the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the core inspiratory rhythm generator of the ventrolateral brainstem. We measured bilateral synchronous network oscillations, using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes, in both ventrolateral (presumably the preBötC) and dorsomedial regions of 7-43 days in vitro......Acute brainstem slice preparations in vitro have advanced understanding of the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation, but their inherent limitations preclude long-term manipulation and recording experiments. Here, we developed an organotypic slice culture preparation...... of the brainstem displayed up to 193% faster burst frequency (22.4 ± 8.3 bursts/min) and higher signal amplitude (340%) compared to acute slices. We conclude that preBötC-containing slice cultures retain inspiratory-like rhythmic function and therefore may facilitate lines of experimentation that involve extended...

  12. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind...... of special depolarizer: the random roughness birefringent screen (RRBS) is introduced to meet this requirement. The statistical properties of the field generated by the depolarizer is investigated and illustrated in terms of the 2x2 beam coherence and polarization matrix (BCPM) with the corresponding degree...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  13. Next generation transcriptomics and genomics elucidate biological complexity of microglia in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wes, Paul D; Holtman, Inge R; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Möller, Thomas; Eggen, Bart J L

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide expression profiling technology has resulted in detailed transcriptome data for a wide range of tissues, conditions and diseases. In neuroscience, expression datasets were mostly generated using whole brain tissue samples, resulting in data from a mixture of cell types, including glial

  14. Synergistic microbial consortium for bioenergy generation from complex natural energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1:9 (v:v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs.

  15. B Plant Complex generator dangerous waste storage areas inspection plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the inspection plan for the <90 day dangerous/mixed waste storage areas and satellite accumulation areas at B Plant Complex. This inspection plan is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. In particular, the requirements of WAC 173-303 ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' are met by this inspection plan. This inspection plan is designed to provide B Plant Complex with the records and documentation showing that the waste storage and handling program is in compliance with applicable regulations. The plan also includes the requirements for becoming a qualified inspector of waste storage areas and the responsibilities of various individuals and groups at B Plant Complex

  16. Generation of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex-specific Fab antibody blocking the binding of the complex to CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Ivo R; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    During intravascular hemolysis hemoglobin (Hb) binds to haptoglobin (Hp) leading to endocytosis of the complex by the macrophage receptor, CD163. In the present study, we used a phage-display Fab antibody strategy to explore if the complex formation between Hp and Hb leads to exposure of antigenic...... epitopes specific for the complex. By Hp-Hb-affinity screening of a phage-Fab library, we isolated a phage clone against the ligand complex. Surface plasmon resonance analyses of the Fab part expressed as a recombinant protein revealed a high affinity binding (KD = 3.9 nm) to Hp-Hb, whereas no binding...... was measured for non-complexed Hp or Hb. The Fab antibody completely inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled Hp-Hb complexes to CD163 and blocked their uptake in CD163-transfected cells. In conclusion, we have raised a receptor-blocking antibody specifically recognizing the Hp-Hb complex. In addition to provide...

  17. Seismic Wave Generation and Propagation from Complex 3D Explosion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    source region to regional and teleseismic distances. We simulated the nonproliferation experiment (NPE) including the effects of surface topography...monitoring, Tectonic Strain Release, Nonproliferation Experiment, Shoal 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...understanding shear wave generation is that symmetry constraints imposed by 1D and 2D calculations act to suppress shear waves. Imposition of 2D axisymmetry

  18. Real-time generation of the Wigner distribution of complex functions using phase conjugation in photorefractive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P C; Fainman, Y

    1990-09-01

    An optical processor for real-time generation of the Wigner distribution of complex amplitude functions is introduced. The phase conjugation of the input signal is accomplished by a highly efficient self-pumped phase conjugator based on a 45 degrees -cut barium titanate photorefractive crystal. Experimental results on the real-time generation of Wigner distribution slices for complex amplitude two-dimensional optical functions are presented and discussed.

  19. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  20. Phase transition and computational complexity in a stochastic prime number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacasa, L; Luque, B [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Miramontes, O [Departamento de Sistemas Complejos, Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 01415 DF (Mexico)], E-mail: lucas@dmae.upm.es

    2008-02-15

    We introduce a prime number generator in the form of a stochastic algorithm. The character of this algorithm gives rise to a continuous phase transition which distinguishes a phase where the algorithm is able to reduce the whole system of numbers into primes and a phase where the system reaches a frozen state with low prime density. In this paper, we firstly present a broader characterization of this phase transition, both in analytical and numerical terms. Critical exponents are calculated, and data collapse is provided. Further on, we redefine the model as a search problem, fitting it in the hallmark of computational complexity theory. We suggest that the system belongs to the class NP. The computational cost is maximal around the threshold, as is common in many algorithmic phase transitions, revealing the presence of an easy-hard-easy pattern. We finally relate the nature of the phase transition to an average-case classification of the problem.

  1. Main tasks of studying strong regulation of excitation of complex electrical system generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Yekimova, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is made of the current state of studies of the damping properties of complex electricity systems. The calculation programs of stability are based on frequency methods using the method of D-division. Now, when ARV of strong effect dominates at the SG, the task of coordinating their adjustments develops. Consequently, the following questions are discussed: study of the properties of quality functional with several points of regulation in the circuits of different structure; development of the efficient procedures for coordinating the ARV adjustment of the related energy systems; and creation of resources for solving these tasks. Results are presented of coordinating the ARV adjustments of the generators of the 3-machine electricity system. As an example, nonlinear relationships are shown between the obtained degree of stability and the coefficient of stabilization.

  2. On the Boundedness and Symmetry Properties of the Fractal Sets Generated from Alternated Complex Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex map can give rise to two kinds of fractal sets: the Julia sets and the parameters sets (or the connectivity loci which represent different connectivity properties of the corresponding Julia sets. In the significative results of (Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos, 2009, 19:2123–2129 and (Nonlinear. Dyn. 2013, 73:1155–1163, the authors presented the two kinds of fractal sets of a class of alternated complex map and left some visually observations to be proved about the boundedness and symmetry properties of these fractal sets. In this paper, we improve the previous results by giving the strictly mathematical proofs of the two properties. Some simulations that verify the theoretical proofs are also included.

  3. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  4. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  5. ASIC chipset design to generate block-based complex holographic video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we propose a new hardware architecture implemented as a very large scaled integrated circuit by using an application-specific integrated circuit technology, where block-based calculations are used to generate holograms. The proposed hardware is structured to produce a part of a hologram in the block units in parallel. A block of a hologram is calculated using an object point, and then the calculation is repeated for all object points to obtain intermediate results that are accumulated to produce the final block of a hologram. This structure can be used to produce holograms of various sizes in real time with optimized memory access. The proposed hardware was implemented using the Hynix 0.18 μm CMOS technology of Magna Chip, Inc., and it has about 448 K gate counts and a silicon size of 3.592  mm×3.592  mm. It can generate complex holograms and operate in a stable manner at a clock frequency of 200 MHz.

  6. Geologic and climatic controls on streamflow generation processes in a complex eogenetic karst basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhava, F.; Graham, W. D.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Streamflow at any given location and time is representative of surface and subsurface contributions from various sources. The ability to fully identify the factors controlling these contributions is key to successfully understanding the transport of contaminants through the system. In this study we developed a fully integrated 3D surface water-groundwater-land surface model, PARFLOW, to evaluate geologic and climatic controls on streamflow generation processes in a complex eogenetic karst basin in North Central Florida. In addition to traditional model evaluation criterion, such as comparing field observations to model simulated streamflow and groundwater elevations, we quantitatively evaluated the model's predictions of surface-groundwater interactions over space and time using a suite of binary end-member mixing models that were developed using observed specific conductivity differences among surface and groundwater sources throughout the domain. Analysis of model predictions showed that geologic heterogeneity exerts a strong control on both streamflow generation processes and land atmospheric fluxes in this watershed. In the upper basin, where the karst aquifer is overlain by a thick confining layer, approximately 92% of streamflow is "young" event flow, produced by near stream rainfall. Throughout the upper basin the confining layer produces a persistent high surficial water table which results in high evapotranspiration, low groundwater recharge and thus negligible "inter-event" streamflow. In the lower basin, where the karst aquifer is unconfined, deeper water tables result in less evapotranspiration. Thus, over 80% of the streamflow is "old" subsurface flow produced by diffuse infiltration through the epikarst throughout the lower basin, and all surface contributions to streamflow originate in the upper confined basin. Climatic variability provides a secondary control on surface-subsurface and land-atmosphere fluxes, producing significant seasonal and

  7. Evolving hard problems: Generating human genetics datasets with a complex etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelstein Daniel S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of human genetics is to discover genetic factors that influence individuals' susceptibility to common diseases. Most common diseases are thought to result from the joint failure of two or more interacting components instead of single component failures. This greatly complicates both the task of selecting informative genetic variants and the task of modeling interactions between them. We and others have previously developed algorithms to detect and model the relationships between these genetic factors and disease. Previously these methods have been evaluated with datasets simulated according to pre-defined genetic models. Results Here we develop and evaluate a model free evolution strategy to generate datasets which display a complex relationship between individual genotype and disease susceptibility. We show that this model free approach is capable of generating a diverse array of datasets with distinct gene-disease relationships for an arbitrary interaction order and sample size. We specifically generate eight-hundred Pareto fronts; one for each independent run of our algorithm. In each run the predictiveness of single genetic variation and pairs of genetic variants have been minimized, while the predictiveness of third, fourth, or fifth-order combinations is maximized. Two hundred runs of the algorithm are further dedicated to creating datasets with predictive four or five order interactions and minimized lower-level effects. Conclusions This method and the resulting datasets will allow the capabilities of novel methods to be tested without pre-specified genetic models. This allows researchers to evaluate which methods will succeed on human genetics problems where the model is not known in advance. We further make freely available to the community the entire Pareto-optimal front of datasets from each run so that novel methods may be rigorously evaluated. These 76,600 datasets are available from http://discovery.dartmouth.edu/model_free_data/.

  8. Generation of Complex Karstic Conduit Networks with a Hydro-chemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rooij, R.; Graham, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    The discrete-continuum approach is very well suited to simulate flow and solute transport within karst aquifers. Using this approach, discrete one-dimensional conduits are embedded within a three-dimensional continuum representative of the porous limestone matrix. Typically, however, little is known about the geometry of the karstic conduit network. As such the discrete-continuum approach is rarely used for practical applications. It may be argued, however, that the uncertainty associated with the geometry of the network could be handled by modeling an ensemble of possible karst conduit networks within a stochastic framework. We propose to generate stochastically realistic karst conduit networks by simulating the widening of conduits as caused by the dissolution of limestone over geological relevant timescales. We illustrate that advanced numerical techniques permit to solve the non-linear and coupled hydro-chemical processes efficiently, such that relatively large and complex networks can be generated in acceptable time frames. Instead of specifying flow boundary conditions on conduit cells to recharge the network as is typically done in classical speleogenesis models, we specify an effective rainfall rate over the land surface and let model physics determine the amount of water entering the network. This is advantageous since the amount of water entering the network is extremely difficult to reconstruct, whereas the effective rainfall rate may be quantified using paleoclimatic data. Furthermore, we show that poorly known flow conditions may be constrained by requiring a realistic flow field. Using our speleogenesis model we have investigated factors that influence the geometry of simulated conduit networks. We illustrate that our model generates typical branchwork, network and anastomotic conduit systems. Flow, solute transport and water ages in karst aquifers are simulated using a few illustrative networks.

  9. Coordination functionalization of graphene oxide with tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of nickel(II): Generation of paramagnetic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: basiuk@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Alzate-Carvajal, Natalia [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Henao-Holguín, Laura V. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Rybak-Akimova, Elena V. [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elbg1111@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry,Tufts University, 62 Talbot Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} and [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} cations coordinate to carboxylic groups of GO. • The coordination takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based medium. • The coordination results in the conversion from low-spin to high-spin Ni(II). • Functionalized GO samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We describe a novel approach to functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) which allows for a facile generation of paramagnetic centers from two diamagnetic components. Coordination attachment of [Ni(cyclam)]{sup 2+} or [Ni(tet b)]{sup 2+} tetraazamacrocyclic cations to carboxylic groups of GO takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based reaction medium. The procedure is very straightforward and does not require high temperatures or other harsh conditions. Changing the coordination geometry of Ni(II) from square-planar tetracoordinated to pseudooctahedral hexacoordinated brings about the conversion from low-spin to high-spin state of the metal centers. Even though the content of tetraazamacrocyclic complexes in functionalized GO samples was found to be relatively low (nickel content of ca. 1 wt%, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements easily detected the appearance of paramagnetic properties in GO + [Ni(cyclam)] and GO + [Ni(tet b)] nanohybrids, with effective magnetic moments of 1.95 BM and 2.2 BM for, respectively. According to density functional theory calculations, the main spin density is localized at the macrocyclic complexes, without considerable extension to graphene sheet, which suggests insignificant ferromagnetic coupling in the nanohybrids, in agreement with the results of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The coordination attachment of Ni(II) tetraazamacrocycles to GO results in considerable changes in Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra

  10. Genomic Selection in the Era of Next Generation Sequencing for Complex Traits in Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javaid A; Ali, Sajad; Salgotra, Romesh K; Mir, Zahoor A; Dutta, Sutapa; Jadon, Vasudha; Tyagi, Anshika; Mushtaq, Muntazir; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Prabhu, K V

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising approach exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. In plant breeding, it provides opportunities to increase genetic gain of complex traits per unit time and cost. The cost-benefit balance was an important consideration for GS to work in crop plants. Availability of genome-wide high-throughput, cost-effective and flexible markers, having low ascertainment bias, suitable for large population size as well for both model and non-model crop species with or without the reference genome sequence was the most important factor for its successful and effective implementation in crop species. These factors were the major limitations to earlier marker systems viz., SSR and array-based, and was unimaginable before the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have provided novel SNP genotyping platforms especially the genotyping by sequencing. These marker technologies have changed the entire scenario of marker applications and made the use of GS a routine work for crop improvement in both model and non-model crop species. The NGS-based genotyping have increased genomic-estimated breeding value prediction accuracies over other established marker platform in cereals and other crop species, and made the dream of GS true in crop breeding. But to harness the true benefits from GS, these marker technologies will be combined with high-throughput phenotyping for achieving the valuable genetic gain from complex traits. Moreover, the continuous decline in sequencing cost will make the WGS feasible and cost effective for GS in near future. Till that time matures the targeted sequencing seems to be more cost-effective option for large scale marker discovery and GS, particularly in case of large and un-decoded genomes.

  11. Investigation of complexes with bone affinity using the In vivo generator system 166 Dy/166 Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of this original research lies in the fact that it has proven that the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system is a stable complex that can be used as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as 166 Ho-DOTMP or 153 Sm-DTMP, have been proposed for delivering ablative radiation doses to marrow in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies or have shown excellent results in palliative bone metastasis pain therapy, respectively. As lanthanides have similar chemical characteristics the phosphonate with bone affinity (EDTMP) labeled with Dy/Ho can be used for marrow ablation while causing minimal irradiation to normal organs. This in vivo generator system has not been previously reported. The aim of this research was to label EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) with 166 Dy/ 166 Ho; to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of both 166 Dy-EDTMP and 166 Ho-EDTMP complexes when the daughter 166 Ho is formed as a dysprosium decay product; to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect in mice and to evaluate, by histopathology, the myeloablative potential of the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system. 166 Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of enriched 164 Dy 2 O 3 in a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Labeling was carried out in an aqueous phosphate medium at pH 8.0 by addition of 166 DyCl 3 to EDTMP at a molar ratio 1:1.75, with >99 % radiochemical purity, as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro studies demonstrated that 166 Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP is unstable after dilution in saline but stable in human serum with no translocation of the daughter nucleus subsequent to β decay of 166 Dy, which could release free 166 Ho 3+ . Biodistribution in mice

  12. Suitability Analyses of Wind Power Generation Complex in South Korea by Using Environmental & Social Criterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Seong, M.

    2017-12-01

    In case of wind-power, one of the most economical renewable energy resources, it is highly emerged owing to the strategic aspect of the response of environmental restriction and strong energy security as well as the upcoming motivation for huge industrial growth in the future. According to the fourth Fundamental Renewable Energy Plan, declared in Sep. 2014, the government instituted the scheme to minimize the proportion of previous RDF(Refused Derived Fuel) till 2035, promoting the solar power and wind power as the core energy for the next generation. Especially in South Korea, it is somewhat desperate to suggest the standard for environmentally optimal locations of wind power setup accompanied with the prevention of disasters from the climate changes. This is because that in case of South Korea, most of suitable places for Wind power complex are in the ridge of the mountains, where is highly invaluable sites as the pool of bio-resources and ecosystem conservations. In this research, we are to focus on the analysis of suitable locations for wind farm site which is relevant to the meteorological and geological factors, by utilizing GIS techniques through the whole South Korea. Ultimately, this analyses are to minimize the adverse effect derived from the current development of wind power in mountain ridges and the time for negotiation for wind power advance.

  13. High Harmonic Generation XUV Spectroscopy for Studying Ultrafast Photophysics of Coordination Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Benke, Kristin; Verkamp, Max A.; Zhang, Kaili; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2017-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is an inner shell technique that probes the M_{2,3}-edge excitation of atoms. Absorption of the XUV photon causes a 3p→3d transition, the energy and shape of which is directly related to the element and ligand environment. This technique is thus element-, oxidation state-, spin state-, and ligand field specific. A process called high-harmonic generation (HHG) enables the production of ultrashort (˜20fs) pulses of collimated XUV photons in a tabletop instrument. This allows transient XUV spectroscopy to be conducted as an in-lab experiment, where it was previously only possible at accelerator-based light sources. Additionally, ultrashort pulses provide the capability for unprecedented time resolution (˜50fs IRF). This technique has the capacity to serve a pivotal role in the study of electron and energy transfer processes in materials and chemical biology. I will present the XUV transient absorption instrument we have built, along with ultrafast transient M_{2,3}-edge absorption data of a series of small inorganic molecules in order to demonstrate the high specificity and time resolution of this tabletop technique as well as how our group is applying it to the study of ultrafast electronic dynamics of coordination complexes.

  14. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  15. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  16. PROCESSING OF UAV BASED RANGE IMAGING DATA TO GENERATE DETAILED ELEVATION MODELS OF COMPLEX NATURAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  17. New Ru(II) complexes for dual photoreactivity: ligand exchange and (1)O2 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Turro, Claudia

    2015-08-18

    low-lying, long-lived dppn/Me2dppn (3)ππ* excited states that generate (1)O2. Similar to [Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2](2+), photodissociation of CH3CN occurs upon irradiation of [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2](2+), although with lower efficiency because of the presence of the (3)ππ* state. The steric bulk in [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)](2+) is critical in facilitating the photoinduced py dissociation, as the analogous complex [Ru(tpy)(dppn)(py)](2+) produces (1)O2 with near-unit efficiency. The ability to tune the relative energies of the excited states provides a means to design potentially more active drugs for photochemotherapy because the photorelease of drugs can be coupled to the therapeutic action of reactive oxygen species, effecting cell death via two different mechanisms. The lessons learned about tuning of the excited-state properties can be applied to the use of Ru(II)-polypyridyl compounds in a variety of applications, such as solar energy conversion, sensors and switches, and molecular machines.

  18. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    -c]phenazine) introduces low-lying, long-lived dppn/Me2dppn 3ππ* excited states that generate 1O2. Similar to [Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2]2+, photodissociation of CH3CN occurs upon irradiation of [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2]2+, although with lower efficiency because of the presence of the 3ππ* state. The steric bulk in [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ is critical in facilitating the photoinduced py dissociation, as the analogous complex [Ru(tpy)(dppn)(py)]2+ produces 1O2 with near-unit efficiency. The ability to tune the relative energies of the excited states provides a means to design potentially more active drugs for photochemotherapy because the photorelease of drugs can be coupled to the therapeutic action of reactive oxygen species, effecting cell death via two different mechanisms. The lessons learned about tuning of the excited-state properties can be applied to the use of Ru(II)–polypyridyl compounds in a variety of applications, such as solar energy conversion, sensors and switches, and molecular machines. PMID:26186416

  19. Generation of new solutions of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations by a double complex function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of certain differential equations, the double complex function method, is developed, combining ordinary complex numbers and hyperbolic complex numbers. This method is applied to the theory of stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations in general relativity. A family of exact double solutions, double transformation groups, and n-soliton double solutions are obtained

  20. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  1. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  2. Convective thermal fluxes in unsteady non-homogeneous flows generating complex three dimensional vorticity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary

    2016-04-01

    fresh water in order to form density interfaces. The Reynolds number can be reduced adding Glicerine the set of dimensionless parameters define different conditions of both numeric and small scale laboratory applied often in modeling environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients are computed using advanced visualization [8 9]. Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. When convective heating and cooling takes place the patterns depend on the parameter space region of the initial conditions We also map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure with several complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [2-4]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers, [4-6] The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or non-mixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [12] can be compared with the convective fronts. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied taking into account the dependence on the initial modes at the early stages, Self-similar information [13]. Spectral and Fractal analysis on the images seems very useful in order to

  3. An Atypical Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line With a Complex, Stable, and Balanced Genomic Rearrangement Including a Large De Novo 1q Uniparental Disomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Clara; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Luce, Eléanor; Pineau, Dominique; Dianat, Noushin; Hannoun, Zara; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy through their use as vital tools for regenerative and personalized medicine. However, the genomic integrity of hiPSCs still raises some concern and is one of the barriers limiting their use in clinical applications. Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of aneuploidies, copy number variations, or single point mutations in hiPSCs, and nonintegrative reprogramming strategies have been developed to minimize the impact of the reprogramming process on the hiPSC genome. Here, we report the characterization of an hiPSC line generated by daily transfections of modified messenger RNAs, displaying several genomic abnormalities. Karyotype analysis showed a complex genomic rearrangement, which remained stable during long-term culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the hiPSC line showing that this karyotype is balanced. Interestingly, single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of a large 1q region of uniparental disomy (UPD), demonstrating for the first time that UPD can occur in a noncompensatory context during nonintegrative reprogramming of normal fibroblasts. PMID:25650439

  4. Characteristics of entropy generation and heat transfer in double-layered micro heat sinks with complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Y.L.; Xia, G.D.; Liu, X.F.; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel DL-MCHS with complex structure is presented. • A model of entropy generation rate of DL-MCHSs is derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. • DL-MCHSs show better thermodynamic advantage and thermal performance under large volumetric flow rate. - Abstract: A new type of double-layered micro heat sink (DL-MCHS) with complex structure is designed and investigated numerically. Moreover, a model of entropy generation rate of DL-MCHSs is also derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Results for the relationship of entropy generation rate between the first and second layer of DL-MCHSs, total entropy generation rate, the average temperature on the bottom wall, thermal resistance and pressure drop are investigated in detail, respectively. The results indicate that the effect of entropy generation rate of the first layer on total entropy generation rate is dominant. The thermal characteristic of DL-MCHSs with complex structure is better than that of all DL-MCHSs and single-layered micro heat sinks (SL-MCHSs) with simple structure under the same volumetric flow rate. However, DL-MCHSs only show better thermodynamic advantage and thermal performance than SL-MCHSs with complex structure when the volumetric flow rate larger than a certain value. It is not reasonable to use DL-MCHSs for cooling microelectronic equipments under small volumetric flow rate due to the larger irreversibility. Finally, the pressure drop of DL-MHCSs can be reduced by properly changing the channel height under various volumetric flow rates. Due to the less irreversibility and more uniform temperature distribution on the bottom wall, DL-MCHSs can effectively eliminate the internal thermal stresses in microelectronic equipments. Therefore, DL-MCHSs are an alternative method for the electronic cooling. Moreover, the thermodynamic analysis provides references for the actual application design

  5. Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present work on a prototype tool based on the JavaPathfinder (JPF) model checker for automatically generating tests satisfying the MC/DC code coverage criterion. Using the Eclipse IDE, developers and testers can quickly instrument Java source code with JPF annotations covering all MC/DC coverage obligations, and JPF can then be used to automatically generate tests that satisfy these obligations. The prototype extension to JPF enables various tasks useful in automatic test generation to be performed, such as test suite reduction and execution of generated tests.

