WorldWideScience

Sample records for generation complex including

  1. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  2. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  3. New generation concretes including reactive powder concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Grzeszczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a broad literature review, this paper presents characteristics of new generation composites on the basis of cements which are applied in engineering structures and in rehabilitation of structures. The role of cement, microfillers, superplasticizers and fibers in the above stated composites i.e. factors which allow for the maximum packing of particles in the cement matrix and a minimum pore volume, and the increase in composite bending strength, have been discussed. Special attention was paid to Reactive Powder Concrete in which coarse aggregate was replaced by ground quartz and sand. Such composites contain active microfillers and the applied new-generation superplasticizers allow us to decrease the water-cement ratio in the composite up to 0.2. Whereas, steel fibre additive allows us to significantly improve the bending strength.The paper presents the properties of the excellent Ductal — a composite from Reactive Powder Concrete, which at compressive strength from 180 to 230 MPa achieves the tensile strength of 30 to 50 MPa. Its application allows us to create slim profiles and tall light and slender, and simultaneously durable and corrosion-resistant structural elements of considerable span. This paper gives a few examples of Ductal application in practice.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, composite materials, reactive powder concrete

  4. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  6. Generative complexity of Gray-Scott model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion system one reactant is constantly fed in the system, another reactant is reproduced by consuming the supplied reactant and also converted to an inert product. The rate of feeding one reactant in the system and the rate of removing another reactant from the system determine configurations of concentration profiles: stripes, spots, waves. We calculate the generative complexity-a morphological complexity of concentration profiles grown from a point-wise perturbation of the medium-of the Gray-Scott system for a range of the feeding and removal rates. The morphological complexity is evaluated using Shannon entropy, Simpson diversity, approximation of Lempel-Ziv complexity, and expressivity (Shannon entropy divided by space-filling). We analyse behaviour of the systems with highest values of the generative morphological complexity and show that the Gray-Scott systems expressing highest levels of the complexity are composed of the wave-fragments (similar to wave-fragments in sub-excitable media) and travelling localisations (similar to quasi-dissipative solitons and gliders in Conway's Game of Life).

  7. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  8. Generation of fractals from complex logistic map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Mamta [Galgotias College of Engg. and Technology, Greater Noida (India)], E-mail: mamtarsingh@rediffmail.com; Agarwal, Rashi [IEC College of Engg. and Tech., Greater Noida (India)], E-mail: agarwal_rashi@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Remarkably benign looking logistic transformations x{sub n+1} = r x{sub n}(1 - x{sub n}) for choosing x{sub 0} between 0 and 1 and 0 < r {<=} 4 have found a celebrated place in chaos, fractals and discrete dynamics. The strong physical meaning of Mandelbrot and Julia sets is broadly accepted and nicely connected by Christian Beck [Beck C. Physical meaning for Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Physica D 1999;125(3-4):171-182. Zbl0988.37060] to the complex logistic maps, in the former case, and to the inverse complex logistic map, in the latter case. The purpose of this paper is to study the bounded behavior of the complex logistic map using superior iterates and generate fractals from the same. The analysis in this paper shows that many beautiful properties of the logistic map are extendable for a larger value of r.

  9. Generation of fractals from complex logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Mamta; Agarwal, Rashi

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably benign looking logistic transformations x n+1 = r x n (1 - x n ) for choosing x 0 between 0 and 1 and 0 < r ≤ 4 have found a celebrated place in chaos, fractals and discrete dynamics. The strong physical meaning of Mandelbrot and Julia sets is broadly accepted and nicely connected by Christian Beck [Beck C. Physical meaning for Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Physica D 1999;125(3-4):171-182. Zbl0988.37060] to the complex logistic maps, in the former case, and to the inverse complex logistic map, in the latter case. The purpose of this paper is to study the bounded behavior of the complex logistic map using superior iterates and generate fractals from the same. The analysis in this paper shows that many beautiful properties of the logistic map are extendable for a larger value of r.

  10. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  11. Heat Generation by Irradiated Complex Composite Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Pengfei; Pello, Josselin

    2014-01-01

    Heating of irradiated metallic e-beam generated nanostructures was quantified through direct measurements paralleled by novel model-based numerical calculations. By comparing discs, triangles, and stars we showed how particle shape and composition determines the heating. Importantly, our results...

  12. A new generative complexity science of learning for a complex pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Proposal for the SIG Chaos and Complexity Theories at AERA 2007 Title: A New Generative Complexity Science of Learning for a Complex Pedagogy Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands Introduction My paper focuses on the link between thinking in complexity and the field of learning and education. It seems time to go beyond describing complexity and formulate a theory about the complexity of learning for education. The needed reform of o...

  13. Nephrin regulates lamellipodia formation by assembling a protein complex that includes Ship2, filamin and lamellipodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Venkatareddy

    Full Text Available Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5' inositol phosphatase, Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics.

  14. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  15. Dystrophic Cardiomyopathy: Complex Pathobiological Processes to Generate Clinical Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XL-DCM consist of a unique clinical entity, the dystrophinopathies, which are due to variable mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a common complication of dystrophinopathies, but the onset, progression, and severity of heart disease differ among these subgroups. Extensive molecular genetic studies have been conducted to assess genotype-phenotype correlation in DMD, BMD, and XL-DCM to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases, but the results are not always conclusive, suggesting the involvement of complex multi-layers of pathological processes that generate the final clinical phenotype. Dystrophin protein is a part of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC that is localized in skeletal muscles, myocardium, smooth muscles, and neuronal tissues. Diversity of cardiac phenotype in dystrophinopathies suggests multiple layers of pathogenetic mechanisms in forming dystrophic cardiomyopathy. In this review article, we review the complex molecular interactions involving the pathogenesis of dystrophic cardiomyopathy, including primary gene mutations and loss of structural integrity, secondary cellular responses, and certain epigenetic and other factors that modulate gene expressions. Involvement of epigenetic gene regulation appears to lead to specific cardiac phenotypes in dystrophic hearts.

  16. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  17. The Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 protein complex includes BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Boeren, J.A.; Russinova, E.T.; Aker, J.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vries, de S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 (SERK1) is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence and in male sporogenesis. To determine the composition of the SERK1 signaling complex in vivo, we generated plants

  18. A new generative complexity science of learning for a complex pedagogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069806365

    2007-01-01

    Proposal for the SIG Chaos and Complexity Theories at AERA 2007 Title: A New Generative Complexity Science of Learning for a Complex Pedagogy Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl Introduction My paper focuses on the link between thinking

  19. Synthesis of sp3-rich scaffolds for molecular libraries through complexity-generating cascade reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flagstad, Thomas; Min, Geanna; Bonnet, K.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient strategy for the synthesis of complex small molecules from simple building blocks is presented. Key steps of the strategy include tandem Petasis and Diels–Alder reactions, and divergent complexity-generating cyclization cascades from a key dialdehyde intermediate. The methodology is ...... is validated through the synthesis of a representative compound set, which has been used in the production of 1617 molecules for the European Lead Factory.......An efficient strategy for the synthesis of complex small molecules from simple building blocks is presented. Key steps of the strategy include tandem Petasis and Diels–Alder reactions, and divergent complexity-generating cyclization cascades from a key dialdehyde intermediate. The methodology...

  20. Generation of arbitrary complex quasi-non-diffracting optical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Petrov, Dmitri; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Torner, Lluis

    2013-09-23

    Due to their unique ability to maintain an intensity distribution upon propagation, non-diffracting light fields are used extensively in various areas of science, including optical tweezers, nonlinear optics and quantum optics, in applications where complex transverse field distributions are required. However, the number and type of rigorously non-diffracting beams is severely limited because their symmetry is dictated by one of the coordinate system where the Helmholtz equation governing beam propagation is separable. Here, we demonstrate a powerful technique that allows the generation of a rich variety of quasi-non-diffracting optical beams featuring nearly arbitrary intensity distributions in the transverse plane. These can be readily engineered via modifications of the angular spectrum of the beam in order to meet the requirements of particular applications. Such beams are not rigorously non-diffracting but they maintain their shape over large distances, which may be tuned by varying the width of the angular spectrum. We report the generation of unique spiral patterns and patterns involving arbitrary combinations of truncated harmonic, Bessel, Mathieu, or parabolic beams occupying different spatial domains. Optical trapping experiments illustrate the opto-mechanical properties of such beams.

  1. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  2. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  3. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  4. Infinite-Scroll Attractor Generated by the Complex Pendulum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Bhalekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the finding of the simple nonlinear autonomous system exhibiting infinite-scroll attractor. The system is generated from the pendulum equation with complex-valued function. The proposed system is having infinitely many saddle points of index two which are responsible for the infinite-scroll attractor.

  5. Kolmogorov complexity, pseudorandom generators and statistical models testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, Jan; Boček, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 747-759 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Kolmogorov complexity * pseudorandom generators * statistical models testing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2002

  6. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  7. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colovati Mileny ES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1, mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement.

  8. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  9. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization with enlargement of the spot size to include the feeding complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas, Alexandros A Rouvas, Dimitrios A Karagiannis, Athanasios I Kotsolis, Ioannis D LadasDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical School of Athens University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: This is a case report of a 83-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV, due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD in his right eye. Digital fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICG were performed, which disclosed predominantly classic subfoveal CNV and a dilated and tortuous feeding complex. The visual acuity was 20/800. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment was suggested, however, the patient was not keen to receive an intraocular injection. Modified photodynamic therapy (PDT with spot size enlarged, to include not only the CNV lesion but the feeding complex as well, was performed. Ten days after one session of PDT, ICG showed absence of leakage from the CNV and complete occlusion of the feeding complex. The visual acuity gradually improved to 20/100 and remained stable during the following 23 months. No evidence of CNV leakage was seen in the FA and ICG during the follow up period. Adjustment of the PDT spot size to include the detectable by ICG feeding complex might be an additional option in order to close the subfoveal CNV and might be considered as an alternative to intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF in selected cases where anti-VEGF treatment is not available.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, photodynamic treatment, feeder vessel

  10. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  11. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derafshian, Mehdi; Amjady, Nima

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  12. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  13. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  15. Entropy-based generating Markov partitions for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2018-03-01

    Finding the correct encoding for a generic dynamical system's trajectory is a complicated task: the symbolic sequence needs to preserve the invariant properties from the system's trajectory. In theory, the solution to this problem is found when a Generating Markov Partition (GMP) is obtained, which is only defined once the unstable and stable manifolds are known with infinite precision and for all times. However, these manifolds usually form highly convoluted Euclidean sets, are a priori unknown, and, as it happens in any real-world experiment, measurements are made with finite resolution and over a finite time-span. The task gets even more complicated if the system is a network composed of interacting dynamical units, namely, a high-dimensional complex system. Here, we tackle this task and solve it by defining a method to approximately construct GMPs for any complex system's finite-resolution and finite-time trajectory. We critically test our method on networks of coupled maps, encoding their trajectories into symbolic sequences. We show that these sequences are optimal because they minimise the information loss and also any spurious information added. Consequently, our method allows us to approximately calculate the invariant probability measures of complex systems from the observed data. Thus, we can efficiently define complexity measures that are applicable to a wide range of complex phenomena, such as the characterisation of brain activity from electroencephalogram signals measured at different brain regions or the characterisation of climate variability from temperature anomalies measured at different Earth regions.

  16. Classical evolution and quantum generation in generalized gravity theories including string corrections and tachyons: Unified analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2005-01-01

    We present cosmological perturbation theory based on generalized gravity theories including string theory correction terms and a tachyonic complication. The classical evolution as well as the quantum generation processes in these varieties of gravity theories are presented in unified forms. These apply both to the scalar- and tensor-type perturbations. Analyses are made based on the curvature variable in two different gauge conditions often used in the literature in Einstein's gravity; these are the curvature variables in the comoving (or uniform-field) gauge and the zero-shear gauge. Applications to generalized slow-roll inflation and its consequent power spectra are derived in unified forms which include a wide range of inflationary scenarios based on Einstein's gravity and others

  17. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  18. Metal complex polymer for second harmonic generation and electroluminescence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, X. T.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Lee, S. H.; Miyata, S.; Sasabe, H.

    1997-03-01

    We report the second harmonic generation and electroluminescent (EL) properties of a soluble metal complex polyurethane (PU). The PU was prepared by the reaction of a zinc Schiff base with 4,4'-diphenylmethane-diisocyanate. The polymer film has been effectively poled under a corona field and its linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were characterized. The results indicated that the NLO effects of the polymer are mainly originated in the distorted coordination tetragonals formed by the central zinc atoms and coordination atoms. The polymer shows strong photoluminescence under a ultraviolet-lamp illumination and can be used as a luminescent material for EL devices.

  19. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these

  20. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

  1. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  2. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  3. A New Generation of PARSEC-COLIBRI Stellar Isochrones Including the TP-AGB Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Bressan, Alessandro; Rosenfield, Philip; Aringer, Bernhard; Chen, Yang; Dussin, Marco; Nanni, Ambra; Pastorelli, Giada; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Trabucchi, Michele; Bladh, Sara; Dalcanton, Julianne; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Montalbán, Josefina; Wood, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new generation of PARSEC-COLIBRI stellar isochrones that includes a detailed treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase, covering a wide range of initial metallicities (0.0001 burning; inclusion of complete thermal pulse cycles, with a complete description of the in-cycle changes in the stellar parameters; new pulsation models to describe the long-period variability in the fundamental and first-overtone modes; and new dust models that follow the growth of the grains during the AGB evolution, in combination with radiative transfer calculations for the reprocessing of the photospheric emission. Overall, these improvements are expected to lead to a more consistent and detailed description of properties of TP-AGB stars expected in resolved stellar populations, especially in regard to their mean photometric properties from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We illustrate the expected numbers of TP-AGB stars of different types in stellar populations covering a wide range of ages and initial metallicities, providing further details on the “C-star island” that appears at intermediate values of age and metallicity, and about the AGB-boosting effect that occurs at ages close to 1.6-Gyr for populations of all metallicities. The isochrones are available through a new dedicated web server.

  4. A NEW GENERATION OF PARSEC-COLIBRI STELLAR ISOCHRONES INCLUDING THE TP-AGB PHASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigo, Paola; Aringer, Bernhard; Chen, Yang; Dussin, Marco; Nanni, Ambra; Pastorelli, Giada; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Trabucchi, Michele; Bladh, Sara; Montalbán, Josefina [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, via Bonomea 365, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Rosenfield, Philip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Wood, Peter R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-01-20

    We introduce a new generation of PARSEC–COLIBRI stellar isochrones that includes a detailed treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase, covering a wide range of initial metallicities (0.0001 < Z {sub i} < 0.06). Compared to previous releases, the main novelties and improvements are use of new TP-AGB tracks and related atmosphere models and spectra for M and C-type stars; inclusion of the surface H+He+CNO abundances in the isochrone tables, accounting for the effects of diffusion, dredge-up episodes and hot-bottom burning; inclusion of complete thermal pulse cycles, with a complete description of the in-cycle changes in the stellar parameters; new pulsation models to describe the long-period variability in the fundamental and first-overtone modes; and new dust models that follow the growth of the grains during the AGB evolution, in combination with radiative transfer calculations for the reprocessing of the photospheric emission. Overall, these improvements are expected to lead to a more consistent and detailed description of properties of TP-AGB stars expected in resolved stellar populations, especially in regard to their mean photometric properties from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We illustrate the expected numbers of TP-AGB stars of different types in stellar populations covering a wide range of ages and initial metallicities, providing further details on the “C-star island” that appears at intermediate values of age and metallicity, and about the AGB-boosting effect that occurs at ages close to 1.6-Gyr for populations of all metallicities. The isochrones are available through a new dedicated web server.

  5. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  6. Handling complex adaptive optics concepts including the third and fourth dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Marco; Viotto, Valentina; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Farinato, Jacopo; Gentile, Giorgia; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Satta, Antonello

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts involve sometimes very complex behaviors of rays, waves and optical elements. Just think, to be convinced, the way multiple probes aim to correct for a large field of view Multi Conjugated AO, and to how these deploy onto a dynamic turbulent atmosphere. In order to explain the behavior of novel concepts we developed visualization techniques that involve the display of three dimensional images and the creation of movies to explain how the concept deals with an evolving situation, or, in other words, adding the fourth dimension of time. We produce solid models of the optical concepts we are developing, including the evolving temporal behavior of the turbulence, and these can be manipulated in a virtual manner in order to allow for the production of different means of visualization. These ranges from so called "static movies" where a three dimensional concept is just explored in three dimension by handling it around the observer, to the creation of three dimensional anaglyphs or anaglyphs movies. While the paper is mainly focused onto the ways these techniques are exploited in order to produce satisfactory results, the poster allow the visitor to experience some of these images and movies. The aim of this work is not only of a sort of high level didactical purpose, but we think it would be useful into scientific discussion and during meeting to develop engineering concepts of several AO concepts.

  7. Amplicon sequencing for the quantification of spoilage microbiota in complex foods including bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Paulo; Caspers, Martien; Sanders, Jan-Willem; Kemperman, Robèr; Wijman, Janneke; Lommerse, Gijs; Roeselers, Guus; Montijn, Roy; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Spoilage of food products is frequently caused by bacterial spores and lactic acid bacteria. Identification of these organisms by classic cultivation methods is limited by their ability to form colonies on nutrient agar plates. In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing for quantification of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix and for monitoring the outgrowth of spoilage microbiota in a ready-to-eat food matrix. The detection limit of bar-coded 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was determined for the number of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix. Analysis of samples from a canned food matrix spiked with a mixture of equinumerous spores from the thermophiles, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, and the mesophiles, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus subtilis, led to the detection of these spores with an average limit of 2 × 10(2) spores ml(-1). The data were normalized by setting the number of sequences resulting from DNA of an inactivated bacterial species, present in the matrix at the same concentration in all samples, to a fixed value for quantitative sample-to-sample comparisons. The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing method was also employed to monitor population dynamics in a ready-to-eat rice meal, incubated over a period of 12 days at 7 °C. The most predominant outgrowth was observed by the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Analysis of meals pre-treated with weak acids showed inhibition of outgrowth of these three genera. The specificity of the amplicon synthesis was improved by the design of oligonucleotides that minimize the amplification of 16S rRNA genes from chloroplasts originating from plant-based material present in the food. This study shows that the composition of complex spoilage populations, including bacterial spores, can be monitored in complex food matrices by bar-coded amplicon sequencing in a quantitative manner. In order to allow sample

  8. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially improved safety profile compared to other aminoglycosides. This study assessed plazomicin MICs and MBCs in four Brucella spp. reference strains. Like other aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols, plazomicin MBC values equaled MIC values ...

  9. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are niche candidate for the field of energy management as electrical generator devices. Generally, comprehensive and accurate design techniques for TEGs (thermoelectric generators), such as reduced current approach (RCA), are complex and time consuming processes. ...

  10. A pragmatic approach to including complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available would be generated due to the movement of the structure. This presentation concerns mainly the structural dynamic component of the aeroelastic problem, and specifically the structural damping forces (which is usually not mentioned in the definition...

  11. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  12. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  13. Imagining Complex Numbers by Generating, Interpreting and Representing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Enzo

    2017-01-01

    Ever since their serendipitous discovery by Italian mathematicians trying to solve cubic equations in the 16th century, imaginary and complex numbers have been difficult topics to understand. Here the word complex is used to describe something consisting of a number of interconnecting parts. The different parts of a complex number are the…

  14. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  15. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 70741 - TPF Generation Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1936-000] TPF Generation Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding TPF Generation Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 78 FR 44109 - AEP Generation Resources Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1896-000] AEP Generation Resources Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Generation Resources Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  19. 77 FR 279 - Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-673-000] Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Generation LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that...

  20. MSTor: A program for calculating partition functions, free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities of complex molecules including torsional anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Mielke, Steven L.; Clarkson, Kenneth L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Fortran program package, MSTor, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsional motions by the recently proposed MS-T method. This method interpolates between the local harmonic approximation in the low-temperature limit, and the limit of free internal rotation of all torsions at high temperature. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes six utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Catalogue identifier: AEMF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 77 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 264 737 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, and Perl Computer: Itasca (HP Linux cluster, each node has two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 “Nehalem EP” processors), Calhoun (SGI Altix XE 1300 cluster, each node containing two quad-core 2.66 GHz Intel Xeon “Clovertown”-class processors sharing 16 GB of main memory), Koronis (Altix UV 1000 server with 190 6-core Intel Xeon X7542 “Westmere” processors at 2.66 GHz), Elmo (Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster with AMD Opteron cores), and Mac Pro (two 2.8 GHz Quad-core Intel Xeon

  1. Blastoid Variant Mantle Cell Lymphoma with Complex Karyotype Including 11q Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Özer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of blastoid mantle cell lymphoma with a complex karyotype. The blastoid variant is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma exhibiting an aggressive clinical course. Mantle cell lymphoma is a distinct entity of mature B-cell neoplasms genetically characterized by the presence of t(11;14. In the present case, conventional analysis revealed structural abnormalities of chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 19, along with 3 additional marker chromosomes. The derivative 1 chromosome determined in the case was a result of t(1p;11q. Our interesting finding was the presence of a different translocation between 11q and chromosome 1 in addition to t(11;14. Thus, the resulting 11q duplication was believed to additionally increase the enhanced expression of cyclin D1 gene, which is responsible in the pathogenesis of the disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method by the t(11;14 probe revealed clonal numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 11 and 14 in some cells. The detection of multiple abnormalities explains the bad prognosis in the present case. On the basis of our findings, we can easily conclude that results of cytogenetic analyses of similar mantle cell lymphoma patients would provide clues about new responsible gene regions and disease prognosis. In conclusion, it has been suggested that the presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations in addition to the specific t(11;14 may have a negative impact on clinical course and survival rate.

  2. Generation of complete electronic nuclear medicine reports including static, dynamic and gated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or

  3. Klotho: a humeral mediator in CSF and plasma that influences longevity and susceptibility to multiple complex disorders, including depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, M G; Remaley, A T; Gold, P W

    2016-08-30

    Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a significant decrease in lifespan. The Klotho-deficient mouse dies prematurely at 8-9 weeks of age. At 4-5 weeks of age, a syndrome resembling human ageing emerges consisting of atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, cognitive disturbances and alterations of hippocampal architecture. Several deficits in Klotho-deficient mice are likely to contribute to these phenomena. These include an inability to defend against oxidative stress in the central nervous system and periphery, decreased capacity to generate nitric oxide to sustain normal endothelial reactivity, defective Klotho-related mediation of glycosylation and ion channel regulation, increased insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and a disturbed calcium and phosphate homeostasis accompanied by altered vitamin D levels and ectopic calcification. Identifying the mechanisms by which Klotho influences multiple important pathways is an emerging field in human biology that will contribute significantly to understanding basic physiologic processes and targets for the treatment of complex diseases. Because many of the phenomena seen in Klotho-deficient mice occur in depressive illness, major depression and bipolar disorder represent illnesses potentially associated with Klotho dysregulation. Klotho's presence in CSF, blood and urine should facilitate its study in clinical populations.