  6. Post-transcriptional generation of miRNA variants by multiple nucleotidyl transferases contributes to miRNA transcriptome complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Stacia K; Knouf, Emily C; Parkin, Rachael K; Fritz, Brian R; Lin, Daniel W; Dennis, Lucas M; Krouse, Michael A; Webster, Philippa J; Tewari, Muneesh

    2011-09-01

    Modification of microRNA sequences by the 3' addition of nucleotides to generate so-called "isomiRs" adds to the complexity of miRNA function, with recent reports showing that 3' modifications can influence miRNA stability and efficiency of target repression. Here, we show that the 3' modification of miRNAs is a physiological and common post-transcriptional event that shows selectivity for specific miRNAs and is observed across species ranging from C. elegans to human. The modifications result predominantly from adenylation and uridylation and are seen across tissue types, disease states, and developmental stages. To quantitatively profile 3' nucleotide additions, we developed and validated a novel assay based on NanoString Technologies' nCounter platform. For certain miRNAs, the frequency of modification was altered by processes such as cell differentiation, indicating that 3' modification is a biologically regulated process. To investigate the mechanism of 3' nucleotide additions, we used RNA interference to screen a panel of eight candidate miRNA nucleotidyl transferases for 3' miRNA modification activity in human cells. Multiple enzymes, including MTPAP, PAPD4, PAPD5, ZCCHC6, ZCCHC11, and TUT1, were found to govern 3' nucleotide addition to miRNAs in a miRNA-specific manner. Three of these enzymes-MTPAP, ZCCHC6, and TUT1-have not previously been known to modify miRNAs. Collectively, our results indicate that 3' modification observed in next-generation small RNA sequencing data is a biologically relevant process, and identify enzymatic mechanisms that may lead to new approaches for modulating miRNA activity in vivo.

  7. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  8. Considerations and Optimization of Time-Resolved PIV Measurements near Complex Wind-Generated Air-Water Wave Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Markfort, Corey

    2017-11-01

    Time Resolved PIV measurements are applied on both sides of air-water interface in order to study the coupling between air and fluid motion. The multi-scale and 3-dimensional nature of the wave structure poses several unique considerations to generate optimal-quality data very near the fluid interface. High resolution and dynamic range in space and time are required to resolve relevant flow scales along a complex and ever-changing interface. Characterizing the two-way coupling across the air-water interface provide unique challenges for optical measurement techniques. Approaches to obtain near-boundary measurement on both sides of interface are discussed, including optimal flow seeding procedures, illumination, data analysis, and interface tracking. Techniques are applied to the IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel and example results presented for both sides of the interface. The facility combines a 30m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  9. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  10. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  11. Synergistic enhancement of chemokine generation and lung injury by C5a or the membrane attack complex of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B; Bless, N M

    1999-01-01

    demonstrated synergistic production of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) and C-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant-1) chemokines. In the absence of the costimulus, C5a or MAC did not induce chemokine generation....... In in vivo studies, C5a and MAC alone caused limited or no intrapulmonary generation of chemokines, but in the presence of a costimulus (IgG immune complexes) C5a and MAC caused synergistic intrapulmonary generation of C-X-C and C-C chemokines but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Under these conditions...... increased neutrophil accumulation occurred, as did lung injury. These observations suggest that C5a and MAC function synergistically with a costimulus to enhance chemokine generation and the intensity of the lung inflammatory response....

  12. Understanding and Mitigating the Charging Behavior of Next Generation Complex and Active Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft that are fundamentally more complex and higher powered are necessary to expand our scientific missions and take commercial space endeavors to the next...

  13. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  14. [Generation of Superoxide Radicals by Complex III in Heart Mitochondria and Antioxidant Effect of Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes at Different Partial Pressure of Oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudylina, A L; Ivanova, M V; Shumaev, K B; Ruuge, E K

    2016-01-01

    The EPR spin-trapping technique and EPR-oximetry were used to study generation of superoxide radicals in heart mitochondria isolated from Wistar rats under conditions of variable oxygen concentration. Lithium phthalocyanine and TEMPONE-15N-D16 were chosen to determine oxygen content in a gas-permeable capillary tube containing mitochondria. TIRON was used as a spin trap. We investigated the influence of different oxygen concentrations in incubation mixture and demonstrated that heart mitochondria can generate superoxide in complex III at different partial pressure of oxygen as well as under the conditions of deep hypoxia (partial pressure of oxygen, but the magnitude and kinetic characteristics of the effect depended on the concentration of the drug.

  15. Automatic Generation of Complex Spatial Trajectories of the UAV and Synthesis of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Tkachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method and algorithms that allow us to design complex spatial trajectories for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV passing through a given sequence of waypoints in the three-dimensional space.The nonlinear six-dimensional model of the UAV center-of-mass motion given in the trajectory frame is used for calculations. The state vector includes the altitude, the along-track deviation, the cross-track position, the velocity, the flight-path angle and the heading angle. The longitudinal and transverse overloads and the angle between the cross overload vector and vertical plane are considered as controls. This angle is often named as the roll angle.The feature of the problem is that both positions at waypoints and additional conditions are given. These conditions determine orientation of the velocity vector at each point (using the flight path angle and the heading angle. We also set either the point-visiting time or the pointvisiting velocity. The full state vector and controls are fixed at the starting waypoint.To construct a spatial trajectory, the concept of inverse dynamics problems is applied, as well as modern results of mathematical control theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. The introduction of new virtual controls allows us to represent the original system as an affine (linear in control system. Then, the designed system is converted into the regular canonical form.When we set flight times between any two waypoints, the corresponding segments of the trajectory are designed using time-dependent polynomials of the fifth degree. These polynomials specify the altitude variation, the variation of the along-track deviation and that of the cross-track position. If the point-visiting times are not fixed, the transition to a new independent variable (the normalized mechanical energy of the system is used. This transition is possible if the energy varies monotonically. In this case, the spatial trajectory is defined as a

  16. Multi-agent evolutionary systems for the generation of complex virtual worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kruse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern films, games and virtual reality applications are dependent on convincing computer graphics. Highly complex models are a requirement for the successful delivery of many scenes and environments. While workflows such as rendering, compositing and animation have been streamlined to accommodate increasing demands, modelling complex models is still a laborious task. This paper introduces the computational benefits of an Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA to computer graphics modelling while compensating the effects of user fatigue, a common issue with Interactive Evolutionary Computation. An intelligent agent is used in conjunction with an IGA that offers the potential to reduce the effects of user fatigue by learning from the choices made by the human designer and directing the search accordingly. This workflow accelerates the layout and distribution of basic elements to form complex models. It captures the designer’s intent through interaction, and encourages playful discovery.

  17. Generating "fragment-based virtual library" using pocket similarity search of ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Raed S

    2015-01-01

    As the number of available ligand-receptor complexes is increasing, researchers are becoming more dedicated to mine these complexes to aid in the drug design and development process. We present free software which is developed as a tool for performing similarity search across ligand-receptor complexes for identifying binding pockets which are similar to that of a target receptor. The search is based on 3D-geometric and chemical similarity of the atoms forming the binding pocket. For each match identified, the ligand's fragment(s) corresponding to that binding pocket are extracted, thus forming a virtual library of fragments (FragVLib) that is useful for structure-based drug design. The program provides a very useful tool to explore available databases.

  18. BT-Nurse: computer generation of natural language shift summaries from complex heterogeneous medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James; Freer, Yvonne; Gatt, Albert; Reiter, Ehud; Sripada, Somayajulu; Sykes, Cindy; Westwater, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The BT-Nurse system uses data-to-text technology to automatically generate a natural language nursing shift summary in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The summary is solely based on data held in an electronic patient record system, no additional data-entry is required. BT-Nurse was tested for two months in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh NICU. Nurses were asked to rate the understandability, accuracy, and helpfulness of the computer-generated summaries; they were also asked for free-text comments about the summaries. The nurses found the majority of the summaries to be understandable, accurate, and helpful (pgenerated summaries. In conclusion, natural language NICU shift summaries can be automatically generated from an electronic patient record, but our proof-of-concept software needs considerable additional development work before it can be deployed.

  19. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  20. A Biomimetic Nickel Complex with a Reduced CO2 Ligand Generated by Formate Deprotonation and its Behaviour towards CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp; Hoof, Santina; Braun-Cula, Beatrice; Herwig, Christian

    2018-04-10

    Reduced CO2 species are key intermediates in a variety of natural and synthetic processes. In the majority of systems, however, they elude isolation or characterisation due to high reactivity or limited accessibility (heterogeneous systems) and thus formulations often remain uncertain or based on calculations only. We herein report on a Ni-CO22- complex that is unique in many ways. While its structural and electronic features help understanding the CO2 bound state in Ni,Fe carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, its reactivity sheds light on how CO2 can be converted into CO/CO32- by nickel complexes. In addition, the complex has been generated via a rare example of formate β deprotonation, a mechanistical step relevant to nickel catalysed conversion of HxCOyz- at electrodes and formate oxidation in formate dehydrogenases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A Case of Generativity in a Culturally and Linguistically Complex English Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This article examines an ESL English language arts teacher's conceptions of linguistic diversity, literacy learning and her role as teacher in a culturally and linguistically complex classroom. It further examines her processes of learning about, and developing curricular and pedagogical innovations to meet, her students' learning needs. The…

  2. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  3. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence--the example of managing multi-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne; Blakeman, Tom; Freeman, George K; Green, Larry A; James, Paul A; Lucassen, Peter; Martin, Carmel M; Sturmberg, Joachim P; van Weel, Chris

    2013-08-07

    A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet the concept of multi-morbidity (the presence of >2 diseases) is a product of the design of health care systems which define health care need on the basis of disease status. So does the solution lie in an alternative model of healthcare? Strengthening generalist practice has been proposed as part of the solution to tackling multi-morbidity. Generalism is a professional philosophy of practice, deeply known to many practitioners, and described as expertise in whole person medicine. But generalism lacks the evidence base needed by policy makers and planners to support service redesign. The challenge is to fill this practice-research gap in order to critically explore if and when generalist care offers a robust alternative to management of this complex problem. We need practice-based evidence to fill this gap. By recognising generalist practice as a 'complex intervention' (intervening in a complex system), we outline an approach to evaluate impact using action-research principles. We highlight the implications for those who both commission and undertake research in order to tackle this problem. Answers to the complex problem of multi-morbidity won't come from doing more of the same. We need to change systems of care, and so the systems for generating evidence to support that care. This paper contributes to that work through outlining a process for generating practice-based evidence of generalist solutions to the complex problem of person-centred care for people with multi-morbidity.

  4. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the sites and mechanisms underlying the generation of respiratory rhythm is of longstanding interest to physiologists and neurobiologists. Recently, with the development of novel experimental preparations, especially in vitro en bloc and slice preparations of rodent brainstem, p...... activity of pacemaker or group-pacemaker neurons....

  5. Learning Ecosystem Complexity: A Study on Small-Scale Fishers' Ecological Knowledge Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are learning contexts of importance for generating, transferring and updating ecological knowledge of natural environments through everyday work practices. The rich knowledge fishers have of local ecosystems is the result of the intimate relationship fishing communities have had with their natural environments across…

  6. Modeling of complex premixed burner systems by using flamelet-generated manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van J.A.; Lammers, F.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The numerical modeling of realistic burner systems puts a very high demand on computational recources.The computational cost of combustion simulations can be reduced by reduction techniques which simplify the chemical kinetics. In this paper the recently introduced Flamelet-Generated Manifold method

  7. Managing the complexity and uncertainties of load, generation and markets in system development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    System planners face today unique challenges to accommodate the new uncertainties in markets, loads and generation and to develop system plans that balance reliability, economy and risk. The report summarizes a survey of the methods used worldwide. In addition, case examples are provided to illustrate in more detail these methods

  8. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)–polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and 1O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field (3LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet meta...

  9. Alkynyl gold(I) complex triggers necroptosis via ROS generation in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Inés; Virumbrales-Muñoz, María; Quero, Javier; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Cerrada, Elena; Yoldi, Mª Jesús Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Given the rise of apoptosis-resistant tumors, there exist a growing interest in developing new drugs capable of inducing different types of cell death to reduce colorectal cancer-related death rates. As apoptosis and necroptosis do not share cellular machinery, necroptosis induction may have a great therapeutic potential on those apoptosis-resistant cancers, despite the inflammatory effects associated with it. We have synthesized an alkynyl gold(I) complex [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] whose anticancer effect was tested on the colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell line. With regard to its mechanism of action, this gold complex enters the mitochondria and disrupts its normal function, leading to an increase in ROS production, which triggers necroptosis. Necroptosis induction has been found dependent of TNF-α (Tumor necrosisfactor α) and TNFR1(Tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1) binding, RIP1(Receptor-Interacting Protein 1) activation and NF-κB (Nuclear Factor Kappa-Light-Chain-Enhancer of Activated B Cells) signaling. Moreover, the antitumor potential of [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] has also been confirmed on the 3D cancer model spheroid. Overall, the obtained data show firstly that gold complexes might have the ability of inducing necroptosis, and secondarily that our compound [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] is an interesting alternative to current chemotherapy drugs in cases of apoptosis resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. On the plumbing system of volcanic complexes: field constraints from the Isle of Skye (UK) and FEM elasto-plastic modelling including gravity and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Pisterna, R.; Romano, V.; Rust, D.; Tibaldi, A.

    2009-04-01

    The plumbing system that connects a sub-volcanic magma reservoir to the surface has been the object of field characterization and mechanical modelling efforts since the pioneering work by Anderson (1936), who produced a detailed account of the spectacular Cullin Cone-sheet Complex (Isle of Skye, UK) and a geometrical and mechanical model aimed at defining the depth to the magma chamber. Since this work, the definition of the stress state in the half space comprised between the magma reservoir and the surface (modelled either as a flat surface or a surface comprising a volcanic edifice) was considered the key point in reconstructing dike propagation paths from the magma chamber. In fact, this process is generally seen as the propagation in an elastic media of purely tensional joints (mode I or opening mode propagation), which follow trajectories perpendicular to the least compressive principal stress axis. Later works generally used different continuum mechanics methodologies (analytic, BEM, FEM) to solve the problem of a pressure source (the magma chamber, either a point source or a finite volume) in an elastic (in some cases heterogeneous) half space (bounded by a flat topography or topped by a "volcano"). All these models (with a few limited exceptions) disregard the effect of the regional stress field, which is caused by tectonic boundary forces and gravitational body load, and consider only the pressure source represented by the magma chamber (review in Gudmundsson, 2006). However, this is only a (sometimes subordinate) component of the total stress field. Grosfils (2007) first introduced the gravitational load (but not tectonic stresses) in an elastic model solved with FEM in a 2D axisymmetric half-space, showing that "failure to incorporate gravitational loading correctly" affect the calculated stress pattern and many of the predictions that can be drawn from the models. In this contribution we report on modelling results that include: 2D axisymmetric or true

  11. PMJ panel discussion overview on mask complexities, cost, and cycle time in 32-nm system LSI generation: conflict or concurrent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Kunihiro; Kato, Kokoro

    2008-10-01

    This is a report on a panel discussion organized in Photomask Japan 2008, where the challenges about "Mask Complexities, Cost, and Cycle Time in 32-nm System LSI Generation" were addressed to have a look over the possible solutions from the standpoints of chipmaker, commercial mask shop, DA tool vendor and equipments makers. The wrap-up is as follows: Mask complexities justify the mask cost, while the acceptable increase rate of 32nm-mask cost significantly differs between mask suppliers or users side. The efficiency progress by new tools or DFM has driven their cycle-time reductions. Mask complexities and cost will be crucial issues prior to cycle time, and there seems to be linear correlation between them. Controlling complexity and cycle time requires developing a mix of advanced technologies, and especially for cost reduction, shot prices in writers and processing rates in inspection tools have been improved remarkably by tool makers. In addition, activities of consortium in Japan (Mask D2I) are expected to enhance the total optimization of mask design, writing and inspection. The cycle-time reduction potentially drives the lowering of mask cost, and, on the other, the pattern complexities and tighter mask specifications get in the way to 32nm generation as well as the nano-economics and market challenges. There are still many difficult problems in mask manufacturing now, and we are sure to go ahead to overcome a 32nm hurdle with the advances of technologies and collaborations by not only technologies but also finance.

  12. Nuclear refinery - advanced energy complex for electricity generation, clean fuel production, and heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In planning for increased U.S. energy users' demand after the year 2000 there are essentially four salient vectors: (1) reduced reliance on imported crude oil; (2) provide a secure supply with stable economics; (3) supply system must be in concert with improved environment goals; and (4) maximum use to be made of indigenous resources. For the last decade of this century the aforementioned will likely be met by increasing utilization of natural gas. Early in the next century, however, in the U.S. and the newly industrializing nations, the ever increasing energy demand will only be met by the combined use of uranium and coal. The proposed nuclear refinery concept is an advanced energy complex that has at its focal point an advanced modular helium reactor (MHR). This nuclear facility, together with a coal feedstock, could contribute towards meeting the needs of the four major energy sectors in the U.S., namely electricity, transportation, industrial heating and chemical feedstock, and space and water heating. Such a nuclear/coal synergistic system would be in concert with improved air quality goals. This paper discusses the major features and multifaceted operation of a nuclear refinery concept, and identifies the enabling technologies needed for such an energy complex to become a reality early in the 21st century. (Author)

  13. Generation of Complex Verbal Morphology in First and Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Gor

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the structure of the mental lexicon and the processing of Russian verbal morphology by two groups of speakers, adult American learners of Russian and Russian children aged 4-6, and reports the results of two matching experiments conducted at the University of Maryland, USA and St. Petersburg State University, Russia. The theoretical framework for this study comes from research on the structure of the mental lexicon and modularity in morphological processing. So far, there are very few studies investigating the processing of complex verbal morphology, with most of the work done on Icelandic, Norwegian, Italian, and Russian. The current views are shaped predominantly by research on English regular and irregular past-tense inflection, which has been conducted within two competing approaches. This study investigates the processing of verbal morphology in Russian, a language with numerous verb classes differing in size and the number and complexity of conjugation rules. It assumes that instead of a sharp opposition of regular and irregular verb processing, a gradual parameter of regularity may be more appropriate for Russian. Therefore, the issue of symbolic rule application versus associative patterning can take on a new meaning for Russian, possibly, with the distinction between default and non-default processing replacing the regular-irregular distinction.

  14. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  15. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-01-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  16. A new theory of development: the generation of complexity in ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marcello

    2016-03-13

    Today there is a very wide consensus on the idea that embryonic development is the result of a genetic programme and of epigenetic processes. Many models have been proposed in this theoretical framework to account for the various aspects of development, and virtually all of them have one thing in common: they do not acknowledge the presence of organic codes (codes between organic molecules) in ontogenesis. Here it is argued instead that embryonic development is a convergent increase in complexity that necessarily requires organic codes and organic memories, and a few examples of such codes are described. This is the code theory of development, a theory that was originally inspired by an algorithm that is capable of reconstructing structures from incomplete information, an algorithm that here is briefly summarized because it makes it intuitively appealing how a convergent increase in complexity can be achieved. The main thesis of the new theory is that the presence of organic codes in ontogenesis is not only a theoretical necessity but, first and foremost, an idea that can be tested and that has already been found to be in agreement with the evidence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Next generation of novel psychoactive substances on the horizon - A complex problem to face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid and continuous growth in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) across the world. Although various products are labeled with warnings "not for human consumption", they are intended to mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. Once some compounds become regulated, new analogues appear in order to satisfy consumers' demands and at the same time to avoid criminalization. This review presents updated information on the second generation of NPS, introduced as replacements of the already banned substances from this class, focusing on their pharmacological properties and metabolism, routes of administration, and effects in humans. Literature search, covering years 2013-2015, was performed using the following keywords alone or in combination: "novel psychoactive substances", "cathinones", "synthetic cannabinoids", "benzofurans", "phenethylamines", "2C-drugs", "NBOMe", "methoxetamine", "opioids", "toxicity", and "metabolism". More than 400 NPS have been reported in Europe, with 255 detected in 2012-2014. The most popular are synthetic cannabimimetics and psychostimulant cathinones; use of psychedelics and opioids is less common. Accumulating experimental and clinical data indicate that potential harms associated with the use of second generation NPS could be even more serious than those described for the already banned drugs. NPS are constantly emerging on the illicit drug market and represent an important health problem. A significant amount of research is needed in order to fully quantify both the short and long term effects of the second generation NPS, and their interaction with other drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RADCHARM++: A C++ routine to compute the electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in crystals and complex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandiera, Laura; Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, Victor V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    The analytical theories of coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation well describe the process of radiation generation in crystals under some special cases. However, the treatment of complex situations requires the usage of a more general approach. In this report we present a C++ routine, named RADCHARM++, to compute the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons and positrons in crystals and complex structures. In the RADCHARM++ routine, the model for the computation of e.m. radiation generation is based on the direct integration of the quasiclassical formula of Baier and Katkov. This approach allows one taking into account real trajectories, and thereby the contribution of incoherent scattering. Such contribution can be very important in many cases, for instance for electron channeling. The generality of the Baier–Katkov operator method permits one to simulate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons/positrons in very different cases, e.g., in straight, bent and periodically bent crystals, and for different beam energy ranges, from sub-GeV to TeV and above. The RADCHARM++ routine has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code DYNECHARM++, which solves the classical equation of motion of charged particles traveling through a crystal under the continuum potential approximation. The code has proved to reproduce the results of experiments performed at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI) with 855 MeV electrons and has been used to predict the radiation spectrum generated by the same electron beam in a bent crystal.

  19. Complex network structure of musical compositions: Algorithmic generation of appealing music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct networks for music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurring connections. We analyze classical music from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music such as Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. We conjecture that preserving the universal network properties is a necessary step in artificial composition of music. Power-law exponents of node degree, node strength and/or edge weight distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be composed artificially using a controlled random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. By generating a large number of compositions, we find that this algorithm generates music which has the necessary qualities to be subjectively judged as appealing.

  20. A generation-attraction model for renewable energy flows in Italy: A complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Giannuzzi, Giovanni Luca; Facchini, Angelo; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Basosi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, in Italy, the trend of the electricity demand and the need to connect a large number of renewable energy power generators to the power-grid, developed a novel type of energy transmission/distribution infrastructure. The Italian Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), worked on a new infrastructural model, based on electronic meters and information technology. In pursuing this objective it is crucial importance to understand how even more larger shares of renewable energy can be fully integrated, providing a constant and reliable energy background over space and time. This is particularly true for intermittent sources as photovoltaic installations due to the fine-grained distribution of them across the Country. In this work we use an over-simplified model to characterize the Italian power grid as a graph whose nodes are Italian municipalities and the edges cross the administrative boundaries between a selected municipality and its first neighbours, following a Delaunay triangulation. Our aim is to describe the power flow as a diffusion process over a network, and using open data on the solar irradiation at the ground level, we estimate the production of photovoltaic energy in each node. An attraction index was also defined using demographic data, in accordance with average per capita energy consumption data. The available energy on each node was calculated by finding the stationary state of a generation-attraction model.

  1. Using Deep Learning to Predict Complex Systems: A Case Study in Wind Farm Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Making every component of an electrical system work in unison is being made more challenging by the increasing number of renewable energies used, the electrical output of which is difficult to determine beforehand. In Spain, the daily electricity market opens with a 12-hour lead time, where the supply and demand expected for the following 24 hours are presented. When estimating the generation, energy sources like nuclear are highly stable, while peaking power plants can be run as necessary. Renewable energies, however, which should eventually replace peakers insofar as possible, are reliant on meteorological conditions. In this paper we propose using different deep-learning techniques and architectures to solve the problem of predicting wind generation in order to participate in the daily market, by making predictions 12 and 36 hours in advance. We develop and compare various estimators based on feedforward, convolutional, and recurrent neural networks. These estimators were trained and validated with data from a wind farm located on the island of Tenerife. We show that the best candidates for each type are more precise than the reference estimator and the polynomial regression currently used at the wind farm. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine which estimator type is most robust to perturbations. An analysis of our findings shows that the most accurate and robust estimators are those based on feedforward neural networks with a SELU activation function and convolutional neural networks.

  2. Next-generation mTOR inhibitors in clinical oncology: how pathway complexity informs therapeutic strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wander, Seth A

    2011-04-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a PI3K-related kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival via mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. The mTOR pathway is often aberrantly activated in cancers. While hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and DNA damage restrain mTORC1 activity, multiple genetic events constitutively activate mTOR in cancers. Here we provide a brief overview of the signaling pathways up- and downstream of mTORC1 and -2, and discuss the insights into therapeutic anticancer targets - both those that have been tried in the clinic with limited success and those currently under clinical development - that knowledge of these pathways gives us.

  3. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  4. Expanding Thorium Hydride Chemistry Through Th²⁺, Including the Synthesis of a Mixed-Valent Th⁴⁺/Th³⁺ Hydride Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslay, Ryan R; Fieser, Megan E; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2016-03-30

    The reactivity of the recently discovered Th(2+) complex [K(18-crown-6)(THF)2][Cp″3Th], 1 [Cp'' = C5H3(SiMe3)2-1,3], with hydrogen reagents has been investigated and found to provide syntheses of new classes of thorium hydride compounds. Complex 1 reacts with [Et3NH][BPh4] to form the terminal Th(4+) hydride complex Cp″3ThH, 2, a reaction that formally involves a net two-electron reduction. Complex 1 also reacts in the solid state and in solution with H2 to form a mixed-valent bimetallic product, [K(18-crown-6)(Et2O)][Cp″2ThH2]2, 3, which was analyzed by X-ray crystallography, electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy, and density functional theory. The existence of 3, which formally contains Th(3+) and Th(4+), suggested that KC8 could reduce [(C5Me5)2ThH2]2. In the presence of 18-crown-6, this reaction forms an analogous mixed-valent product formulated as [K(18-crown-6)(THF)][(C5Me5)2ThH2]2, 4. A similar complex with (C5Me4H)(1-) ligands was not obtained, but reaction of (C5Me4H)3Th with H2 in the presence of KC8 and 2.2.2-cryptand at -45 °C produced two monometallic hydride products, namely, (C5Me4H)3ThH, 5, and [K(2.2.2-cryptand)]{(C5Me4H)2[η(1):η(5)-C5Me3H(CH2)]ThH]}, 6. Complex 6 contains a metalated tetramethylcyclopentadienyl dianion, [C5Me3H(CH2)](2-), that binds in a tuck-in mode.

  5. Post-transcriptional generation of miRNA variants by multiple nucleotidyl transferases contributes to miRNA transcriptome complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Wyman, Stacia K.; Knouf, Emily C.; Parkin, Rachael K.; Fritz, Brian R.; Lin, Daniel W.; Dennis, Lucas M.; Krouse, Michael A.; Webster, Philippa J.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2011-01-01

    Modification of microRNA sequences by the 3′ addition of nucleotides to generate so-called “isomiRs” adds to the complexity of miRNA function, with recent reports showing that 3′ modifications can influence miRNA stability and efficiency of target repression. Here, we show that the 3′ modification of miRNAs is a physiological and common post-transcriptional event that shows selectivity for specific miRNAs and is observed across species ranging from C. elegans to human. The modifications resul...

  6. Field programmable gate array (FPGA implementation of novel complex PN-code-generator- based data scrambler and descrambler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir A. Parah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for the generation of complex and lengthy code sequences using low- length linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs for data scrambling and descrambling is proposed. The scheme has been implemented using VHSIC hardware description language (VHDL approach which allows the reconfigurability of the proposed system such that the length of the generated sequences can be changed as per the security requirements. In the present design consideration the power consumption and chip area requirements are small and the operating speed is high compared to conventional discrete I.C. design, which is a pre-requisite for any system designer. The design has been synthesised on device EP2S15F484C3 of Straitx II FPGA family, using Quarts Altera version 8.1. The simulation results have been found satisfactory and are in conformity with the theoretical observations.

  7. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E.; Leong, Kam W.; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Coadministering FIX orally and systemically induces tolerance via complex immune regulation, involving tolerogenic dendritic and T-cell subsets.Induced CD4+CD25−LAP+ regulatory T cells with increased IL-10 and TGF-β expression and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress antibody formation against FIX.

  8. [Effects of therapeutic complexes including balneoradonokinesitherapy, electromyostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy on regional blood flow in patients with postrraumatic gonarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopova, E A; Udartsev, E Iu

    2006-01-01

    Balneoradonokinesitherapy alone and its combination with electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy were used for the treatment of regional blood flow disorders in 76 patients with posttraumatic gonarthritis. Balneoradonokinesitherapy in combination with electromyostimulation improved blood circulation. When low-frequency magnetotherapy was added to the latter complex, the regress of regional blood flow disorders of a damaged extremity was most significant.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of a Cell Adhesion Protein Complex Including CADM1 by Combinatorial Analysis of FRAP with Exponential Curve-Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai-Yageta, Mika; Maruyama, Tomoko; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Protein components of cell adhesion machinery show continuous renewal even in the static state of epithelial cells and participate in the formation and maintenance of normal epithelial architecture and tumor suppression. CADM1 is a tumor suppressor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule and forms a cell adhesion complex with an actin-binding protein, 4.1B, and a scaffold protein, MPP3, in the cytoplasm. Here, we investigate dynamic regulation of the CADM1-4.1B-MPP3 complex in mature cell adhesion by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Traditional FRAP analysis were performed for relatively short period of around 10min. Here, thanks to recent advances in the sensitive laser detector systems, we examine FRAP of CADM1 complex for longer period of 60 min and analyze the recovery with exponential curve-fitting to distinguish the fractions with different diffusion constants. This approach reveals that the fluorescence recovery of CADM1 is fitted to a single exponential function with a time constant (τ) of approximately 16 min, whereas 4.1B and MPP3 are fitted to a double exponential function with two τs of approximately 40-60 sec and 16 min. The longer τ is similar to that of CADM1, suggesting that 4.1B and MPP3 have two distinct fractions, one forming a complex with CADM1 and the other present as a free pool. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching analysis supports the presence of a free pool of these proteins near the plasma membrane. Furthermore, double exponential fitting makes it possible to estimate the ratio of 4.1B and MPP3 present as a free pool and as a complex with CADM1 as approximately 3:2 and 3:1, respectively. Our analyses reveal a central role of CADM1 in stabilizing the complex with 4.1B and MPP3 and provide insight in the dynamics of adhesion complex formation. PMID:25780926

  10. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  11. Magnetic storm generation by large-scale complex structure Sheath/ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Yermolaev, M. Y.; Riazantseva, M.; Borodkova, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as magnetospheric indices. We use our catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena for 1976-2000 interval (see the catalog for 1976-2016 in web-side ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/ prepared on basis of OMNI database (Yermolaev et al., 2009)) and the double superposed epoch analysis method (Yermolaev et al., 2010). Our analysis showed (Yermolaev et al., 2015) that average profiles of Dst and Dst* indices decrease in Sheath interval (magnetic storm activity increases) and increase in ICME interval. This profile coincides with inverted distribution of storm numbers in both intervals (Yermolaev et al., 2017). This behavior is explained by following reasons. (1) IMF magnitude in Sheath is higher than in Ejecta and closed to value in MC. (2) Sheath has 1.5 higher efficiency of storm generation than ICME (Nikolaeva et al., 2015). The most part of so-called CME-induced storms are really Sheath-induced storms and this fact should be taken into account during Space Weather prediction. The work was in part supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 16-12-10062. References. 1. Nikolaeva N.S., Y. I. Yermolaev and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the corrected Dst* index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic Res., 53(2), 119-127 2. Yermolaev Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Res., , 47(2), 81-94 3. Yermolaev, Y. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Y. Yermolaev (2010), Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-induced, Sheath-induced, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis, Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177-2186 4. Yermolaev Yu. I., I. G. Lodkina, N. S. Nikolaeva and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2015), Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch

  12. EPR spectroscopy of MRI-related Gd(III) complexes: simultaneous analysis of multiple frequency and temperature spectra, including static and transient crystal field effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E

    2001-03-21

    For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  13. Computational and Experimental Evaluation of a Complex Inlet Swirl Pattern Generation System (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    1 of 2 Cameras Laser Head Mounted Directly Below Acrylic Duct D ow nl oa de d by A FR L D ’A zz o W ri gh t- Pa tte rs on o n A ug us t 2 6, 2...Virginia Tech 6” Wind Tunnel Honeycomb Screens 24” 71” 26” 24” 32” 15” 24” 60” 12” 6 Dia. ” Duct StreamVane Acrylic Duct Laser Head Laser Sheet Square to...process the data is LaVision DaVis version 8.3.0 with a stereo package included. The cameras were LaVision Image Pro4X with 2048 x 2048 pixels

  14. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome as a cause of encephalopathy that includes cognitive disability, treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy and a complex movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John M

    2012-05-01

    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, resulting in impaired glucose transport into the brain. It is characterized by a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (hypoglycorrhachia) in the absence of hypoglycemia, in combination with low to normal lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It often results in treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy with progressive developmental disabilities and a complex movement disorder. Recognizing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is important, since initiation of a ketogenic diet can reduce the frequency of seizures and the severity of the movement disorder. There can be a considerable delay in diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and this point is illustrated by the natural history of this disorder in a 21-year-old woman with severe, progressive neurological disabilities. Her encephalopathy consisted of treatment-resistant seizures, a complex movement disorder, progressive intellectual disability, and deceleration of her head growth after late infancy. Focused evaluation at age 21 revealed GLUT1 deficiency caused by a novel heterozygous missence mutation in exon 7 (c.938C > A; p.Ser313Try) in SLC2A1 as the cause for her disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Next-generation systematics: An innovative approach to resolve the structure of complex prokaryotic taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Jones, Amanda L.; Schwalbe, Edward C.; Blom, Jochen; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2016-12-01

    Prokaryotic systematics provides the fundamental framework for microbiological research but remains a discipline that relies on a labour- and time-intensive polyphasic taxonomic approach, including DNA-DNA hybridization, variation in 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. These techniques suffer from poor resolution in distinguishing between closely related species and often result in misclassification and misidentification of strains. Moreover, guidelines are unclear for the delineation of bacterial genera. Here, we have applied an innovative phylogenetic and taxogenomic approach to a heterogeneous actinobacterial taxon, Rhodococcus, to identify boundaries for intrageneric and supraspecific classification. Seven species-groups were identified within the genus Rhodococcus that are as distantly related to one another as they are to representatives of other mycolic acid containing actinobacteria and can thus be equated with the rank of genus. It was also evident that strains assigned to rhodococcal species-groups are underspeciated with many misclassified using conventional taxonomic criteria. The phylogenetic and taxogenomic methods used in this study provide data of theoretical value for the circumscription of generic and species boundaries and are also of practical significance as they provide a robust basis for the classification and identification of rhodococci of agricultural, industrial and medical/veterinary significance.

  16. Late metal carbene complexes generated by multiple C-H activations: examining the continuum of M=C bond reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Matthew T; Grubbs, Robert H

    2009-10-20

    Unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds are ubiquitous in organic chemicals and hydrocarbon feedstocks. However, these resources remain largely untapped, and the development of efficient homogeneous methods for hydrocarbon functionalization by C-H activation is an attractive and unresolved challenge for synthetic chemists. Transition-metal catalysis offers an attractive possible means for achieving selective, catalytic C-H functionalization given the thermodynamically favorable nature of many desirable partial oxidation schemes and the propensity of transition-metal complexes to cleave C-H bonds. Selective C-H activation, typically by a single cleavage event to produce M-C(sp(3)) products, is possible through myriad reported transition-metal species. In contrast, several recent reports have shown that late transition metals may react with certain substrates to perform multiple C-H activations, generating M=C(sp(2)) complexes for further elaboration. In light of the rich reactivity of metal-bound carbenes, such a route could open a new manifold of reactivity for catalytic C-H functionalization, and we have targeted this strategy in our studies. In this Account, we highlight several early examples of late transition-metal complexes that have been shown to generate metal-bound carbenes by multiple C-H activations and briefly examine factors leading to the selective generation of metal carbenes through this route. Using these reports as a backdrop, we focus on the double C-H activation of ethers and amines at iridium complexes supported by Ozerov's amidophosphine PNP ligand (PNP = [N(2-P(i)Pr(2)-4-Me-C(6)H(3))(2)](-)), allowing isolation of unusual square-planar iridium(I) carbenes. These species exhibit reactivity that is distinct from the archetypal Fischer and Schrock designations. We present experimental and theoretical studies showing that, like the classical square-planar iridium(I) organometallics, these complexes are best described as nucleophilic at iridium. We discuss

  17. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  18. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples

  19. Variability in a three-generation family with Pierre Robin sequence, acampomelic campomelic dysplasia, and intellectual disability due to a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9, and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Bottillo, Irene; Morlino, Silvia; Barone, Chiara; Cascone, Piero; Grammatico, Paola; Laino, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia and acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD) are allelic disorders due to heterozygous mutations in or around SOX9. Translocations and deletions involving the SOX9 5' regulatory region are rare causes of these disorders, as well as Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Genotype-phenotype correlations are not straightforward due to the complex epigenetic regulation of SOX9 expression during development. We report a three-generation pedigree with a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9 and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16, and ascertained for dominant transmission of PRS. Further characterization of the family identified subtle appendicular anomalies and a variable constellation of axial skeletal features evocative of ACD in several members. Affected males showed learning disability. The identified deletion was smaller than all other chromosome rearrangements associated with ACD. Comparison with other reported translocations and deletions involving this region allowed further refining of genotype-phenotype correlations and an update of the smallest regions of overlap associated with the different phenotypes. Intrafamilial variability in this pedigree suggests a phenotypic continuity between ACD and PRS in patients carrying mutations in the SOX9 5' regulatory region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chromosome Mis-segregation Generates Cell-Cycle-Arrested Cells with Complex Karyotypes that Are Eliminated by the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Stefano; Richardson, Amelia; Iyer, Divya Ramalingam; M'Saad, Ons; Zasadil, Lauren; Knouse, Kristin A; Wong, Yao Liang; Rhind, Nicholas; Desai, Arshad; Amon, Angelika

    2017-06-19

    Aneuploidy, a state of karyotype imbalance, is a hallmark of cancer. Changes in chromosome copy number have been proposed to drive disease by modulating the dosage of cancer driver genes and by promoting cancer genome evolution. Given the potential of cells with abnormal karyotypes to become cancerous, do pathways that limit the prevalence of such cells exist? By investigating the immediate consequences of aneuploidy on cell physiology, we identified mechanisms that eliminate aneuploid cells. We find that chromosome mis-segregation leads to further genomic instability that ultimately causes cell-cycle arrest. We further show that cells with complex karyotypes exhibit features of senescence and produce pro-inflammatory signals that promote their clearance by the immune system. We propose that cells with abnormal karyotypes generate a signal for their own elimination that may serve as a means for cancer cell immunosurveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  2. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E; Leong, Kam W; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-04-09

    Coagulation factor replacement therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is severely complicated by antibody ("inhibitor") formation. We previously found that oral delivery to hemophilic mice of cholera toxin B subunit-coagulation factor fusion proteins expressed in chloroplasts of transgenic plants suppressed inhibitor formation directed against factors VIII and IX and anaphylaxis against factor IX (FIX). This observation and the relatively high concentration of antigen in the chloroplasts prompted us to evaluate the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The combination of oral delivery of bioencapsulated FIX and intravenous replacement therapy induced a complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent, antigen-specific systemic immune suppression of pathogenic antibody formation (immunoglobulin [Ig] 1/inhibitors, IgE) in hemophilia B mice. Tolerance induction was also successful in preimmune mice but required prolonged oral delivery once replacement therapy was resumed. Orally delivered antigen, initially targeted to epithelial cells, was taken up by dendritic cells throughout the small intestine and additionally by F4/80(+) cells in the duodenum. Consistent with the immunomodulatory responses, frequencies of tolerogenic CD103(+) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased. Ultimately, latency-associated peptide expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(+) cells with upregulated IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression) as well as conventional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells systemically suppressed anti-FIX responses. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Benítez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  4. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, José Alberto; Labra, José Emilio; Quiroga, Enedina; Martín, Vicente; García, Isaías; Marqués-Sánchez, Pilar; Benavides, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  5. Multi-scalar agent-based complex design systems - the case of CECO (Climatic -Ecologies) Studio; informed generative design systems and performance-driven design workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Yu, S.; Biloria, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of different types of complex systems for digital form finding and design decision making with underlying methodological and pedagogical aims to emphasize performance-driven design solutions via combining generative methods of complex systems with simulation

  6. Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daisuke; Igarashi, Toshinori; Aoyama, Kenji

    2014-02-19

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus establish a symbiotic relationship in milk; however, S. thermophilus predominantly grows in soymilk. This study determined that excess diacetyl was notably generated mainly by S. thermophilus in soymilk, and this flavor compound created an unpleasant odor in fermented soymilk. The addition of l-valine to soymilk reduced the amount of diacetyl and increased the levels of acetoin during fermentation by S. thermophilus . In addition, it was found that the expression of the ilvC gene was repressed and that of the als and aldB genes was stimulated in S. thermophilus by l-valine. Sensory evaluations with the triangle difference test and a preference test showed that the soymilk fermented with l-valine was significantly preferred compared with that without l-valine. In this study, we successfully controlled the metabolic flux of S. thermophilus in soymilk and produced more favorable fermented soymilk without the use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria strains.

  7. Array-CGH in patients with Kabuki-like phenotype: identification of two patients with complex rearrangements including 2q37 deletions and no other recurrent aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Ivon; del Campo, Miguel; Vilardell, Mireia; González, Eva; Gener, Blanca; Galán, Enrique; Toledo, Laura; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2008-04-11

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by specific facial features, mild to moderate mental retardation, postnatal growth delay, skeletal abnormalities, and unusual dermatoglyphic patterns with prominent fingertip pads. A 3.5 Mb duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was once reported as a specific alteration in KS but has not been confirmed in other patients. The molecular basis of KS remains unknown. We have studied 16 Spanish patients with a clinical diagnosis of KS or KS-like to search for genomic imbalances using genome-wide array technologies. All putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH, microsatellite markers and/or MLPA assays, which also determined whether the imbalance was de novo or inherited. No duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was observed in our patients. We detected complex rearrangements involving 2q in two patients with Kabuki-like features: 1) a de novo inverted duplication of 11 Mb with a 4.5 Mb terminal deletion, and 2) a de novo 7.2 Mb-terminal deletion in a patient with an additional de novo 0.5 Mb interstitial deletion in 16p. Additional copy number variations (CNV), either inherited or reported in normal controls, were identified and interpreted as polymorphic variants. No specific CNV was significantly increased in the KS group. Our results further confirmed that genomic duplications of 8p23 region are not a common cause of KS and failed to detect other recurrent rearrangement causing this disorder. The detection of two patients with 2q37 deletions suggests that there is a phenotypic overlap between the two conditions, and screening this region in the Kabuki-like patients should be considered.

  8. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  9. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida, including two reinstated and five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Renner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R.buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to

  10. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  11. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  12. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  13. Members of the HCMV US12 family of predicted heptaspanning membrane proteins have unique intracellular distributions, including association with the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subhendu; Pellett, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 gene family is a group of 10 predicted seven-transmembrane domain proteins that have some features in common with G-protein-coupled receptors. Little is known of their patterns of expression, localization, or functional interactions. Here, we studied the intracellular localization of three US12 family members, US14, US17, and US18, with respect to various intracellular markers and the cytoplasmic virion assembly compartment (AC). The three proteins have distinct patterns of expression, which include associations with the AC. US14 is often distributed in a uniform granular manner throughout the cytoplasm, concentrating in the AC in some cells. US17 is expressed in a segmented manner, with its N-terminal domain localizing to the periphery of what we show here to be the AC and the C-terminal domain localizing to nuclei and the cytoplasm [Das, S., Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Y., Wang, F. Z., Pellett, P.E., 2006. Infection-dependent nuclear localization of US17, a member of the US12 family of human cytomegalovirus-encoded seven-transmembrane proteins. J. Virol. 80, 1191-1203]. Here, we show that the C-terminal domain is present at the center of the AC, in close association with markers of early endosomes; the N-terminal staining corresponds to an area stained by markers for the Golgi and trans-Golgi. US18 is distributed throughout the cytoplasm, concentrating in the AC at later stages of infection; it is localized more to the periphery of the AC than are US14 and US17C, in association with markers of the trans-Golgi. Although not detected in virions, their structures and localization in various zones within the AC suggest possible roles for these proteins in the process of virion maturation and egress

  14. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  15. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  16. Unravelling the Complexity of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies Molecular Testing: Added Value of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bernardis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the clinical utility of targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for the diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (IRDs, a total of 109 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 IRD affected probands and 21 healthy relatives. Clinical diagnoses included Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA, Stargardt Disease (STGD, Best Macular Dystrophy (BMD, Usher Syndrome (USH, and other IRDs with undefined clinical diagnosis. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination followed by genetic counseling. A custom AmpliSeq™ panel of 72 IRD-related genes was designed for the analysis and tested using Ion semiconductor Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS. Potential disease-causing mutations were identified in 59.1% of probands, comprising mutations in 16 genes. The highest diagnostic yields were achieved for BMD, LCA, USH, and STGD patients, whereas RP confirmed its high genetic heterogeneity. Causative mutations were identified in 17.6% of probands with undefined diagnosis. Revision of the initial diagnosis was performed for 9.6% of genetically diagnosed patients. This study demonstrates that NGS represents a comprehensive cost-effective approach for IRDs molecular diagnosis. The identification of the genetic alterations underlying the phenotype enabled the clinicians to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The results emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis coupled with clinic information to unravel the extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of these diseases.

  17. The mechanism behind internally generated centennial-to-millennial scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Friedrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism triggering centennial-to-millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC in the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM is investigated. It is found that for several climate boundary conditions such as low obliquity values (~22.1° or LGM-albedo, internally generated centennial-to-millennial-scale variability occurs in the North Atlantic region. Stochastic excitations of the density-driven overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas can create regional sea-ice anomalies and a subsequent reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. The resulting remote atmospheric anomalies over the Hudson Bay can release freshwater pulses into the Labrador Sea and significantly increase snow fall in this region leading to a subsequent reduction of convective activity. The millennial-scale AMOC oscillations disappear if LGM bathymetry (with closed Hudson Bay is prescribed or if freshwater pulses are suppressed artificially. Furthermore, our study documents the process of the AMOC recovery as well as the global marine and terrestrial carbon cycle response to centennial-to-millennial-scale AMOC variability.