  4. The Paramyxovirus Polymerase Complex as a Target for Next-Generation Anti-Paramyxovirus Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family includes major human and animal pathogens, including measles virus, mumps virus, and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, as well as the emerging zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses. In the United States, RSV is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations due to viral infectious disease. Despite their clinical significance, effective drugs for the improved management of paramyxovirus disease are lacking. The development of novel anti-paramyxovirus therapeutics is therefore urgently needed. Paramyxoviruses contain RNA genomes of negative polarity, necessitating a virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp complex for replication and transcription. Since an equivalent enzymatic activity is absent in host cells, the RdRp complex represents an attractive druggable target, although structure-guided drug development campaigns are hampered by the lack of high-resolution RdRp crystal structures. Here, we review the current structural and functional insight into the paramyxovirus polymerase complex in conjunction with an evaluation of the mechanism of activity and developmental status of available experimental RdRp inhibitors. Our assessment spotlights the importance of the RdRp complex as a premier target for therapeutic intervention and examines how high-resolution insight into the organization of the complex will pave the path towards the structure-guided design and optimization of much-needed next-generation paramyxovirus RdRp blockers.

  5. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagu...

  6. Assessment of the Impact of Complex Healthcare Features on Construction Waste Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluka Domingo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the British government has been investing billions of pounds in new and refurbished healthcare building projects. With the rapid growth in investment in healthcare infrastructure throughout the United Kingdom, a number of sustainability issues have been created, including construction waste generation. There is growing consensus in the literature that healthcare buildings are “complex”, due to their unique functional and operational features, and are thus more prone to generating larger amounts of construction waste. However, no significant research has been undertaken to identify the relationships between complex features in building projects and construction waste production, which is the focus of this study. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted among healthcare clients, contractors, and architects. A life cycle approach has been adopted in this study to holistically assess and evaluate the effects of complexities with construction waste causes in healthcare projects. The findings reveal that the complex shapes and sizes of rooms, and mechanical and electrical services, significantly impact waste caused by such things as: incomplete briefing, incorrect drawing details, complex designs, non-standard designs, and inadequate communication and coordination in the pre-design, design, and construction stages.

  7. Generation of Long-time Complex Signals for Testing the Instruments for Detection of Voltage Quality Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Dragan; Simić, Milan; Kokolanski, Zivko; Denić, Dragan; Dimcev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Software supported procedure for generation of long-time complex test sentences, suitable for testing the instruments for detection of standard voltage quality (VQ) disturbances is presented in this paper. This solution for test signal generation includes significant improvements of computer-based signal generator presented and described in the previously published paper [1]. The generator is based on virtual instrumentation software for defining the basic signal parameters, data acquisition card NI 6343, and power amplifier for amplification of output voltage level to the nominal RMS voltage value of 230 V. Definition of basic signal parameters in LabVIEW application software is supported using Script files, which allows simple repetition of specific test signals and combination of more different test sequences in the complex composite test waveform. The basic advantage of this generator compared to the similar solutions for signal generation is the possibility for long-time test sequence generation according to predefined complex test scenarios, including various combinations of VQ disturbances defined in accordance with the European standard EN50160. Experimental verification of the presented signal generator capability is performed by testing the commercial power quality analyzer Fluke 435 Series II. In this paper are shown some characteristic complex test signals with various disturbances and logged data obtained from the tested power quality analyzer.

  8. Pattern Generation for Complex Data Using Hybrid Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; Sumit Kumar; Sweety

    2013-01-01

    Combined mining is a hybrid mining approach for mining informative patterns from single or multipledata-sources, multiple-features extraction and applying multiple-methods as per the requirements. Datamining applications often involve complex data likemultiple heterogeneous data sources, different userpreference and create decision-making actions. Thecomplete useful information may not be obtained byusing single data mining method in the form of informative patterns as that would consume more...

  9. Next Generation Spectrometers for Rapid Analysis of Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-29

    be filtered out because they are also in our desired passband at the stage where they are generated. The most effective way to eliminate this...both a chirped pulse and a constant frequency signal to be used in the receiver. The output of each channel is filtered with a 5 GHz low-pass filter ...from each channel is then amplified and further filtered . The chirped pulse is then sent to an x12 amplified multiplier chain (AMC), which can

  10. Organizational memory and forgetfulness generating vulnerabilities in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between organizational memory and forgetfulness in the generation of operational vulnerabilities, based on a case study carried out with a highly specialized technical team from a multinational company of the automotive sector. The article starts with the presentation of the complexitycontext of the Brazilian automotive sector in the last decades. It then goes on to discuss the theoretical referential on learning organizations, organizational memory and forgetfulness and organizations with high operational reliability characteristics. Finally, a case study is presented, carried out based on the theoretical concepts described in the body of the article, showing the contradictions and evidence of this relationship.

  11. Line probe assay for differentiation within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evaluation on clinical specimens and isolates including Mycobacterium pinnipedii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Bek, Dorte; Rasmussen, Erik Michael

    2009-01-01

    A line probe assay (GenoType MTBC) was evaluated for species differentiation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We included 387 MTBC isolates, 43 IS6110 low-copy MTBC isolates, 28 clinical specimens with varying microscopy grade, and 30 isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria...

  12. Generation of clusters in complex dynamical networks via pinning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kezan; Fu Xinchu; Small, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world networks show community structure, i.e., groups (or clusters) of nodes that have a high density of links within them but with a lower density of links between them. In this paper, by applying feedback injections to a fraction of network nodes, various clusters are synchronized independently according to the community structure generated by the group partition of the network (cluster synchronization). This control is achieved by pinning (i.e. applying linear feedback control) to a subset of the network nodes. Those pinned nodes are selected not randomly but according to the topological structure of communities of a given network. Specifically, for a given group partition of a network, those nodes with direct connections between groups must be pinned in order to achieve cluster synchronization. Both the local stability and global stability of cluster synchronization are investigated. Taking the tree-shaped network and the most modular network as two particular examples, we illustrate in detail how the pinning strategy influences the generation of clusters. The simulations verify the efficiency of the pinning schemes used in this paper

  13. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Acute brainstem slice preparations in vitro have advanced understanding of the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation, but their inherent limitations preclude long-term manipulation and recording experiments. Here, we developed an organotypic slice culture preparation...... containing the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the core inspiratory rhythm generator of the ventrolateral brainstem. We measured bilateral synchronous network oscillations, using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes, in both ventrolateral (presumably the preBötC) and dorsomedial regions of 7-43 days in vitro...... associated protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes in cultures. Acute slices showed a burst frequency of 10.9 ± 4.2 bursts/min, which was not different from brainstem slice cultures (13.7 ± 10.6 bursts/min). However, slice co-cultures that include two cerebellar explants placed along the dorsolateral border...

  14. Computation of binding energies including their enthalpy and entropy components for protein-ligand complexes using support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Frank, Martin; Kemp, Graham J L; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2013-10-28

    Computing binding energies of protein-ligand complexes including their enthalpy and entropy terms by means of computational methods is an appealing approach for selecting initial hits and for further optimization in early stages of drug discovery. Despite the importance, computational predictions of thermodynamic components have evaded attention and reasonable solutions. In this study, support vector machines are used for developing scoring functions to compute binding energies and their enthalpy and entropy components of protein-ligand complexes. The binding energies computed from our newly derived scoring functions have better Pearson's correlation coefficients with experimental data than previously reported scoring functions in benchmarks for protein-ligand complexes from the PDBBind database. The protein-ligand complexes with binding energies dominated by enthalpy or entropy term could be qualitatively classified by the newly derived scoring functions with high accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the inclusion of comprehensive descriptors based on ligand properties in the scoring functions improved the accuracy of classification as well as the prediction of binding energies including their thermodynamic components. The prediction of binding energies including the enthalpy and entropy components using the support vector machine based scoring functions should be of value in the drug discovery process.

  15. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    the adjustment of the day-ahead scheduling and giving priority to the use of renewable energy. According to the forecast of the critical and noncritical load, the wind speed, and the solar irradiation, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization method is used to solve the multi-objective optimization......A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  16. Thermo-economic optimization of the impact of renewable generators on poly-generation smart-grids including hot thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Greco, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a poly-generation grid including thermal storage and renewable generators. ► We analyze the impact of random renewable generators on the grid performance. ► We carry out the grid optimization using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. ► We present the importance of the storage system to optimize the RES impact. - Abstract: In this paper, the impact of not controllable renewable energy generators (wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels) on the thermo-economic optimum performance of poly-generation smart grids is investigated using an original time dependent hierarchical approach. The grid used for the analysis is the one installed at the University of Genoa for research activities. It is based on different prime movers: (i) 100 kWe micro gas turbine, (ii) 20 kWe internal combustion engine powered by gases to produce both electrical and thermal (hot water) energy and (iii) a 100 kWth adsorption chiller to produce cooling (cold water) energy. The grid includes thermal storage tanks to manage the thermal demand load during the year. The plant under analysis is also equipped with two renewable non-controllable generators: a small size wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels. The size and the management of the system studied in this work have been optimized, in order to minimize both capital and variable costs. A time-dependent thermo-economic hierarchical approach developed by the authors has been used, considering the time-dependent electrical, thermal and cooling load demands during the year as problem constraints. The results are presented and discussed in depth and show the strong interaction between fossil and renewable resources, and the importance of an appropriate storage system to optimize the RES impact taking into account the multiproduct character of the grid under investigation.

  17. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of viruses included in the Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Jason T; Savji, Nazir; Lofts, Loreen; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Wiley, Michael R; Gestole, Marie C; Rosen, Gail E; Guzman, Hilda; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Nunes, Marcio R T; J Kochel, Tadeusz; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    A thorough characterization of the genetic diversity of viruses present in vector and vertebrate host populations is essential for the early detection of and response to emerging pathogenic viruses, yet genetic characterization of many important viral groups remains incomplete. The Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an example. The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Here, we report complete genome sequences for 11 viruses within this group, with a focus on the large and poorly characterized Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes. Phylogenetic and pairwise divergence analyses indicated the presence of high levels of genetic diversity within these two species complexes, on a par with that seen among the five other species complexes in the Simbu serogroup. Based on previously reported divergence thresholds between species, the data suggested that these two complexes should actually be divided into at least five species. Together these five species formed a distinct phylogenetic clade apart from the rest of the Simbu serogroup. Pairwise sequence divergences among viruses of this clade and viruses in other Simbu serogroup species complexes were similar to levels of divergence among the other orthobunyavirus serogroups. The genetic data also suggested relatively high levels of natural reassortment, with three potential reassortment events present, including two well-supported events involving viruses known to infect humans.

  18. A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties

  19. Composite structured mesh generation with automatic domain decomposition in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a novel automatic domain decomposition method to generate quality composite structured meshes in complex domains with arbitrary shapes, in which quality structured mesh generation still remains a challenge. The proposed decomposition algorithm is based on the analysis of an initi...

  20. Applications of biotransformations and biocatalysis to complexity generation in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlicky, Tomas; Reed, Josephine W

    2009-11-01

    This tutorial review provides a survey of syntheses in which an enzymatic step contributed to generating downstream molecular complexity in the target. The first part provides a guide to the types of enzymatic transformations suitable for incorporation into synthetic schemes. The principles of symmetry, especially the concept of "latent symmetry", which are often used to simplify enantiodivergent design of targets, are discussed next. The examples are discussed in the order of a degree of experimental difficulty associated with the execution of a particular biological technique. Lipase resolutions and desymmetrizations are discussed first followed by more advanced protocols involving oxidoreductase enzymes and ending with examples of syntheses that employ pathway engineering and directed evolution of proteins. Future prospects of biocatalytic methods as means of efficient preparation of target compounds are indicated. The authors hope that the review will serve to convince those synthetic chemists reluctant to use biological methods to include enzymatic procedures in their design.

  1. Generation and structural validation of a library of diverse xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides, including an update on xyloglucan nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomivaara, Sami T; Yaoi, Katsuro; O'Neill, Malcolm A; York, William S

    2015-01-30

    Xyloglucans are structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides that are involved in cell growth and expansion, energy metabolism, and signaling. Determining the structure-function relationships of xyloglucans would benefit from the availability of a comprehensive and structurally diverse collection of rigorously characterized xyloglucan oligosaccharides. Here, we present a workflow for the semi-preparative scale generation and purification of neutral and acidic xyloglucan oligosaccharides using a combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments and size-exclusion chromatography. Twenty-six of these oligosaccharides were purified to near homogeneity and their structures validated using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, high-performance anion exchange chromatography, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry and analytical chromatography were compared as methods for xyloglucan oligosaccharide quantification. 1H chemical shifts were assigned using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. A comprehensive update of the nomenclature describing xyloglucan side-chain structures is provided for reference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of new generation low-complexity flood inundation mapping tools with a hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Shahab; Tavakoly, Ahmad A.; Rajib, Mohammad Adnan; Zheng, Xing; Follum, Michael L.; Omranian, Ehsan; Fekete, Balázs M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two new generation low-complexity tools, AutoRoute and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System, HEC-RAS 2D). The assessment was conducted on two hydrologically different and geographically distant test-cases in the United States, including the 16,900 km2 Cedar River (CR) watershed in Iowa and a 62 km2 domain along the Black Warrior River (BWR) in Alabama. For BWR, twelve different configurations were set up for each of the models, including four different terrain setups (e.g. with and without channel bathymetry and a levee), and three flooding conditions representing moderate to extreme hazards at 10-, 100-, and 500-year return periods. For the CR watershed, models were compared with a simplistic terrain setup (without bathymetry and any form of hydraulic controls) and one flooding condition (100-year return period). Input streamflow forcing data representing these hypothetical events were constructed by applying a new fusion approach on National Water Model outputs. Simulated inundation extent and depth from AutoRoute, HAND, and HEC-RAS 2D were compared with one another and with the corresponding FEMA reference estimates. Irrespective of the configurations, the low-complexity models were able to produce inundation extents similar to HEC-RAS 2D, with AutoRoute showing slightly higher accuracy than the HAND model. Among four terrain setups, the one including both levee and channel bathymetry showed lowest fitness score on the spatial agreement of inundation extent, due to the weak physical representation of low-complexity models compared to a hydrodynamic model. For inundation depth, the low-complexity models showed an overestimating tendency, especially in the deeper segments of the channel. Based on such reasonably good prediction skills, low-complexity flood models can be considered as a suitable alternative for fast

  3. Films of Transition Metal Complexes Including Ionic Liquids: Dramatic Effects of Processing Parameters and Substrate on the Film Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatpour, Sareh; Isik, Dilek; Santato, Clara

    2018-01-01

    Bis(2-phenylpyridine- C, N)(2,2'-bipyridine- N, N') iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate ([Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6]) is an ionic transition-metal complex (iTMC) of interest for use in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs). Films of [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6] blended with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]), deposited on different substrates, have been investigated for their morphological features, which are expected to affect the functional properties of the films, e.g., charge carrier transport. In literature, ionic liquids have been included in films of transition-metal complexes (TMCs) to increase the ion mobility and improve the performance of LEECs. A systematic comparison between the morphology of pure [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6] films and [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6] films containing [BMIm][PF6] has been carried out on different types of substrate, namely Au-patterned SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)-modified ITO. Although [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)][PF6] forms smooth films on SiO2, ITO, and PEDOT:PSS-modified ITO substrates, addition of [BMIm][PF6] caused formation of vertical, discontinuous aggregates, which are expected to be detrimental to charge transport in LEECs with planar architecture.

  4. The determination of arsenic, selenium, antimony, and tin in complex environmental samples by hydride generation AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Beach, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hydride generation techniques are used routinely for the determination of As, Se, Sb and Sn in water samples. Advantages include high sensitivity, simplicity, and relative freedom from interferences. Continuous-flow designs greatly reduce analysis time as well as improve precision and allow for automation. However the accurate analysis of more complex environmental samples such as industrial sludges, soil samples, river sediments, and fly ash remains difficult. Numerous contributing factors influence the accuracy of the hydride technique. Sample digestion methods and sample preparation procedures are of critical importance. The digestion must adequately solubilize the elements of interest without loss by volatilization. Sample preparation procedures that guarantee the proper analyte oxidation state and eliminate the nitric acid and inter-element interferences are needed. In this study, difficult environmental samples were analyzed for As, Se, Sb, and Sn by continuous flow hydride generation. Sample preparation methods were optimized to eliminate interferences. The results of spike recovery studies will be presented. Data from the analysis of the same samples by graphite furnace AAS will be presented for comparison of accuracy, precision, and analysis time

  5. Critical appraisal of first-generation renal tumor complexity scoring systems: Creation of a second-generation model of tumor complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Shoemaker, Allen; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether a combination of variables from each nephrometry system improves performance. There are 3 first-generation systems that quantify tumor complexity: R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS), preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification (PC), and centrality index (CI). Although each has been subjected to validation and comparative analysis, to our knowledge, no work has been done to combine variables from each method to optimize their performance. Scores were assigned to each of 276 patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN). Individual components of all 3 systems were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression analysis of surgery type (PN vs. RN) and combined into a "second-generation model." In multivariable analysis, each scoring system was a significant predictor of PN vs. RN (Psystems, CI was most highly correlated with surgery type (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91), followed by RNS (AUC = 0.90) and PC (AUC = 0.88). Each individual component of these scoring systems was also a predictor of surgery type (Psystem (RNS), location along the lateral rim (PC), and centrality (CI). A novel model in which these 4 variables were rescaled outperformed each first-generation system (AUC = 0.91). Optimization of first-generation models of renal tumor complexity results in a novel scoring system, which strongly predicts surgery type. This second-generation model should aid comprehension, but future work is still needed to establish the most clinically useful model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimizing Decision Preparedness by Adapting Scenario Complexity and Automating Scenario Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Rob; Schatz, Sae; Flore, Stephen M.; Nicholson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Klein's recognition-primed decision (RPD) framework proposes that experts make decisions by recognizing similarities between current decision situations and previous decision experiences. Unfortunately, military personnel arQ often presented with situations that they have not experienced before. Scenario-based training (S8T) can help mitigate this gap. However, SBT remains a challenging and inefficient training approach. To address these limitations, the authors present an innovative formulation of scenario complexity that contributes to the larger research goal of developing an automated scenario generation system. This system will enable trainees to effectively advance through a variety of increasingly complex decision situations and experiences. By adapting scenario complexities and automating generation, trainees will be provided with a greater variety of appropriately calibrated training events, thus broadening their repositories of experience. Preliminary results from empirical testing (N=24) of the proof-of-concept formula are presented, and future avenues of scenario complexity research are also discussed.

  7. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the sites and mechanisms underlying the generation of respiratory rhythm is of longstanding interest to physiologists and neurobiologists. Recently, with the development of novel experimental preparations, especially in vitro en bloc and slice preparations of rodent brainstem......, progress has been made In particular, a site in the ventrolateral medulla, the preBötzinger Complex, is hypothesized to contain neuronal circuits generating respiratory rhythm. Lesions or disruption of synaptic transmission within the preBötzinger Complex, either in vivo or in vitro, can abolish...

  8. Uranyl complexes as scaffolding or spacers for cucurbit[6]uril molecules in homo- and heterometallic species, including a uranyl-lanthanide complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuery, Pierre [NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-06-16

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) and carboxylic or sulfonic ligands under hydrothermal conditions and in the presence of additional metal cations (K{sup I} or Ce{sup III}) or cosolvents provided four complexes, which were crystallographically characterized. The compound [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(adc){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (1), where H{sub 2}adc is 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid, crystallizes in the form of a central K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} column surrounded by two one-dimensional (1D) polymeric UO{sub 2}(adc)(NO{sub 3}){sup -} chains attached to the column by nitrate bridges, with a perfect match of the repeat lengths in the two subunits. The longer 1,3-adamantanediacetic acid (H{sub 2}adac) gives the complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(adac){sub 2}(HCOOH){sub 2}].CB6.6H{sub 2}O (2), in which the 1D uranyl-containing polymer and columns of CB6 molecules form a layered arrangement held by weak CH..O hydrogen bonds. The complex formed with the dipotassium salt of methanedisulfonic acid (K{sub 2}mds), [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}K{sub 2}(CB6)(mds){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}].4H{sub 2}O (3), is a 1D polymer, in which K{sub 2}(CB6){sup 2+} units are connected to one another by doubly hydroxide-bridged uranyl dimers in which the disulfonates are terminal, chelating ligands; connection between the two subunits is solely through potassium oxo-bonding to uranyl. The complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}(CB6)(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (4) is a 1D polymer containing bridging oxalate ligands formed in situ, in which CB6 is coordinated to the lanthanide cations only; one nitrate ligand and one water ligand, hydrogen-bonded to each other, are included in the CB6 cavity, with the possible occurrence of interactions between nitrate oxygen atoms and ureido carbon atoms. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Web-Based Analysis for Student-Generated Complex Genetic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H.; LaRoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for generating complex genetic profiles using Alu-based markers was recently developed for students primarily at the undergraduate level to learn more about forensics and paternity analysis. On the basis of the Cold Spring Harbor Allele Server, which provides an excellent tool for analyzing a single Alu variant, we present a…

  10. Isolation and X-ray structures of four Rh(PCP) complexes including a Rh(I) dioxygen complex with a short O-O bond

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashi, Yukiko

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of RhCl3·H2O with tBu2P(CH2)5PtBu 2 afforded several complexes including [RhIII(H)Cl{ tBu2- P(CH2)2CH(CH2) 2PtBu2}] (1), [RhIIIHCl 2{tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2}]2 (2), [RhICl{ tBu2P(CH2)2CH=CHCH2P tBu2}] (3) and [RhICl{tBu 2PCH2C(O)CH=CHCH2PtBu2}] (4). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and 4 showed that the C=C bond on the C 5 unit of tBu2P(CH2) 5PtBu2 is bound to Rh(I) in a η2 configuration. In 4, the Rh atom has a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 consists of two rhodium( III) centers bridged by two tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2 ligands with two phosphorus atoms, one from each ligand, trans to one another. The crystal structure of the rhodium oxygen adduct with 1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphinomethyl) benzene [RhO2{ tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2}] (5) was also investigated. In this species the O2 is η2 coordinated to the Rh(I) center with asymmetric Rh-O bond lengths (2.087(7) and 1.998(8) Å). The O-O bond distance is short (1.337(11) Å) with νO-O of 990.5 cm -1. DFT calculations on complex 5 yielded two η2- O2 structures that differed in energy by only 0.76 kcal/mol. The lower energy one (5a) had near C2 symmetry, and had nearly equal Rh-O bond lengths, while the higher energy structure (5b) had near Cs symmetry and generally good agreement with the experimental structure. The calculated UV-Vis and IR spectra of complex 5 are in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  12. Individual Patterns of Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota, Including Predator Bacteria, over a 1-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Caballero, Juan; Vida, Rafael; Cobo, Marta; Máiz, Luis; Suárez, Lucrecia; Galeano, Javier; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Del Campo, Rosa

    2017-09-26

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities. Fifteen adult CF patients, stratified according to their pulmonary function into mild ( n = 5), moderate ( n = 9), and severe ( n = 1) disease, were recruited at the CF unit of the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain). Each patient contributed three or four induced sputum samples during a 1-year follow-up period. Lung microbiota composition was determined by both cultivation and NGS techniques and was compared with the patients' clinical variables. Results revealed a particular microbiota composition for each patient that was maintained during the study period, although some fluctuations were detected without any clinical correlation. For the first time, Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio predator bacteria were shown in CF lung microbiota and reduced-genome bacterial parasites of the phylum Parcubacteria were also consistently detected. The newly designed computational model allows us to hypothesize that inoculation of predators into the pulmonary microbiome might contribute to the control of chronic colonization by CF pathogens in early colonization stages. IMPORTANCE The application of NGS to sequential samples of CF patients demonstrated the complexity of the organisms present in the lung (156 species) and the constancy of basic individual colonization patterns, although some differences between samples from the same patient were

  13. Advanced All-Gas Chemical Generation of Atomic Iodine for a COIL, and Testing the COIL Operation Including This Method of Atomic Iodine Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kodymova, Jarmila; Spalek, Otomar; Jirasek, Vit; Censky, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Academy of Sciences as follows: The Grantee will investigate advanced methods for chemical generation of atomic iodine for a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL...