  18. Generation of a CRISPR database for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex and role of CRISPR-based immunity in conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Katja A; Mattinen, Laura; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gorgé, Olivier; Nikkari, Simo; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat - CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) system is used by bacteria and archaea against invading conjugative plasmids or bacteriophages. Central to this immunity system are genomic CRISPR loci that contain fragments of invading DNA. These are maintained as spacers in the CRISPR loci between direct repeats and the spacer composition in any bacterium reflects its evolutionary history. We analysed the CRISPR locus sequences of 335 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex strains. Altogether 1902 different spacer sequences were identified and these were used to generate a database for the spacer sequences. Only ∼10% of the spacer sequences found matching sequences. In addition, surprisingly few spacers were shared by Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Interestingly, 32 different protospacers were present in the conjugative plasmid pYptb32953. The corresponding spacers were identified from 35 different Y. pseudotuberculosis strains indicating that these strains had encountered pYptb32953 earlier. In conjugation experiments, pYptb32953-specific spacers generally prevented conjugation with spacer-positive and spacer-free strains. However, some strains with one to four spacers were invaded by pYptb32953 and some spacer-free strains were fully resistant. Also some spacer-positive strains were intermediate resistant to conjugation. This suggests that one or more other defence systems are determining conjugation efficiency independent of the CRISPR-Cas system. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hydrogen generation from formic acid catalyzed by a metal complex under amine-free and aqueous conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-04

    The present invention provides a class of catalyst compounds that can safely and effectively release hydrogen gas from a chemical substrate without producing either noxious byproducts or byproducts that will deactivate the catalyst. The present invention provides catalysts used to produce hydrogen that has a satisfactory and sufficient lifespan (measured by turnover number (TON)), that has stability in the presence of moisture, air, acid, or impurities, promote a rapid reaction rate, and remain stable under the reaction conditions required for an effective hydrogen production system. Described herein are compounds for use as catalysts, as well as methods for producing hydrogen from formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalysts. The methods include contacting formic acid and/or a formate with a catalyst as described herein, as well as methods of producing formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalyst and methods for generating electricity using the catalysts described herein.

  20. Reactive oxygen species generation in aqueous solutions containing GdVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles and their complexes with methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenko, Kateryna; Yefimova, Svetlana; Tkacheva, Tatyana; Maksimchuk, Pavel; Borovoy, Igor; Klochkov, Vladimir; Kavok, Nataliya; Opolonin, Oleksander; Malyukin, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    It this letter, we report the study of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in water solutions containing gadolinium orthovanadate GdVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles (VNPs) and their complexes with methylene blue (MB) photosensitizer. The catalytic activity was studied under UV-Vis and X-ray irradiation by three methods (conjugated dienes test, OH· radical, and singlet oxygen detection). It has been shown that the VNPs-MB complexes reveal high efficiency of ROS generation under UV-Vis irradiation associated with both high efficiency of OH· radicals generation by VNPs and singlet oxygen generation by MB due to nonradiative excitation energy transfer from VNPs to MB molecules. Contrary to that under X-ray irradiation, the strong OH . radicals scavenging by VNPs has been observed.

  1. Excitatory Modulation of the preBötzinger Complex Inspiratory Rhythm Generating Network by Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber S. F. da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S is one of three gasotransmitters that modulate excitability in the CNS. Global application of H2S donors or inhibitors of H2S synthesis to the respiratory network has suggested that inspiratory rhythm is modulated by exogenous and endogenous H2S. However, effects have been variable, which may reflect that the RTN/pFRG (retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial respiratory group and the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC, critical for inspiratory rhythm generation are differentially modulated by exogenous H2S. Importantly, site-specific modulation of respiratory nuclei by H2S means that targeted, rather than global, manipulation of respiratory nuclei is required to understand the role of H2S signaling in respiratory control. Thus, our aim was to test whether endogenous H2S, which is produced by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS in the CNS, acts specifically within the preBötC to modulate inspiratory activity under basal (in vitro/in vivo and hypoxic conditions (in vivo. Inhibition of endogenous H2S production by bath application of the CBS inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 0.1–1.0 mM to rhythmic brainstem spinal cord (BSSC and medullary slice preparations from newborn rats, or local application of AOAA into the preBötC (slices only caused a dose-dependent decrease in burst frequency. Unilateral injection of AOAA into the preBötC of anesthetized, paralyzed adult rats decreased basal inspiratory burst frequency, amplitude and ventilatory output. AOAA in vivo did not affect the initial hypoxia-induced (10% O2, 5 min increase in ventilatory output, but enhanced the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression. These data suggest that the preBötC inspiratory network receives tonic excitatory modulation from the CBS-H2S system, and that endogenous H2S attenuates the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression.

  2. The isotopic composition and content of sulphur in soils of Kansk-Achinsk fuel power generation complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinenko, L.N.; Grinenko, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1970s the first phase of a large coal-burning power complex was brought into operation in the Kansk-Achinsk region of the Soviet Union. The target consumption for this complex is 50 x 10 6 tonnes yr -1 and most of this is supplied from local open-pit mines. The emission of SO 2 from this plant caused concern as to its impact on the local environment and prompted a study of the sulphurous depositions. Monitoring the areal extent and distribution of the deposited S and its fate in the environment can be a mammoth task involving continual measurement of many biological and physical factors including atmospheric concentrations, wind speed, emission rates, and forms of S in soil, plants, and animals. A possible alternative for evaluating the amount, distribution, and fate of the emitted S in the ecosystem is stable sulphur isotope analyses since different coals and SO 2 from their combustion often have δ 34 S values differing from those of soils and plants in the region. The study reported here was initiated to see if the δ 34 S values for emissions differed significantly from the natural environment. Assuming that the difference was sufficient, a second objective was to document changes that have occurred in the sulphur isotope compositions of the environmental receptors over time. Soil samples from 23 sites were collected and analysed for S content and δ 34 S values. Coal, cinder and ash collected from furnaces and SO 2 from the combustion products were similarly analysed. Figs and tabs

  3. Hydrogen generation during serpentinisation in ophiolite complexes: A comparison of H2-rich gases from Oman, Philippines and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Valérie; Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2013-04-01

    H2-rich gas seepages in ultrabasic to basic contexts both in marine and continental environment are by-products of serpentinisation. Hydrothermal systems at MOR expose ultrabasic rocks to thermodynamic conditions favouring oxidation of FeII bearing minerals and water reduction. In continental context such thermodynamic conditions do not exist although active serpentinisation occurs in all known ophiolitic complexes (Barnes et al., 1978; Bruni et al., 2002; Cipolli et al., 2004; Boschetti and Toscani, 2008; Marques et al., 2008). Hyperalkaline springs are reported in these contexts as evidence of this active serpentinisation (Barnes et al., 1967) and are often associated with seepages of reduced gases (Neal and Stanger, 1983; Sano et al., 1993). Dry gas seepages are also observed (Abrajano et al., 1988, 1990; Hosgörmez, 2007; Etiope et al., 2011) Such H2-rich gases from ophiolite complexes were sampled in the Sultanate of Oman, the Philippines and Turkey and were analysed for chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. The conditions for present-day serpentinisation in ophiolites were recognised as low temperature processes in Oman with high rock/water ratios (Neal and Stanger, 1985), while the origin of gases is not as univocal for Philippines and Turkey gas seepages. Although, H2 generation is directly linked with FeII oxidation, different reactions can occur during peridotite hydration (McCollom and Bach, 2009; Marcaillou et al., 2011) and serpentine weathering. Produced H2 can react with carbonate species to produce methane via processes that could be biological or abiotic, while carbon availability depends on water recharge chemistry. In the present study, the geochemical properties of gases sampled from three different ophiolite complexes are compared and provide evidence that weathering reactions producing H2 depend on structural, geological, geomorphologic and hydrological local features. REFERENCES Abrajano

  4. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  5. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  6. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  7. Methods for generating complex networks with selected structural properties for simulations: A review and tutorial for neuroscientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton J Prettejohn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many simulations of networks in computational neuroscience assume completely homogenous random networks of the Erd"{o}s-R'{e}nyi type, or regular networks, despite it being recognized for some time that anatomical brain networks are more complex in their connectivity and can, for example, exhibit the `scale-free' and `small-world' properties. We review the most well known algorithms for constructing networks with given non-homogeneous statistical properties and provide simple pseudo-code for reproducing such networks in software simulations. We also review some useful mathematical results and approximations associated with the statistics that describe these network models, including degree distribution, average path length and clustering coefficient. We demonstrate how such results can be used as partial verification and validation of implementations. Finally, we discuss a sometimes overlooked modeling choice that can be crucially important for the properties of simulated networks: that of network directedness. The most well known network algorithms produce undirected networks, and we emphasize this point by highlighting how simple adaptations can instead produce directed networks.

  8. Investigation on the influence of metal ion impurities on the complexation behavior of generator produced {sup 90}Y with bifunctional chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Dash, Ashutosh [Isotope Applications and Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-05-01

    The {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y generator is the exclusive source of 'no carrier added' {sup 90}Y for targeted therapy. However, the concomitant presence of trace metals diminishes the complexation of {sup 90}Y with bifunctional chelators (BFCs). A systematic investigation was performed to evaluate the influence of trace metals on the complexation of {sup 90}Y (from an electrochemical generator) with BFCs such as p-SCN-Bn-PCTA, p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and p-SCN-Bn-DOTA. Our study indicates that while p-SCN-Bn-DTPA was least affected by most of the trace metals studied, p-SCN-Bn-PCTA was most sensitive to their presence and hence could be the ligand of choice for assessing the chemical purity of generator derived {sup 90}Y. (author)

  9. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Evaluate Complex Scientific Tasks Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tina

    This dissertation includes three studies that analyze a new set of assessment tasks developed by the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science (LPS) Project. These assessment tasks were designed to measure science content knowledge on the structure of matter domain and scientific argumentation, while following the goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The three studies focus on the evidence available for the success of this design and its implementation, generally labelled as "validity" evidence. I use explanatory item response models (EIRMs) as the overarching framework to investigate these assessment tasks. These models can be useful when gathering validity evidence for assessments as they can help explain student learning and group differences. In the first study, I explore the dimensionality of the LPS assessment by comparing the fit of unidimensional, between-item multidimensional, and Rasch testlet models to see which is most appropriate for this data. By applying multidimensional item response models, multiple relationships can be investigated, and in turn, allow for a more substantive look into the assessment tasks. The second study focuses on person predictors through latent regression and differential item functioning (DIF) models. Latent regression models show the influence of certain person characteristics on item responses, while DIF models test whether one group is differentially affected by specific assessment items, after conditioning on latent ability. Finally, the last study applies the linear logistic test model (LLTM) to investigate whether item features can help explain differences in item difficulties.

  10. The process of developing a rubric to assess the cognitive complexity of student-generated multiple choice questions in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Grainger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitively complex assessments encourage students to prepare using deep learning strategies rather than surface learning, recall-based ones. In order to prepare such assessment tasks, it is necessary to have some way of measuring cognitive complexity. In the context of a student-generated MCQ writing task, we developed a rubric for assessing the cognitive complexity of MCQs based on Bloom’s taxonomy. We simplified the six-level taxonomy into a three-level rubric. Three rounds of moderation and rubric development were conducted, in which 10, 15 and 100 randomly selected student-generated MCQs were independently rated by three academic staff. After each round of marking, inter-rater reliability was calculated, qualitative analysis of areas of agreement and disagreement was conducted, and the markers discussed the cognitive processes required to answer the MCQs. Inter-rater reliability, defined by the intra-class correlation coefficient, increased from 0.63 to 0.94, indicating the markers rated the MCQs consistently. The three-level rubric was found to be effective for evaluating the cognitive complexity of MCQs generated by medical students.

  11. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  12. Laser materials processing of complex components: from reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, Richard; Brandstätter, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser cladding and laser-based additive manufacturing are given.

  13. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yupeng

    2016-04-22

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Modulation of the Singlet Oxygen Generation from the Double Strand DNA-SYBR Green I Complex Mediated by T-Melamine-T Mismatch for Visual Detection of Melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Zhang, Jinyi; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Xinfeng; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2017-05-02

    Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), generated via photosensitization, has been proved to oxidize chromogenic substrates with neither H 2 O 2 oxidation nor enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) catalysis. Of the various methods for modulation of the 1 O 2 generation, DNA-controlled photosensitization received great attention. Therefore, integration of the formation/deformation DNA structures with DNA-controlled photosensitization will be extremely appealing in visual biosensor developments. Here, the stable melamine-thymine complex was explored in combination with DNA-controlled photosensitization for visual detection of melamine. A T-rich single stand DNA was utilized as the recognition unit. Upon the formation of the T-M-T complex, double stand DNA was formed, which was ready for the binding of SYBR Green I and activated the photosensitization. Subsequent oxidation of TMB allowed visual detection of melamine in dairy products, with spike-recoveries ranging from 94% to 106%.

  15. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate improves thrombin generation and prothrombin time in patients with bleeding complications related to rivaroxaban: a single-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Bettina; Goerke, Stephanie; Beer, Ronny; Helbok, Raimund; Fries, Dietmar; Bachler, Mirjam

    2018-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) pose a great challenge for physicians in life-threatening bleeding events. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of reversing the DOAC rivaroxaban using four-factor PCC (prothrombin complex concentrate), a non-specific reversing agent. Patients with life-threatening bleeding events during rivaroxaban treatment were included and administered 25 U kg -1 of PCC. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to as well as after PCC treatment at predefined time intervals. The primary endpoint was defined as the difference in thrombin generation (TG) parameters ETP (endogenous thrombin potential) and C max (peak thrombin generation) prior to and ten minutes subsequent to PCC treatment. Thirteen patients, of whom the majority suffered from intra-cranial haemorrhage (ICH) or subdural haemorrhage (SDH), were included and administered PCC. The results show that the ETP (TG) significantly ( p  = 0.001) improved by 68% and C max (TG) by 54% (p = 0.001) during PCC treatment. In addition, the Quick value (prothrombin time: Quick PT ) significantly improved by 28% and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was decreased by 7% ten minutes after PCC administration. C max was reduced at baseline, but not ETP, aPTT or Quick PT . Lag time until initiation (TG, t lag ), thromboelastometry clotting time (CT EXTEM ) and time to peak (TG, t max ) correlated best with measured rivaroxaban levels and were out of normal ranges at baseline, but did not improve after PCC administration. In 77% of the patients bleeding (ICH/SDH-progression) ceased following PCC administration. During the study three participants passed away due to other complications not related to PCC treatment. The possibility of thrombosis formation was also evaluated seven days after administering PCC and no thromboses were found. This study shows that use of PCC improved ETP, C max, Quick PT and aPTT. However, of these parameters, only C max was reduced at the

  16. A novel multi-agent decentralized win or learn fast policy hill-climbing with eligibility trace algorithm for smart generation control of interconnected complex power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Lei; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoshun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a decentralized smart generation control scheme for the automatic generation control coordination. • A novel multi-agent learning algorithm is developed to resolve stochastic control problems in power systems. • A variable learning rate are introduced base on the framework of stochastic games. • A simulation platform is developed to test the performance of different algorithms. - Abstract: This paper proposes a multi-agent smart generation control scheme for the automatic generation control coordination in interconnected complex power systems. A novel multi-agent decentralized win or learn fast policy hill-climbing with eligibility trace algorithm is developed, which can effectively identify the optimal average policies via a variable learning rate under various operation conditions. Based on control performance standards, the proposed approach is implemented in a flexible multi-agent stochastic dynamic game-based smart generation control simulation platform. Based on the mixed strategy and average policy, it is highly adaptive in stochastic non-Markov environments and large time-delay systems, which can fulfill automatic generation control coordination in interconnected complex power systems in the presence of increasing penetration of decentralized renewable energy. Two case studies on both a two-area load–frequency control power system and the China Southern Power Grid model have been done. Simulation results verify that multi-agent smart generation control scheme based on the proposed approach can obtain optimal average policies thus improve the closed-loop system performances, and can achieve a fast convergence rate with significant robustness compared with other methods

  17. Investigation on the influence of metal ion impurities on the complexation behavior of generator produced {sup 90}Y with different bifunctional chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.

    2014-07-01

    While the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is the exclusive source of obtaining 'no carrier added' {sup 90}Y for targeted therapy, the presence of trace metals in the radiolabeling solutions poses a serious challenge owing to their ability to diminish the {sup 90}Y complexation yields with bifunctional chelators (BFCs). p-SCN-Bn-PCTA is a novel ligand having faster complexation kinetics with a number of radiometals. In this work, a systematic investigation was performed to evaluate the chelating ability of p-SCN-Bn-PCTA for {sup 90}Y and the influence of trace metal ions on it's complexation with {sup 90}Y in comparison to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using {sup 90}YCl{sub 3} obtained from an electrochemical generator. Results from our study indicate that while p-SCN-Bn-PCTA gave very good radiolabeling yields with {sup 90}Y when the reaction was carried out by heating for few minutes, it was most sensitive to the presence of trace metals, especially Fe(III). An independent and useful observation is that p-SCN-Bn-PCTA could be considered as the ligand of choice for assessing the chemical purity of generator derived {sup 90}Y.

  18. The meganism behind internally generated centennial-to-millennial scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, T.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L.; Elison Timm, O.; Mouchet, A.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism triggering centennial-to-millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM is investigated. It is found that for several climate boundary conditions such as low obliquity values (∼22.1 )

  19. Several problems of algorithmization in integrated computation programs on third generation computers for short circuit currents in complex power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, V.A.; Pisarenko, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of modeling complex power networks with short circuits in the networks are described. The methods are implemented in integrated computation programs for short circuit currents and equivalents in electrical networks with a large number of branch points (up to 1000) on a computer with a limited on line memory capacity (M equals 4030 for the computer).

  20. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeve, J.; Blakeman, T.; Freeman, G.K.; Green, L.A.; James, P.A.; Lucassen, P.L.; Martin, C.M.; Sturmberg, J.P.; Weel, C. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet

  1. Impact of Thermal Plumes Generated by Occupant Simulators with Different Complexity of Body Geometry on Airflow Pattern in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    The impact of thermal plumes generated by human body simulators with different geometry on the airflow pattern in a full scale room with displacement ventilation (supply air temperature 21.6°C, total flow rate 80 L/s) was studied when two seated occupants were simulated first by two thermal...... manikins resembling accurately human body shape and then by two heated cylinders. The manikins and the cylinders had the same surface area of 1.63 m2 and the same heat generation of 73 W. CO2 supplied from the top of the heat sources was used for simulating bio-effluents. CO2 concentration was measured...

  2. Trialkylphosphine-stabilized copper(I) gallium(III) phenylchalcogenolate complexes: crystal structures and generation of ternary semiconductors by thermolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Oliver; Krautscheid, Harald

    2012-06-18

    A series of organometallic trialkylphosphine-stabilized copper gallium phenylchalcogenolate complexes [(R(3)P)(m)Cu(n)Me(2-x)Ga(EPh)(n+x+1)] (R = Me, Et, (i)Pr, (t)Bu; E = S, Se, Te; x = 0, 1) has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. From their molecular structures three groups of compounds can be distinguished: ionic compounds, ring systems, and cage structures. All these complexes contain one gallium atom bound to one or two methyl groups, whereas the number of copper atoms, and therefore the nuclearity of the complexes, is variable and depends mainly on size and amount of phosphine ligand used in synthesis. The Ga-E bonds are relatively rigid, in contrast to flexible Cu-E bonds. The lengths of the latter are controlled by the coordination number and steric influences. The Ga-E bond lengths depend systematically on the number of methyl groups bound to the gallium atom, with somewhat shorter bonds in monomethyl compounds compared to dimethyl compounds. Quantum chemical computations reproduce this trend and show furthermore that the rotation of one phenyl group around the Ga-E bond is a low energy process with two distinct minima, corresponding to two different conformations found experimentally. Mixtures of different types of chalcogen atoms on molecular scale are possible, and then ligand exchange reactions in solution lead to mixed site occupation. In thermogravimetric studies the complexes were converted into the ternary semiconductors CuGaE(2). The thermolysis reaction is completed at temperatures between 250 and 400 °C, typically with lower temperatures for the heavier chalcogens. Because of significant release of Me(3)Ga during the thermolysis process, and especially in case of copper excess in the precursor complexes, binary copper chalcogenides are obtained as additional thermolysis products. Quaternary semiconductors can be obtained from mixed chalcogen precursors.

  3. In situ generation of copper cations and complexation with tebuconazole in a hyphenation of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Schröder, Detlef; Norková, Renáta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 338, 15 MAR (2013), s. 45-49 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemical ion generation * ESI-MS * coupling * fungicide * tebuconazole * soil solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  4. Cost-effective alternative to nano-encapsulation: Amorphous curcumin-chitosan nanoparticle complex exhibiting high payload and supersaturation generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Hiep; Yu, Hong; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-10-01

    While the wide-ranging therapeutic activities of curcumin have been well established, its successful delivery to realize its true therapeutic potentials faces a major challenge due to its low oral bioavailability. Even though nano-encapsulation has been widely demonstrated to be effective in enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin, it is not without drawbacks (i.e. low payload and costly preparation). Herein we present a cost-effective bioavailability enhancement strategy of curcumin in the form of amorphous curcumin-chitosan nanoparticle complex (or curcumin nanoplex in short) exhibiting a high payload (>80%). The curcumin nanoplex was prepared by a simple yet highly efficient drug-polysaccharide complexation method that required only mixing of the curcumin and chitosan solutions under ambient condition. The effects of (1) pH and (2) charge ratio of chitosan to curcumin on the (i) physical characteristics of the nanoplex (i.e. size, colloidal stability and payload), (ii) complexation efficiency, and (iii) production yield were investigated from which the optimal preparation condition was determined. The nanoplex formation was found to favor low acidic pH and charge ratio below unity. At the optimal condition (i.e. pH 4.4. and charge ratio=0.8), stable curcumin nanoplex (≈260nm) was prepared at >90% complexation efficiency and ≈50% production yield. The amorphous state stability, colloidal stability, and in vitro non-cytotoxicity of the nanoplex were successfully established. The curcumin nanoplex produced prolonged supersaturation (3h) in the presence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) at five times of the saturation solubility of curcumin. In addition, curcumin released from the nanoplex exhibited improved chemical stability owed to the presence of chitosan. Both results (i.e. high supersaturation and improved chemical stability) bode well for the ability of the curcumin nanoplex to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin clinically. Copyright © 2015

  5. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  6. Conformation Control of a Conjugated Polymer through Complexation with Bile Acids Generates Its Novel Spectral and Morphological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Youichi; Noguchi, Takao; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Roy, Bappaditya; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Shinkai, Seiji

    2016-11-29

    Control of higher-order polymer structures attracts a great deal of interest for many researchers when they lead to the development of materials having various advanced functions. Among them, conjugated polymers that are useful as starting materials in the design of molecular wires are particularly attractive. However, an equilibrium existing between isolated chains and bundled aggregates is inevitable and has made their physical properties very complicated. As an attempt to simplify this situation, we previously reported that a polymer chain of a water-soluble polythiophene could be isolated through complexation with a helix-forming polysaccharide. More recently, a covalently self-threading polythiophene was reported, the main chain of which was physically protected from self-folding and chain-chain π-stacking. In this report, we wish to report a new strategy to isolate a water-soluble polythiophene and to control its higher-order structure by a supramolecular approach: that is, among a few bile acids, lithocholate can form stoichiometric complexes with cationic polythiophene to isolate the polymer chain, and the higher-order structure is changeable by the molar ratio. The optical and morphological studies have been thoroughly performed, and the resultant complex has been applied to the selective recognition of two AMP structural isomers.