  14. Computational and Experimental Evaluation of a Complex Inlet Swirl Pattern Generation System (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    pattern generation system composed of continuous patterns of turning vanes. Successful demonstration of the evaluation methods required acceptable...CFD analysis to evaluate swirling flow downstream of a swirl pattern generation system composed of continuous patterns of turning vanes. Successful...through a constant diameter spacer duct before it passes the flow measurement plane. The configuration in Fig. 4 includes the flow measurement

  15. Prevalence of Burkholderia species, including members of Burkholderia cepacia complex, among UK cystic and non-cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Dervla T D; Lilley, Daniel; Coward, Amy; Martin, Kate; Perry, Claire; Pike, Rachel; Hill, Robert; Turton, Jane F

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence of different Burkholderia species among UK cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients over a 2 year period. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify isolates to genus level, followed by recA/gyrB sequence clustering or species-specific PCR. In all, 1047 Burkholderia isolates were submitted for identification from 361 CF patients and 112 non-CF patients, 25 from the hospital environment and three from a commercial company. Potential cross-infection was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi- locus-sequence typing (MLST). MICs were determined for 161 Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates. CF Trust registry data were sought to examine clinical parameters relating to Bcc infection. Burkholderia multivorans was the most prevalent species among CF patients affecting 56 % (192) patients, followed by Burkholderia cenocepacia IIIA (15 %; 52 patients). Five novel recA clusters were found. Among non-CF patients, Burkholderia cepacia was the most prevalent species (37/112; 34 %), with 18 of 40 isolates part of a UK-wide B. cepacia 'cluster'. This and three other clusters were investigated by PFGE and MLST. Cable-pili positive isolates included two novel sequence types and representatives of ET12. Antibiotic susceptibility varied between and within species and CF/non- CF isolates. CF Trust registry data suggested no significant difference in lung function between patients harbouring B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans and other Bcc species (P=0.81). The dominance of B. multivorans in CF, the presence of a B. cepacia cluster among non-CF patients and the existence of putative novel species all highlighted the continuing role of Burkholderia species as opportunistic pathogens.

  16. The complexity of sequences generated by the arc-fractal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai Nguyen Huynh

    Full Text Available We study properties of the symbolic sequences extracted from the fractals generated by the arc-fractal system introduced earlier by Huynh and Chew. The sequences consist of only a few symbols yet possess several nontrivial properties. First using an operator approach, we show that the sequences are not periodic, even though they are constructed from very simple rules. Second by employing the ϵ-machine approach developed by Crutchfield and Young, we measure the complexity and randomness of the sequences and show that they are indeed complex, i.e. neither periodic nor random, with the value of complexity measure being significant as compared to the known example of logistic map at the edge of chaos. The complexity and randomness of the sequences are then discussed in relation with the properties of associated fractal objects, such as their fractal dimension, symmetry and orientations of the arcs.

  17. The Complexity of Sequences Generated by the Arc-Fractal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hoai Nguyen; Pradana, Andri; Chew, Lock Yue

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of the symbolic sequences extracted from the fractals generated by the arc-fractal system introduced earlier by Huynh and Chew. The sequences consist of only a few symbols yet possess several nontrivial properties. First using an operator approach, we show that the sequences are not periodic, even though they are constructed from very simple rules. Second by employing the ϵ-machine approach developed by Crutchfield and Young, we measure the complexity and randomness of the sequences and show that they are indeed complex, i.e. neither periodic nor random, with the value of complexity measure being significant as compared to the known example of logistic map at the edge of chaos. The complexity and randomness of the sequences are then discussed in relation with the properties of associated fractal objects, such as their fractal dimension, symmetry and orientations of the arcs. PMID:25700034

  18. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Ninth Progress Report (includes results of last three years), 1 May 1980 -- 30 April 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, D. J.

    1982-09-15

    The overall objective of this research is to design, synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for the abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions, or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; numbers of binding sites; characters of binding sites; and valences. The hope is to synthesize new classes of compounds useful in the separation of metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters.

  19. 75 FR 26797 - Cummins Power Generation, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Adecco USA, Inc., Aerotek, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Networks, Entegee, Inc., DBA Midstates Technical, Manpower, Inc., Robert Half International, Summit... import articles like or directly competitive with the generators and transfer switches produced at the... articles abroad during the same period. The investigation also revealed that, during the relevant period...

  20. Tigecycline Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae Complex and Escherichia coli Isolates from Companion Animals: The Prevalence of Tigecycline-Nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae Complex, Including Internationally Expanding Human Pathogenic Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toyotaka; Harada, Kazuki; Usui, Masaru; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Tamura, Yutaka; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2017-12-12

    Transmission of tigecycline-nonsusceptible pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae from companion animals to human should be a concern because tigecycline is a last-line drug for treating multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in human medicine. However, tigecycline susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from companion animals has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the tigecycline susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex and Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats, and evaluated their human pathogenicity potential. Tigecycline susceptibility of K. pneumoniae, including Klebsiella quasipneumoniae (n = 86) and E. coli (n = 100) strains isolated from dogs and cats was investigated. The antimicrobial susceptibility, capsular serotype, multilocus sequence type, ompK36 group, presence of virulence genes, and serum resistance of tigecycline-nonsusceptible isolates were evaluated. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Two K. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 4 mg/L) and one K. quasipneumoniae (MIC, 8 mg/L) isolates were tigecycline resistant. Sixteen K. pneumoniae and one K. quasipneumoniae isolates were tigecycline intermediate (2 mg/L). All tigecycline-nonsusceptible isolates (n = 20) were also ciprofloxacin nonsusceptible. These isolates harbored five to nine virulence genes; 16 isolates were resistant to the human serum. In addition, STs of 13 K. pneumoniae isolates were reported to be found in strains isolated from human; isolates considered high-risk clones in human (ST11, ST15, and ST147) were also identified. In conclusion, the isolation of tigecycline-nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae from companion animals is an impact from the viewpoint of One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance that companion animals are a reservoir of human pathogenic lineages.

  1. Mechanism of triclosan toxicity: Mitochondrial dysfunction including complex II inhibition, superoxide release and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplova, Vera V; Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Kruglov, Alexey G

    2017-06-05

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2'-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), a widely used antibacterial agent, exerts adverse effects on the organism of mammals. Recent research reviled that triclosan at low micromolar concentrations causes mitochondrial dysfunction in many cell types, but the mechanisms of its effect are not fully understood. Here we show that exposure to triclosan disrupted membrane potential, prevented the calcium uptake-driven high-amplitude mitochondrial swelling, stimulated the respiration in the presence of complex I substrates, and suppressed the ADP-stimulated respiration in the presence of complex II substrate, succinate. Triclosan directly inhibited complex II activity. Similar to the complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone, triclosan induced the oxidation of the cytochromes b566 and b562 and caused the release of mitochondrial superoxide. Opposite to thenoyltrifluoroacetone, triclosan increased superoxide release synergistically with myxothiazol but not with antimycin A, indicating different topology of superoxide-producing sites. We concluded that triclosan is unique by its capability of acting as both a protonophore and an unusual complex II inhibitor, which interferes with the mitochondrial respiration by blocking the electron transfer between ubiquinone at the Q d -binding site and heme b. Our data can provide an insight into the mechanisms of the carcinogenic effect of triclosan in the liver and other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated generation of complex optical quantum states and their coherent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roztocki, Piotr; Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Romero Cortés, Luis; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Moss, David J.; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Complex optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for investigations of fundamental physics and are the heart of applications in quantum information science. Recently, integrated photonics has become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of optical quantum states. However, onchip sources are currently limited to basic two-dimensional (qubit) two-photon states, whereas scaling the state complexity requires access to states composed of several (system with at least one hundred dimensions. Moreover, using off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a platform for the coherent manipulation and control of frequencyentangled quDit states. Our results suggest that microcavity-based entangled photon state generation and the coherent control of states using accessible telecommunications infrastructure introduce a powerful and scalable platform for quantum information science.

  3. USE OF NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING FOR GENOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Sana, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Sanger method has been the gold standard methodology for sequencing analysis of DNA. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches revolutionized the field of genomics over the last 5 years. These new sequencing technologies make feasible the direct and cost-effective sequencing of genomes at unprecedented scale and speed. Furthermore, the applications of these technologies are wide-spread and have been developed to explore the complex biological systems, among which RNA ...

  4. The generation of visual inferences in normal elderly Influence of schooling and visual complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The generation of inferences makes the construction and comprehension of discourse easier, and integrates representations which add coherence to the arguments. Visuoperceptual and inferential deficits merge in the attempt to explain the difficulties that some individuals have in the comprehension of certain kinds of visual stimuli. Objectives: a To examine the performance of cognitively healthy elderly subjects in the execution of visual inferences using pictures of different levels of complexity; b To compare the performance of subjects according to schooling level. Methods: A total of 45 normal elderly aged from 61 to 82yrs (M=68; SD=0.57 were examined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to schooling level: Group 1 (1 to 4 years; Group 2 (5 to 8 years and Group 3 (9 or more years. Each subject had to create a narrative based on four figures with controlled visual complexity. The narratives were transcribed, analysed and scored. Results: For the essential inferences, the high educated group (3 had a better performance in both visually simple and complex conditions. On the visually complex figures, the medium educated group (2 was statistically equivalent to the high educated group for one figure and equivalent to the less educated group (1 for the other. There was no difference among the groups for the accessory propositions. Conclusions: Visual complexity interferes with the subject's ability to make inferences in low and medium educated individuals. High educated subjects maintain the same performance in making inferences, regardless of the visual complexity level.

  5. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  6. Misato Controls Mitotic Microtubule Generation by Stabilizing the TCP-1 Tubulin Chaperone Complex [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Valeria; Pellacani, Claudia; Heesom, Kate J; Rogala, Kacper B; Deane, Charlotte M; Mottier-Pavie, Violaine; Gatti, Maurizio; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Wakefield, James G

    2015-06-29

    Mitotic spindles are primarily composed of microtubules (MTs), generated by polymerization of α- and β-Tubulin hetero-dimers. Tubulins undergo a series of protein folding and post-translational modifications in order to fulfill their functions. Defects in Tubulin polymerization dramatically affect spindle formation and disrupt chromosome segregation. We recently described a role for the product of the conserved misato (mst) gene in regulating mitotic MT generation in flies, but the molecular function of Mst remains unknown. Here, we use affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to identify interacting partners of Mst in the Drosophila embryo. We demonstrate that Mst associates stoichiometrically with the hetero-octameric Tubulin Chaperone Protein-1 (TCP-1) complex, with the hetero-hexameric Tubulin Prefoldin complex, and with proteins having conserved roles in generating MT-competent Tubulin. We show that RNAi-mediated in vivo depletion of any TCP-1 subunit phenocopies the effects of mutations in mst or the Prefoldin-encoding gene merry-go-round (mgr), leading to monopolar and disorganized mitotic spindles containing few MTs. Crucially, we demonstrate that Mst, but not Mgr, is required for TCP-1 complex stability and that both the efficiency of Tubulin polymerization and Tubulin stability are drastically compromised in mst mutants. Moreover, our structural bioinformatic analyses indicate that Mst resembles the three-dimensional structure of Tubulin monomers and might therefore occupy the TCP-1 complex central cavity. Collectively, our results suggest that Mst acts as a co-factor of the TCP-1 complex, playing an essential role in the Tubulin-folding processes required for proper assembly of spindle MTs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Sharing is caring. Sharing and documenting complex participatory projects to enable generative participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schoffelen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on how sharing documentation of subjective viewpoints on complex participatory projects can contribute to end-user development in or generativity of projects. We will discuss the documentation approaches of some participatory projects that combine the development of software and hardware in a cultural, social or health context with groups of participants with an eye on generating ongoing participation. We will also describe how we, inspired by these projects, developed 1. a “thick documentation” approach, based on a collaborative mapping method called MAP-it 2. that provides a dynamic view, revealing the diverse subjective perspectives on the project; 3. that motivates different types of makers and participants to participate in documenting; 4. that aims for generativity. We evaluated our approach on these 4 goals and propose future challenges.

  8. The value of extended pedigrees for next-generation analysis of complex disease in the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Prongay, Kamm; Ferguson, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Complex diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, among many others) pose the biggest threat to human health worldwide and are among the most challenging to investigate. Susceptibility to complex disease may be caused by multiple genetic variants (GVs) and their interaction, by environmental factors, and by interaction between GVs and environment, and large study cohorts with substantial analytical power are typically required to elucidate these individual contributions. Here, we discuss the advantages of both power and feasibility afforded by the use of extended pedigrees of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for genetic studies of complex human disease based on next-generation sequence data. We present these advantages in the context of previous research conducted in rhesus macaques for several representative complex diseases. We also describe a single, multigeneration pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques and a sample biobank we have developed for genetic analysis of complex disease, including power of this pedigree to detect causal GVs using either genetic linkage or association methods in a variance decomposition approach. Finally, we summarize findings of significant heritability for a number of quantitative traits that demonstrate that genetic contributions to risk factors for complex disease can be detected and measured in this pedigree. We conclude that the development and application of an extended pedigree to analysis of complex disease traits in the rhesus macaque have shown promising early success and that genome-wide genetic and higher order -omics studies in this pedigree are likely to yield useful insights into the architecture of complex human disease.

  9. The Rhynchosia totta complex (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae in Southern Africa, including the description of a new variety and new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah N. Moteetee

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: A great variation in leaf structure and vestiture occurs within the R. totta complex, with the extreme forms easily recognisable. However, the total number of varieties are limited to four [R. totta vars. totta,  longicalyx,  rigidula and venulosa] and a new species described to accommodate specimens with a distinctly prostrate habit and upwardly directed leaves.

  10. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed complex procedures (lower 99% confidence limit [CL], 51.3%). A total of 14.2% (lower 99% CL, 12.4%) of hospitals had >3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P 30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive differentiator among hospitals. Thus, the usefulness of statistical methods for operating room management should be expected to be heterogeneous among hospitals. Our results also show that "large teaching hospital

  11. Hydrologic analyses in support of the Navajo Generating Station–Kayenta Mine Complex environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region (Reclamation) is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Navajo Generating Station-Kayenta Mine Complex Project (NGS-KMC Project). The proposed project involves various Federal approvals that would facilitate continued operation of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) from December 23, 2019 through 2044, and continued operation of the Kayenta Mine and support facilities (collectively called the Kayenta Mine Complex, or KMC) to supply coal to the NGS for this operational period. The EIS will consider several project alternatives that are likely to produce different effects on the Navajo (N) aquifer; the N aquifer is the principal water resource in the Black Mesa area used by the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, and Peabody Western Coal Company (PWCC).The N aquifer is composed of three hydraulically connected formations—the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone—that function as a single aquifer. The N aquifer is confined under most of Black Mesa, and the overlying stratigraphy limits recharge to this part of the aquifer. The N aquifer is unconfined in areas surrounding Black Mesa, and most recharge occurs where the Navajo Sandstone is exposed in the area near Shonto, Arizona. Overlying the N aquifer is the D aquifer, which includes the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Carmel Formation. The aquifer is named for the Dakota Sandstone, which is the primary water-bearing unit.The NGS is located near Page, Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The KMC, which delivers coal to NGS by way of a dedicated electric railroad, is located approximately 83 miles southeast of NGS (about 125 miles northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona). The Kayenta Mine permit area is located on about 44,073 acres of land leased within the boundaries of the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations. KMC has been conducting mining and

  12. Generation of tooth-periodontium complex structures using high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancong; Li, Yongliang; Shi, Ruirui; Zhang, Siqi; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yan; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Wei, Shicheng

    2017-06-08

    A number of studies have shown that tooth-like structures can be regenerated using induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. However, few studies have reported the regeneration of tooth-periodontium complex structures, which are more suitable for clinical tooth transplantation. We established an optimized approach to induce high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mES cells by temporally controlling bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) function and regenerated tooth-periodontium complex structures in vivo. First, immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the watershed of skin and the oral ectoderm. LDN193189 was then used to inhibit the BMP4 receptor around the watershed, followed by the addition of exogenous BMP4 to promote BMP4 function. The generated dental epithelium was confirmed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The generated epithelium was ultimately combined with embryonic day 14.5 mouse mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. After 4 weeks, the tooth-periodontium complex structure was examined by micro-computed tomography (CT) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Our study found that the turning point of oral ectoderm differentiation occurred around day 3 after the embryoid body was transferred to a common culture plate. Ameloblastin-positive dental epithelial cells were detected following the temporal regulation of BMP4. Tooth-periodontium complex structures, which included teeth, a periodontal membrane, and alveolar bone, were formed when this epithelium was combined with mouse dental mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. Micro-CT and H&E staining revealed that the generated tooth-periodontium complex structures shared a similar histological structure with normal mouse teeth. An optimized induction method was established to promote the differentiation of mES cells into dental

  13. Laboratory results of stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes in a complex environment - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, Olivier; Pavageau, Ellen-Mary; Vaillant, Francois; Bouvier, Odile de

    2004-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking occurs in the flow-restricted areas on the secondary side of steam generator tubes of Pressured Water Reactors (PWR), where water pollutants are likely to concentrate. Chemical analyses carried out during the shutdowns gave some insight into the chemical composition of these areas, which has evolved during these last years (i.e. less sodium as pollutants). It has been modeled in laboratory by tests in two different typical environments: the sodium hydroxide and the sulfate environments. These models satisfactorily describe the secondary side corrosion of steam generator tubes for old plant units. Furthermore, a third typical environment - the complex environment - which corresponds to an All Volatile Treatment (AVT) environment containing alumina, silica, phosphate and acetic acid has been recently studied. This particular environment satisfactorily reproduces the composition of the deposits observed on the surface of the steam generator tubes as well as the degradation of the tubes. A review of the recent laboratory results obtained by considering the complex environment are presented here. Several tests have been carried out in order to study initiation and propagation of secondary side corrosion cracking for some selected materials in such an environment. 600 Thermally Treated (TT) alloy reveals to be less sensitive to secondary side corrosion cracking than 600 Mill Annealed (MA) alloy. Finally, the influence of some related factors like stress, temperature and environmental factors are discussed. (authors)

  14. Generating rate equations for complex enzyme systems by a computer-assisted systematic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard Daniel A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the theory of enzyme kinetics is fundamental to analyzing and simulating biochemical systems, the derivation of rate equations for complex mechanisms for enzyme-catalyzed reactions is cumbersome and error prone. Therefore, a number of algorithms and related computer programs have been developed to assist in such derivations. Yet although a number of algorithms, programs, and software packages are reported in the literature, one or more significant limitation is associated with each of these tools. Furthermore, none is freely available for download and use by the community. Results We have implemented an algorithm based on the schematic method of King and Altman (KA that employs the topological theory of linear graphs for systematic generation of valid reaction patterns in a GUI-based stand-alone computer program called KAPattern. The underlying algorithm allows for the assumption steady-state, rapid equilibrium-binding, and/or irreversibility for individual steps in catalytic mechanisms. The program can automatically generate MathML and MATLAB output files that users can easily incorporate into simulation programs. Conclusion A computer program, called KAPattern, for generating rate equations for complex enzyme system is a freely available and can be accessed at http://www.biocoda.org.

  15. Designing Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula for the Next Generation Science Standards in High School Science Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a curriculum and instruction framework for computer-supported teaching and learning about complex systems in high school science classrooms. This work responds to a need in K-12 science education research and practice for the articulation of design features for classroom instruction that can address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS recently launched in the USA. We outline the features of the framework, including curricular relevance, cognitively rich pedagogies, computational tools for teaching and learning, and the development of content expertise, and provide examples of how the framework is translated into practice. We follow this up with evidence from a preliminary study conducted with 10 teachers and 361 students, aimed at understanding the extent to which students learned from the activities. Results demonstrated gains in students’ complex systems understanding and biology content knowledge. In interviews, students identified influences of various aspects of the curriculum and instruction framework on their learning.

  16. Retrieval of complex χ((2)) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias J; Koelsch, Patrick

    2015-10-07

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility χ((2)) (2). A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ((2)) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ((2)) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ((2)) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  17. Modifying the Interagency Emergency Health Kit to include treatment for non-communicable diseases in natural disasters and complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Nadler, Brian; Darzi, Ara; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    The Interagency Emergency Health Kit (IEHK) provides a standard package of medicines and simple medical devices for aid agencies to use in emergencies such as disasters and armed conflicts. Despite the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in such settings, the IEHK includes few drugs and devices for management of NCDs. Using published data to model the population burden of acute and chronic presentations of NCDs in emergency-prone regions, we estimated the quantity of medications and devices that should be included in the IEHK. NCDs considered were cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension and chronic respiratory disease. In scenario 1 (the primary scenario), we assumed that resources in the IEHK would only include those needed to manage acute life-threatening conditions. In scenario 2, we included resources required to manage both acute and chronic presentations of NCDs. Drugs and devices that might be required included amlodipine, aspirin, atenolol, beclomethasone, dextrose 50%, enalapril, furosemide, glibenclamide, glyceryl trinitrate, heparin, hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, insulin, metformin, prednisone, salbutamol and simvastatin. For scenario 1, the number of units required ranged from 12 (phials of hydralazine) to ∼15 000 (tablets of enalapril). Space and weight requirements were modest and total cost for all drugs and devices was approximately US$2078. As expected, resources required for scenario 2 were much greater. Space and cost requirements increased proportionately: estimated total cost of scenario 2 was $22 208. The resources required to treat acute NCD presentations appear modest, and their inclusion in the IEHK seems feasible.

  18. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind of spe...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  19. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Be

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

  20. Klotho: a humeral mediator in CSF and plasma that influences longevity and susceptibility to multiple complex disorders, including depression

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlatou, M G; Remaley, A T; Gold, P W

    2016-01-01

    Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a signific...

  1. Individual Patterns of Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota, Including Predator Bacteria, over a 1-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Caballero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities. Fifteen adult CF patients, stratified according to their pulmonary function into mild (n = 5, moderate (n = 9, and severe (n = 1 disease, were recruited at the CF unit of the Ramááóíóóóñóíéíóíúááóón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain. Each patient contributed three or four induced sputum samples during a 1-year follow-up period. Lung microbiota composition was determined by both cultivation and NGS techniques and was compared with the patients’ clinical variables. Results revealed a particular microbiota composition for each patient that was maintained during the study period, although some fluctuations were detected without any clinical correlation. For the first time, Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio predator bacteria were shown in CF lung microbiota and reduced-genome bacterial parasites of the phylum Parcubacteria were also consistently detected. The newly designed computational model allows us to hypothesize that inoculation of predators into the pulmonary microbiome might contribute to the control of chronic colonization by CF pathogens in early colonization stages.

  2. An effective approach for generating a three-Cys2His2 zinc-finger-DNA complex model by docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of protein-DNA complex structures with both NMR and X-ray crystallography remains challenging in many cases. High Ambiguity-Driven DOCKing (HADDOCK is an information-driven docking program that has been used to successfully model many protein-DNA complexes. However, a protein-DNA complex model whereby the protein wraps around DNA has not been reported. Defining the ambiguous interaction restraints for the classical three-Cys2His2 zinc-finger proteins that wrap around DNA is critical because of the complicated binding geometry. In this study, we generated a Zif268-DNA complex model using three different sets of ambiguous interaction restraints (AIRs to study the effect of the geometric distribution on the docking and used this approach to generate a newly reported Sp1-DNA complex model. Results The complex models we generated on the basis of two AIRs with a good geometric distribution in each domain are reasonable in terms of the number of models with wrap-around conformation, interface root mean square deviation, AIR energy and fraction native contacts. We derived the modeling approach for generating a three-Cys2His2 zinc-finger-DNA complex model according to the results of docking studies using the Zif268-DNA and other three crystal complex structures. Furthermore, the Sp1-DNA complex model was calculated with this approach, and the interactions between Sp1 and DNA are in good agreement with those previously reported. Conclusions Our docking data demonstrate that two AIRs with a reasonable geometric distribution in each of the three-Cys2His2 zinc-finger domains are sufficient to generate an accurate complex model with protein wrapping around DNA. This approach is efficient for generating a zinc-finger protein-DNA complex model for unknown complex structures in which the protein wraps around DNA. We provide a flowchart showing the detailed procedures of this approach.

  3. Geant4-DNA simulations using complex DNA geometries generated by the DnaFabric tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, S.; Vimont, U.; Incerti, S.; Clairand, I.; Villagrasa, C.

    2016-07-01

    Several DNA representations are used to study radio-induced complex DNA damages depending on the approach and the required level of granularity. Among all approaches, the mechanistic one requires the most resolved DNA models that can go down to atomistic DNA descriptions. The complexity of such DNA models make them hard to modify and adapt in order to take into account different biological conditions. The DnaFabric project was started to provide a tool to generate, visualise and modify such complex DNA models. In the current version of DnaFabric, the models can be exported to the Geant4 code to be used as targets in the Monte Carlo simulation. In this work, the project was used to generate two DNA fibre models corresponding to two DNA compaction levels representing the hetero and the euchromatin. The fibres were imported in a Geant4 application where computations were performed to estimate the influence of the DNA compaction on the amount of calculated DNA damage. The relative difference of the DNA damage computed in the two fibres for the same number of projectiles was found to be constant and equal to 1.3 for the considered primary particles (protons from 300 keV to 50 MeV). However, if only the tracks hitting the DNA target are taken into account, then the relative difference is more important for low energies and decreases to reach zero around 10 MeV. The computations were performed with models that contain up to 18,000 DNA nucleotide pairs. Nevertheless, DnaFabric will be extended to manipulate multi-scale models that go from the molecular to the cellular levels.

  4. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis and active oxygen generation by gallium-porphyrin complex, ATX-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumita, Nagahiko; Okudaira, Kazuho; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis by ultrasound in the presence of the photochemically active gallium-porphyrin complex, 7,12-bis(1-decyloxyethyl)-Ga(III)-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-porphyrin 2,18-dipropionyl diaspartic acid (ATX-70). HL-60 cells were exposed to ultrasound for up to 3 min in the presence and absence of ATX-70, and the induction of apoptosis was examined by analyzing cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. Cells treated with 80 μM ATX-70 and ultrasound clearly showed membrane blebbing and cell shrinkage, whereas significant morphologic changes were not observed in cells exposed to either ultrasound or ATX-70 alone. Also, DNA ladder formation and caspase-3 activation were observed in cells treated with both ultrasound and ATX-70 but not in cells treated with ultrasound or ATX-70 alone. In addition, the combination of ATX-70 and the same acoustical arrangement of ultrasound substantially enhanced nitroxide generation by the cells. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and nitroxide generation were significantly suppressed by histidine. These results indicate that the combination of ultrasound and ATX-70 induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The significant reduction in sonodynamically induced apoptosis, nitroxide generation, and caspase-3 activation by histidine suggests that active species such as singlet oxygen are important in the sonodynamic induction of apoptosis.

  5. Stochastic generation of complex crystal structures combining group and graph theory with application to carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; He, Chaoyu; Pickard, Chris J.; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    A method is introduced to stochastically generate crystal structures with defined structural characteristics. Reasonable quotient graphs for symmetric crystals are constructed using a random strategy combined with space group and graph theory. Our algorithm enables the search for large-size and complex crystal structures with a specified connectivity, such as threefold sp2 carbons, fourfold sp3 carbons, as well as mixed sp2-sp3 carbons. To demonstrate the method, we randomly construct initial structures adhering to space groups from 75 to 230 and a range of lattice constants, and we identify 281 new sp3 carbon crystals. First-principles optimization of these structures show that most of them are dynamically and mechanically stable and are energetically comparable to those previously proposed. Some of the new structures can be considered as candidates to explain the experimental cold compression of graphite.

  6. Phase transition and computational complexity in a stochastic prime number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacasa, L; Luque, B [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Miramontes, O [Departamento de Sistemas Complejos, Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 01415 DF (Mexico)], E-mail: lucas@dmae.upm.es

    2008-02-15

    We introduce a prime number generator in the form of a stochastic algorithm. The character of this algorithm gives rise to a continuous phase transition which distinguishes a phase where the algorithm is able to reduce the whole system of numbers into primes and a phase where the system reaches a frozen state with low prime density. In this paper, we firstly present a broader characterization of this phase transition, both in analytical and numerical terms. Critical exponents are calculated, and data collapse is provided. Further on, we redefine the model as a search problem, fitting it in the hallmark of computational complexity theory. We suggest that the system belongs to the class NP. The computational cost is maximal around the threshold, as is common in many algorithmic phase transitions, revealing the presence of an easy-hard-easy pattern. We finally relate the nature of the phase transition to an average-case classification of the problem.

  7. Efficient and selective hydrogen generation from bioethanol using ruthenium pincer-type complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponholz, Peter; Mellmann, Dörthe; Cordes, Christoph; Alsabeh, Pamela G; Li, Bin; Li, Yang; Nielsen, Martin; Junge, Henrik; Dixneuf, Pierre; Beller, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Catalytic generation of hydrogen from aqueous ethanol solution proceeds in the presence of pincer-type transition metal catalysts. Optimal results are obtained applying a [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(iPr2PEtN(H)EtPiPr2)] complex (catalyst TON 80,000) in the presence of water and base. This dehydrogenation reaction provides up to 70% acetic acid in a selective manner. For the first time, it is shown that bioethanol obtained from fermentation processes can be used directly in this protocol without the need for water removal. The produced hydrogen can be directly utilized in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, since very low amounts of CO are formed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  9. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  10. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  11. Double-channel vector spatial light modulator for generation of arbitrary complex vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Shan; Rong, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Shu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    We propose an approach for implementation of an arbitrary vector beam based on a vector spatial light modulator (VSLM), which is simply composed by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) and a composed half-wave plate with checkerboard structure. In combination with a four-phase encoding algorithm, the VSLM can transform a linear polarized Gaussian beam or a plane wave into a vector beam with both arbitrary spatial polarization and complex amplitude distributions in two dimensions. It is demonstrated that the VSLM can directly transform pure phase values into two orthogonal polarized complex values with high-diffraction efficiency. Compared with the existing methods for generation of vector beams with SLMs, our approach is on-axis and common-path with simple structure and only involves the zero-order diffraction. The proposed structure is also easier to make an integration and design portable device since it abstains from using optical elements such as special gratings, prisms, and reflectors.

  12. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  13. Superoxide generated at mitochondrial complex III triggers acute responses to hypoxia in the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waypa, Gregory B; Marks, Jeremy D; Guzy, Robert D; Mungai, Paul T; Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Dokic, Danijela; Ball, Molly K; Schumacker, Paul T

    2013-02-15

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in the O(2) sensing mechanism underlying acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) has been controversial. Although mitochondria are important sources of ROS, studies using chemical inhibitors have yielded conflicting results, whereas cellular models using genetic suppression have precluded in vivo confirmation. Hence, genetic animal models are required to test mechanistic hypotheses. We tested whether mitochondrial Complex III is required for the ROS signaling and vasoconstriction responses to acute hypoxia in pulmonary arteries (PA). A mouse permitting Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) of Complex III was generated. Adenoviral Cre recombinase was used to delete RISP from isolated PA vessels or smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In PASMC, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in ROS signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and cytosol, and it abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). In isolated PA vessels, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in the cytosol. Breeding the RISP mice with transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-activated Cre in smooth muscle permitted the depletion of RISP in PASMC in vivo. Precision-cut lung slices from those mice revealed that RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of the PA. In vivo RISP depletion in smooth muscle attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure in anesthetized mice. Acute hypoxia induces superoxide release from Complex III of smooth muscle cells. These oxidant signals diffuse into the cytosol and trigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i) that cause acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  14. ASIC chipset design to generate block-based complex holographic video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we propose a new hardware architecture implemented as a very large scaled integrated circuit by using an application-specific integrated circuit technology, where block-based calculations are used to generate holograms. The proposed hardware is structured to produce a part of a hologram in the block units in parallel. A block of a hologram is calculated using an object point, and then the calculation is repeated for all object points to obtain intermediate results that are accumulated to produce the final block of a hologram. This structure can be used to produce holograms of various sizes in real time with optimized memory access. The proposed hardware was implemented using the Hynix 0.18 μm CMOS technology of Magna Chip, Inc., and it has about 448 K gate counts and a silicon size of 3.592  mm×3.592  mm. It can generate complex holograms and operate in a stable manner at a clock frequency of 200 MHz.

  15. Wavelength and NOx dependent complex refractive index of SOAs generated from the photooxidation of toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T.; Sato, K.; Matsumi, Y.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds have been proposed as a possible source of light-absorbing organic compounds, "brown carbon," in the urban atmosphere. However, the atmospheric importance of these SOAs remains unclear due to limited information about their optical properties. In this study, the complex refractive index (RI, m = n-ki values at 405, 532, and 781 nm of the SOAs generated during the photooxidation of toluene (toluene-SOAs) under a variety of initial nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) conditions were examined by photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The complex RI-values obtained in the present study and reported in the literature indicate that the k-value, which represents the light absorption of the toluene-SOAs, increased to shorter wavelengths at nitrate to organics ratio of the SOAs determined using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (H-ToF-AMS) also increased with increasing initial NOx concentration. The RI-values of the SOAs generated during the photooxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the presence of NOx (1,3,5-TMB-SOAs) were also determined to investigate the influence of the chemical structure of the precursor on the optical properties of the SOAs, and it was found that the light absorption of the 1,3,5-TMB-SOAs is negligible at all of the wavelengths investigated (405, 532, and 781 nm). These results can be reasonably explained by the hypothesis that nitroaromatic compounds, such as nitrocresols, are the major contributors to the light absorption of the toluene-SOAs. Using the obtained RI-values, mass absorption cross sections of the toluene-SOAs at 405 nm were estimated to be 0.08-0.52 m2g-1 under typical conditions in an urban atmosphere during the daytime. These results indicate that light absorption by the SOAs potentially contributes to the radiation balance at ultraviolet wavelengths below ~400 nm

  16. Object-Based Integration of Photogrammetric and LiDAR Data for Automated Generation of Complex Polyhedral Building Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changjae; Habib, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with a methodology for automated generation of polyhedral building models for complex structures, whose rooftops are bounded by straight lines. The process starts by utilizing LiDAR data for building hypothesis generation and derivation of individual planar patches constituting building rooftops. Initial boundaries of these patches are then refined through the integration of LiDAR and photogrammetric data and hierarchical processing of the planar patches. Building models for complex structures are finally produced using the refined boundaries. The performance of the developed methodology is evaluated through qualitative and quantitative analysis of the generated building models from real data. PMID:22346722

  17. Coordination functionalization of graphene oxide with tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of nickel(II): Generation of paramagnetic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Alzate-Carvajal, Natalia; Henao-Holguín, Laura V.; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V.; Basiuk, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • [Ni(cyclam)] 2+ and [Ni(tet b)] 2+ cations coordinate to carboxylic groups of GO. • The coordination takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based medium. • The coordination results in the conversion from low-spin to high-spin Ni(II). • Functionalized GO samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We describe a novel approach to functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) which allows for a facile generation of paramagnetic centers from two diamagnetic components. Coordination attachment of [Ni(cyclam)] 2+ or [Ni(tet b)] 2+ tetraazamacrocyclic cations to carboxylic groups of GO takes place under basic conditions in aqueous-based reaction medium. The procedure is very straightforward and does not require high temperatures or other harsh conditions. Changing the coordination geometry of Ni(II) from square-planar tetracoordinated to pseudooctahedral hexacoordinated brings about the conversion from low-spin to high-spin state of the metal centers. Even though the content of tetraazamacrocyclic complexes in functionalized GO samples was found to be relatively low (nickel content of ca. 1 wt%, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements easily detected the appearance of paramagnetic properties in GO + [Ni(cyclam)] and GO + [Ni(tet b)] nanohybrids, with effective magnetic moments of 1.95 BM and 2.2 BM for, respectively. According to density functional theory calculations, the main spin density is localized at the macrocyclic complexes, without considerable extension to graphene sheet, which suggests insignificant ferromagnetic coupling in the nanohybrids, in agreement with the results of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The coordination attachment of Ni(II) tetraazamacrocycles to GO results in considerable changes in Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra, as well as in GO

  18. Embryos generated from oocytes lacking complex N- and O-glycans have compromised development and implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, Patricia; Kaune, Heidy; Williams, Suzannah A

    2012-01-01

    Female mice generating oocytes lacking complex N- and O-glycans (double mutants (DM)) produce only one small litter before undergoing premature ovarian failure (POF) by 3 months. Here we investigate the basis of the small litter by evaluating ovulation rate and embryo development in DM (Mgat1F/FC1galt1F/F:ZP3Cre) and Control (Mgat1F/FC1galt1F/F) females. Surprisingly, DM ovulation rate was normal at 6 weeks, but declined dramatically by 9 weeks. In vitro development of zygotes to blastocysts was equivalent to Controls although all embryos from DM females lacked a normal zona pellucida (ZP) and ∼30% lacked a ZP entirely. In contrast, in vivo preimplantation development resulted in less embryos recovered from DM females compared with Controls at 3.5 days post coitum (dpc) (3.2±1.3 vs 7.0±0.6). Furthermore, only 45% of mated DM females contained embryos at 3.5 dpc. Of the preimplantation embryos collected from DM females, approximately half were morulae unlike Controls where the majority were blastocysts, indicating delayed embryo development in DM females. Post-implantation development in DM females was analysed to determine whether delayed preimplantation development affected subsequent development. In DM females at 5.5 dpc, only ∼40% of embryos found at 3.5 dpc had implanted. However, at 6.5 dpc, implantation sites in DM females corresponded to embryo numbers at 3.5 dpc indicating delayed implantation. At 9.5 dpc, the number of decidua corresponded to embryo numbers 6 days earlier indicating that all implanted embryos progress to midgestation. Therefore, a lack of complex N- and O-glycans in oocytes during development impairs early embryo development and viability in vivo leading to delayed implantation and a small litter. PMID:22919046

  19. Genomic Selection in the Era of Next Generation Sequencing for Complex Traits in Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javaid A; Ali, Sajad; Salgotra, Romesh K; Mir, Zahoor A; Dutta, Sutapa; Jadon, Vasudha; Tyagi, Anshika; Mushtaq, Muntazir; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Prabhu, K V

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising approach exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. In plant breeding, it provides opportunities to increase genetic gain of complex traits per unit time and cost. The cost-benefit balance was an important consideration for GS to work in crop plants. Availability of genome-wide high-throughput, cost-effective and flexible markers, having low ascertainment bias, suitable for large population size as well for both model and non-model crop species with or without the reference genome sequence was the most important factor for its successful and effective implementation in crop species. These factors were the major limitations to earlier marker systems viz., SSR and array-based, and was unimaginable before the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have provided novel SNP genotyping platforms especially the genotyping by sequencing. These marker technologies have changed the entire scenario of marker applications and made the use of GS a routine work for crop improvement in both model and non-model crop species. The NGS-based genotyping have increased genomic-estimated breeding value prediction accuracies over other established marker platform in cereals and other crop species, and made the dream of GS true in crop breeding. But to harness the true benefits from GS, these marker technologies will be combined with high-throughput phenotyping for achieving the valuable genetic gain from complex traits. Moreover, the continuous decline in sequencing cost will make the WGS feasible and cost effective for GS in near future. Till that time matures the targeted sequencing seems to be more cost-effective option for large scale marker discovery and GS, particularly in case of large and un-decoded genomes.

  20. Investigation of complexes with bone affinity using the In vivo generator system 166 Dy/166 Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of this original research lies in the fact that it has proven that the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system is a stable complex that can be used as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as 166 Ho-DOTMP or 153 Sm-DTMP, have been proposed for delivering ablative radiation doses to marrow in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies or have shown excellent results in palliative bone metastasis pain therapy, respectively. As lanthanides have similar chemical characteristics the phosphonate with bone affinity (EDTMP) labeled with Dy/Ho can be used for marrow ablation while causing minimal irradiation to normal organs. This in vivo generator system has not been previously reported. The aim of this research was to label EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) with 166 Dy/ 166 Ho; to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of both 166 Dy-EDTMP and 166 Ho-EDTMP complexes when the daughter 166 Ho is formed as a dysprosium decay product; to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect in mice and to evaluate, by histopathology, the myeloablative potential of the [ 166 Dy]Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system. 166 Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of enriched 164 Dy 2 O 3 in a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Labeling was carried out in an aqueous phosphate medium at pH 8.0 by addition of 166 DyCl 3 to EDTMP at a molar ratio 1:1.75, with >99 % radiochemical purity, as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro studies demonstrated that 166 Dy/ 166 Ho-EDTMP is unstable after dilution in saline but stable in human serum with no translocation of the daughter nucleus subsequent to β decay of 166 Dy, which could release free 166 Ho 3+ . Biodistribution in mice

  1. Characterization of divalent and trivalent species generated in the chemical and electrochemical oxidation of a dimeric pincer complex of nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasyuk, Denis M; Gorelsky, Serge I; van der Est, Art; Zargarian, Davit

    2011-03-21

    The electrolytic and chemical oxidation of the dimeric pincer complex [κ(P),κ(C),κ(N),μ(N)-(2,6-(i-Pr(2)POC(6)H(3)CH(2)NBn)Ni](2) (1; Bn = CH(2)Ph) has been investigated by various analytic techniques. Cyclic voltammetry measurements have shown that 1 undergoes a quasi-reversible, one electron, Ni-based redox process (ΔE(0)(1/2) = -0.07 V vs Cp(2)Fe/[Cp(2)Fe](+)), and spectroelectrochemical measurements conducted on the product of the electrolytic oxidation, [1](+•), have shown multiple low-energy electronic transitions in the range of 10,000-15,000 cm(-1). Computational studies using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) have corroborated the experimentally obtained structure of 1, provided the electronic structure description, and helped interpret the experimentally obtained absorption spectra for 1 and [1](+·). These calculations indicate that the radical cation [1](+·) is a dimeric, mixed-valent species (class III) wherein most of the spin density is delocalized over the two nickel centers (Ni(+2.5)(2)N(2)), but some spin density is also present over the two nitrogen atoms (Ni(2+)(2)N(2)·). Examination of alternative structures for open shell species generated from 1 has shown that the spin density distribution is highly sensitive toward changes in the ligand environment of the Ni ions. NMR, UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses have shown that chemical oxidation of 1 with N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) follows a complex process that gives multiple products, including the monomeric trivalent species κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH═NBn)}NiBr(2) (2). These studies also indicate that oxidation of 1 with 1 equiv of NBS gives an unstable, paramagnetic intermediate that decomposes to a number of divalent species, including succinimide and the monomeric divalent complexes κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH═NBn)}NiBr (3) and κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH(2)N

  2. Predicting Complex Organic Mixture Atmospheric Chemistry Using Computer-Generated Reaction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. T.; Broadbelt, L. J.; Mazurek, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    New measurement and chemical characterization technologies now offer unprecedented capabilities for detecting and describing atmospheric organic matter at the molecular level. As a result, very detailed and extensive chemical inventories are produced routinely in atmospheric field measurements of organic compounds found in the vapor and condensed phases (particles, cloud and fog droplets). Hundreds of organic compounds can constitute the complex chemical mixtures observed for these types of samples, exhibiting a wide spectrum of physical properties such as molecular weight, polarity, pH, and chemical reactivity. The central challenge is describing chemically the complex organic aerosol mixture in a useable fashion that can be linked to predictive models. However, the great compositional complexity of organic aerosols engenders a need for the modeling of the reaction chemistry of these compounds in atmospheric chemical models. On a mechanistic level, atmospheric reactions of organic compounds can involve a network of a very large number of chemical species and reactions. Deriving such large molecular kinetic models by hand is a tedious and time-consuming process. However, such models are usually built upon a few basic chemical principles tempered with the model builder's observations, experience, and intuition that can be summarized as a set of rules. This suggests that given an algorithmic framework, computers (information technology) may be used to apply these chemical principles and rules, thereby building a kinetic model. The framework for this model building process has been developed by means of graph theory. A molecule, which is a set of atoms connected by bonds, may be conceptualized as a set of vertices connected by edges, or to be more precise, a graph. The bond breaking and forming for a reaction can be represented compactly in the form of a matrix operator formally called the "reaction matrix". The addition of the reaction matrix operator to the reduced

  3. Suitability Analyses of Wind Power Generation Complex in South Korea by Using Environmental & Social Criterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Seong, M.