  7. Understanding Free Radicals: Isolating Active Thylakoid Membranes and Purifying the Cytochrome b6f Complex for Superoxide Generation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Stofleth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All life persists in an environment that is rich in molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen free radicals, or superoxide, is a necessary consequence of the biogenesis of energy in cells. Both mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains have been found to produce superoxide associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death, thereby contributing to the effects of aging. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria consumes oxygen, whereas photosynthesis in chloroplasts or cyanobacteria produces oxygen. The increased concentration of molecular oxygen may serve to allow greater availability for the production of superoxide by cytochrome bc complexes in photosynthetic membranes compared to those of mitochondrial membranes. The isolation of well-coupled chloroplasts, containing the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a vital initial step in the process of comparing the rate of production of superoxide to those of the homologous cytochrome bc1 complex of aerobic respiration. It is necessary to determine if the isolated chloroplasts have retained their oxygengenerating capability after isolation by an oxygen evolution assay with a Clark-type electrode. A necessary second step, which is the isolation of cytochrome b6f from spinach, has yet to be successfully performed. Oxygen measurements taken from chloroplasts in the presence of the uncoupler, NH4Cl, exhibited a rate of oxygen evolution over three times greater at 344 +/- 18 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr than the rate of oxygen evolution without uncoupler at 109 +/- 29 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr. These data demonstrate that the technique used to isolate spinach chloroplasts preserves their light-driven electron-transport activity, making them reliable for future superoxide assays.

  8. In situ generation of sulfoxides with predetermined chirality via a structural template with a chiral-at-metal ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Yao, Su-Yang; Wu, Jin-Ji; Ye, Bao-Hui

    2014-05-30

    The reaction of Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with a prochiral sulfide ligand, and then in situ oxidation, provide the corresponding Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-OSO-iPr}](+) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-OSO-iPr}](+) (OSO-iPr = 2-isopropylsulfonylbenzonate) enantiomers in a yield of 83% with 98% ee. The chiral sulfoxides were obtained by treatment of the sulfoxide complexes with TFA in a yield of 90% with 88-91% ee.

  9. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Credendino, Raffaele; Slugovc, Christian; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Electroresponsive Materials with Applications In: Part I. Second Harmonic Generation. Part II. Organic-Lanthanide Ion Complexes for Electroluminescence and Optical Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Materials for optical waveguides were developed from two different approaches, inorganic-organic composites and soft gel polymers. Inorganic-organic composites were developed from alkoxysilane and organically modified silanes based on nonlinear optical chromophores. Organically modified silanes based on N-((3^' -trialkoxysilyl)propyl)-4-nitroaniline were synthesized and sol-gelled with trimethoxysilane. After a densification process at 190^circC with a corona discharge, the second harmonic of the film was measured with a Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, d_{33} = 13pm/V. The decay of the second harmonic was expressed by a stretched bi-exponential equation. The decay time (tau _2) was equal to 3374 hours, and was comparable to nonlinear optical systems based on epoxy/Disperse Orange 1. The processing temperature of the organically modified silane was limited to 200^circC due to the decomposition of the organic chromophore. Soft gel polymers were synthesized and characterized for the development of optical waveguides with dc-electrical field assisted phase-matching. Polymers based on 4-nitroaniline terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) were shown to exhibit second harmonic generation that were optically phase-matched in an electrical field. The optical signals were stable and reproducible. Siloxane polymers modified with 1-mercapto-4-nitrobenzene and 1-mercapto-4-methylsulfonylstilbene nonlinear optical chromophores were synthesized. The physical and the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the polymers were characterized. Waveguides were developed from the polymers which were optically phase -matched and had an efficiency of 8.1%. The siloxane polymers exhibited optical phase-matching in an applied electrical field and can be used with a semiconductor laser. Organic lanthanide ion complexes for electroluminescence and optical amplifiers were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized for their thermal and

  11. Geochemical and Geophysical Characteristics of the Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC, Masbate Island, Philippines: Implications for its Generation, Evolution and Emplacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearlyn C. Manalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first field, geochemical and geophysical information on the recently recognized Early Cretaceous Balud Ophiolitic Complex (BOC in the island of Masbate in the Central Philippines. Mapping of the western limb of the island revealed that only the upper crustal section of the BOC is exposed in this area. Geochemically, the pillow basalts are characterized by transitional mid-oceanic ridge basalt-island arc tholeiitic compositions. Gravity surveys yielded low Bouguer anomaly values that are consistent with the highly dismembered nature of the BOC. Short wavelength, high amplitude magnetic anomalies registered across the study area are attributed to shallow magnetic sources. This is taken to support the model that the ophiolitic complex occurs as thin crustal slivers that are not deeply-rooted in the mantle. Comparing BOC with other ophiolites in the Central Philippines, such as those in the islands of Sibuyan, Leyte and Bohol, suggests the possibility of a common or contiguous source for similarly-aged and geochemically composed crust-mantle sequences in the region.

  12. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  13. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  14. High frequency seismic signal generated by landslides on complex topographies: from point source to spatially distributed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, A.; Kuehnert, J.; Capdeville, Y.; Durand, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Kone, E. H.; Sethi, S.

    2017-12-01

    During their flow along the topography, landslides generate seismic waves in a wide frequency range. These so called landquakes can be recorded at very large distances (a few hundreds of km for large landslides). The recorded signals depend on the landslide seismic source and the seismic wave propagation. If the wave propagation is well understood, the seismic signals can be inverted for the seismic source and thus can be used to get information on the landslide properties and dynamics. Analysis and modeling of long period seismic signals (10-150s) have helped in this way to discriminate between different landslide scenarios and to constrain rheological parameters (e.g. Favreau et al., 2010). This was possible as topography poorly affects wave propagation at these long periods and the landslide seismic source can be approximated as a point source. In the near-field and at higher frequencies (> 1 Hz) the spatial extent of the source has to be taken into account and the influence of the topography on the recorded seismic signal should be quantified in order to extract information on the landslide properties and dynamics. The characteristic signature of distributed sources and varying topographies is studied as a function of frequency and recording distance.The time dependent spatial distribution of the forces applied to the ground by the landslide are obtained using granular flow numerical modeling on 3D topography. The generated seismic waves are simulated using the spectral element method. The simulated seismic signal is compared to observed seismic data from rockfalls at the Dolomieu Crater of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion).Favreau, P., Mangeney, A., Lucas, A., Crosta, G., and Bouchut, F. (2010). Numerical modeling of landquakes. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(15):1-5.

  15. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    . We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than...

  16. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  17. An Unspoken Crisis: The "Scarring Effects" of the Complex Nexus between Education and Work on Two Generations of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Hernan; Wyn, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    It is common for organizations such as the International Labour Organization and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development to acknowledge that the links between education and work are far from smooth, creating a "crisis" for youth. This includes increasing rates of unemployment, under-employment and precarious work. In…

  18. A likelihood ratio-based method to predict exact pedigrees for complex families from next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Verena; Kamphans, Tom; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Krawitz, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology considerably changed the way we screen for pathogenic mutations in rare Mendelian disorders. However, the identification of the disease-causing mutation amongst thousands of variants of partly unknown relevance is still challenging and efficient techniques that reduce the genomic search space play a decisive role. Often segregation- or linkage analysis are used to prioritize candidates, however, these approaches require correct information about the degree of relationship among the sequenced samples. For quality assurance an automated control of pedigree structures and sample assignment is therefore highly desirable in order to detect label mix-ups that might otherwise corrupt downstream analysis. We developed an algorithm based on likelihood ratios that discriminates between different classes of relationship for an arbitrary number of genotyped samples. By identifying the most likely class we are able to reconstruct entire pedigrees iteratively, even for highly consanguineous families. We tested our approach on exome data of different sequencing studies and achieved high precision for all pedigree predictions. By analyzing the precision for varying degrees of relatedness or inbreeding we could show that a prediction is robust down to magnitudes of a few hundred loci. A java standalone application that computes the relationships between multiple samples as well as a Rscript that visualizes the pedigree information is available for download as well as a web service at www.gene-talk.de CONTACT: heinrich@molgen.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. The mechanism of Intralipid®-mediated cardioprotection complex IV inhibition by the active metabolite, palmitoylcarnitine, generates reactive oxygen species and activates reperfusion injury salvage kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available Intralipid® administration at reperfusion elicits protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion in the absence or presence of Intralipid® 1% administered at the onset of reperfusion. In separate experiments, the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl-glycine was added either alone or with Intralipid®. Left ventricular work and activation of Akt, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were used to evaluate cardioprotection. ROS production was assessed by measuring the loss of aconitase activity and the release of hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Red. Electron transport chain complex activities and proton leak were measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Titration experiments using the fatty acid intermediates of Intralipid® palmitoyl-, oleoyl- and linoleoylcarnitine served to determine concentration-dependent inhibition of complex IV activity and mitochondrial ROS release.Intralipid® enhanced postischemic recovery and activated Akt and Erk1/2, effects that were abolished by the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionylglycine. Palmitoylcarnitine and linoleoylcarnitine, but not oleoylcarnitine concentration-dependently inhibited complex IV. Only palmitoylcarnitine reached high tissue concentrations during early reperfusion and generated significant ROS by complex IV inhibition. Palmitoylcarnitine (1 µM, administered at reperfusion, also fully mimicked Intralipid®-mediated protection in an N-(2-mercaptopropionyl-glycine -dependent manner.Our data describe a new mechanism of postconditioning cardioprotection by the clinically available fat emulsion, Intralipid®. Protection is elicited by the fatty acid intermediate palmitoylcarnitine, and involves inhibition of complex IV, an increase in ROS production and activation of the RISK pathway.

  20. Microscopy and microanalysis of complex nanosized strengthening precipitates in new generation commercial Al-Cu-Li alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinel, M J-F; Brodusch, N; Sha, G; Shandiz, M A; Demers, H; Trudeau, M; Ringer, S P; Gauvin, R

    2014-09-01

    Precipitates (ppts) in new generation aluminum-lithium alloys (AA2099 and AA2199) were characterised using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Results obtained on the following ppts are reported: Guinier-Preston zones, T1 (Al2 CuLi), β' (Al3 Zr) and δ' (Al3 Li). The focus was placed on their composition and the presence of minor elements. X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry in the electron microscopes and mass spectrometry in the atom probe microscope showed that T1 ppts were enriched in zinc (Zn) and magnesium up to about 1.9 and 3.5 at.%, respectively. A concentration of 2.5 at.% Zn in the δ' ppts was also measured. Unlike Li and copper, Zn in the T1 ppts could not be detected using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope because of its too low concentration and the small sizes of these ppts. Indeed, Monte Carlo simulations of EEL spectra for the Zn L2,3 edge showed that the signal-to-noise ratio was not high enough and that the detection limit was at least 2.5 at.%, depending on the probe current. Also, the simulation of X-ray spectra confirmed that the detection limit was exceeded for the Zn Kα X-ray line because the signal-to-noise ratio was high enough in that case, which is in agreement with our observations. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Ligand-based photooxidations of dithiomaltolato complexes of Ru(II) and Zn(II): photolytic CH activation and evidence of singlet oxygen generation and quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Britain; Walker, Malin Backlund; Ghimire, Mukunda M; Zhang, Dong; Selke, Matthias; Klausmeyer, Kevin K; Omary, Mohammad A; Farmer, Patrick J

    2014-08-14

    The complex [Ru(bpy)2(ttma)](+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; ttma = 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-thiopyran-4-thionate, 1, has previously been shown to undergo an unusual C-H activation of the dithiomaltolato ligand upon outer-sphere oxidation. The reaction generated alcohol and aldehyde products 2 and 3 from C-H oxidation of the pendant methyl group. In this report, we demonstrate that the same products are formed upon photolysis of 1 in presence of mild oxidants such as methyl viologen, [Ru(NH3)6](3+) and [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+), which do not oxidize 1 in the dark. This reactivity is engendered only upon excitation into an absorption band attributed to the ttma ligand. Analogous experiments with the homoleptic Zn(ttma)2, 4, also result in reduction of electron acceptors upon excitation of the ttma absorption band. Complexes 1 and 4 exhibit short-lived visible fluorescence and long-lived near-infrared phosphorescence bands. Singlet oxygen is both generated and quenched during aerobic excitation of 1 or 4, but is not involved in the C-H activation process.

  2. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  3. Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages keep Prospero levels low to generate large clones that contribute to the adult brain central complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Michael L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue homeostasis depends on the ability of stem cells to properly regulate self-renewal versus differentiation. Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts are a model system to study self-renewal and differentiation. Recent work has identified two types of larval neuroblasts that have different self-renewal/differentiation properties. Type I neuroblasts bud off a series of small basal daughter cells (ganglion mother cells that each generate two neurons. Type II neuroblasts bud off small basal daughter cells called intermediate progenitors (INPs, with each INP generating 6 to 12 neurons. Type I neuroblasts and INPs have nuclear Asense and cytoplasmic Prospero, whereas type II neuroblasts lack both these transcription factors. Here we test whether Prospero distinguishes type I/II neuroblast identity or proliferation profile, using several newly characterized Gal4 lines. We misexpress prospero using the 19H09-Gal4 line (expressed in type II neuroblasts but no adjacent type I neuroblasts or 9D11-Gal4 line (expressed in INPs but not type II neuroblasts. We find that differential prospero expression does not distinguish type I and type II neuroblast identities, but Prospero regulates proliferation in both type I and type II neuroblast lineages. In addition, we use 9D11 lineage tracing to show that type II lineages generate both small-field and large-field neurons within the adult central complex, a brain region required for locomotion, flight, and visual pattern memory.

  4. Coxeter-like complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Babson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the Coxeter complex associated to a Coxeter system (W,S, we introduce a simplicial regular cell complex Δ(G,S with a G-action associated to any pair (G,S where G is a group and S is a finite set of generators for G which is minimal with respect to inclusion. We examine the topology of Δ(G,S, and in particular the representations of G on its homology groups. We look closely at the case of the symmetric group S n minimally generated by (not necessarily adjacent transpositions, and their type-selected subcomplexes. These include not only the Coxeter complexes of type A, but also the well-studied chessboard complexes.

  5. Coupled ice sheet - climate simulations of the last glacial inception and last glacial maximum with a model of intermediate complexity that includes a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.

    2017-04-01

    Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.

  6. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) for complex molecular surfaces and interfaces: Spectral lineshape measurement and analysis plus some controversial issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-12-01

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) was first developed in the 1980s and it has been proven a uniquely sensitive and surface/interface selective spectroscopic probe for characterization of the structure, conformation and dynamics of molecular surfaces and interfaces. In recent years, there have been many progresses in the development of methodology and instrumentation in the SFG-VS toolbox that have significantly broadened the application to complex molecular surfaces and interfaces. In this review, after presenting a unified view on the theory and methodology focusing on the SFG-VS spectral lineshape, as well as the new opportunities in SFG-VS applications with such developments, some of the controversial issues that have been puzzling the community are discussed. The aim of this review is to present to the researchers and students interested in molecular surfaces and interfacial sciences up-to-date perspectives complementary to the existing textbooks and reviews on SFG-VS.

  7. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  8. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  9. PeptideNavigator: An interactive tool for exploring large and complex data sets generated during peptide-based drug design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Kyle I; Bayden, Alexander S; Audie, Joseph; Diller, David J

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in peptide-based drug design and discovery. Due to their relatively large size, polymeric nature, and chemical complexity, the design of peptide-based drugs presents an interesting "big data" challenge. Here, we describe an interactive computational environment, PeptideNavigator, for naturally exploring the tremendous amount of information generated during a peptide drug design project. The purpose of PeptideNavigator is the presentation of large and complex experimental and computational data sets, particularly 3D data, so as to enable multidisciplinary scientists to make optimal decisions during a peptide drug discovery project. PeptideNavigator provides users with numerous viewing options, such as scatter plots, sequence views, and sequence frequency diagrams. These views allow for the collective visualization and exploration of many peptides and their properties, ultimately enabling the user to focus on a small number of peptides of interest. To drill down into the details of individual peptides, PeptideNavigator provides users with a Ramachandran plot viewer and a fully featured 3D visualization tool. Each view is linked, allowing the user to seamlessly navigate from collective views of large peptide data sets to the details of individual peptides with promising property profiles. Two case studies, based on MHC-1A activating peptides and MDM2 scaffold design, are presented to demonstrate the utility of PeptideNavigator in the context of disparate peptide-design projects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of an Isothiocyanate on the HypEF Complex Suggests a Route for Efficient Cyanyl-Group Channeling during [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Cofactor Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven T Stripp

    Full Text Available [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze uptake and evolution of H2 in a wide range of microorganisms. The enzyme is characterized by an inorganic nickel/ iron cofactor, the latter of which carries carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. In vivo generation of these ligands requires a number of auxiliary proteins, the so-called Hyp family. Initially, HypF binds and activates the precursor metabolite carbamoyl phosphate. HypF catalyzes removal of phosphate and transfers the carbamate group to HypE. In an ATP-dependent condensation reaction, the C-terminal cysteinyl residue of HypE is modified to what has been interpreted as thiocyanate. This group is the direct precursor of the cyanide ligands of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site cofactor. We present a FT-IR analysis of HypE and HypF as isolated from E. coli. We follow the HypF-catalyzed cyanation of HypE in vitro and screen for the influence of carbamoyl phosphate and ATP. To elucidate on the differences between HypE and the HypEF complex, spectro-electrochemistry was used to map the vibrational Stark effect of naturally cyanated HypE. The IR signature of HypE could ultimately be assigned to isothiocyanate (-N=C=S rather than thiocyanate (-S-C≡N. This has important implications for cyanyl-group channeling during [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor generation.

  11. A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, Ananda; Roy, Syamal; Choudhuri, Soumitra K; Basu, Jayati Mookerjee; Majumder, Surajit; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Panda, Gouri S; Dutta, Pranabananda; Pal, Smarajit; Mukherjee, Pratima; Efferth, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC/Dox)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of CuNG has been studied on ROS generation, multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1) expression and on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). CuNG increased ROS generation and reduced MRP1 expression in EAC/Dox cells while only temporarily depleted glutathione (GSH) within 2 h in heart, kidney, liver and lung of EAC/Dox bearing mice, which were restored within 24 h. The level of liver Cu was observed to be inversely proportional to the level of GSH. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and GPx in different organs and thereby reduced oxidative stress. Thus nontoxic dose of CuNG may be utilized to reduce MRP1 expression and thus sensitize EAC/Dox cells to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and and GPx activities to reduce oxidative stress in some vital organs of EAC/Dox bearing mice. CuNG treatment also helped to recover liver and renal function in EAC/Dox bearing mice. Based on our studies, we conclude that CuNG may be a promising candidate to sensitize drug resistant cancers in the clinic

  12. Type IX secretion: the generation of bacterial cell surface coatings involved in virulence, gliding motility and the degradation of complex biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D; Glew, Michelle D; Gorasia, Dhana G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is present in over 1000 sequenced species/strains of the Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes superphylum. Proteins secreted by the T9SS have an N-terminal signal peptide for translocation across the inner membrane via the SEC translocon and a C-terminal signal for secretion across the outer membrane via the T9SS. Nineteen protein components of the T9SS have been identified including three, SigP, PorX and PorY that are involved in regulation. The inner membrane proteins PorL and PorM and the outer membrane proteins PorK and PorN interact and a complex comprising PorK and PorN forms a large ring structure of 50 nm in diameter. PorU, PorV, PorQ and PorZ form an attachment complex on the cell surface of the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis T9SS substrates bind to PorV suggesting that after translocation PorV functions as a shuttle protein to deliver T9SS substrates to the attachment complex. The PorU component of the attachment complex is a novel Gram negative sortase which catalyses the cleavage of the C-terminal signal and conjugation of the protein substrates to lipopolysaccharide, anchoring them to the cell surface. This review presents an overview of the T9SS focusing on the function of T9SS substrates and machinery components. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Frictional Heat Generation and Slip Duration Estimated From Micro-fault in an Exhumed Accretionary Complex and Their Relations to the Scaling Law for Slow Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Morita, K.; Okubo, M.; Hamada, Y.; Lin, W.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fault motion has been estimated by diffusion pattern of frictional heating recorded in geology (e.g., Fulton et al., 2012). The same record in deeper subduction plate interface can be observed from micro-faults in an exhumed accretionary complex. In this study, we focused on a micro-fault within the Cretaceous Shimanto Belt, SW Japan to estimate fault motion from the frictional heating diffusion pattern. A carbonaceous material concentrated layer (CMCL) with ~2m of thickness is observed in study area. Some micro-faults cut the CMCL. Thickness of a fault is about 3.7mm. Injection veins and dilatant fractures were observed in thin sections, suggesting that the high fluid pressure was existed. Samples with 10cm long were collected to measure distribution of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) as a function of distance from the center of micro-fault. Ro of host rock was ~1.0%. Diffusion pattern was detected decreasing in Ro from ~1.2%-~1.1%. Characteristic diffusion distance is ~4-~9cm. We conducted grid search to find the optimal frictional heat generation per unit area (Q, the product of friction coefficient, normal stress and slip velocity) and slip duration (t) to fit the diffusion pattern. Thermal diffusivity (0.98*10-8m2/s) and thermal conductivity (2.0 W/mK) were measured. In the result, 2000-2500J/m2 of Q and 63000-126000s of t were estimated. Moment magnitudes (M0) of slow earthquakes (slow EQs) follow a scaling law with slip duration and its dimension is different from that for normal earthquakes (normal EQ) (Ide et al., 2007). The slip duration estimated in this study (~104-~105s) consistent with 4-5 of M0, never fit to the scaling law for normal EQ. Heat generation can be inverted from 4-5 of M0, corresponding with ~108-~1011J, which is consistent with rupture area of 105-108m2 in this study. The comparisons in heat generation and slip duration between geological measurements and geophysical remote observations give us the estimation of rupture area, M0, and

  14. Syntheses, structures and redox properties of some complexes containing the Os(dppe)Cp* fragment, including [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bondCC triple bond C)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Michael I; Costuas, Karine; Davin, Thomas; Halet, Jean-François; Kramarczuk, Kathy A; Low, Paul J; Nicholson, Brian K; Perkins, Gary J; Roberts, Rachel L; Skelton, Brian W; Smith, Mark E; White, Allan H

    2007-12-14

    The sequential conversion of [OsBr(cod)Cp*] (9) to [OsBr(dppe)Cp*] (10), [Os([=C=CH2)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([11]PF6), [Os(C triple bond CH)(dppe)Cp*] (12), [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2{mu-(=C=CH-CH=C=)}][PF6]2 ([13](PF6)2) and finally [{Os(dppe)Cp*}(2)(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (14) has been used to make the third member of the triad [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The molecular structures of []PF6, 12 and 14, together with those of the related osmium complexes [Os(NCMe)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([15]PF6) and [Os(C triple bond CPh)(dppe)Cp*] (16), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Comparison of the redox properties of 14 with those of its iron and ruthenium congeners shows that the first oxidation potential E1 varies as: Fe approximately Os < Ru. Whereas the Fe complex has been shown to undergo three sequential 1-electron oxidation processes within conventional electrochemical solvent windows, the Ru and Os compounds undergo no fewer than four sequential oxidation events giving rise to a five-membered series of redox related complexes [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C4)]n+ (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), the osmium derivatives being obtained at considerably lower potentials than the ruthenium analogues. These results are complimented by DFT and DT DFT calculations.