    2017-12-01

    In case of wind-power, one of the most economical renewable energy resources, it is highly emerged owing to the strategic aspect of the response of environmental restriction and strong energy security as well as the upcoming motivation for huge industrial growth in the future. According to the fourth Fundamental Renewable Energy Plan, declared in Sep. 2014, the government instituted the scheme to minimize the proportion of previous RDF(Refused Derived Fuel) till 2035, promoting the solar power and wind power as the core energy for the next generation. Especially in South Korea, it is somewhat desperate to suggest the standard for environmentally optimal locations of wind power setup accompanied with the prevention of disasters from the climate changes. This is because that in case of South Korea, most of suitable places for Wind power complex are in the ridge of the mountains, where is highly invaluable sites as the pool of bio-resources and ecosystem conservations. In this research, we are to focus on the analysis of suitable locations for wind farm site which is relevant to the meteorological and geological factors, by utilizing GIS techniques through the whole South Korea. Ultimately, this analyses are to minimize the adverse effect derived from the current development of wind power in mountain ridges and the time for negotiation for wind power advance.

  4. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  5. Complex mutations & subpopulations of deletions at exon 19 of EGFR in NSCLC revealed by next generation sequencing: potential clinical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marchetti

    Full Text Available Microdeletions at exon 19 are the most frequent genetic alterations affecting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and they are strongly associated with response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A series of 116 NSCLC DNA samples investigated by Sanger Sequencing (SS, including 106 samples carrying exon 19 EGFR deletions and 10 without deletions (control samples, were subjected to deep next generation sequencing (NGS. All samples with deletions at SS showed deletions with NGS. No deletions were seen in control cases. In 93 (88% cases, deletions detected by NGS were exactly corresponding to those identified by SS. In 13 cases (12% NGS resolved deletions not accurately characterized by SS. In 21 (20% cases the NGS showed presence of complex (double/multiple frameshift deletions producing a net in-frame change. In 5 of these cases the SS could not define the exact sequence of mutant alleles, in the other 16 cases the results obtained by SS were conventionally considered as deletions plus insertions. Different interpretative hypotheses for complex mutations are discussed. In 46 (43% tumors deep NGS showed, for the first time to our knowledge, subpopulations of DNA molecules carrying EGFR deletions different from the main one. Each of these subpopulations accounted for 0.1% to 17% of the genomic DNA in the different tumors investigated. Our findings suggest that a region in exon 19 is highly unstable in a large proportion of patients carrying EGFR deletions. As a corollary to this study, NGS data were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry using the 6B6 anti-mutant EGFR antibody. The immunoreaction was E746-A750del specific. In conclusion, NGS analysis of EGFR exon 19 in NSCLCs allowed us to formulate a new interpretative hypothesis for complex mutations and revealed the presence of subpopulations of deletions with potential pathogenetic and clinical impact.

  6. New Ru(II) complexes for dual photoreactivity: ligand exchange and (1)O2 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Turro, Claudia

    2015-08-18

    low-lying, long-lived dppn/Me2dppn (3)ππ* excited states that generate (1)O2. Similar to [Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2](2+), photodissociation of CH3CN occurs upon irradiation of [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2](2+), although with lower efficiency because of the presence of the (3)ππ* state. The steric bulk in [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)](2+) is critical in facilitating the photoinduced py dissociation, as the analogous complex [Ru(tpy)(dppn)(py)](2+) produces (1)O2 with near-unit efficiency. The ability to tune the relative energies of the excited states provides a means to design potentially more active drugs for photochemotherapy because the photorelease of drugs can be coupled to the therapeutic action of reactive oxygen species, effecting cell death via two different mechanisms. The lessons learned about tuning of the excited-state properties can be applied to the use of Ru(II)-polypyridyl compounds in a variety of applications, such as solar energy conversion, sensors and switches, and molecular machines.

  7. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    -c]phenazine) introduces low-lying, long-lived dppn/Me2dppn 3ππ* excited states that generate 1O2. Similar to [Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2]2+, photodissociation of CH3CN occurs upon irradiation of [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2]2+, although with lower efficiency because of the presence of the 3ππ* state. The steric bulk in [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ is critical in facilitating the photoinduced py dissociation, as the analogous complex [Ru(tpy)(dppn)(py)]2+ produces 1O2 with near-unit efficiency. The ability to tune the relative energies of the excited states provides a means to design potentially more active drugs for photochemotherapy because the photorelease of drugs can be coupled to the therapeutic action of reactive oxygen species, effecting cell death via two different mechanisms. The lessons learned about tuning of the excited-state properties can be applied to the use of Ru(II)–polypyridyl compounds in a variety of applications, such as solar energy conversion, sensors and switches, and molecular machines. PMID:26186416

  8. PROCESSING OF UAV BASED RANGE IMAGING DATA TO GENERATE DETAILED ELEVATION MODELS OF COMPLEX NATURAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  9. Complex of the new generation of the instrumental analytical approaches to prevent dangerous bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna; Karpiuk, Andrii

    2014-10-01

    The real manifestations of biowarfare were only during local military conflicts. In previous times the danger with this factor forms through activation of terrorist organizations. To prevent non-desirable consequences and to preserve the lives and health of people it is necessary to provide constant control by the application of complex of the new generation of the instrumental devices based on the principles of biosensorics which allow rapid revealing step by step: total toxicity of environmental objects, presence of appropriate groups and specific chemical substances among them. It is demonstrated simple and rapid estimation of the total toxicity through the control of the intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChF) by the direct or remote ways by the device "Floratest" (Ukraine). There is possible on the basis of IChF curve of growing plants from some territory during appropriate period to reveal appearance of toxic substances in this area. Their presence in more local cases may be done by using bioluminescent bacteria (pure Ukrainian strains) or/and controlling short term Daphnia living medium by developed portable chemiluminometer. For the revealing of some groups of toxic elements it is recommended the cerium oxide ISFETs based enzymatic biosensors. The last and devices based on SPR ("Plasmotest", Ukraine), porous silicon (with the registration of biospecific interaction macromolecules by luminescence or electro conductivity) and some nano-metal oxides were realized in immune biosensors at the determination of content of number of mycotoxins, some microorganisms (Salmonella spp.) and diagnostics of viral disease (retroviral leucosis). We present the main characteristics of the above mentioned devices and give confirmation that all the analysis meets practice demands. Overall time of analysis is in range 10 min and it is very simple and may be realized in field conditions.

  10. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  11. Convective thermal fluxes in unsteady non-homogeneous flows generating complex three dimensional vorticity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary

    2016-04-01

    fresh water in order to form density interfaces. The Reynolds number can be reduced adding Glicerine the set of dimensionless parameters define different conditions of both numeric and small scale laboratory applied often in modeling environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients are computed using advanced visualization [8 9]. Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. When convective heating and cooling takes place the patterns depend on the parameter space region of the initial conditions We also map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure with several complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [2-4]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers, [4-6] The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or non-mixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [12] can be compared with the convective fronts. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied taking into account the dependence on the initial modes at the early stages, Self-similar information [13]. Spectral and Fractal analysis on the images seems very useful in order to

  12. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase-only spatial light modulators are now ubiquitous tools in modern optics laboratories, and are often used to generate so-called structured light. In this work we outline the use of a phase-only spatial light modulator to achieve full complex...

  13. In vivo increase in thrombin generation by four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in apixaban-treated healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y. W.; Barco, S.; Hutten, B. A.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Coppens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) (Cofact; Sanquin Blood Supply) 50 IU kg(-1) increased thrombin generation beyond baseline values in healthy, rivaroxaban-treated subjects. To assess whether infusion with doses of 37.5 IU kg(-1) and 25 IU kg(-1) PCC reverses the anticoagulant effect

  14. In good company: association between fungal glycans generates molecular complexes with unique functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio eRodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of fungal immunogens have historically utilized testing of isolated molecules. Recent findings, however, indicate that fungal glycans differing in structure and function can interact to form hybrid complexes with unique properties. In the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, chitin-like molecules associate with capsular glucuronoxylomannan to form functionally distinct glycan complexes. Such interactions between glycans that result in the formation of structures with different functions strongly suggest that additional molecular complexes with unknown properties may exist in fungal pathogens. Moreover, the identification of these novel complexes has stimulated the search of new immunogens with potential to protect human and animal hosts against systemic mycoses.

  15. Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present work on a prototype tool based on the JavaPathfinder (JPF) model checker for automatically generating tests satisfying the MC/DC code coverage criterion. Using the Eclipse IDE, developers and testers can quickly instrument Java source code with JPF annotations covering all MC/DC coverage obligations, and JPF can then be used to automatically generate tests that satisfy these obligations. The prototype extension to JPF enables various tasks useful in automatic test generation to be performed, such as test suite reduction and execution of generated tests.

  16. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  17. Post-transcriptional generation of miRNA variants by multiple nucleotidyl transferases contributes to miRNA transcriptome complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Stacia K; Knouf, Emily C; Parkin, Rachael K; Fritz, Brian R; Lin, Daniel W; Dennis, Lucas M; Krouse, Michael A; Webster, Philippa J; Tewari, Muneesh

    2011-09-01

    Modification of microRNA sequences by the 3' addition of nucleotides to generate so-called "isomiRs" adds to the complexity of miRNA function, with recent reports showing that 3' modifications can influence miRNA stability and efficiency of target repression. Here, we show that the 3' modification of miRNAs is a physiological and common post-transcriptional event that shows selectivity for specific miRNAs and is observed across species ranging from C. elegans to human. The modifications result predominantly from adenylation and uridylation and are seen across tissue types, disease states, and developmental stages. To quantitatively profile 3' nucleotide additions, we developed and validated a novel assay based on NanoString Technologies' nCounter platform. For certain miRNAs, the frequency of modification was altered by processes such as cell differentiation, indicating that 3' modification is a biologically regulated process. To investigate the mechanism of 3' nucleotide additions, we used RNA interference to screen a panel of eight candidate miRNA nucleotidyl transferases for 3' miRNA modification activity in human cells. Multiple enzymes, including MTPAP, PAPD4, PAPD5, ZCCHC6, ZCCHC11, and TUT1, were found to govern 3' nucleotide addition to miRNAs in a miRNA-specific manner. Three of these enzymes-MTPAP, ZCCHC6, and TUT1-have not previously been known to modify miRNAs. Collectively, our results indicate that 3' modification observed in next-generation small RNA sequencing data is a biologically relevant process, and identify enzymatic mechanisms that may lead to new approaches for modulating miRNA activity in vivo.

  18. Knowledge-generating efficiency in innovation systems: the acceleration of technological paradigm changes with increasing complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, I.A.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Time series of US patents per million inhabitants show cyclic structures which can be attributed to the different knowledge-generating paradigms that drive innovation systems. The changes in the slopes between the waves can be used to indicate efficiencies in the generation of knowledge. When

  19. Generation and characterization of a collection of knock-down lines for the chloroplast Clp protease complex in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan C; Tiller, Nadine; Diez, Mercedes; Karcher, Daniel; Tillich, Michael; Schöttler, Mark A; Bock, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Protein degradation in chloroplasts is carried out by a set of proteases that eliminate misfolded, damaged, or superfluous proteins. The ATP-dependent caseinolytic protease (Clp) is the most complex protease in plastids and has been implicated mainly in stromal protein degradation. In contrast, FtsH, a thylakoid membrane-associated metalloprotease, is believed to participate mainly in the degradation of thylakoidal proteins. To determine the role of specific Clp and FtsH subunits in plant growth and development, RNAi lines targeting at least one subunit of each Clp ring and FtsH were generated in tobacco. In addition, mutation of the translation initiation codon was employed to down-regulate expression of the plastid-encoded ClpP1 subunit. These protease lines cover a broad range of reductions at the transcript and protein levels of the targeted genes. A wide spectrum of phenotypes was obtained, including pigment deficiency, alterations in leaf development, leaf variegations, and impaired photosynthesis. When knock-down lines for the different protease subunits were compared, both common and specific phenotypes were observed, suggesting distinct functions of at least some subunits. Our work provides a well-characterized collection of knock-down lines for plastid proteases in tobacco and reveals the importance of the Clp protease in physiology and plant development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Considerations and Optimization of Time-Resolved PIV Measurements near Complex Wind-Generated Air-Water Wave Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Markfort, Corey

    2017-11-01

    Time Resolved PIV measurements are applied on both sides of air-water interface in order to study the coupling between air and fluid motion. The multi-scale and 3-dimensional nature of the wave structure poses several unique considerations to generate optimal-quality data very near the fluid interface. High resolution and dynamic range in space and time are required to resolve relevant flow scales along a complex and ever-changing interface. Characterizing the two-way coupling across the air-water interface provide unique challenges for optical measurement techniques. Approaches to obtain near-boundary measurement on both sides of interface are discussed, including optimal flow seeding procedures, illumination, data analysis, and interface tracking. Techniques are applied to the IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel and example results presented for both sides of the interface. The facility combines a 30m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  1. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  2. Synergistic enhancement of chemokine generation and lung injury by C5a or the membrane attack complex of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B; Bless, N M

    1999-01-01

    demonstrated synergistic production of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) and C-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant-1) chemokines. In the absence of the costimulus, C5a or MAC did not induce chemokine generation....... In in vivo studies, C5a and MAC alone caused limited or no intrapulmonary generation of chemokines, but in the presence of a costimulus (IgG immune complexes) C5a and MAC caused synergistic intrapulmonary generation of C-X-C and C-C chemokines but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Under these conditions...... increased neutrophil accumulation occurred, as did lung injury. These observations suggest that C5a and MAC function synergistically with a costimulus to enhance chemokine generation and the intensity of the lung inflammatory response....

  3. A new generation of healthcare buildings in South Africa: complexities and opportunities for greening

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Jager, Peta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hospital building type is widely recognised to have complex design and engineering requirements. It might be argued that the unique functional constraints and operational demands placed upon the hospital building may trump greening imperatives...

  4. Understanding and Mitigating the Charging Behavior of Next Generation Complex and Active Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft that are fundamentally more complex and higher powered are necessary to expand our scientific missions and take commercial space endeavors to the next...

  5. Second-sphere complexation of thorium(IV) by cucurbit[6]uril with included perrhenate counterions. Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuery, Pierre [CEA, IRAMIS, UMR 3685 NIMBE, Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Catalyse pour l' Energie (LCMCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-04-15

    The reaction of thorium(IV) nitrate with cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) in the presence of perrhenic acid in water gives the complex [Th(NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}][(ReO{sub 4})(CB6)](ReO{sub 4}){sub 2}.3H{sub 2}O (1). Aquated cations are held at both CB6 portals by ion-dipole and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and one of the ReO{sub 4}{sup -} anions is included in the CB6 cavity. The packing displays columns of alternate cations and encapsulated anions. Hirshfeld surfaces are used to visualize short contacts between the species present. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    Environmental exposure is a complex mixture of hazardous compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity. In case of concomitant exposure to carcinogenic substances--such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--and to heavy metals--such as lead (Pb)--the level of DNA damage may be enhanced...... and to investigate their relation with the environmental exposure to PAHs and Pb. The examined population included 74 children 5-14-year-old who lived in two cities located in the most polluted centre of the Silesia province. Individual exposure to lead was assessed for each child by measuring lead in blood (Pb....... Emissions from coal-burning stoves are important contributors to the total exposure to PAHs and Pb in Silesian children....

  7. In good company: association between fungal glycans generates molecular complexes with unique functions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio eRodrigues; Marcio eRodrigues; Leonardo eNimrichter

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of fungal immunogens have historically utilized testing of isolated molecules. Recent findings, however, indicate that fungal glycans differing in structure and function can interact to form hybrid complexes with unique properties. In the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, chitin-like molecules associate with capsular glucuronoxylomannan to form functionally distinct glycan complexes. Such interactions between glycans that result in the formation of structures...

  8. How and why do neurons generate complex rhythms with various frequencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ree Chay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Some neurons generate endogenous rhythms with a period of a few hundred milliseconds,while others generate rhythms with a period of a few tens of seconds. Sometimes rhythms appear chaotic. Explaining how these neurons can generate various modes of oscillation with a widely ranging frequency is a challenge. In the first part of this review, we illustrate that such rhythms can be generated from simple yet elegant mathematical models. Chaos embedded in rhythmic activity has interesting characteristics that are not seen in other physical systems. Understanding of how these neurons utilizes endogenous rhythms to communicate with each other is important in elucidating where the brain gets various rhythms and why it can pervert into abnormal rhythms under diseased conditions. Using the islet of Langerhans in pancreas as an example, in the second part of this review, we illustrate how insulin secreting β-cells communicate with glucagon secreting α-cells to achieve an optimal insulin release.

  9. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  10. Automatic Generation of Complex Spatial Trajectories of the UAV and Synthesis of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Tkachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method and algorithms that allow us to design complex spatial trajectories for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV passing through a given sequence of waypoints in the three-dimensional space.The nonlinear six-dimensional model of the UAV center-of-mass motion given in the trajectory frame is used for calculations. The state vector includes the altitude, the along-track deviation, the cross-track position, the velocity, the flight-path angle and the heading angle. The longitudinal and transverse overloads and the angle between the cross overload vector and vertical plane are considered as controls. This angle is often named as the roll angle.The feature of the problem is that both positions at waypoints and additional conditions are given. These conditions determine orientation of the velocity vector at each point (using the flight path angle and the heading angle. We also set either the point-visiting time or the pointvisiting velocity. The full state vector and controls are fixed at the starting waypoint.To construct a spatial trajectory, the concept of inverse dynamics problems is applied, as well as modern results of mathematical control theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. The introduction of new virtual controls allows us to represent the original system as an affine (linear in control system. Then, the designed system is converted into the regular canonical form.When we set flight times between any two waypoints, the corresponding segments of the trajectory are designed using time-dependent polynomials of the fifth degree. These polynomials specify the altitude variation, the variation of the along-track deviation and that of the cross-track position. If the point-visiting times are not fixed, the transition to a new independent variable (the normalized mechanical energy of the system is used. This transition is possible if the energy varies monotonically. In this case, the spatial trajectory is defined as a

  11. Reduced-complexity multi-site rainfall generation: one million years over night using the model TripleM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Girons Lopez, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We assess uncertainties of multi-site rainfall generation across spatial scales and different climatic conditions. Many research subjects in earth sciences such as floods, droughts or water balance simulations require the generation of long rainfall time series. In large study areas the simulation at multiple sites becomes indispensable to account for the spatial rainfall variability, but becomes more complex compared to a single site due to the intermittent nature of rainfall. Weather generators can be used for extrapolating rainfall time series, and various models have been presented in the literature. Even though the large majority of multi-site rainfall generators is based on similar methods, such as resampling techniques or Markovian processes, they often become too complex. We think that this complexity has been a limit for the application of such tools. Furthermore, the majority of multi-site rainfall generators found in the literature are either not publicly available or intended for being applied at small geographical scales, often only in temperate climates. Here we present a revised, and now publicly available, version of a multi-site rainfall generation code first applied in 2014 in Austria and France, which we call TripleM (Multisite Markov Model). We test this fast and robust code with daily rainfall observations from the United States, in a subtropical, tropical and temperate climate, using rain gauge networks with a maximum site distance above 1,000km, thereby generating one million years of synthetic time series. The modelling of these one million years takes one night on a recent desktop computer. In this research, we first start the simulations with a small station network of three sites and progressively increase the number of sites and the spatial extent, and analyze the changing uncertainties for multiple statistical metrics such as dry and wet spells, rainfall autocorrelation, lagged cross correlations and the inter-annual rainfall

  12. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  13. The effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self-generated and nonself voices: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to differentiate one's own voice from the voice of somebody else plays a critical role in successful verbal self-monitoring processes and in communication. However, most of the existing studies have only focused on the sensory correlates of self-generated voice processing, whereas the effects of attentional demands and stimulus complexity on self-generated voice processing remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self and nonself voice stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 healthy males who watched a silent movie while ignoring prerecorded self-generated (SGV) and nonself (NSV) voice stimuli, consisting of a vocalization (vocalization category condition: VCC) or of a disyllabic word (word category condition: WCC). All voice stimuli were presented as standard and deviant events in four distinct oddball sequences. The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component peaked earlier for NSV than for SGV stimuli. Moreover, when compared with SGV stimuli, the P3a amplitude was increased for NSV stimuli in the VCC only, whereas in the WCC no significant differences were found between the two voice types. These findings suggest differences in the time course of automatic detection of a change in voice identity. In addition, they suggest that stimulus complexity modulates the magnitude of the orienting response to SGV and NSV stimuli, extending previous findings on self-voice processing.

  14. Self-Sustained Flameless Heat Generator Based on Catalytic Oxidation of Methane or Propane-Butane Mixture for Various Object Heating Including Field Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strizhak, P.Ye.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective catalyst based on ceramic block support with honeycomb structure made of synthetic cordierite with low coefficient of temperature linear expansion has been developed. Flameless heat generator based on oxidation of methane or propane-butane mixture has been designed. Laboratory and bench testing revealed that the effectiveness of the generators is identical to foreign analogues. The production of self-sustained flameless heat catalytic generators and the catalysts have been adjusted.

  15. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  16. A Framework for Parallel Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaris, George; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Chrisochoides, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    A framework for parallel unstructured grid generation targeting both shared memory multi-processors and distributed memory architectures is presented. The two fundamental building-blocks of the framework consist of: (1) the Advancing-Partition (AP) method used for domain decomposition and (2) the Advancing Front (AF) method used for mesh generation. Starting from the surface mesh of the computational domain, the AP method is applied recursively to generate a set of sub-domains. Next, the sub-domains are meshed in parallel using the AF method. The recursive nature of domain decomposition naturally maps to a divide-and-conquer algorithm which exhibits inherent parallelism. For the parallel implementation, the Master/Worker pattern is employed to dynamically balance the varying workloads of each task on the set of available CPUs. Performance results by this approach are presented and discussed in detail as well as future work and improvements.

  17. A Biomimetic Nickel Complex with a Reduced CO2 Ligand Generated by Formate Deprotonation and its Behaviour towards CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp; Hoof, Santina; Braun-Cula, Beatrice; Herwig, Christian

    2018-04-10

    Reduced CO2 species are key intermediates in a variety of natural and synthetic processes. In the majority of systems, however, they elude isolation or characterisation due to high reactivity or limited accessibility (heterogeneous systems) and thus formulations often remain uncertain or based on calculations only. We herein report on a Ni-CO22- complex that is unique in many ways. While its structural and electronic features help understanding the CO2 bound state in Ni,Fe carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, its reactivity sheds light on how CO2 can be converted into CO/CO32- by nickel complexes. In addition, the complex has been generated via a rare example of formate β deprotonation, a mechanistical step relevant to nickel catalysed conversion of HxCOyz- at electrodes and formate oxidation in formate dehydrogenases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Learning Ecosystem Complexity: A Study on Small-Scale Fishers' Ecological Knowledge Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are learning contexts of importance for generating, transferring and updating ecological knowledge of natural environments through everyday work practices. The rich knowledge fishers have of local ecosystems is the result of the intimate relationship fishing communities have had with their natural environments across…

  19. Managing the complexity and uncertainties of load, generation and markets in system development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    System planners face today unique challenges to accommodate the new uncertainties in markets, loads and generation and to develop system plans that balance reliability, economy and risk. The report summarizes a survey of the methods used worldwide. In addition, case examples are provided to illustrate in more detail these methods

  20. Managing the complexity and uncertainties of load, generation and markets in system development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    System planners face today unique challenges to accommodate the new uncertainties in markets, loads and generation and to develop system plans that balance reliability, economy and risk. The report summarizes a survey of the methods used worldwide. In addition, case examples are provided to illustrate in more detail these methods

  1. Investigate the complex process in particle-fluid based surface generation technology using reactive molecular dynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Li, Haiyan; Zhao, Fu

    2017-07-01

    Particle-fluid based surface generation process has already become one of the most important materials processing technology for many advanced materials such as optical crystal, ceramics and so on. Most of the particle-fluid based surface generation technology involves two key process: chemical reaction which is responsible for surface softening; physical behavior which is responsible for materials removal/deformation. Presently, researchers cannot give a reasonable explanation about the complex process in the particle-fluid based surface generation technology because of the small temporal-spatial scale and the concurrent influence of physical-chemical process. Molecular dynamics (MD) method has already been proved to be a promising approach for constructing effective model of atomic scale phenomenon and can serve as a predicting simulation tool in analyzing the complex surface generation mechanism and is employed in this research to study the essence of surface generation. The deformation and piles of water molecule is induced with the feeding of abrasive particle which justifies the property mutation of water at nanometer scale. There are little silica molecule aggregation or materials removal because the water-layer greatly reduce the strength of mechanical interaction between particle and materials surface and minimize the stress concentration. Furthermore, chemical effect is also observed at the interface: stable chemical bond is generated between water and silica which lead to the formation of silconl and the reaction rate changes with the amount of water molecules in the local environment. Novel ring structure is observed in the silica surface and it is justified to be favored of chemical reaction with water molecule. The siloxane bond formation process quickly strengthened across the interface with the feeding of abrasive particle because of the compressive stress resulted by the impacting behavior.

  2. Investigate the complex process in particle-fluid based surface generation technology using reactive molecular dynamics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle-fluid based surface generation process has already become one of the most important materials processing technology for many advanced materials such as optical crystal, ceramics and so on. Most of the particle-fluid based surface generation technology involves two key process: chemical reaction which is responsible for surface softening; physical behavior which is responsible for materials removal/deformation. Presently, researchers cannot give a reasonable explanation about the complex process in the particle-fluid based surface generation technology because of the small temporal-spatial scale and the concurrent influence of physical-chemical process. Molecular dynamics (MD method has already been proved to be a promising approach for constructing effective model of atomic scale phenomenon and can serve as a predicting simulation tool in analyzing the complex surface generation mechanism and is employed in this research to study the essence of surface generation. The deformation and piles of water molecule is induced with the feeding of abrasive particle which justifies the property mutation of water at nanometer scale. There are little silica molecule aggregation or materials removal because the water-layer greatly reduce the strength of mechanical interaction between particle and materials surface and minimize the stress concentration. Furthermore, chemical effect is also observed at the interface: stable chemical bond is generated between water and silica which lead to the formation of silconl and the reaction rate changes with the amount of water molecules in the local environment. Novel ring structure is observed in the silica surface and it is justified to be favored of chemical reaction with water molecule. The siloxane bond formation process quickly strengthened across the interface with the feeding of abrasive particle because of the compressive stress resulted by the impacting behavior.

  3. [Green electroluminescence generated from a new rare earth complex: Tb(asprin)3phen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, N; Zhang, X; Gao, X; Liu, S; Xu, X; Tao, D; Xu, Y; Wu, J

    2001-06-01

    Pure Green and narrow bandwidth emission from organic electroluminescent device was presented by using a new rare earth complex Tb(asprin)3phen as emissive layer. The structure of the device was ITO/PVK:Tb(asprin)3phen/Al, where PVK was used to improve the film-forming ability and conductivity of Tb(asprin)3phen. The electroluminescent property of the device was studied. It proved that this new kind of rare earth complex has excellent optoluminescent and electroluminescent properties. The electroluminescent mechanism of the device was proposed by measuring and analyzing the emission and excitation spectra of the emissive layer. The excitation spectrum of Tb(asprin)3phen-dispersed PVK film was very similar to that of the PVK. We proposed that the excited carriers of PVK and Tb(asprin)3phen were captured by Tb3+ and light was emitted when the electrons and holes recombined at Tb3+.

  4. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)–polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and 1O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field (3LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet meta...

  5. Alkynyl gold(I) complex triggers necroptosis via ROS generation in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Inés; Virumbrales-Muñoz, María; Quero, Javier; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Cerrada, Elena; Yoldi, Mª Jesús Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Given the rise of apoptosis-resistant tumors, there exist a growing interest in developing new drugs capable of inducing different types of cell death to reduce colorectal cancer-related death rates. As apoptosis and necroptosis do not share cellular machinery, necroptosis induction may have a great therapeutic potential on those apoptosis-resistant cancers, despite the inflammatory effects associated with it. We have synthesized an alkynyl gold(I) complex [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] whose anticancer effect was tested on the colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell line. With regard to its mechanism of action, this gold complex enters the mitochondria and disrupts its normal function, leading to an increase in ROS production, which triggers necroptosis. Necroptosis induction has been found dependent of TNF-α (Tumor necrosisfactor α) and TNFR1(Tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1) binding, RIP1(Receptor-Interacting Protein 1) activation and NF-κB (Nuclear Factor Kappa-Light-Chain-Enhancer of Activated B Cells) signaling. Moreover, the antitumor potential of [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] has also been confirmed on the 3D cancer model spheroid. Overall, the obtained data show firstly that gold complexes might have the ability of inducing necroptosis, and secondarily that our compound [Au(CC-2-NC 5 H 4 )(PTA)] is an interesting alternative to current chemotherapy drugs in cases of apoptosis resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. How evolution generates complexity without design: language as an instructional metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    One of the major stumbling blocks to understanding evolution is the difficulty in reconciling the emergence of complexity with the apparently undirected forces that drive evolutionary processes. This difficulty was originally framed as the "Watch and Watchmaker" argument and more recently revived by proponents of "intelligent design." Undergraduates in particular often attribute purpose and forethought as the driving force behind biological phenomena, and have difficulty understanding evolutionary processes. To demonstrate that complexity can arise solely through mutations that fix in populations via natural selection or drift, we can use analogies where processes can be observed across short time frames and where the key data are accessible to those without specialized biological knowledge. The evolution of language provides such an example. Processes of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, acquisition of new functions, punctuated equilibria, and lateral gene transfer can be illustrated using examples of changing spellings, neologism, and acquisition of words from other languages. The examples presented in this article are readily accessible, and demonstrate to students that languages have dynamically increased in complexity, simply driven by the usage patterns of their speakers. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. The impact on the environment generated by the arranging of the livestock complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Bolocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fitting livestock farms can influencefavorably or conversely, the development of production process, animal healthor comfort of the population. Because the election of the site and indoor systematizationof the farms show effects over a long period, these must be carefully analyzedin the perspective of the farms development.Fitting an livestock farm, involves executionin advance of an impact study on the environment, witch takes into account providingthe distances from inhabited areas, because these objectives are generators of odors,harmful gases, dust and microorganisms. Polluting potential of farm animals canbe very much reduced, through respecting the hygiene rules inside the farms andusing filters to retain dust and microorganisms.In the present paper, we aimed to analyze thesources of pollutants and the impact on the environment generated both duringconstruction phase of livestock farms and in their operational phase.

  8. PMJ panel discussion overview on mask complexities, cost, and cycle time in 32-nm system LSI generation: conflict or concurrent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Kunihiro; Kato, Kokoro

    2008-10-01

    This is a report on a panel discussion organized in Photomask Japan 2008, where the challenges about "Mask Complexities, Cost, and Cycle Time in 32-nm System LSI Generation" were addressed to have a look over the possible solutions from the standpoints of chipmaker, commercial mask shop, DA tool vendor and equipments makers. The wrap-up is as follows: Mask complexities justify the mask cost, while the acceptable increase rate of 32nm-mask cost significantly differs between mask suppliers or users side. The efficiency progress by new tools or DFM has driven their cycle-time reductions. Mask complexities and cost will be crucial issues prior to cycle time, and there seems to be linear correlation between them. Controlling complexity and cycle time requires developing a mix of advanced technologies, and especially for cost reduction, shot prices in writers and processing rates in inspection tools have been improved remarkably by tool makers. In addition, activities of consortium in Japan (Mask D2I) are expected to enhance the total optimization of mask design, writing and inspection. The cycle-time reduction potentially drives the lowering of mask cost, and, on the other, the pattern complexities and tighter mask specifications get in the way to 32nm generation as well as the nano-economics and market challenges. There are still many difficult problems in mask manufacturing now, and we are sure to go ahead to overcome a 32nm hurdle with the advances of technologies and collaborations by not only technologies but also finance.

  9. Immune evasion proteins of murine cytomegalovirus preferentially affect cell surface display of recently generated peptide presentation complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmermann, Niels A W; Gergely, Kerstin; Böhm, Verena; Deegen, Petra; Däubner, Torsten; Reddehase, Matthias J

    2010-02-01

    For recognition of infected cells by CD8 T cells, antigenic peptides are presented at the cell surface, bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. Downmodulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules is regarded as a hallmark function of cytomegalovirus-encoded immunoevasins. The molecular mechanisms by which immunoevasins interfere with the MHC-I pathway suggest, however, that this downmodulation may be secondary to an interruption of turnover replenishment and that hindrance of the vesicular transport of recently generated peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes to the cell surface is the actual function of immunoevasins. Here we have used the model of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection to provide experimental evidence for this hypothesis. To quantitate pMHC complexes at the cell surface after infection in the presence and absence of immunoevasins, we generated the recombinant viruses mCMV-SIINFEKL and mCMV-Deltam06m152-SIINFEKL, respectively, expressing the K(b)-presented peptide SIINFEKL with early-phase kinetics in place of an immunodominant peptide of the viral carrier protein gp36.5/m164. The data revealed approximately 10,000 K(b) molecules presenting SIINFEKL in the absence of immunoevasins, which is an occupancy of approximately 10% of all cell surface K(b) molecules, whereas immunoevasins reduced this number to almost the detection limit. To selectively evaluate their effect on preexisting pMHC complexes, cells were exogenously loaded with SIINFEKL peptide shortly after infection with mCMV-SIINFEKA, in which endogenous presentation is prevented by an L174A mutation of the C-terminal MHC-I anchor residue. The data suggest that pMHC complexes present at the cell surface in advance of immunoevasin gene expression are downmodulated due to constitutive turnover in the absence of resupply.

  10. An overview of wind energy, taking into consideration several imporatn issues, including an analisys of regulatory requirements for the connection of wind generation into the power system

    OpenAIRE

    Gimenez Alvarez, Juan Manuel; SCHWEICKARDT, GUSTAVO; GÓMEZ TARGARONA, JUAN CARLOS

    2012-01-01

    Pollution problems such as greenhouse effect as well as the high value and volatility of fuel prices have forced and accelerated the development and use of renewable energy sources. In this work a complete revision of wind generation is presented. In the first part a brief history of the wind energy developments is detailed. Next, some commentaries related to the present and future state are made. Then, a revision of the modern structures of wind generation is realized. In fourth place it is ...

  11. Next generation of novel psychoactive substances on the horizon - A complex problem to face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid and continuous growth in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) across the world. Although various products are labeled with warnings "not for human consumption", they are intended to mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. Once some compounds become regulated, new analogues appear in order to satisfy consumers' demands and at the same time to avoid criminalization. This review presents updated information on the second generation of NPS, introduced as replacements of the already banned substances from this class, focusing on their pharmacological properties and metabolism, routes of administration, and effects in humans. Literature search, covering years 2013-2015, was performed using the following keywords alone or in combination: "novel psychoactive substances", "cathinones", "synthetic cannabinoids", "benzofurans", "phenethylamines", "2C-drugs", "NBOMe", "methoxetamine", "opioids", "toxicity", and "metabolism". More than 400 NPS have been reported in Europe, with 255 detected in 2012-2014. The most popular are synthetic cannabimimetics and psychostimulant cathinones; use of psychedelics and opioids is less common. Accumulating experimental and clinical data indicate that potential harms associated with the use of second generation NPS could be even more serious than those described for the already banned drugs. NPS are constantly emerging on the illicit drug market and represent an important health problem. A significant amount of research is needed in order to fully quantify both the short and long term effects of the second generation NPS, and their interaction with other drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Complex behavior of internal collapse due to self-generated radial electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Tomonori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Naitou, Hiroshi [Department of Electical and Electronic Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The density gradient effect is taken into account in the gyro-kinetic nonlinear simulation of the kinetic m=1 internal kink mode to clarify the nonlinear behavior of the internal collapse. Even when the density gradient is not so large enough to change the process of the full reconnection, the later process is changed considerably due to the self-generated radial electric field. The nonlinear growth of the 0/0 mode after the internal collapse violates the symmetrical flow of the parallel current, restricting the secondary reconnection. (author)

  13. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  14. Nuclear co-generation desalination complex with VK-300 simplified boiling-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yury

    2008-01-01

    With regard for the global-scale development of desalination technologies and the stable growth demand for them, Russia also takes an active part in the development of these technologies. Two major aspects play a special role here: they are providing the desalination process with power and introducing new materials capable to make the production of fresh water cheaper and raise the technical reliability of desalination units. The report considers a simplified passive boiling water reactor VK-300 based Nuclear Desalination Complex (NDC) with multi-stage evaporation distillation desalination units (MED) with horizontal-tube film evaporators. This is the effective NDC structure allowing the use of turbine steam extractions for heat supply (200-400 Gcal/h) to the desalination system producing high-quality distillate. As it provides with thermal energy a desalination complex with the capacity of 300.000 m 3 /day, a nuclear plant consisting of two VK-300 power units allows production of distillate with the cost of 0.58 dollars/m 3 . In this case, the electricity supply to the power system is 357 MW(e). The electricity cost is 0.029 dollars/kWh. (author)

  15. Mastering a double emulsion in a simple co-flow microfluidic to generate complex polymersomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, Adeline; Nicolet, Célia; Angly, Julie; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Le Meins, Jean-François; Colin, Annie

    2011-07-19

    We show that the production and the geometrical shape of complex polymersomes can be predicted by varying the flow rates of a simple microdevice using an empirical law which predicts the droplet size. This device is constituted of fused silica capillaries associated with adjusted tubing sleeves and T-junctions. Studying the effect of several experimental parameters, double emulsions containing a controlled number of droplets were fabricated. First, this study examines the stability of a jet in a simple confined microfluidic system, probing the conditions required for droplets production. Then, multicompartmental polymersomes were formed, controlling flow velocities. In this work, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDMS-g-PEO) and poly(butadiene)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PBut-b-PEO) amphiphilic copolymers were used and dissolved in chloroform/cyclohexane mixture. The ratio of these two solvents was adjusted in order to stabilize the double emulsion formation. The aqueous suspension contained poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), limiting the coalescence of the droplets. This work constitutes major progress in the control of double emulsion formation in microfluidic devices and shows that complex structures can be obtained using such a process.

  16. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-01-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  17. Complex network structure of musical compositions: Algorithmic generation of appealing music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct networks for music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurring connections. We analyze classical music from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music such as Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. We conjecture that preserving the universal network properties is a necessary step in artificial composition of music. Power-law exponents of node degree, node strength and/or edge weight distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be composed artificially using a controlled random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. By generating a large number of compositions, we find that this algorithm generates music which has the necessary qualities to be subjectively judged as appealing.

  18. Next-generation mTOR inhibitors in clinical oncology: how pathway complexity informs therapeutic strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wander, Seth A

    2011-04-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a PI3K-related kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival via mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. The mTOR pathway is often aberrantly activated in cancers. While hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and DNA damage restrain mTORC1 activity, multiple genetic events constitutively activate mTOR in cancers. Here we provide a brief overview of the signaling pathways up- and downstream of mTORC1 and -2, and discuss the insights into therapeutic anticancer targets - both those that have been tried in the clinic with limited success and those currently under clinical development - that knowledge of these pathways gives us.

  19. Evaluation of human exposure to complex waveform magnetic fields generated by arc-welding equipment according to European safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole; Andreuccetti, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a procedure is described for the assessment of human exposure to magnetic fields with complex waveforms generated by arc-welding equipment. The work moves from the analysis of relevant guidelines and technical standards, underlining their strengths and their limits. Then, the procedure is described with particular attention to the techniques used to treat complex waveform fields. Finally, the procedure is applied to concrete cases encountered in the workplace. The discussion of the results highlights the critical points in the procedure, as well as those related to the evolution of the technical and exposure standards. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Field programmable gate array (FPGA implementation of novel complex PN-code-generator- based data scrambler and descrambler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir A. Parah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for the generation of complex and lengthy code sequences using low- length linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs for data scrambling and descrambling is proposed. The scheme has been implemented using VHSIC hardware description language (VHDL approach which allows the reconfigurability of the proposed system such that the length of the generated sequences can be changed as per the security requirements. In the present design consideration the power consumption and chip area requirements are small and the operating speed is high compared to conventional discrete I.C. design, which is a pre-requisite for any system designer. The design has been synthesised on device EP2S15F484C3 of Straitx II FPGA family, using Quarts Altera version 8.1. The simulation results have been found satisfactory and are in conformity with the theoretical observations.

  1. Post-transcriptional generation of miRNA variants by multiple nucleotidyl transferases contributes to miRNA transcriptome complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Wyman, Stacia K.; Knouf, Emily C.; Parkin, Rachael K.; Fritz, Brian R.; Lin, Daniel W.; Dennis, Lucas M.; Krouse, Michael A.; Webster, Philippa J.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2011-01-01

    Modification of microRNA sequences by the 3′ addition of nucleotides to generate so-called “isomiRs” adds to the complexity of miRNA function, with recent reports showing that 3′ modifications can influence miRNA stability and efficiency of target repression. Here, we show that the 3′ modification of miRNAs is a physiological and common post-transcriptional event that shows selectivity for specific miRNAs and is observed across species ranging from C. elegans to human. The modifications resul...

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of droplet deformation in a complex flow generated by a rotor-stator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, Runi Ditlev; Fischer, Peter; Feigl, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of single drops suspended in a second immiscible liquid undergoing a complex laminar flow is analysed both experimentally and numerically. The flow is generated in a channel formed by two rotating concentric cylinders with teethed walls as a model for extruding flow...... data analysis we define a geometry-based apparent shear rate which we compare to time-averaged drop deformations. Results indicate that for small deformations the relation between the time-averaged drop deformation and time-averaged apparent shear rate can be described by Taylor's small deformation...

  3. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  4. Magnetic storm generation by large-scale complex structure Sheath/ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Yermolaev, M. Y.; Riazantseva, M.; Borodkova, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as magnetospheric indices. We use our catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena for 1976-2000 interval (see the catalog for 1976-2016 in web-side ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/ prepared on basis of OMNI database (Yermolaev et al., 2009)) and the double superposed epoch analysis method (Yermolaev et al., 2010). Our analysis showed (Yermolaev et al., 2015) that average profiles of Dst and Dst* indices decrease in Sheath interval (magnetic storm activity increases) and increase in ICME interval. This profile coincides with inverted distribution of storm numbers in both intervals (Yermolaev et al., 2017). This behavior is explained by following reasons. (1) IMF magnitude in Sheath is higher than in Ejecta and closed to value in MC. (2) Sheath has 1.5 higher efficiency of storm generation than ICME (Nikolaeva et al., 2015). The most part of so-called CME-induced storms are really Sheath-induced storms and this fact should be taken into account during Space Weather prediction. The work was in part supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 16-12-10062. References. 1. Nikolaeva N.S., Y. I. Yermolaev and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the corrected Dst* index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic Res., 53(2), 119-127 2. Yermolaev Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Res., , 47(2), 81-94 3. Yermolaev, Y. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Y. Yermolaev (2010), Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-induced, Sheath-induced, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis, Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177-2186 4. Yermolaev Yu. I., I. G. Lodkina, N. S. Nikolaeva and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2015), Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch

  5. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  7. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E.; Leong, Kam W.; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Coadministering FIX orally and systemically induces tolerance via complex immune regulation, involving tolerogenic dendritic and T-cell subsets.Induced CD4+CD25−LAP+ regulatory T cells with increased IL-10 and TGF-β expression and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress antibody formation against FIX.