  15. Macrophage activation by a vanadyl-aspirin complex is dependent on L-type calcium channel and the generation of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinuevo, Maria Silvina; Etcheverry, Susana Beatriz; Cortizo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is the result of a tight balance between bone resorption and bone formation where macrophage activation is believed to contribute to bone resorption. We have previously shown that a vanadyl(IV)-aspirin complex (VOAspi) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in culture. In this study, we assessed VOAspi and VO effects and their possible mechanism of action on a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Both vanadium compounds inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine completely reversed the VOAspi-induced macrophage cytotoxicity, while it could not block the effect of VO. VOAspi also stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) and enhanced the expression of both constitutive and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide syntases (NOS). All these effects were abolished by nifedipine. Althogether our finding give evidence that VOAspi-induced macrophage cytotoxicity is dependent on L-type calcium channel and the generation of NO though the induction of eNOS and iNOS. Contrary, the parent compound VO exerted a cytotoxic effect by mechanisms independent of a calcium entry and the NO/NOS activation

  16. Characterizing the Trade Space Between Capability and Complexity in Next Generation Cloud and Precipitation Observing Systems Using Markov Chain Monte Carlos Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Mace, G. G.; Posselt, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    As we begin to contemplate the next generation atmospheric observing systems, it will be critically important that we are able to make informed decisions regarding the trade space between scientific capability and the need to keep complexity and cost within definable limits. To explore this trade space as it pertains to understanding key cloud and precipitation processes, we are developing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm suite that allows us to arbitrarily define the specifications of candidate observing systems and then explore how the uncertainties in key retrieved geophysical parameters respond to that observing system. MCMC algorithms produce a more complete posterior solution space, and allow for an objective examination of information contained in measurements. In our initial implementation, MCMC experiments are performed to retrieve vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation properties from a spectrum of active and passive measurements collected by aircraft during the ACE Radiation Definition Experiments (RADEX). Focusing on shallow cumulus clouds observed during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology EXperiment (IPHEX), observing systems in this study we consider W and Ka-band radar reflectivity, path-integrated attenuation at those frequencies, 31 and 94 GHz brightness temperatures as well as visible and near-infrared reflectance. By varying the sensitivity and uncertainty of these measurements, we quantify the capacity of various combinations of observations to characterize the physical properties of clouds and precipitation.

  17. A computer model for one-dimensional mass and energy transport in and around chemically reacting particles, including complex gas-phase chemistry, multicomponent molecular diffusion, surface evaporation, and heterogeneous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.

    1992-01-01

    Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.

  18. A complex small RNA repertoire is generated by a plant/fungal-like machinery and effected by a metazoan-like Argonaute in the single-cell human parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Braun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages to human populations worldwide. Remarkably, the small RNA-generating machinery of Toxoplasma is phylogenetically and functionally related to that of plants and fungi, and accounts for an exceptionally diverse array of small RNAs. This array includes conspicuous populations of repeat-associated small interfering RNA (siRNA, which, as in plants, likely generate and maintain heterochromatin at DNA repeats and satellites. Toxoplasma small RNAs also include many microRNAs with clear metazoan-like features whose accumulation is sometimes extremely high and dynamic, an unexpected finding given that Toxoplasma is a unicellular protist. Both plant-like heterochromatic small RNAs and metazoan-like microRNAs bind to a single Argonaute protein, Tg-AGO. Toxoplasma miRNAs co-sediment with polyribosomes, and thus, are likely to act as translational regulators, consistent with the lack of catalytic residues in Tg-AGO. Mass spectrometric analyses of the Tg-AGO protein complex revealed a common set of virtually all known RISC components so far characterized in human and Drosophila, as well as novel proteins involved in RNA metabolism. In agreement with its loading with heterochromatic small RNAs, Tg-AGO also associates substoichiometrically with components of known chromatin-repressing complexes. Thus, a puzzling patchwork of silencing processor and effector proteins from plant, fungal and metazoan origin accounts for the production and action of an unsuspected variety of small RNAs in the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma and

  19. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  20. A Novel Cyanide-Bridged Thulium-Nickel Heterobimetallic Polymeric Complex (H2O)2(DMF)10Tm2[Ni(CN)4]2[Ni(CN)4] including O-H···N Hydrogen Bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Janghoon; Park, Daeyoung; Song, Mina; Ha, Sungin; Kang, Ansoo; Moon, Sangbong; Ryu, Cheolhwi

    2012-01-01

    The experimental section lists the observed infrared absorption frequencies for the complex. Typically bridging CN ligands have higher stretching frequencies than the terminal CN ligands. Accordingly, cyanide stretching bands (2170, 2156, 2139 cm -1 . at higher frequencies than the stretching band (2127 cm -1 ) of K 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ] are assigned to bridging cyanide ligands. The band at 2128 cm -1 is assigned to terminal cyanide ligands because their location in the cyanide stretching region compares with the absorption observed for the nonbridging cyanide ligands in K 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ]. Array (H 2 O) 2 (DMF) 10 Tm 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ] and other lanthanide metal-Ni systems display similar CN stretching patterns in their spectra. A broad absorption band at 2950-3550 cm -1 was observed in the spectrum. This supports the presence of O-H···N intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions between the polymers

  1. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  2. Evaluating complex interventions in end of life care: the MORECare statement on good practice generated by a synthesis of transparent expert consultations and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Evans, Catherine J; Grande, Gunn; Preston, Nancy; Morgan, Myfanwy; McCrone, Paul; Lewis, Penney; Fayers, Peter; Harding, Richard; Hotopf, Matthew; Murray, Scott A; Benalia, Hamid; Gysels, Marjolein; Farquhar, Morag; Todd, Chris

    2013-04-24

    Despite being a core business of medicine, end of life care (EoLC) is neglected. It is hampered by research that is difficult to conduct with no common standards. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidance on the best methods for the design and conduct of research on EoLC to further knowledge in the field. The Methods Of Researching End of life Care (MORECare) project built on the Medical Research Council guidance on the development and evaluation of complex circumstances. We conducted systematic literature reviews, transparent expert consultations (TEC) involving consensus methods of nominal group and online voting, and stakeholder workshops to identify challenges and best practice in EoLC research, including: participation recruitment, ethics, attrition, integration of mixed methods, complex outcomes and economic evaluation. We synthesised all findings to develop a guidance statement on the best methods to research EoLC. We integrated data from three systematic reviews and five TECs with 133 online responses. We recommend research designs extending beyond randomised trials and encompassing mixed methods. Patients and families value participation in research, and consumer or patient collaboration in developing studies can resolve some ethical concerns. It is ethically desirable to offer patients and families the opportunity to participate in research. Outcome measures should be short, responsive to change and ideally used for both clinical practice and research. Attrition should be anticipated in studies and may affirm inclusion of the relevant population, but careful reporting is necessitated using a new classification. Eventual implementation requires consideration at all stages of the project. The MORECare statement provides 36 best practice solutions for research evaluating services and treatments in EoLC to improve study quality and set the standard for future research. The statement may be used alongside existing statements and provides a first step in

  3. Smal-Scale Spatial Differences in Supply-Side Ecology of Barnacle Larvae Involves a Complex Suite of Factors (Including Surface Tide, Internal Tides And Surface Winds) in Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, A.; Ladah, L. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the daily settlement rate of barnacle larvae of Chthamalus spp. at small spatial scales ( 1 km) at three sites with unique geomorphology. Simultaneously, water-column temperature, currents, and coastal winds were measured to detect potential physical transport mechanisms responsible for supply of planktonic larvae to the coast. Autocorrelation artifacts in the environmental and settlement time series were removed with the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and their residuals were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This analysis was carried out to determine the independent modes of variability in the environmental forcing mechanisms that may explain the settlement patterns. We found synchronous settlement pulses occurring throughout the study. Settlement at the wave exposed site was only associated to the wind-forcing mode and not to internal waves, which had not been detected previously and was surprising, considering the strong semidiurnal internal tide at this site. Settlement at both the reef-bounded site and the inside-bay site associated to vertical isotherm displacements, thereby suggesting the importance of internal waves for supply-side ecology at these more southern sites. Our results suggest that a complex suite of factors may interact to result in larval supply at the same site, and that larval supply at nearby sites may be forced by different factors due to differences in geomorphology and/or bathymetry, explaining spatial heterogeneity often detected in larval supply and settlement.

  4. Batteries not included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-09-08

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge.

  5. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  6. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  7. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  8. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  9. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  10. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  11. On Measuring the Complexity of Networks: Kolmogorov Complexity versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Morzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular methods of estimating the complexity of networks is to measure the entropy of network invariants, such as adjacency matrices or degree sequences. Unfortunately, entropy and all entropy-based information-theoretic measures have several vulnerabilities. These measures neither are independent of a particular representation of the network nor can capture the properties of the generative process, which produces the network. Instead, we advocate the use of the algorithmic entropy as the basis for complexity definition for networks. Algorithmic entropy (also known as Kolmogorov complexity or K-complexity for short evaluates the complexity of the description required for a lossless recreation of the network. This measure is not affected by a particular choice of network features and it does not depend on the method of network representation. We perform experiments on Shannon entropy and K-complexity for gradually evolving networks. The results of these experiments point to K-complexity as the more robust and reliable measure of network complexity. The original contribution of the paper includes the introduction of several new entropy-deceiving networks and the empirical comparison of entropy and K-complexity as fundamental quantities for constructing complexity measures for networks.

  12. A new species complex including Claviceps fusiformis and Claviceps hirtella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D. E.; Olšovská, Jana; Man, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2008), s. 95-110 ISSN 1560-2745 Grant - others:US(US) Intsormil Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alkaloids * cenchrus * claviceps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2008

  13. Coffin-Siris syndrome and related disorders involving components of the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complex: historical review and recent advances using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosho, Tomoki; Miyake, Noriko; Carey, John C

    2014-09-01

    This issue of Seminars in Medical Genetics, American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C investigates the human diseases caused by mutations in the BAF complex (also known as the mammalian SWI/SNF complex) genes, particularly focusing on Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS). CSS is a rare congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID), coarse facial appearance, feeding difficulties, frequent infections, and hypoplasia/aplasia of the fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. In 2012, 42 years after the first description of CSS in 1970, five causative genes (SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, ARID1B), all encoding components of the BAF complex, were identified as being responsible for CSS through whole exome sequencing and pathway-based genetic screening. The identification of two additional causative genes (PHF6, SOX11) followed. Mutations in another BAF complex gene (SMARCA2) and (TBC1D24) were found to cause clinically similar conditions with ID, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome and DOORS syndrome, respectively. Also, ADNP was found to be mutated in an autism/ID syndrome. Furthermore, there is growing evidences for germline or somatic mutations in the BAF complex genes to be causal for cancer/cancer predisposition syndromes. These discoveries have highlighted the role of the BAF complex in the human development and cancer formation. The biology of BAF is very complicated and much remains unknown. Ongoing research is required to reveal the whole picture of the BAF complex in human development, and will lead to the development of new targeted therapies for related disorders in the future. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tele-operation of the electric power generation and transmission in large complex; Teleoperacao da geracao e transmissao de energia eletrica em complexo de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Jose Sidnei Colombo

    1992-07-01

    This work presents the specification and development outstanding aspects of a large supervisory and control power system. The engineering experiment, named SSCH - Hierarchical Supervision and Control System, occurred between 1982 and 1992 at Sao Paulo State and is an industrial automation power system most expressive cases carried out in this decade. More than complex development technical details, important management aspects concerning with large project execution are discussed. The SSCHs special characteristics are its dimension, complexity and realtime network analysis resources, applied to large power systems. (author)

  15. A Cryo Complex Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alferov, V; Fedorchenko, V; Ivanova, N; Kholkin, A; Klimov, S; Krendelev, V; Kuznetsov, S; Lukyantsev, A; Lutchev, A; Milutkin, V; Sytin, A N; Vasilev, D

    2004-01-01

    A Cryogenic complex is being constructed to provide by liquid helium and nitrogen the RF-separator of kaons. About 500 parameters including temperature (1,8…300)K, liquid helium/nitrogen level, vacuum, 300 digital signals have to be measured, 70 commands generated, 20 closed loops activated. The paper describes controls electronics which includes home made I8051 compatible controllers connected by the CAN field bus to a bus controller and interface electronic modules for: - temperature measurements; - liquid Ni and He level measurements; - vacuum pumps current measurements; - analog and digital signals measurements and generations. The modules are tested together with signal imitators within a vertical slice of the Control System based on EPICS tools.

  16. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  17. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  18. Generation of fluorescence quenchers from the triplet states of chlorophylls in the major light-harvesting complex II from green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barzda, V.; Vengris, M.; Valkunas, L.; van Amerongen, H.; van Grondelle, R.

    2000-01-01

    Laser flash-induced changes of the fluorescence yield were studied in aggregates of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) on a time scale ranging from microseconds to seconds. Carotenoid (Car) and chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states, decaying with lifetimes of several microseconds and hundreds of

  19. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    , or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data.......We explain the basis and use of the genBSDF tool and validate the tool by comparing results for four different cases to BSDF data produced via alternate methods. This validation demonstrates that BSDFs created with genBSDF are comparable to BSDFs generated analytically using TracePro and by measurement...

  20. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  1. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  2. Photo release of nitrous oxide from the hyponitrite ion studied by infrared spectroscopy. Evidence for the generation of a cobalt-N2O complex. Experimental and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón Villalba, M Elizabeth; Franca, Carlos A; Güida, Jorge A

    2017-04-05

    The solid state photolysis of sodium, silver and thallium hyponitrite (M 2 N 2 O 2 , M=Na, Ag, Tl) salts and a binuclear complex of cobalt bridged by hyponitrite ([Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ ) were studied by irradiation with visible and UV light in the electronic absorption region. The UV-visible spectra for free hyponitrite ion and binuclear complex of cobalt were interpreted in terms of Density Functional Theory calculations in order to explain photolysis behavior. The photolysis of each compound depends selectively on the irradiation wavelength. Irradiation with 340-460nm light and with the 488nm laser line generates photolysis only in silver and thallium hyponitrite salts, while 253.7nm light photolyzed all the studied compounds. Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow the photolysis process and to identify the generated products. Remarkably, gaseous N 2 O was detected after photolysis in the infrared spectra of sodium, silver, and thallium hyponitrite KBr pellets. The spectra for [Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ suggest that one cobalt ion remains bonded to N 2 O from which the generation of a [(NH 3 ) 5 CoNNO] +3 complex is inferred. Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations confirm the stability of this last complex and provide the theoretical data which are used in the interpretation of the electronic spectra of the hyponitrite ion and the cobalt binuclear complex and thus in the elucidation of their photolysis behavior. Carbonate ion is also detected after photolysis in all studied compounds, presumably due to the reaction of atmospheric CO 2 with the microcrystal surface reaction products. Kinetic measurements for the photolysis of the binuclear complex suggest a first order law for the intensity decay of the hyponitrite IR bands and for the intensity increase in the N 2 O generation. Predicted and experimental data are in very good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  4. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  5. Experimental study of complex mixed-mode oscillations generated in a Bonhoeffer-van der Pol oscillator under weak periodic perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kuniyasu, E-mail: kuniyasu.shimizu@it-chiba.ac.jp [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino 275-0016 (Japan); Sekikawa, Munehisa [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Bifurcations of complex mixed-mode oscillations denoted as mixed-mode oscillation-incrementing bifurcations (MMOIBs) have frequently been observed in chemical experiments. In a previous study [K. Shimizu et al., Physica D 241, 1518 (2012)], we discovered an extremely simple dynamical circuit that exhibits MMOIBs. Our model was represented by a slow/fast Bonhoeffer-van der Pol circuit under weak periodic perturbation near a subcritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verify that our dynamical circuit captures the essence of the underlying mechanism causing MMOIBs, and we observe MMOIBs and chaos with distinctive waveforms in real circuit experiments.

  6. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Physical bases of the generation of short-term earthquake precursors: A complex model of ionization-induced geophysical processes in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Karelin, A. V.; Davidenko, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the current understanding of the interaction between geospheres from a complex set of physical and chemical processes under the influence of ionization. The sources of ionization involve the Earth's natural radioactivity and its intensification before earthquakes in seismically active regions, anthropogenic radioactivity caused by nuclear weapon testing and accidents in nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage, the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and active geophysical experiments using artificial ionization equipment. This approach treats the environment as an open complex system with dissipation, where inherent processes can be considered in the framework of the synergistic approach. We demonstrate the synergy between the evolution of thermal and electromagnetic anomalies in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This makes it possible to determine the direction of the interaction process, which is especially important in applications related to short-term earthquake prediction. That is why the emphasis in this study is on the processes proceeding the final stage of earthquake preparation; the effects of other ionization sources are used to demonstrate that the model is versatile and broadly applicable in geophysics.

  8. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richardson, John D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lugaz, Noé, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  9. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

    2014-01-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished

  10. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  11. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  12. A silica-supported double-decker silsesquioxane provides a second skin for the selective generation of bipodal surface organometallic complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff

    2012-11-12

    A well-defined silica-based material with a homogeneous nanolayer presenting identical pairs of vicinal silanols has been prepared by reaction of the surface organometallic species [≡SiOZr(CH 2CMe 3) 3], obtained on a silica dehydroxylated at 900 °C, with the double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (OH) 2DD(OH) 2. The surface structure has been established using extensive NMR characterization ( 1H, 13C, 29Si, HETCOR, double-quantum, triple-quantum). Treatment with Zr(CH 2CMe 3) 4 leads to the first well-defined single-site bipodal grafted bis-neopentyl zirconium complex. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. A silica-supported double-decker silsesquioxane provides a second skin for the selective generation of bipodal surface organometallic complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A well-defined silica-based material with a homogeneous nanolayer presenting identical pairs of vicinal silanols has been prepared by reaction of the surface organometallic species [≡SiOZr(CH 2CMe 3) 3], obtained on a silica dehydroxylated at 900 °C, with the double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (OH) 2DD(OH) 2. The surface structure has been established using extensive NMR characterization ( 1H, 13C, 29Si, HETCOR, double-quantum, triple-quantum). Treatment with Zr(CH 2CMe 3) 4 leads to the first well-defined single-site bipodal grafted bis-neopentyl zirconium complex. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Chiral gold(I vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín-Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I and gold(I catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.

  15. An Improved STARFM with Help of an Unmixing-Based Method to Generate High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Complex Heterogeneous Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Xiufang; Pan, Yaozhong; Liu, Hongli; Yuan, Zhoumiqi; Yun, Ya

    2016-02-05

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role in monitoring rapid changes of the Earth's surface. However, sensors that can simultaneously provide satellite images with both high temporal and spatial resolution haven't been designed yet. This paper proposes an improved spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) with the help of an Unmixing-based method (USTARFM) to generate the high spatial and temporal data needed for the study of heterogeneous areas. The results showed that the USTARFM had higher accuracy than STARFM methods in two aspects of analysis: individual bands and of heterogeneity analysis. Taking the predicted NIR band as an example, the correlation coefficients (r) for the USTARFM, STARFM and unmixing methods were 0.96, 0.95, 0.90, respectively (p-value data fusion problems faced when using STARFM. Additionally, the USTARFM method could help researchers achieve better performance than STARFM at a smaller window size from its heterogeneous land surface quantitative representation.

  16. Generation of Chimeric “ABS Nanohemostat” Complex and Comparing Its Histomorphological In Vivo Effects to the Traditional Ankaferd Hemostat in Controlled Experimental Partial Nephrectomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using the classical Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS solution to create active hemostasis during partial nephrectomy (PN may not be so effective due to insufficient contact surface between the ABS hemostatic liquid agent and the bleeding area. In order to broaden the contact surface, we generated a chimeric hemostatic agent, ABS nanohemostat, via combining a self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecule with the traditional Ankaferd hemostat. Materials and Methods. In order to generate ABS nanohemostat, a positively charged Peptide Amphiphile (PA molecule was synthesized by using solid phase peptide synthesis. For animal experiments, 24 Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: Group 1: control; Group 2: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml Ankaferd hemostat; Group 3: conventional PN with ABS + peptide gel; Group 4: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml peptide solution. Results. Mean warm ischemia times (WITs were 232.8 ± 56.3, 65.6±11.4, 75.5± 17.2, and 58.1±17.6 seconds in Group 1 to Group 4, respectively. Fibrosis was not different among the groups, while inflammation was detected to be significantly different in G3 and G4. Conclusions. ABS nanohemostat has comparable hemostatic efficacy to the traditional Ankaferd hemostat in the partial nephrectomy experimental model. Elucidation of the cellular and tissue effects of this chimeric compound may establish a catalytic spark and open new avenues for novel experimental and clinical studies in the battlefield of hemostasis.

  17. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  18. The complexities of 'otherness': reflections on embodiment of a young White British woman engaged in cross-generation research involving older people in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    If interviews are to be considered embodied experiences, than the potential influence of the embodied researcher must be explored. A focus on specific attributes such as age or ethnicity belies the complex and negotiated space that both researcher and participant inhabit simultaneously. Drawing on empirical research with stroke survivors in an ethnically mixed area of Indonesia, this paper highlights the importance of considering embodiment as a specific methodological concern. Three specific interactions are described and analysed, illustrating the active nature of the embodied researcher in narrative production and development. The intersectionality of embodied features is evident, alongside their fluctuating influence in time and place. These interactions draw attention to the need to consider the researcher within the interview process and the subsequent analysis and presentation of narrative findings. The paper concludes with a reinforcement of the importance of ongoing and meaningful reflexivity in research, a need to consider the researcher as the other participant, and specifically a call to engage with and present the dynamic nature of embodiment.

  19. Axon Regeneration Is Regulated by Ets-C/EBP Transcription Complexes Generated by Activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways are important for axon regeneration. Axonal injury induces expression of the svh-2 gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, stimulation of which by the SVH-1 growth factor leads to activation of the JNK pathway. Here, we identify ETS-4 and CEBP-1, related to mammalian Ets and C/EBP, respectively, as transcriptional activators of svh-2 expression following axon injury. ETS-4 and CEBP-1 function downstream of the cAMP and Ca2+-p38 MAPK pathways, respectively. We show that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ETS-4 promotes its complex formation with CEBP-1. Furthermore, activation of both cAMP and Ca2+ signaling is required for activation of svh-2 expression. Thus, the cAMP/Ca2+ signaling pathways cooperatively activate the JNK pathway, which then promotes axon regeneration.

  20. Complex expression patterns of lymphocyte-specific genes during the development of cartilaginous fish implicate unique lymphoid tissues in generating an immune repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, A. L.; Anderson, M. K.; Litman, R. T.; Walsh, C. J.; Luer, C. A.; Rothenberg, E. V.; Litman, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish express canonical B and T cell recognition genes, but their lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development have been poorly defined. Here, the expression of Ig, TCR, recombination-activating gene (Rag)-1 and terminal deoxynucleosidase (TdT) genes has been used to identify roles of various lymphoid tissues throughout development in the cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria (clearnose skate). In embryogenesis, Ig and TCR genes are sharply up-regulated at 8 weeks of development. At this stage TCR and TdT expression is limited to the thymus; later, TCR gene expression appears in peripheral sites in hatchlings and adults, suggesting that the thymus is a source of T cells as in mammals. B cell gene expression indicates more complex roles for the spleen and two special organs of cartilaginous fish-the Leydig and epigonal (gonad-associated) organs. In the adult, the Leydig organ is the site of the highest IgM and IgX expression. However, the spleen is the first site of IgM expression, while IgX is expressed first in gonad, liver, Leydig and even thymus. Distinctive spatiotemporal patterns of Ig light chain gene expression also are seen. A subset of Ig genes is pre-rearranged in the germline of the cartilaginous fish, making expression possible without rearrangement. To assess whether this allows differential developmental regulation, IgM and IgX heavy chain cDNA sequences from specific tissues and developmental stages have been compared with known germline-joined genomic sequences. Both non-productively rearranged genes and germline-joined genes are transcribed in the embryo and hatchling, but not in the adult.