  8. Complex reconstructive surgery following removal of extra-intracranial meningiomas, including the use of autologous fibrin glue and a pedicled muscle flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Giugno, M.D.

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Reparation of CSF fistulas that arise after meningioma surgery can require a complex reconstructive surgery of the superficial layers; when cranioplasty is not feasible or indicated, a meticulous reconstruction of the extracranial soft tissues is possible also by using vascularized autologous distal muscular tissue, with close interdisciplinary cooperation.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of a Cell Adhesion Protein Complex Including CADM1 by Combinatorial Analysis of FRAP with Exponential Curve-Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai-Yageta, Mika; Maruyama, Tomoko; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Protein components of cell adhesion machinery show continuous renewal even in the static state of epithelial cells and participate in the formation and maintenance of normal epithelial architecture and tumor suppression. CADM1 is a tumor suppressor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule and forms a cell adhesion complex with an actin-binding protein, 4.1B, and a scaffold protein, MPP3, in the cytoplasm. Here, we investigate dynamic regulation of the CADM1-4.1B-MPP3 complex in mature cell adhesion by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Traditional FRAP analysis were performed for relatively short period of around 10min. Here, thanks to recent advances in the sensitive laser detector systems, we examine FRAP of CADM1 complex for longer period of 60 min and analyze the recovery with exponential curve-fitting to distinguish the fractions with different diffusion constants. This approach reveals that the fluorescence recovery of CADM1 is fitted to a single exponential function with a time constant (τ) of approximately 16 min, whereas 4.1B and MPP3 are fitted to a double exponential function with two τs of approximately 40-60 sec and 16 min. The longer τ is similar to that of CADM1, suggesting that 4.1B and MPP3 have two distinct fractions, one forming a complex with CADM1 and the other present as a free pool. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching analysis supports the presence of a free pool of these proteins near the plasma membrane. Furthermore, double exponential fitting makes it possible to estimate the ratio of 4.1B and MPP3 present as a free pool and as a complex with CADM1 as approximately 3:2 and 3:1, respectively. Our analyses reveal a central role of CADM1 in stabilizing the complex with 4.1B and MPP3 and provide insight in the dynamics of adhesion complex formation. PMID:25780926

  10. Dynamic regulation of a cell adhesion protein complex including CADM1 by combinatorial analysis of FRAP with exponential curve-fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai-Yageta, Mika; Maruyama, Tomoko; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Protein components of cell adhesion machinery show continuous renewal even in the static state of epithelial cells and participate in the formation and maintenance of normal epithelial architecture and tumor suppression. CADM1 is a tumor suppressor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule and forms a cell adhesion complex with an actin-binding protein, 4.1B, and a scaffold protein, MPP3, in the cytoplasm. Here, we investigate dynamic regulation of the CADM1-4.1B-MPP3 complex in mature cell adhesion by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Traditional FRAP analysis were performed for relatively short period of around 10 min. Here, thanks to recent advances in the sensitive laser detector systems, we examine FRAP of CADM1 complex for longer period of 60 min and analyze the recovery with exponential curve-fitting to distinguish the fractions with different diffusion constants. This approach reveals that the fluorescence recovery of CADM1 is fitted to a single exponential function with a time constant (τ) of approximately 16 min, whereas 4.1B and MPP3 are fitted to a double exponential function with two τs of approximately 40-60 sec and 16 min. The longer τ is similar to that of CADM1, suggesting that 4.1B and MPP3 have two distinct fractions, one forming a complex with CADM1 and the other present as a free pool. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching analysis supports the presence of a free pool of these proteins near the plasma membrane. Furthermore, double exponential fitting makes it possible to estimate the ratio of 4.1B and MPP3 present as a free pool and as a complex with CADM1 as approximately 3:2 and 3:1, respectively. Our analyses reveal a central role of CADM1 in stabilizing the complex with 4.1B and MPP3 and provide insight in the dynamics of adhesion complex formation.

  11. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water with iron carbonyl phosphine complexes: improved water reduction catalysts and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Felix; Boddien, Albert; Barsch, Enrico; Fumino, Koichi; Losse, Sebastian; Junge, Henrik; Hollmann, Dirk; Brückner, Angelika; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2011-05-27

    An extended study of a novel visible-light-driven water reduction system containing an iridium photosensitizer, an in situ iron(0) phosphine water reduction catalyst (WRC), and triethylamine as sacrificial reductant is described. The influences of solvent composition, ligand, ligand-to-metal ratio, and pH were studied. The use of monodentate phosphine ligands led to improved activity of the WRC. By applying a WRC generated in situ from Fe(3) (CO)(12) and tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine (P[C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)](3), Fe(3)(CO)(12)/PR(3)=1:1.5), a catalyst turnover number of more than 1500 was obtained, which constitutes the highest activity reported for any Fe WRC. The maximum incident photon to hydrogen efficiency obtained was 13.4% (440 nm). It is demonstrated that the evolved H(2) flow (0.23 mmol H(2) h(-1) mg(-1) Fe(3)(CO)(12)) is sufficient to be used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, which generate electricity directly from water with visible light. Mechanistic studies by NMR spectroscopy, in situ IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations allow for an improved understanding of the mechanism. With respect to the Fe WRC, the complex [HNEt(3)](+)[HFe(3)(CO)(11)](-) was identified as the key intermediate during the catalytic cycle, which led to light-driven hydrogen generation from water. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. EPR spectroscopy of MRI-related Gd(III) complexes: simultaneous analysis of multiple frequency and temperature spectra, including static and transient crystal field effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E

    2001-03-21

    For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  13. Variability in a three-generation family with Pierre Robin sequence, acampomelic campomelic dysplasia, and intellectual disability due to a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9, and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Bottillo, Irene; Morlino, Silvia; Barone, Chiara; Cascone, Piero; Grammatico, Paola; Laino, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia and acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD) are allelic disorders due to heterozygous mutations in or around SOX9. Translocations and deletions involving the SOX9 5' regulatory region are rare causes of these disorders, as well as Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Genotype-phenotype correlations are not straightforward due to the complex epigenetic regulation of SOX9 expression during development. We report a three-generation pedigree with a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9 and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16, and ascertained for dominant transmission of PRS. Further characterization of the family identified subtle appendicular anomalies and a variable constellation of axial skeletal features evocative of ACD in several members. Affected males showed learning disability. The identified deletion was smaller than all other chromosome rearrangements associated with ACD. Comparison with other reported translocations and deletions involving this region allowed further refining of genotype-phenotype correlations and an update of the smallest regions of overlap associated with the different phenotypes. Intrafamilial variability in this pedigree suggests a phenotypic continuity between ACD and PRS in patients carrying mutations in the SOX9 5' regulatory region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  15. Prospects Pertaining to Application of Heat-and-Pump Technology in Power-and-Hear generation Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ovsiannik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing conditions of heat supply operation create favorable possibilities for repeat involvement of large capabilities of low-potential heat at power objects of heat supply system in the fuel and energy balance of urban power engineering facilities and, first of all, it is possible due to introduction of power-saving heat-and-pump technology.Diversity of conditions concerning organization of heat supply and sources of low-potential heat which can be used with the help of heat-and-pump technology in the system of centralized heat-supply reveals the necessity to take more serious approach to investigation of real possibilities of their application, owing to them it is possible to involve repeatedly used heat in the technological cycle of the urban power-and-heat generation complex.

  16. New water-soluble copper (II) complexes including 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and L-tyrosine: Synthesis, characterization, DNA interactions and cytotoxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Duygu; Aydın, Rahmiye; Yılmaz, Dilek; Gençkal, Hasene Mutlu; Vatan, Özgür; Çinkılıç, Nilüfer; Zorlu, Yunus

    2015-02-01

    Two new water-soluble copper(II) complexes, [Cu(dmphen)2(NO3)]NO3 (1), [Cu(dmphen)(tyr)(H2O)]NO3·H2O (2) and the diquarternary salt of dmphen (dmphen = 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tyr = L-tyrosine), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these compounds have been investigated by absorption, emission spectroscopy and thermal denaturation measurements. The supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA cleavage activity of these compounds has been explored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against MCF-7, Caco-2, A549 cancer cells and BEAS-2B healthy cells was also studied by the XTT method. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit significant cytotoxicity, with lower IC50 values than those of cisplatin.

  17. Multi-scalar agent-based complex design systems - the case of CECO (Climatic -Ecologies) Studio; informed generative design systems and performance-driven design workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Yu, S.; Biloria, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of different types of complex systems for digital form finding and design decision making with underlying methodological and pedagogical aims to emphasize performance-driven design solutions via combining generative methods of complex systems with simulation

  18. A Single-Chip 64-Channel Ultrasound RX-Beamformer Including Analog Front-End and an LUT for Non-Uniform ADC-Sample-Clock Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Sung-Eun; Um, Ji-Yong; Chae, Min-Kyun; Bang, Jihoon; Song, Jongkeun; Jeon, Taeho; Kim, Byungsub; Sim, Jae-Yoon; Park, Hong-June

    2017-02-01

    A 64-channel RX digital beamformer was implemented in a single chip for 3-D ultrasound medical imaging using 2-D phased-array transducers. The RX beamformer chip includes 64 analog front-end branches including 64 non-uniform sampling ADCs, a FIFO/Adder, and an on-chip look-up table (LUT). The LUT stores the information on the rising edge timing of the non-uniform ADC sampling clocks. To include the LUT inside the beamformer chip, the LUT size was reduced by around 240 times by approximating an ADC-sample-time profile w.r.t. focal points (FP) along a scanline (SL) for a channel into a piece-wise linear form. The maximum error between the approximated and accurate sample times of ADC is eight times the sample time resolution (Ts) that is 1/32 of the ultrasound signal period in this work. The non-uniform sampling reduces the FIFO size required for digital beamforming by around 20 times. By applying a 9-dot image from Field-II program and 2-D ultrasound phantom images to the fabricated RX beamformer chip, the original images were successfully reconstructed from the measured output. The chip in a 0.13-um CMOS occupies 30.25 [Formula: see text] and consumes 605 mW.

  19. Corona pre-ionized gas switches with an increased lifetime for Marx generator of the lightning test complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Yu A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    A new design of triggered spark gas switches with an increased operation life and stable dynamic performances for 2.4 MV, 4 MJ Marx generator of the lightning test complex is developed. An operation mode of switches in the test complex is the following: the total voltage - up to 80 kV, the discharge current - up to 50 kA, the charge flowing - up to 3.5 C/pulse, the working gas - dry air at an atmospheric pressure. An increased operating life is achieved by using the torus-shaped electrodes with an increased working area and by the application of a thick disk with a hole, as a trigger electrode, installed between the two torus-shaped electrodes. A short breakdown time delay and a high stability of the breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas pre-ionization in the spark gap by UV-radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region of the switch.

  20. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Chen, Jian; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer; Jammulapati, Srikanth; Perry, Michael; Morris, Brian; Roa, Benjamin; Timms, Kirsten

    2015-04-02

    Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic risk for cancer in 8 different tissues using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Twenty-five genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes were selected for development of a panel to screen for risk of these cancers using NGS. In an initial technical assessment, NGS results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were compared with Sanger sequencing in 1864 anonymized DNA samples from patients who had undergone previous clinical testing. Next, the entire gene panel was validated using parallel NGS and Sanger sequencing in 100 anonymized DNA samples. Large rearrangement analysis was validated using NGS, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses (MLPA). NGS identified 15,877 sequence variants, while Sanger sequencing identified 15,878 in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 comparison study of the same regions. Based on these results, the NGS process was refined prior to the validation of the full gene panel. In the validation study, NGS and Sanger sequencing were 100% concordant for the 3,923 collective variants across all genes for an analytical sensitivity of the NGS assay of >99.92% (lower limit of 95% confidence interval). NGS, microarray CGH and MLPA correctly identified all expected positive and negative large rearrangement results for the 25-gene panel. This study provides a thorough validation of the 25-gene NGS panel and indicates that this analysis tool can be used to collect clinically significant information related to risk of

  1. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-beta and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs.

  2. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  3. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  4. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  5. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E; Leong, Kam W; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-04-09

    Coagulation factor replacement therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is severely complicated by antibody ("inhibitor") formation. We previously found that oral delivery to hemophilic mice of cholera toxin B subunit-coagulation factor fusion proteins expressed in chloroplasts of transgenic plants suppressed inhibitor formation directed against factors VIII and IX and anaphylaxis against factor IX (FIX). This observation and the relatively high concentration of antigen in the chloroplasts prompted us to evaluate the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The combination of oral delivery of bioencapsulated FIX and intravenous replacement therapy induced a complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent, antigen-specific systemic immune suppression of pathogenic antibody formation (immunoglobulin [Ig] 1/inhibitors, IgE) in hemophilia B mice. Tolerance induction was also successful in preimmune mice but required prolonged oral delivery once replacement therapy was resumed. Orally delivered antigen, initially targeted to epithelial cells, was taken up by dendritic cells throughout the small intestine and additionally by F4/80(+) cells in the duodenum. Consistent with the immunomodulatory responses, frequencies of tolerogenic CD103(+) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased. Ultimately, latency-associated peptide expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(+) cells with upregulated IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression) as well as conventional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells systemically suppressed anti-FIX responses. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Benítez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  7. Genetic fixity in the human major histocompatibility complex and block size diversity in the class I region including HLA-E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Viviana; Larsen, Charles E; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Fox, Edward A; Romero, Tatiana; Clavijo, Olga P; Fici, Dolores A; Husain, Zaheed; Almeciga, Ingrid; Alford, Dennis R; Awdeh, Zuheir L; Zuñiga, Joaquin; El-Dahdah, Lama; Alper, Chester A; Yunis, Edmond J

    2007-04-12

    The definition of human MHC class I haplotypes through association of HLA-A, HLA-Cw and HLA-B has been used to analyze ethnicity, population migrations and disease association. Here, we present HLA-E allele haplotype association and population linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis within the ~1.3 Mb bounded by HLA-B/Cw and HLA-A to increase the resolution of identified class I haplotypes. Through local breakdown of LD, we inferred ancestral recombination points both upstream and downstream of HLA-E contributing to alternative block structures within previously identified haplotypes. Through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the MHC region, we also confirmed the essential genetic fixity, previously inferred by MHC allele analysis, of three conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs), and we demonstrated that commercially-available SNP analysis can be used in the MHC to help define CEHs and CEH fragments. We conclude that to generate high-resolution maps for relating MHC haplotypes to disease susceptibility, both SNP and MHC allele analysis must be conducted as complementary techniques.

  8. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  9. Array-CGH in patients with Kabuki-like phenotype: Identification of two patients with complex rearrangements including 2q37 deletions and no other recurrent aberration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Eva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kabuki syndrome (KS is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by specific facial features, mild to moderate mental retardation, postnatal growth delay, skeletal abnormalities, and unusual dermatoglyphic patterns with prominent fingertip pads. A 3.5 Mb duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was once reported as a specific alteration in KS but has not been confirmed in other patients. The molecular basis of KS remains unknown. Methods We have studied 16 Spanish patients with a clinical diagnosis of KS or KS-like to search for genomic imbalances using genome-wide array technologies. All putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH, microsatellite markers and/or MLPA assays, which also determined whether the imbalance was de novo or inherited. Results No duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was observed in our patients. We detected complex rearrangements involving 2q in two patients with Kabuki-like features: 1 a de novo inverted duplication of 11 Mb with a 4.5 Mb terminal deletion, and 2 a de novo 7.2 Mb-terminal deletion in a patient with an additional de novo 0.5 Mb interstitial deletion in 16p. Additional copy number variations (CNV, either inherited or reported in normal controls, were identified and interpreted as polymorphic variants. No specific CNV was significantly increased in the KS group. Conclusion Our results further confirmed that genomic duplications of 8p23 region are not a common cause of KS and failed to detect other recurrent rearrangement causing this disorder. The detection of two patients with 2q37 deletions suggests that there is a phenotypic overlap between the two conditions, and screening this region in the Kabuki-like patients should be considered.

  10. Unravelling the Complexity of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies Molecular Testing: Added Value of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bernardis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the clinical utility of targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for the diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (IRDs, a total of 109 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 IRD affected probands and 21 healthy relatives. Clinical diagnoses included Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA, Stargardt Disease (STGD, Best Macular Dystrophy (BMD, Usher Syndrome (USH, and other IRDs with undefined clinical diagnosis. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination followed by genetic counseling. A custom AmpliSeq™ panel of 72 IRD-related genes was designed for the analysis and tested using Ion semiconductor Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS. Potential disease-causing mutations were identified in 59.1% of probands, comprising mutations in 16 genes. The highest diagnostic yields were achieved for BMD, LCA, USH, and STGD patients, whereas RP confirmed its high genetic heterogeneity. Causative mutations were identified in 17.6% of probands with undefined diagnosis. Revision of the initial diagnosis was performed for 9.6% of genetically diagnosed patients. This study demonstrates that NGS represents a comprehensive cost-effective approach for IRDs molecular diagnosis. The identification of the genetic alterations underlying the phenotype enabled the clinicians to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The results emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis coupled with clinic information to unravel the extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of these diseases.

  11. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  12. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida, including two reinstated and five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Renner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R.buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to

  13. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  14. Advances in the analysis of complex food matrices: Species identification in surimi-based products using Next Generation Sequencing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Carmen G.

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies represent a turning point in the food inspection field, particularly for species identification in matrices composed of a blend of two or more species. In this study NGS technologies were applied by testing the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in seafood traceability. Sixteen commercial surimi samples produced both in EU and non-EU countries were analysed. Libraries were prepared using a universal primer pair able to amplify a short 16SrRNA fragment from a wide range of fish and cephalopod species. The mislabelling rate of the samples was also evaluated. Overall, DNA from 13 families, 19 genera and 16 species of fish, and from 3 families, 3 genera and 3 species of cephalopods was found with the analysis. Samples produced in non-EU countries exhibited a higher variability in their composition. 37.5% of the surimi products were found to be mislabelled. Among them, 25% voluntary declared a species different from those identified and 25% (all produced in non-EU countries) did not report the presence of molluscs on the label, posing a potential health threat for allergic consumers. The use of vulnerable species was also proved. Although the protocol should be further optimized, PGM platform proved to be a useful tool for the analysis of complex, highly processed products. PMID:28968423

  15. The mechanism behind internally generated centennial-to-millennial scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Friedrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism triggering centennial-to-millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC in the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM is investigated. It is found that for several climate boundary conditions such as low obliquity values (~22.1° or LGM-albedo, internally generated centennial-to-millennial-scale variability occurs in the North Atlantic region. Stochastic excitations of the density-driven overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas can create regional sea-ice anomalies and a subsequent reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. The resulting remote atmospheric anomalies over the Hudson Bay can release freshwater pulses into the Labrador Sea and significantly increase snow fall in this region leading to a subsequent reduction of convective activity. The millennial-scale AMOC oscillations disappear if LGM bathymetry (with closed Hudson Bay is prescribed or if freshwater pulses are suppressed artificially. Furthermore, our study documents the process of the AMOC recovery as well as the global marine and terrestrial carbon cycle response to centennial-to-millennial-scale AMOC variability.

  16. Generation of a CRISPR database for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex and role of CRISPR-based immunity in conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Katja A; Mattinen, Laura; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gorgé, Olivier; Nikkari, Simo; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat - CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) system is used by bacteria and archaea against invading conjugative plasmids or bacteriophages. Central to this immunity system are genomic CRISPR loci that contain fragments of invading DNA. These are maintained as spacers in the CRISPR loci between direct repeats and the spacer composition in any bacterium reflects its evolutionary history. We analysed the CRISPR locus sequences of 335 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex strains. Altogether 1902 different spacer sequences were identified and these were used to generate a database for the spacer sequences. Only ∼10% of the spacer sequences found matching sequences. In addition, surprisingly few spacers were shared by Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Interestingly, 32 different protospacers were present in the conjugative plasmid pYptb32953. The corresponding spacers were identified from 35 different Y. pseudotuberculosis strains indicating that these strains had encountered pYptb32953 earlier. In conjugation experiments, pYptb32953-specific spacers generally prevented conjugation with spacer-positive and spacer-free strains. However, some strains with one to four spacers were invaded by pYptb32953 and some spacer-free strains were fully resistant. Also some spacer-positive strains were intermediate resistant to conjugation. This suggests that one or more other defence systems are determining conjugation efficiency independent of the CRISPR-Cas system. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The terminal complement complex is generated in chronic leg ulcers in the absence of protectin (CD59)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, E; Thomsen, H K; Danielsen, L

    1999-01-01

    hypertension leg ulcers. The deposition of complement, plasma complement regulators and expression of membrane regulators were detected by immunohistochemical methods, including immunofluorescence with antibodies against C3d, the terminal complement complex (TCC), vitronectin, clusterin, decay......-accelerating factor (CD55) and protectin (CD59). Eleven frozen biopsies from ischaemic leg ulcers, 10 biopsies from venous hypertension leg ulcers, and 10 biopsies from normal skin were studied. In 9 of 11 ischaemic and in 5 of 10 venous hypertension leg ulcers, marked staining for TCC was found around...... the capillaries, most often at the ulcer margin. No TCC staining was found in normal skin. Staining for TCC was always accompanied by staining for clusterin and vitronectin and C3d. In normal skin, CD59 was found on the elastic fibers in the dermis, on the muscle coat, the Schwann sheath and acinar cells...

  18. Hydrogen generation from formic acid catalyzed by a metal complex under amine-free and aqueous conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-04

    The present invention provides a class of catalyst compounds that can safely and effectively release hydrogen gas from a chemical substrate without producing either noxious byproducts or byproducts that will deactivate the catalyst. The present invention provides catalysts used to produce hydrogen that has a satisfactory and sufficient lifespan (measured by turnover number (TON)), that has stability in the presence of moisture, air, acid, or impurities, promote a rapid reaction rate, and remain stable under the reaction conditions required for an effective hydrogen production system. Described herein are compounds for use as catalysts, as well as methods for producing hydrogen from formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalysts. The methods include contacting formic acid and/or a formate with a catalyst as described herein, as well as methods of producing formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalyst and methods for generating electricity using the catalysts described herein.