  1. Affinity improvement of a therapeutic antibody by structure-based computational design: generation of electrostatic interactions in the transition state stabilizes the antibody-antigen complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kiyoshi

    Full Text Available The optimization of antibodies is a desirable goal towards the development of better therapeutic strategies. The antibody 11K2 was previously developed as a therapeutic tool for inflammatory diseases, and displays very high affinity (4.6 pM for its antigen the chemokine MCP-1 (monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1. We have employed a virtual library of mutations of 11K2 to identify antibody variants of potentially higher affinity, and to establish benchmarks in the engineering of a mature therapeutic antibody. The most promising candidates identified in the virtual screening were examined by surface plasmon resonance to validate the computational predictions, and to characterize their binding affinity and key thermodynamic properties in detail. Only mutations in the light-chain of the antibody are effective at enhancing its affinity for the antigen in vitro, suggesting that the interaction surface of the heavy-chain (dominated by the hot-spot residue Phe101 is not amenable to optimization. The single-mutation with the highest affinity is L-N31R (4.6-fold higher affinity than wild-type antibody. Importantly, all the single-mutations showing increase affinity incorporate a charged residue (Arg, Asp, or Glu. The characterization of the relevant thermodynamic parameters clarifies the energetic mechanism. Essentially, the formation of new electrostatic interactions early in the binding reaction coordinate (transition state or earlier benefits the durability of the antibody-antigen complex. The combination of in silico calculations and thermodynamic analysis is an effective strategy to improve the affinity of a matured therapeutic antibody.

  2. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  3. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  5. Ex situ generation of stoichiometric HCN and its application in the Pd-catalysed cyanation of aryl bromides: evidence for a transmetallation step between two oxidative addition Pd-complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Steffan K; Eikeland, Espen Z; Taarning, Esben; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2017-12-01

    A protocol for the Pd-catalysed cyanation of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric and gaseous hydrogen cyanide is reported for the first time. A two-chamber reactor was adopted for the safe liberation of ex situ generated HCN in a closed environment, which proved highly efficient in the Ni-catalysed hydrocyanation as the test reaction. Subsequently, this setup was exploited for converting a range of aryl and heteroaryl bromides (28 examples) directly into the corresponding benzonitriles in high yields, without the need for cyanide salts. Cyanation was achieved employing the Pd(0) precatalyst, P( t Bu) 3 -Pd-G3 and a weak base, potassium acetate, in a dioxane-water solvent mixture. The methodology was also suitable for the synthesis of 13 C-labelled benzonitriles with ex situ generated 13 C-hydrogen cyanide. Stoichiometric studies with the metal complexes were undertaken to delineate the mechanism for this catalytic transformation. Treatment of Pd(P( t Bu) 3 ) 2 with H 13 CN in THF provided two Pd-hydride complexes, (P( t Bu) 3 ) 2 Pd(H)( 13 CN), and [(P( t Bu) 3 )Pd(H)] 2 Pd( 13 CN) 4 , both of which were isolated and characterised by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure analysis. When the same reaction was performed in a THF : water mixture in the presence of KOAc, only (P( t Bu) 3 ) 2 Pd(H)( 13 CN) was formed. Subjection of this cyano hydride metal complex with the oxidative addition complex (P( t Bu) 3 )Pd(Ph)(Br) in a 1 : 1 ratio in THF led to a transmetallation step with the formation of (P( t Bu) 3 ) 2 Pd(H)(Br) and 13 C-benzonitrile from a reductive elimination step. These experiments suggest the possibility of a catalytic cycle involving initially the formation of two Pd(ii)-species from the oxidative addition of L n Pd(0) into HCN and an aryl bromide followed by a transmetallation step to L n Pd(Ar)(CN) and L n Pd(H)(Br), which both reductively eliminate, the latter in the presence of KOAc, to generate the benzonitrile and L n Pd(0).

  6. Next-generation non-starch polysaccharide-degrading, multi-carbohydrase complex rich in xylanase and arabinofuranosidase to enhance broiler feed digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozannet, Pierre; Kidd, Michael T; Montanhini Neto, Roberto; Geraert, Pierre-André

    2017-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex (MCC) rich in xylanase (Xyl) and arabinofuranosidase (Abf) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance). The graded content of arabinoxylan (AX) was obtained using different raw materials (wheat, rye, barley, and dried distillers' wheat). Diet-energy density was modified with added fat. Measurements indicated that nutrient density and AX content had a significant effect on most digestibility parameters. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was significantly increased (265 kcal kg-1) by MCC. The addition of MCC also resulted in significant improvement in the digestibility of all evaluated nutrients, with average improvements of 3.0, 3.3, 3.2, 3.0, 6.2, 2.9, 5.8, and 3.8% units for DM, OM, protein, starch, fat, insoluble and soluble fibers, and energy utilization, respectively. The interaction between MCC and diet composition was significant for the digestibility of OM, fat, protein, and energy. Nutrient digestibility and diet AME were negatively correlated with AX content (P digestible nutrient (i.e., starch, protein, fat, insoluble and soluble fibers) content with and without MCC (R2 = 0.87; RSD = 78 kcal kg-1). This study confirms that the presence of AX in wheat-based diets and wheat-based diets with other cereals and cereal by-products reduces nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Furthermore, the dietary addition of MCC, which is rich in Xyn and Abf, reduced deleterious effect of fiber and improved overall nutrient digestibility in broiler diets. © 2017 Poultry

  7. Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Cercamondi, Colin I; Zeder, Christophe; Wild, Daniela; Adelmann, Horst; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability. We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains. We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios. Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice. Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at

  8. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  9. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  10. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  11. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  12. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. Rare oxidation states of group V metal compounds generated by radiolysis in non aqueous solvents: experimental and theoretical study. Attempts for synthesis of heterometallic complexes containing niobium and uranium or thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Motais, B.

    1986-02-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear complexes of group V trivalent metals (V, Nb, Ta), coordinated with γ-picolin molecules and chlorine atoms, have been oxidized or reduced, respectively by the radical-ions CH 2 Cl 2 + or CH 3 CN - radiolytically generated in free-oxygen dichloromethane or acetonitrile. The mechanism of these reactions have been established from kinetic, spectroscopic data and in some cases, from EPR measurements and theoretical SWXα calculations. Some preliminary results about the reaction occurring between Cp 2 Nb-(CO)H and Cp 2 'M(CH 3 ) 2 (M=U or Th) (Cp = eta 5 - C 5 H 5 ; Cp = eta 5 - (C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) are also reported [fr

  14. Toward a Definition of Complexity for Quantum Field Theory States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shira; Heller, Michal P; Marrochio, Hugo; Pastawski, Fernando

    2018-03-23

    We investigate notions of complexity of states in continuous many-body quantum systems. We focus on Gaussian states which include ground states of free quantum field theories and their approximations encountered in the context of the continuous version of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Our proposal for quantifying state complexity is based on the Fubini-Study metric. It leads to counting the number of applications of each gate (infinitesimal generator) in the transformation, subject to a state-dependent metric. We minimize the defined complexity with respect to momentum-preserving quadratic generators which form su(1,1) algebras. On the manifold of Gaussian states generated by these operations, the Fubini-Study metric factorizes into hyperbolic planes with minimal complexity circuits reducing to known geodesics. Despite working with quantum field theories far outside the regime where Einstein gravity duals exist, we find striking similarities between our results and those of holographic complexity proposals.

  15. Toward a Definition of Complexity for Quantum Field Theory States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shira; Heller, Michal P.; Marrochio, Hugo; Pastawski, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    We investigate notions of complexity of states in continuous many-body quantum systems. We focus on Gaussian states which include ground states of free quantum field theories and their approximations encountered in the context of the continuous version of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Our proposal for quantifying state complexity is based on the Fubini-Study metric. It leads to counting the number of applications of each gate (infinitesimal generator) in the transformation, subject to a state-dependent metric. We minimize the defined complexity with respect to momentum-preserving quadratic generators which form s u (1 ,1 ) algebras. On the manifold of Gaussian states generated by these operations, the Fubini-Study metric factorizes into hyperbolic planes with minimal complexity circuits reducing to known geodesics. Despite working with quantum field theories far outside the regime where Einstein gravity duals exist, we find striking similarities between our results and those of holographic complexity proposals.

  16. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesildag, Ali; Ekinci, Duygu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN) 6 3- and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  17. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesildag, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ekinci, Duygu, E-mail: dekin@atauni.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-09-30

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  18. Dynamic modelling of nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlin, T.W.; Katz, E.M.; Freels, J.; Thakkar, J.

    1980-01-01

    Moving boundary, nodal models with dynamic energy balances, dynamic mass balances, quasi-static momentum balances, and an equivalent single channel approach have been developed for steam generators used in nuclear power plants. The model for the U-tube recirculation type steam generator is described and comparisons are made of responses from models of different complexity; non-linear versus linear, high-order versus low order, detailed modeling of the control system versus a simple control assumption. The results of dynamic tests on nuclear power systems show that when this steam generator model is included in a system simulation there is good agreement with actual plant performance. (author)

  19. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  20. Generative Processes: Thick Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are…

  1. Polyether complexes of groups 13 and 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidan, Ala'aeddeen; Macdonald, Charles L B

    2016-07-21

    Notable aspects of the chemistry of complexes of polyether ligands including crown ethers, cryptands, glycols, glymes, and related polyether ligands with heavier group 13 and 14 elements are reviewed with a focus on results from 2005 to the present. The majority of reported polyether complexes contain lead(ii) and thallium(i) but recent breakthroughs in regard to the preparation of low oxidation state reagents of the lighter congeners have allowed for the generation of complexes containing indium(i), gallium(i), germanium(ii), and even silicon(ii). The important roles of ligand size, donor types, and counter anions in regard to the chemical properties of the polyether complexes is highlighted. A particular focus on the structural aspects of the numerous coordination complexes provides a rationale for some of the spectacular contributions that such compounds have made to Modern Main Group Chemistry.

  2. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  3. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  4. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  5. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  6. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  7. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  8. Investigation of complexes with bone affinity using the In vivo generator system {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho; Investigacion de complejos con afinidad osea utilizando el Sistema de Generador in vivo {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M

    2006-07-01

    The importance of this original research lies in the fact that it has proven that the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system is a stable complex that can be used as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP or {sup 153}Sm-DTMP, have been proposed for delivering ablative radiation doses to marrow in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies or have shown excellent results in palliative bone metastasis pain therapy, respectively. As lanthanides have similar chemical characteristics the phosphonate with bone affinity (EDTMP) labeled with Dy/Ho can be used for marrow ablation while causing minimal irradiation to normal organs. This in vivo generator system has not been previously reported. The aim of this research was to label EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) with {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho; to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of both {sup 166}Dy-EDTMP and {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP complexes when the daughter {sup 166}Ho is formed as a dysprosium decay product; to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect in mice and to evaluate, by histopathology, the myeloablative potential of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system. {sup 166}Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of enriched {sup 164}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Labeling was carried out in an aqueous phosphate medium at pH 8.0 by addition of {sup 166}DyCl{sub 3} to EDTMP at a molar ratio 1:1.75, with >99 % radiochemical purity, as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP is unstable after dilution in saline but stable in human serum with no translocation of the daughter nucleus

  9. Fast generation of computer-generated holograms using wavelet shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-09

    Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) are generated by superimposing complex amplitudes emitted from a number of object points. However, this superposition process remains very time-consuming even when using the latest computers. We propose a fast calculation algorithm for CGHs that uses a wavelet shrinkage method, eliminating small wavelet coefficient values to express approximated complex amplitudes using only a few representative wavelet coefficients.

  10. 2-Phenylethylamine, a constituent of chocolate and wine, causes mitochondrial complex-I inhibition, generation of hydroxyl radicals and depletion of striatal biogenic amines leading to psycho-motor dysfunctions in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Mohanakumar, K P

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of high doses of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA; 25-75 mg/kg, i.p. for up to 7 days) have been investigated in Balb/c mice. Depression and anxiety, as demonstrated respectively by increased floating time in forced swim test, and reduction in number of entries and the time spent in the open arms in an elevated plus maze were observed in these animals. General motor disabilities in terms of akinesia, catalepsy and decreased swimming ability were also observed in these animals. Acute and sub-acute administration of PEA caused significant, dose-dependent depletion of striatal dopamine, and its metabolites levels. PEA caused dose-dependent generation of hydroxyl radicals in vitro in Fenton's reaction in test tubes, in isolated mitochondrial fraction, and in vivo in the striatum of mice. A significant inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-I; EC: 1.6.5.3) activity suggests the inhibition in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria resulting in hydroxyl radical generation. Nissl staining and TH immnunohistochemistry in brain sections failed to show any morphological aberrations in dopaminergic neurons or nerve terminals. Long-term over-consumption of PEA containing food items could be a neurological risk factor having significant pathological relevance to disease conditions such as depression or motor dysfunction. However, per-oral administration of higher doses of PEA (75-125 mg/kg; 7 days) failed to cause such overt neurochemical effects in rats, which suggested safe consumption of food items rich in this trace amine by normal population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  12. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  13. Investigation of complexes with bone affinity using the In vivo generator system {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho; Investigacion de complejos con afinidad osea utilizando el Sistema de Generador in vivo {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M

    2006-07-01

    The importance of this original research lies in the fact that it has proven that the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system is a stable complex that can be used as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP or {sup 153}Sm-DTMP, have been proposed for delivering ablative radiation doses to marrow in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies or have shown excellent results in palliative bone metastasis pain therapy, respectively. As lanthanides have similar chemical characteristics the phosphonate with bone affinity (EDTMP) labeled with Dy/Ho can be used for marrow ablation while causing minimal irradiation to normal organs. This in vivo generator system has not been previously reported. The aim of this research was to label EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) with {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho; to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of both {sup 166}Dy-EDTMP and {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP complexes when the daughter {sup 166}Ho is formed as a dysprosium decay product; to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect in mice and to evaluate, by histopathology, the myeloablative potential of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system. {sup 166}Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of enriched {sup 164}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Labeling was carried out in an aqueous phosphate medium at pH 8.0 by addition of {sup 166}DyCl{sub 3} to EDTMP at a molar ratio 1:1.75, with >99 % radiochemical purity, as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP is unstable after dilution in saline but stable in human serum with no translocation of the daughter nucleus

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  16. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  17. Logarithmic-function generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state logarithmic-function generator is compact and provides improved accuracy. Generator includes a stable multivibrator feeding into RC circuit. Resulting exponentially decaying voltage is compared with input signal. Generator output is proportional to time required for exponential voltage to decay from preset reference level to level of input signal.

  18. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  19. Waste generator services implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999

  20. Next generation multi-particle event generators for the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.; Kilian, W.; Hagiwara, K.; Krauss, F.; Schumann, S.; Rainwater, D.

    2005-12-01

    We present a next generation of multi-particle Monte Carlo (MC) Event generators for LHC and ILC for the MSSM, namely the three program packages Madgraph/MadEvent, WHiZard/O'Mega and Sherpa/Amegic++. The interesting but difficult phenomenology of supersymmetric models at the upcoming colliders demands a corresponding complexity and maturity from simulation tools. This includes multi-particle final states, reducible and irreducible backgrounds, spin correlations, real emission of photons and gluons, etc., which are incorporated in the programs presented here. The framework of a model with such a huge particle content and as complicated as the MSSM makes strenuous tests and comparison of codes inevitable. Various tests show agreement among the three different programs; the tables of cross sections produced in these tests may serve as a future reference for other codes. Furthermore, first MSSM physics analyses performed with these programs are presented here. (orig.)

  1. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  2. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  3. A primer on pseudorandom generators

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, Oded

    2010-01-01

    A fresh look at the question of randomness was taken in the theory of computing: A distribution is pseudorandom if it cannot be distinguished from the uniform distribution by any efficient procedure. This paradigm, originally associating efficient procedures with polynomial-time algorithms, has been applied with respect to a variety of natural classes of distinguishing procedures. The resulting theory of pseudorandomness is relevant to science at large and is closely related to central areas of computer science, such as algorithmic design, complexity theory, and cryptography. This primer surveys the theory of pseudorandomness, starting with the general paradigm, and discussing various incarnations while emphasizing the case of general-purpose pseudorandom generators (withstanding any polynomial-time distinguisher). Additional topics include the "derandomization" of arbitrary probabilistic polynomial-time algorithms, pseudorandom generators withstanding space-bounded distinguishers, and several natural notions...

  4. HTGR steam generator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetzenduebel, W.G.; Hunt, P.S.; Weber, M.

    1976-01-01

    More than 40 gas-cooled reactor plants have produced in excess of 400 reactor years of operating experience which have proved a reasonably high rate of gas-cooled reactor steam generator availability. The steam generators used in these reactors include single U-tube and straight-tube steam generators as well as meander type and helically wound or involute tube steam generators. It appears that modern reactors are being equipped with helically wound steam generators of the once-through type as the end product of steam generator evolution in gas-cooled reactor plants. This paper provides a general overview of gas-cooled reactor steam generator evolution and operating experience and shows how design criteria and constraints, research and development, and experience data are factored into the design/development of modern helically wound tube steam generators for the present generation of gas-cooled reactors

  5. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.

  6. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  7. Complex decision making using a structured framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.A.; McKeown, T.J.; Jankousky, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    In response to regulatory requirements, Rocky Flats has developed and implemented a methodology to select primary treatment technologies for its mixed low-level (MLL) wastes. Several factors have contributed to the complexity of technology selection at Rocky Flats, including lack of detailed waste characterization data, lack of detailed information about the technologies under consideration, and the intense public scrutiny that the selection process is expected to generate. These three factors were the primary drivers for development of the selection methodology

  8. New challenges in grid generation and adaptivity for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This volume collects selected contributions from the “Fourth Tetrahedron Workshop on Grid Generation for Numerical Computations”, which was held in Verbania, Italy in July 2013. The previous editions of this Workshop were hosted by the Weierstrass Institute in Berlin (2005), by INRIA Rocquencourt in Paris (2007), and by Swansea University (2010). This book covers different, though related, aspects of the field: the generation of quality grids for complex three-dimensional geometries; parallel mesh generation algorithms; mesh adaptation, including both theoretical and implementation aspects; grid generation and adaptation on surfaces – all with an interesting mix of numerical analysis, computer science and strongly application-oriented problems.

  9. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  10. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  11. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  12. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  13. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lin DU; Gengchen SHI; Jingjing ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and com...

  14. Calibrated kallikrein generation in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, D; Sidelmann, J J; Olsen, L F

    2016-01-01

    generation method as a template. RESULTS: A suitable kallikrein specific fluorogenic substrate was identified (KM=0.91mM, kcat=19s(-1)), and kallikrein generation could be measured in undiluted plasma when silica was added as activator. Disturbing effects, including substrate depletion and the inner......-filter effect, however, affected the signal. These problems were corrected for by external calibration with α2-macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes. Selectivity studies of the substrate, experiments with FXII and PK depleted plasmas, and plasma with high or low complement C1-esterase inhibitor activity indicated...

  15. Documentation Driven Development for Complex Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for development of complex real - time systems , called the documentation-driven development (DDD) approach. This... time systems . DDD will also support automated software generation based on a computational model and some relevant techniques. DDD includes two main...stakeholders to be easily involved in development processes and, therefore, significantly improve the agility of software development for complex real

  16. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  17. Optimising generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, E.J.; Garcia, A.O.; Graffigna, F.M.; Verdu, C.A. (IMPSA (Argentina). Generators Div.)

    1994-11-01

    A new computer tool, the ARGEN program, has been developed for dimensioning large hydroelectric generators. This results in better designs, and reduces calculation time for engineers. ARGEN performs dimensional tailoring of salient pole synchronous machines in generators, synchronous condensers, and generator-motors. The operation and uses of ARGEN are explained and its advantages are listed in this article. (UK)

  18. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  19. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  1. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  2. Procedure generation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  3. Designing the next generation (fifth generation computers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallich, P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the designs necessary to develop fifth generation computers. An analysis is offered of problems and developments in parallelism, VLSI, artificial intelligence, knowledge engineering and natural language processing. Software developments are outlined including logic programming, object-oriented programming and exploratory programming. Computer architecture is detailed including concurrent computer architecture

  4. Cyclopentadiene-mediated hydride transfer from rhodium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, C L; Finster, O N L; Miller, A J M

    2016-07-12

    Attempts to generate a proposed rhodium hydride catalytic intermediate instead resulted in isolation of (Cp*H)Rh(bpy)Cl (1), a pentamethylcyclopentadiene complex, formed by C-H bond-forming reductive elimination from the fleeting rhodium hydride. The hydride transfer ability of diene 1 was explored through thermochemistry and hydride transfer reactions, including the reduction of NAD(+).

  5. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  6. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  7. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  8. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  9. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  10. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  11. Solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  12. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  13. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  14. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  15. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  16. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  17. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  18. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  19. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  20. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  1. Steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.-C.

    1980-01-01

    Steam generator particularly intended for use in the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor for vaporizing a secondary liquid, generally water, by the primary cooling liquid of the reactor and comprising special arrangements for drying the steam before it leaves the generator [fr

  2. Wroclaw neutrino event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J A

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the Δ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering

  3. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  4. Softball Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  5. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and ... Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of polydatin-lecithin, in which .... Monochromatic Cu Ka radiation (wavelength =.

  6. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  7. Development of steam generator manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    In 1968 Babcock and Wilcox (Operations) Ltd., received an order from the CEGB to design, manufacture, install and commission 16 Steam Generators for 2 x 660 Mw (e) Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Power Station at Hartlepool. This order was followed in 1970 by a similar order for the Heysham Power Station. The design and manufacture of the Steam Generators represented a major advance in technology and the paper discusses the methods by which a manufacturing facility was developed, by the Production Division of Babcock, to produce components to a quality, complexity and accuracy unique in the U.K. commercial boilermaking industry. The discussion includes a brief design background, a description of the Steam Generators and a view of the Production Division background. This is followed by a description of the organisation of the technological development and a consideration of the results. (author)

  8. EPIC Forest LAI Dataset: LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model) on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in VA and NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data depicts calculated and validated LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale,...

  9. Including all voices in international data-sharing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Terry, Sharon F; Juengst, Eric; Coy, Sarah; Harris, Jennifer R; Chalmers, Don; Dove, Edward S; Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Adebamowo, Clement; Ogbe, Emilomo; Bezuidenhout, Louise; Morrison, Michael; Minion, Joel T; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minari, Jusaku; Teare, Harriet; Isasi, Rosario; Kato, Kazuto; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Marshall, Patricia; Koenig, Barbara; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2018-03-07

    Governments, funding bodies, institutions, and publishers have developed a number of strategies to encourage researchers to facilitate access to datasets. The rationale behind this approach is that this will bring a number of benefits and enable advances in healthcare and medicine by allowing the maximum returns from the investment in research, as well as reducing waste and promoting transparency. As this approach gains momentum, these data-sharing practices have implications for many kinds of research as they become standard practice across the world. The governance frameworks that have been developed to support biomedical research are not well equipped to deal with the complexities of international data sharing. This system is nationally based and is dependent upon expert committees for oversight and compliance, which has often led to piece-meal decision-making. This system tends to perpetuate inequalities by obscuring the contributions and the important role of different data providers along the data stream, whether they be low- or middle-income country researchers, patients, research participants, groups, or communities. As research and data-sharing activities are largely publicly funded, there is a strong moral argument for including the people who provide the data in decision-making and to develop governance systems for their continued participation. We recommend that governance of science becomes more transparent, representative, and responsive to the voices of many constituencies by conducting public consultations about data-sharing addressing issues of access and use; including all data providers in decision-making about the use and sharing of data along the whole of the data stream; and using digital technologies to encourage accessibility, transparency, and accountability. We anticipate that this approach could enhance the legitimacy of the research process, generate insights that may otherwise be overlooked or ignored, and help to bring valuable

  10. Energy generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Current perceptions conjure images of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines when green building or sustainable development is discussed. How energy is used and how it is generated are core components of both green building and sustainable...

  11. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  12. Distributed generation hits market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it's highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can't handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities

  13. Disordered Plamonics and Complex Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-05-01

    Complex systems are ensembles of interconnected elements where mutual interaction and an optimized amount of disorder produce advanced functionalities. These systems are abundant in our daily experience: typical examples are the brain, biological ecosystems, society, and finance. In the last century, researchers have investigated the fundamental properties of disordered systems, unveiling fascinating and counterintuitive dynamics. The main aim of this Dissertation is the study of a new platform of disorder-enhanced photonics systems, denoted as Complex Metamaterials. Due to its ultrafast time scale nanophotonics represents an ideal framework to investigate and harness complex dynamics. Starting from the theoretical modeling of disordered plasmonic systems, I discuss advanced real-life applications, including the generation of highly-resistant structural colors from porous metal surfaces and the realization of early-stage cancer detectors based on surface roughness and self-similarity. In addition to the effects of structural disorder on plasmonic systems I also investigate the complex emission dynamics from non-conventional nanolasers. Lasers represent the quintessential example of a complex photonic system due to the simultaneous presence of strong nonlinearities and multi-mode interactions. At the same time, the integration of nanolasers with silicon-based electronic circuitry represents one of the greatest technological challenges in the field of nanophotonics. By combining ab-initio simulations and analytical modeling, I characterize the nonlinear emission from three-dimensional plasmonic nanolasers known as SPASERs. My results show for the first time the occurrence of a spontaneous rotational emission in spherical SPASERs, which originates from the nonlinear interaction of several lasing modes. I further discuss how rotating nanolasers can be employed as a fundamental building block for integrated quantum simulators, random information sources, and brain

  14. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  15. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  16. On the benefits of an integrated nuclear complex for Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Halsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated nuclear complex is proposed for location at the Nevada Test Site. In addition to solving the nuclear waste disposal problem, this complex would tremendously enhance the southern Nevada economy, and it would provide low cost electricity to each resident and business in the affected counties. Nuclear industry and the national economy would benefit because the complex would demonstrate the new generation of safer nuclear power plants and revitalize the industry. Many spin-offs of the complex would be possible, including research into nuclear fusion and a world class medical facility for southern Nevada. For such a complex to become a reality, the cycle of distrust between the federal government and the State of Nevada must be broken. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation through a public process led by state officials and culminating in a voter referendum

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  18. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  19. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  20. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  1. Power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, L.E.J.; Liss, P.S.; Saunders, P.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews environmental aspects of large-scale power generation. It includes historic background of present-generation patterns and a discussion of fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable technologies

  2. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Modeling Stochastic Complexity in Complex Adaptive Systems: Non-Kolmogorov Probability and the Process Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, William H

    2017-10-01

    Walter Freeman III pioneered the application of nonlinear dynamical systems theories and methodologies in his work on mesoscopic brain dynamics.Sadly, mainstream psychology and psychiatry still cling to linear correlation based data analysis techniques, which threaten to subvert the process of experimentation and theory building. In order to progress, it is necessary to develop tools capable of managing the stochastic complexity of complex biopsychosocial systems, which includes multilevel feedback relationships, nonlinear interactions, chaotic dynamics and adaptability. In addition, however, these systems exhibit intrinsic randomness, non-Gaussian probability distributions, non-stationarity, contextuality, and non-Kolmogorov probabilities, as well as the absence of mean and/or variance and conditional probabilities. These properties and their implications for statistical analysis are discussed. An alternative approach, the Process Algebra approach, is described. It is a generative model, capable of generating non-Kolmogorov probabilities. It has proven useful in addressing fundamental problems in quantum mechanics and in the modeling of developing psychosocial systems.

  4. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  5. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  6. Robustness and structure of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my PhD research on statistical physics and complex networks: i) modeling a new type of attack -- localized attack, and investigating robustness of complex networks under this type of attack; ii) discovering the clustering structure in complex networks and its influence on the robustness of coupled networks. Complex networks appear in every aspect of our daily life and are widely studied in Physics, Mathematics, Biology, and Computer Science. One important property of complex networks is their robustness under attacks, which depends crucially on the nature of attacks and the structure of the networks themselves. Previous studies have focused on two types of attack: random attack and targeted attack, which, however, are insufficient to describe many real-world damages. Here we propose a new type of attack -- localized attack, and study the robustness of complex networks under this type of attack, both analytically and via simulation. On the other hand, we also study the clustering structure in the network, and its influence on the robustness of a complex network system. In the first part, we propose a theoretical framework to study the robustness of complex networks under localized attack based on percolation theory and generating function method. We investigate the percolation properties, including the critical threshold of the phase transition pc and the size of the giant component Pinfinity. We compare localized attack with random attack and find that while random regular (RR) networks are more robust against localized attack, Erdoḧs-Renyi (ER) networks are equally robust under both types of attacks. As for scale-free (SF) networks, their robustness depends crucially on the degree exponent lambda. The simulation results show perfect agreement with theoretical predictions. We also test our model on two real-world networks: a peer-to-peer computer network and an airline network, and find that the real-world networks

  7. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  8. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin DU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and compares their design and performance, and concludes key technologies and ongoing challenges for further progress. The paper is instructive and meaningful to for research work of related field.

  9. EDA-EMERGE : An FP7 initial training network to equip the next generation of young scientists with the skills to address the complexity of environmental contamination with emerging pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Govender, Selvan; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin; Hu, Meng; Muz, Melis; Hollender, Juliane; Schirmer, Kristin; Schollee, Jennifer; Hidasi, Anita; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Rabova, Zuzana; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Sonavane, Manoj; Carere, Mario; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Schriks, Merijn; Thomas, Kevin; De Almeida, Ana Catarina; Froment, Jean; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Ahel, Marijan; Koprivica, Sanja; Hollert, Henner; Seiler, Thomas Benjamin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tindall, Andrew; Spirhanzlova, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The initial training network consortium novel tools in effect-directed analysis to support the identification and monitoring of emerging toxicants on a European scale (EDA-EMERGE) was formed in response to the seventh EU framework program call to train a new generation of young scientists (13 PhD

  10. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  11. Generation Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  12. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  13. Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, R.L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Steam generators for nuclear reactors are designed so that deposition of solids on the surface of the inlet side of the tubesheet or the inlet header with the consequent danger of corrosion and eventual tube failure is obviated or substantially reduced. (U.K.)

  14. Motivating the Generations: Economic and Educational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Wade

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the various generations that include the greatest generation, the baby-boomers, generation X, and generation Y. The research encompasses many motivational elements that each generation covets, rejects, or shares. These generations are at different stages in life and each plays a vital role within our society. The workforce has…

  15. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  16. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  17. Impacts on power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Sidebotton, P.

    1998-01-01

    The future impact of the arrival of natural gas in the Maritime provinces on electricity generation in the region was discussed. Currently, electrical generation sources in Nova Scotia include hydro generation (9 per cent), coal generation (80 per cent), heavy fuel oil generation (8 per cent), and light oil, wood chips and purchased power (3 per cent). It is expected that with the introduction of natural gas electric utilities will take advantage of new gas combustion turbines which have high efficiency rates. An overview of Westcoast Power's operations across Canada was also presented. The Company has three projects in the Maritimes - the Courtney Bay project in New Brunswick, the Bayside Power project, the Irving Paper project - in addition to the McMahon cogeneration plant in Taylor, B.C. figs

  18. TFTR Motor Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.; Horton, M.

    1977-01-01

    A general description is given of 475 MVA pulsed motor generators for TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Two identical generators operating in parallel are capable of supplying 950 MVA for an equivalent square pulse of 6.77 seconds and 4,500 MJ at 0.7 power factor to provide the energy for the pulsed electrical coils and heating system for TFTR. The description includes the operational features of the 15,000 HP wound rotor motors driving each generator with its starting equipment and cycloconverter for controlling speed, power factor, and regulating line voltage during load pulsing where the generator speed changes from 87.5 to 60 Hz frequency variation to provide the 4,500 MJ or energy. The special design characteristics such as fatigue stress calculations for 10 6 cycles of operation, forcing factor on exciter to provide regulation, and low generator impedance are reviewed

  19. Alkane metathesis with the tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2]/[(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] generated from well-defined surface organometallic complex [(≡SiO)TaVMe4

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Hamzaoui, Bilel; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    By grafting TaMe5 on Aerosil700, a stable, well-defined, silica-supported tetramethyl tantalum(V) complex, [(≡SiO)TaMe4], is obtained on the silica surface. After thermal treatment at 150 °C, the complex is transformed into two surface tantalum methylidenes, [(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] and [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2], which are active in alkane metathesis and comparable to the previously reported [(≡SiO)2TaHx]. Here we present the first experimental study to isolate and identify a surface tantalum carbene as the intermediate in alkane metathesis. A systematic experimental study reveals a new reasonable pathway for this reaction.

  20. Alkane metathesis with the tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2]/[(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] generated from well-defined surface organometallic complex [(≡SiO)TaVMe4

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2015-01-21

    By grafting TaMe5 on Aerosil700, a stable, well-defined, silica-supported tetramethyl tantalum(V) complex, [(≡SiO)TaMe4], is obtained on the silica surface. After thermal treatment at 150 °C, the complex is transformed into two surface tantalum methylidenes, [(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] and [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2], which are active in alkane metathesis and comparable to the previously reported [(≡SiO)2TaHx]. Here we present the first experimental study to isolate and identify a surface tantalum carbene as the intermediate in alkane metathesis. A systematic experimental study reveals a new reasonable pathway for this reaction.

  1. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  2. The potential for gas fired generation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this presentation was to stimulate discussion regarding the potential for Maritimes based gas fired power generation. It was noted that although the subject is complex, simplified assumptions are presented. The topics of discussion include the move to restructure the electric power industry in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the interest in gas fired generation in Atlantic Canada, the expected increase in natural gas consumption, and the issue of whether there is sufficient supply and adequate infrastructure to support demand. Other topics of discussion included the impact of regulations on the industry, and the future outlook of natural gas supply as it relates to power generation. The efforts of the natural gas industry to meet US natural gas generating requirements were also discussed. 3 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  4. Reconfigurable optical implementation of quantum complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkala, J.; Arzani, F.; Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Treps, N.; Parigi, V.

    2018-05-01

    Network theory has played a dominant role in understanding the structure of complex systems and their dynamics. Recently, quantum complex networks, i.e. collections of quantum systems arranged in a non-regular topology, have been theoretically explored leading to significant progress in a multitude of diverse contexts including, e.g., quantum transport, open quantum systems, quantum communication, extreme violation of local realism, and quantum gravity theories. Despite important progress in several quantum platforms, the implementation of complex networks with arbitrary topology in quantum experiments is still a demanding task, especially if we require both a significant size of the network and the capability of generating arbitrary topology—from regular to any kind of non-trivial structure—in a single setup. Here we propose an all optical and reconfigurable implementation of quantum complex networks. The experimental proposal is based on optical frequency combs, parametric processes, pulse shaping and multimode measurements allowing the arbitrary control of the number of the nodes (optical modes) and topology of the links (interactions between the modes) within the network. Moreover, we also show how to simulate quantum dynamics within the network combined with the ability to address its individual nodes. To demonstrate the versatility of these features, we discuss the implementation of two recently proposed probing techniques for quantum complex networks and structured environments.

  5. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  6. Effect of the order of He{sup +} and H{sup +} ion co-implantation on damage generation and thermal evolution of complexes, platelets, and blisters in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghbouj, N. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia); Cherkashin, N., E-mail: nikolay.cherkashin@cemes.fr; Darras, F.-X.; Paillard, V.; Claverie, A. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Fnaiech, M. [Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-04-07

    Hydrogen and helium co-implantation is nowadays used to efficiently transfer thin Si layers and fabricate silicon on insulator wafers for the microelectronic industry. The synergy between the two implants which is reflected through the dramatic reduction of the total fluence needed to fracture silicon has been reported to be strongly influenced by the implantation order. Contradictory conclusions on the mechanisms involved in the formation and thermal evolution of defects and complexes have been drawn. In this work, we have experimentally studied in detail the characteristics of Si samples co-implanted with He and H, comparing the defects which are formed following each implantation and after annealing. We show that the second implant always ballistically destroys the stable defects and complexes formed after the first implant and that the redistribution of these point defects among new complexes drives the final difference observed in the samples after annealing. When H is implanted first, He precipitates in the form of nano-bubbles and agglomerates within H-related platelets and nano-cracks. When He is implanted first, the whole He fluence is ultimately used to pressurize H-related platelets which quickly evolve into micro-cracks and surface blisters. We provide detailed scenarios describing the atomic mechanisms involved during and after co-implantation and annealing which well-explain our results and the reasons for the apparent contradictions reported at the state of the art.

  7. Capturing the complexity of practice an insider:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jette Aaroe; Santos, Mario

    2017-01-01

    offers a new set of theories to help explain the nature of maternity care provision across Europe and beyond, including complexity theory, salutogenesis, and new concepts of organisational culture. The aim of the book is to examine the nature of these theories, and to apply them to a range of practical......New Thinking on Improving Maternity Care is the result of years of comparative international research, with the goal of finding and generating the best possible evidence across a range of childbirth practices, contexts, and issues in Europe. There is a general shift towards a more risk...

  8. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  9. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  10. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  11. Fast Generation of Container Vessel Stowage Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    that the vessel is stable and seaworthy, and at the same time arrange the cargo such that the time at port is minimized. Moreover, stowage coordinators only have a limited amount of time to produce the plan. This thesis addresses the question of whether it is possible to automatically generate stowage plans...... test instances provided by a major liner shipping company. Improvements to the modeling of vessel stability and an analysis of its accuracy together with an analysis of the computational complexity of the container stowage problem are also included in the thesis, resulting in an overall in...

  12. Thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The main components of a thermoelectric generator are housed in an evacuated cylindrical vessel. In the middle of it there is the radioactive heat source, e.g. 90 Sr or 238 Pu, enclosed by a gamma radiation shield. This one is surrounded by a heat-insulating screen from getter material or indicidual sheets of titanium. In the bottom of the screen there are arranged several thermocouples on a circle. The thermocouples themselves are contained within casings sealed gas-tight and filled with an inert gas, e.g. argon. By separating the internal space of the generator vessel from the thermocouple casings, made of e.g. n- respectively p-doped lead telluride cylinders, for both the optimal gas state may be obtained. (DG) [de

  13. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  14. Understanding portable generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, A.; Hawkins, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Clarke, S. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This factsheet is intended to help consumers select a small portable generator for emergency electrical needs. Interest in standby generators has been heightened ever since the prolonged power outage in Eastern Ontario and Southwestern Quebec during the 1998 ice storm and the concern over Y2K related outages. Farmers, in particular, have been reassessing their need for emergency electrical power supply. This document presents some of the factors that should be considered when purchasing and operating a portable generator in the 3 to 12 kW size. It provides a detailed review of power quality and describes the use of tractor-driven power-take-off generators of 15 kW and larger. Several manufacturers make portable generators in many sizes with a whole range of features. This document includes a table depicting generator Feature/Benefit analysis to help consumers understand the differences between features and benefits. A second table provides a check list for generator feature/benefits. Specific details for the operations of various generators are available from manufacturers, distributors and electrical contractors. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  16. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  17. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  18. Construction and optimization of a power complex with a distributed generation on the basis of renewables and methods of artificial intelligence (on the example of the Republic of Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic principles and classifications of small hydroelectric power stations depending on the power of system in which they work are provided. Especially, in the conditions of Tajikistan when all small hydroelectric power stations in some regions carry out the functions of big hydroelectric power stations. We suggest to use new classification by using function of fuzzy logic. The new concept of a power complex (HUB on the basis of the renewed energy source (RES is also offered.

  19. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  20. Spectral simplicity of apparent complexity. II. Exact complexities and complexity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2018-03-01

    The meromorphic functional calculus developed in Part I overcomes the nondiagonalizability of linear operators that arises often in the temporal evolution of complex systems and is generic to the metadynamics of predicting their behavior. Using the resulting spectral decomposition, we derive closed-form expressions for correlation functions, finite-length Shannon entropy-rate approximates, asymptotic entropy rate, excess entropy, transient information, transient and asymptotic state uncertainties, and synchronization information of stochastic processes generated by finite-state hidden Markov models. This introduces analytical tractability to investigating information processing in discrete-event stochastic processes, symbolic dynamics, and chaotic dynamical systems. Comparisons reveal mathematical similarities between complexity measures originally thought to capture distinct informational and computational properties. We also introduce a new kind of spectral analysis via coronal spectrograms and the frequency-dependent spectra of past-future mutual information. We analyze a number of examples to illustrate the methods, emphasizing processes with multivariate dependencies beyond pairwise correlation. This includes spectral decomposition calculations for one representative example in full detail.

  1. Self-motion perception: assessment by computer-generated animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D. E.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Skinner, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research is more precise description of adaptation to sensory rearrangements, including microgravity, by development of improved procedures for assessing spatial orientation perception. Thirty-six subjects reported perceived self-motion following exposure to complex inertial-visual motion. Twelve subjects were assigned to each of 3 perceptual reporting procedures: (a) animation movie selection, (b) written report selection and (c) verbal report generation. The question addressed was: do reports produced by these procedures differ with respect to complexity and reliability? Following repeated (within-day and across-day) exposures to 4 different "motion profiles," subjects either (a) selected movies presented on a laptop computer, or (b) selected written descriptions from a booklet, or (c) generated self-motion verbal descriptions that corresponded most closely with their motion experience. One "complexity" and 2 reliability "scores" were calculated. Contrary to expectations, reliability and complexity scores were essentially equivalent for the animation movie selection and written report selection procedures. Verbal report generation subjects exhibited less complexity than did subjects in the other conditions and their reports were often ambiguous. The results suggest that, when selecting from carefully written descriptions and following appropriate training, people may be better able to describe their self-motion experience with words than is usually believed.

  2. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai, K L

    2011-01-01

    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  3. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    , including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  4. Seismic wave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaure, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall [fr

  5. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  6. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  7. GENERATIVE LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina León

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project that studied leadership from the standpoint of the personal conceptions that influence the behavior of local government leaders, as well as those conceptions desired to generate the social transformation processes required in communities. Qualitative methodology was used. Categories of analysis were created based on Pearson’s (1992 model of psychological archetypes. A relevant finding was the limited advance shown by interviewees regarding self-knowledge and a fragmented vision between the observer and the observee, which hinders their ability to take on the challenges that current reality demands from them.

  8. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  9. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  10. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  11. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  12. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  13. Steam generators - problems and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Steam-generator problems, largely a consequence of corrosion and fouling, have resulted in increased inspection requirements and more regulatory attention to steam-generator integrity. In addition, utilities have had to develop steam-generator life-management strategies, including cleaning and replacement, to achieve design life. This paper summarizes the pertinent data to 1993/1994, and presents an overview of current steam-generator management practices. (author)

  14. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  15. Self-assembling software generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-25

    A technique to generate an executable task includes inspecting a task specification data structure to determine what software entities are to be generated to create the executable task, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine how the software entities will be linked after generating the software entities, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine logic to be executed by the software entities, and generating the software entities to create the executable task.

  16. Tri-generation nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Sydney and Melbourne councils are looking to outperform each other with ambitious greenhouse and energy efficiency initiatives. Sydney wants to cut CO_2 by 70 per cent by 2030, while Melbourne's 1200 Buildings retrofit project speaks for itself. One key technology both councils are tapping is trigeneration, which generates electricity, heating and cooling from local gas-fired power units. From a physics perspective, a combustion process cannot be more than 30 per cent efficient, so capturing and using the waste heat can lead to great savings. Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore said a third of the council's carbon reduction goal of 3.9Mt a year by 2030 will come from tri-gen. Melbourne is aiming to achieve zero net emissions by 2020, which means eliminating 5.8Mt of CO_2, a lot of it through tri-gen. It has already seen a surge among landlords. GPT, Stockland and Mirvac have all stuck tri-gen units in Sydney office developments, while newly carbon- neutral NAB has installed the technology on its data centre in Melbourne and expects to save 20,000 tonnes of CO_2 a year. But one expert, while welcoming the spike in popularity, says there are traps for the unwary. Johnson Controls' Peter Moser sees two core drivers for its uptake. “First is the prominence of GreenStar and NABERS. Many companies will move to tri-gen as they will want the extra points or stars,” he told WME. “Secondly, there is the continuous increase in the price of energy. At the same time there may be an [emissions trading scheme] or a carbon price introduced, and that puts pressure on the consumer. Combining those two scenarios will see more people adopt tri-gen because it will become more economically viable and the payback periods of tri-gen will come down considerably.” But he points to the importance of pre-planning when considering tri-gen, warning. “To put tri-gen into a building, let alone retrofit a whole city and make it work, you need highly complex teams working together

  17. Unifying Complexity and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  18. Statistical analysis of next generation sequencing data

    CERN Document Server

    Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is the latest high throughput technology to revolutionize genomic research. NGS generates massive genomic datasets that play a key role in the big data phenomenon that surrounds us today. To extract signals from high-dimensional NGS data and make valid statistical inferences and predictions, novel data analytic and statistical techniques are needed. This book contains 20 chapters written by prominent statisticians working with NGS data. The topics range from basic preprocessing and analysis with NGS data to more complex genomic applications such as copy number variation and isoform expression detection. Research statisticians who want to learn about this growing and exciting area will find this book useful. In addition, many chapters from this book could be included in graduate-level classes in statistical bioinformatics for training future biostatisticians who will be expected to deal with genomic data in basic biomedical research, genomic clinical trials and personalized med...

  19. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    complex dynamics (e.g. both short- and long-term changes in conductivity) in response to applied voltage signals. Characterization of these atomic switch networks (ASNs) brought out interesting parallels to biological neural networks, including power-law scaling in the statistics of electrical signal propagation and dynamic self-organization of differentiated subnetworks. A reservoir computing (RC) strategy was employed to utilize measurements of electrical signals dynamically generated in ASNs to perform time-series memory and manipulation tasks including a parity test and arbitrary waveform generation. These results represent the useful integration of a complex network into a dynamic physical RC device.

  20. Airburst-Generated Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marsha; Goodman, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate tsunamis that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such airburst-generated tsunamis are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated tsunamis, and differ as well from tsunamis generated by asteroids that strike the ocean. Numerical simulations are presented using the shallow water equations in several settings, demonstrating very little tsunami threat from this scenario. A model problem with an explicit solution that demonstrates and explains the same phenomena found in the computations is analyzed. We discuss the question of whether compressibility and dispersion are important effects that should be included, and show results from a more sophisticated model problem using the linearized Euler equations that begins to addresses this.