  19. Anion complexation with cyanobenzoyl substituted first and second generation tripodal amide receptors: crystal structure and solution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Najbul; Gogoi, Abhijit; Das, Gopal

    2015-09-14

    Anion complexation properties of two new tripodal amide receptors have been extensively studied here. Two tripodal receptors have been synthesized from the reaction of cyanobenzoyl acid chloride with two tri-amine building blocks such as (i) tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and (ii) tris(2-(4-aminophenoxy)ethyl)amine, which resulted in the first (L1) and second (L2) generation tripodal amides respectively. A detailed comparison of their coordination behavior with anions is also described by crystallographic and solution state experiments. The crystal structure demonstrates various types of spatial orientations of tripodal arms in two receptors and concomitantly interacts with anions distinctively. Intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO prevents opening of the receptor cavity in the crystal, which leads to a locked conformation of L1 having C(3v) symmetry and makes amide hydrogen unavailable for the anion which results in side cleft anion binding. However, in L2 we conveniently shift the anion binding sites to a distant position which increases cavity size as well as rules out any intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO. The crystal structure shows a different orientation of the arms in L2; it adopts a quasi-planar arrangement with C(2v) symmetry. In the crystal structure two arms are pointed in the same direction and while extending the contact the third arm is H-bonded with the apical N-atom through a –CN group, making a pseudo capsular cavity where the anion interacts. Most importantly spatial reorientation of the receptor L2 from a C(2v) symmetry to a folded conformation with a C(3v) symmetry was observed only in the presence of an octahedral SiF6(2-) anion and forms a sandwich type complex. Receptors L1 and L2 are explored for their solution state anion binding abilities. The substantial changes in chemical shifts were observed for the amide (-NH) and aromatic hydrogen (-CH) (especially for F(-)), indicating the role of these hydrogens in

  20. Excitatory Modulation of the preBötzinger Complex Inspiratory Rhythm Generating Network by Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber S. F. da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S is one of three gasotransmitters that modulate excitability in the CNS. Global application of H2S donors or inhibitors of H2S synthesis to the respiratory network has suggested that inspiratory rhythm is modulated by exogenous and endogenous H2S. However, effects have been variable, which may reflect that the RTN/pFRG (retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial respiratory group and the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC, critical for inspiratory rhythm generation are differentially modulated by exogenous H2S. Importantly, site-specific modulation of respiratory nuclei by H2S means that targeted, rather than global, manipulation of respiratory nuclei is required to understand the role of H2S signaling in respiratory control. Thus, our aim was to test whether endogenous H2S, which is produced by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS in the CNS, acts specifically within the preBötC to modulate inspiratory activity under basal (in vitro/in vivo and hypoxic conditions (in vivo. Inhibition of endogenous H2S production by bath application of the CBS inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 0.1–1.0 mM to rhythmic brainstem spinal cord (BSSC and medullary slice preparations from newborn rats, or local application of AOAA into the preBötC (slices only caused a dose-dependent decrease in burst frequency. Unilateral injection of AOAA into the preBötC of anesthetized, paralyzed adult rats decreased basal inspiratory burst frequency, amplitude and ventilatory output. AOAA in vivo did not affect the initial hypoxia-induced (10% O2, 5 min increase in ventilatory output, but enhanced the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression. These data suggest that the preBötC inspiratory network receives tonic excitatory modulation from the CBS-H2S system, and that endogenous H2S attenuates the secondary hypoxic respiratory depression.

  1. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  2. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  3. Generating parahydrogen-induced polarization using immobilized iridium complexes in the gas-phase hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovpin, I.V.; Zhivonitko, V.V.; Kaptein, R.; Koptyug, I.V.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilized iridium complexes synthesized using [Ir(COD)Cl]2 by anchoring on hydrous and anhydrous silica gels were studied in terms of generating parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) in the gas-phase hydrogenation of propylene and propyne. Distinguishing differences in the hydrogenations of

  4. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  5. Methods for generating complex networks with selected structural properties for simulations: A review and tutorial for neuroscientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton J Prettejohn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many simulations of networks in computational neuroscience assume completely homogenous random networks of the Erd"{o}s-R'{e}nyi type, or regular networks, despite it being recognized for some time that anatomical brain networks are more complex in their connectivity and can, for example, exhibit the `scale-free' and `small-world' properties. We review the most well known algorithms for constructing networks with given non-homogeneous statistical properties and provide simple pseudo-code for reproducing such networks in software simulations. We also review some useful mathematical results and approximations associated with the statistics that describe these network models, including degree distribution, average path length and clustering coefficient. We demonstrate how such results can be used as partial verification and validation of implementations. Finally, we discuss a sometimes overlooked modeling choice that can be crucially important for the properties of simulated networks: that of network directedness. The most well known network algorithms produce undirected networks, and we emphasize this point by highlighting how simple adaptations can instead produce directed networks.

  6. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Evaluate Complex Scientific Tasks Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tina

    This dissertation includes three studies that analyze a new set of assessment tasks developed by the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science (LPS) Project. These assessment tasks were designed to measure science content knowledge on the structure of matter domain and scientific argumentation, while following the goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The three studies focus on the evidence available for the success of this design and its implementation, generally labelled as "validity" evidence. I use explanatory item response models (EIRMs) as the overarching framework to investigate these assessment tasks. These models can be useful when gathering validity evidence for assessments as they can help explain student learning and group differences. In the first study, I explore the dimensionality of the LPS assessment by comparing the fit of unidimensional, between-item multidimensional, and Rasch testlet models to see which is most appropriate for this data. By applying multidimensional item response models, multiple relationships can be investigated, and in turn, allow for a more substantive look into the assessment tasks. The second study focuses on person predictors through latent regression and differential item functioning (DIF) models. Latent regression models show the influence of certain person characteristics on item responses, while DIF models test whether one group is differentially affected by specific assessment items, after conditioning on latent ability. Finally, the last study applies the linear logistic test model (LLTM) to investigate whether item features can help explain differences in item difficulties.

  7. Au-Catalyzed Biaryl Coupling To Generate 5- to 9-Membered Rings: Turnover-Limiting Reductive Elimination versus π-Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, Tom J A; Ball, Liam T; Russell, Christopher A; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2017-01-11

    The intramolecular gold-catalyzed arylation of arenes by aryl-trimethylsilanes has been investigated from both mechanistic and preparative aspects. The reaction generates 5- to 9-membered rings, and of the 44 examples studied, 10 include a heteroatom (N, O). Tethering of the arene to the arylsilane provides not only a tool to probe the impact of the conformational flexibility of Ar-Au-Ar intermediates, via systematic modulation of the length of aryl-aryl linkage, but also the ability to arylate neutral and electron-poor arenes-substrates that do not react at all in the intermolecular process. Rendering the arylation intramolecular also results in phenomenologically simpler reaction kinetics, and overall these features have facilitated a detailed study of linear free energy relationships, kinetic isotope effects, and the first quantitative experimental data on the effects of aryl electron demand and conformational freedom on the rate of reductive elimination from diaryl-gold(III) species. The turnover-limiting step for the formation of a series of fluorene derivatives is sensitive to the reactivity of the arene and changes from reductive elimination to π-complexation for arenes bearing strongly electron-withdrawing substituents (σ > 0.43). Reductive elimination is accelerated by electron-donating substituents (ρ = -2.0) on one or both rings, with the individual σ-values being additive in nature. Longer and more flexible tethers between the two aryl rings result in faster reductive elimination from Ar-Au(X)-Ar and lead to the π-complexation of the arene by Ar-AuX 2 becoming the turnover-limiting step.

  8. HTLV-1 Tax Induces Formation of the Active Macromolecular IKK Complex by Generating Lys63- and Met1-Linked Hybrid Polyubiquitin Chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shibata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is crucial for the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, a highly malignant CD4+ T cell neoplasm. Among the multiple aberrant Tax-induced effects on cellular processes, persistent activation of transcription factor NF-κB, which is activated only transiently upon physiological stimulation, is essential for leukemogenesis. We and others have shown that Tax induces activation of the IκB kinase (IKK complex, which is a critical step in NF-κB activation, by generating Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Tax-induced IKK activation is controversial and not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Tax recruits linear (Met1-linked ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC to the IKK complex and that Tax fails to induce IKK activation in cells that lack LUBAC activity. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that both Lys63-linked and Met1-linked polyubiquitin chains are associated with the IKK complex. Furthermore, treatment of the IKK-associated polyubiquitin chains with Met1-linked-chain-specific deubiquitinase (OTULIN resulted in the reduction of high molecular weight polyubiquitin chains and the generation of short Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains, indicating that Tax can induce the generation of Lys63- and Met1-linked hybrid polyubiquitin chains. We also demonstrate that Tax induces formation of the active macromolecular IKK complex and that the blocking of Tax-induced polyubiquitin chain synthesis inhibited formation of the macromolecular complex. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a novel model in which the hybrid-chain-dependent oligomerization of the IKK complex triggered by Tax leads to trans-autophosphorylation-mediated IKK activation.

  9. Metal complex of the first-generation quinolone antimicrobial drug nalidixic acid: structure and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anamika; Mogha, Navin Kumar; Masram, Dhanraj T

    2015-03-01

    A novel binuclear squire planar complex of nalidixic acid with Ag(I) metal ion with the formula [Ag(Nal)2] has been synthesized. The synthesized metal complex was characterized using CHN analysis, Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultra violet-visible (Uv-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The newly synthesized complex shows more advanced antifungal activity compared to the parent quinolone against four fungi, namely Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizoctonia bataticola.

  10. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  11. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yupeng

    2016-04-22

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Modulation of the Singlet Oxygen Generation from the Double Strand DNA-SYBR Green I Complex Mediated by T-Melamine-T Mismatch for Visual Detection of Melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Zhang, Jinyi; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Xinfeng; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2017-05-02

    Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), generated via photosensitization, has been proved to oxidize chromogenic substrates with neither H 2 O 2 oxidation nor enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) catalysis. Of the various methods for modulation of the 1 O 2 generation, DNA-controlled photosensitization received great attention. Therefore, integration of the formation/deformation DNA structures with DNA-controlled photosensitization will be extremely appealing in visual biosensor developments. Here, the stable melamine-thymine complex was explored in combination with DNA-controlled photosensitization for visual detection of melamine. A T-rich single stand DNA was utilized as the recognition unit. Upon the formation of the T-M-T complex, double stand DNA was formed, which was ready for the binding of SYBR Green I and activated the photosensitization. Subsequent oxidation of TMB allowed visual detection of melamine in dairy products, with spike-recoveries ranging from 94% to 106%.

  13. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate improves thrombin generation and prothrombin time in patients with bleeding complications related to rivaroxaban: a single-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Bettina; Goerke, Stephanie; Beer, Ronny; Helbok, Raimund; Fries, Dietmar; Bachler, Mirjam

    2018-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) pose a great challenge for physicians in life-threatening bleeding events. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of reversing the DOAC rivaroxaban using four-factor PCC (prothrombin complex concentrate), a non-specific reversing agent. Patients with life-threatening bleeding events during rivaroxaban treatment were included and administered 25 U kg -1 of PCC. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to as well as after PCC treatment at predefined time intervals. The primary endpoint was defined as the difference in thrombin generation (TG) parameters ETP (endogenous thrombin potential) and C max (peak thrombin generation) prior to and ten minutes subsequent to PCC treatment. Thirteen patients, of whom the majority suffered from intra-cranial haemorrhage (ICH) or subdural haemorrhage (SDH), were included and administered PCC. The results show that the ETP (TG) significantly ( p  = 0.001) improved by 68% and C max (TG) by 54% (p = 0.001) during PCC treatment. In addition, the Quick value (prothrombin time: Quick PT ) significantly improved by 28% and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was decreased by 7% ten minutes after PCC administration. C max was reduced at baseline, but not ETP, aPTT or Quick PT . Lag time until initiation (TG, t lag ), thromboelastometry clotting time (CT EXTEM ) and time to peak (TG, t max ) correlated best with measured rivaroxaban levels and were out of normal ranges at baseline, but did not improve after PCC administration. In 77% of the patients bleeding (ICH/SDH-progression) ceased following PCC administration. During the study three participants passed away due to other complications not related to PCC treatment. The possibility of thrombosis formation was also evaluated seven days after administering PCC and no thromboses were found. This study shows that use of PCC improved ETP, C max, Quick PT and aPTT. However, of these parameters, only C max was reduced at the

  14. A novel multi-agent decentralized win or learn fast policy hill-climbing with eligibility trace algorithm for smart generation control of interconnected complex power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Lei; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoshun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a decentralized smart generation control scheme for the automatic generation control coordination. • A novel multi-agent learning algorithm is developed to resolve stochastic control problems in power systems. • A variable learning rate are introduced base on the framework of stochastic games. • A simulation platform is developed to test the performance of different algorithms. - Abstract: This paper proposes a multi-agent smart generation control scheme for the automatic generation control coordination in interconnected complex power systems. A novel multi-agent decentralized win or learn fast policy hill-climbing with eligibility trace algorithm is developed, which can effectively identify the optimal average policies via a variable learning rate under various operation conditions. Based on control performance standards, the proposed approach is implemented in a flexible multi-agent stochastic dynamic game-based smart generation control simulation platform. Based on the mixed strategy and average policy, it is highly adaptive in stochastic non-Markov environments and large time-delay systems, which can fulfill automatic generation control coordination in interconnected complex power systems in the presence of increasing penetration of decentralized renewable energy. Two case studies on both a two-area load–frequency control power system and the China Southern Power Grid model have been done. Simulation results verify that multi-agent smart generation control scheme based on the proposed approach can obtain optimal average policies thus improve the closed-loop system performances, and can achieve a fast convergence rate with significant robustness compared with other methods

  15. An asymmetric Mannich reaction of α-diazocarbonyl compounds and N-sulfonyl cyclic ketimines catalyzed by complexes generated from chiral and achiral phosphines with gold(i).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghui; Su, Qin; Addepalli, Yesu; He, Yun; Wang, Zhen

    2018-04-05

    An unprecedented Lewis acidic gold(i)-complex generated from chiral and achiral phosphines has been developed for the Mannich reaction of α-diazocarbonyl compounds and N-sulfonyl cyclic ketimines. A series of chiral β-amino-α-diazoesters bearing a quaternary stereocenter were obtained in high yields with good enantioselectivities. In addition, the products could be converted to promising bioactive spirosuccinimide. Furthermore, operando IR, NMR and control experiments were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism.

  16. Impact of Thermal Plumes Generated by Occupant Simulators with Different Complexity of Body Geometry on Airflow Pattern in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    The impact of thermal plumes generated by human body simulators with different geometry on the airflow pattern in a full scale room with displacement ventilation (supply air temperature 21.6°C, total flow rate 80 L/s) was studied when two seated occupants were simulated first by two thermal...... manikins resembling accurately human body shape and then by two heated cylinders. The manikins and the cylinders had the same surface area of 1.63 m2 and the same heat generation of 73 W. CO2 supplied from the top of the heat sources was used for simulating bio-effluents. CO2 concentration was measured...

  17. The meganism behind internally generated centennial-to-millennial scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, T.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L.; Elison Timm, O.; Mouchet, A.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism triggering centennial-to-millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM is investigated. It is found that for several climate boundary conditions such as low obliquity values (∼22.1 )

  18. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using....... We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than...

  19. In situ generation of copper cations and complexation with tebuconazole in a hyphenation of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Schröder, Detlef; Norková, Renáta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 338, 15 MAR (2013), s. 45-49 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemical ion generation * ESI-MS * coupling * fungicide * tebuconazole * soil solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  20. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  1. Light-Up of Rhodamine Hydrazide to Generate Emissive Initiator for Polymerization and to Afford Photochromic Polypeptide Metal Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Yan Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ring-opening polymerization (ROP of cyclic peptide monomer of γ-propargyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (PLG–NCA was originally initiated by non-emissive, ring-close rhodamine 6G hydrazide (R-C. However, instantaneously after adding PLG–NCA to R-C, the spirolactam ring of R-C was opened by PLG–NCA, rendering emissive, ring-open R-O to initiate ROP of PLG–NCA. The emissive R-O moiety therefore produced fluorescent R–PLG with aggregation-induced emission (AIE properties. Moreover, R–PLG was found to exhibit photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance and long lifetime when forming metal complexes with Sn(II and Fe(III. In the dark, irradiated metal complexes slowly (~50 min restored to the initial state. This research provides foundation for the development of new photochromic materials with long lifetime.

  2. Grid generation and adaptation for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method. [for complex flows past wedges and cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, David P.; Hassan, H. A.; Moss, James N.

    1988-01-01

    A grid generation and adaptation procedure based on the method of transfinite interpolation is incorporated into the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method of Bird. In addition, time is advanced based on a local criterion. The resulting procedure is used to calculate steady flows past wedges and cones. Five chemical species are considered. In general, the modifications result in a reduced computational effort. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the simulation method is time step dependent if requirements on cell sizes are not met.

  3. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  4. Understanding Free Radicals: Isolating Active Thylakoid Membranes and Purifying the Cytochrome b6f Complex for Superoxide Generation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Stofleth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All life persists in an environment that is rich in molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen free radicals, or superoxide, is a necessary consequence of the biogenesis of energy in cells. Both mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains have been found to produce superoxide associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death, thereby contributing to the effects of aging. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria consumes oxygen, whereas photosynthesis in chloroplasts or cyanobacteria produces oxygen. The increased concentration of molecular oxygen may serve to allow greater availability for the production of superoxide by cytochrome bc complexes in photosynthetic membranes compared to those of mitochondrial membranes. The isolation of well-coupled chloroplasts, containing the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a vital initial step in the process of comparing the rate of production of superoxide to those of the homologous cytochrome bc1 complex of aerobic respiration. It is necessary to determine if the isolated chloroplasts have retained their oxygengenerating capability after isolation by an oxygen evolution assay with a Clark-type electrode. A necessary second step, which is the isolation of cytochrome b6f from spinach, has yet to be successfully performed. Oxygen measurements taken from chloroplasts in the presence of the uncoupler, NH4Cl, exhibited a rate of oxygen evolution over three times greater at 344 +/- 18 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr than the rate of oxygen evolution without uncoupler at 109 +/- 29 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr. These data demonstrate that the technique used to isolate spinach chloroplasts preserves their light-driven electron-transport activity, making them reliable for future superoxide assays.

  5. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of New-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Women Undergoing Complex Percutaneous Coronary Artery Revascularization: From the WIN-DES Collaborative Patient-Level Pooled Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Aquino, Melissa; Sartori, Samantha; Stone, Gregg W.; Leon, Martin B.; Genereux, Philippe; Dangas, George D.; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Kimura, Takeshi; Salianski, Olga; Stefanini, Giulio G.; Steg, Gabriel; Windecker, Stephan; Wijns, William; Serruys, Patrick W.; Valgimigli, Marco; Morice, Marie-Claude; Camenzind, Edoardo; Weisz, Giora; Smits, Pieter C.; Kandzari, David E.; Galatius, Soren; von Birgelen, Clemens; Saporito, Robert; Jeger, Raban V.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Mehta, Laxmi; Ortega, Rebecca; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kastrati, Adnan; Chieffo, Alaide; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) versus early-generation DES in women undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (CPCI). Background Whether the benefits of new-generation DES are preserved in women

  7. Combinatorial screening of an in situ generated library of tungsten oxyhalide and imido complexes for olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Duane R; Sussman, Victor J; Burdett, Ken; Chen, Yu; Miller, Kami J

    2014-10-13

    A series of substituted tungsten(VI) halides with general formula WECl4 (E = O or -NR (imido)) were screened via a high throughput study to identify potential new olefin metathesis catalysts. The tungsten species were treated with a series of aluminum alkyl activators and modifier ligands to generate active catalyst species in situ. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene was used as a primary screen to identify potential metathesis catalysts and active catalysts were subjected to a secondary screen to evaluate tolerance toward polar functional groups. Several combinations from the high throughput campaign yielded active metathesis catalysts for the ROMP of cyclooctene. However, none of the catalysts examined in this study exhibited any evidence of significant polar functional group tolerance as determined by the results of the secondary cyclooctene/butyl acetate screen.

  8. The hippocampal CA3 region can generate two distinct types of sharp wave-ripple complexes, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Katharina T; Kandrács, Ágnes; Ulbert, István; Pál, Ildikó; Szabó, Csilla; Héja, László; Wittner, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) occur during slow wave sleep and behavioral immobility and are thought to play an important role in memory formation. We investigated the cellular and network properties of SPW-Rs with simultaneous laminar multielectrode and intracellular recordings in a rat hippocampal slice model, using physiological bathing medium. Spontaneous SPW-Rs were generated in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 regions. These events were characterized by a local field potential gradient (LFPg) transient, increased fast oscillatory activity and increased multiple unit activity (MUA). Two types of SPW-Rs were distinguished in the CA3 region based on their different LFPg and current source density (CSD) pattern. Type 1 (T1) displayed negative LFPg transient in the pyramidal cell layer, and the associated CSD sink was confined to the proximal dendrites. Type 2 (T2) SPW-Rs were characterized by positive LFPg transient in the cell layer, and showed CSD sinks involving both the apical and basal dendrites. In both types, consistent with the somatic CSD source, only a small subset of CA3 pyramidal cells fired, most pyramidal cells were hyperpolarized, while most interneurons increased firing rate before the LFPg peak. Different neuronal populations, with different proportions of pyramidal cells and distinct subsets of interneurons were activated during T1 and T2 SPW-Rs. Activation of specific inhibitory cell subsets-with the possible leading role of perisomatic interneurons-seems to be crucial to synchronize distinct ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells finally resulting in the expression of different SPW-R activities. This suggests that the hippocampus can generate dynamic changes in its activity stemming from the same excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and so, might provide the cellular and network basis for an input-specific and activity-dependent information transmission. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    Fenestration attachments are anticipated to produce significant reductions in building energy use because they can be deployed quickly at low-cost. New software tools enable users to assess the building energy impacts of optically complex fenestration systems (CFS) such as shades, Venetian blinds......, or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data...

  10. An Unspoken Crisis: The "Scarring Effects" of the Complex Nexus between Education and Work on Two Generations of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Hernan; Wyn, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    It is common for organizations such as the International Labour Organization and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development to acknowledge that the links between education and work are far from smooth, creating a "crisis" for youth. This includes increasing rates of unemployment, under-employment and precarious work. In…

  11. c-Fos generation in the dorsal vagal complex after systemic endotoxin is not dependent on the vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, G E; Emch, G S; Tovar, C A; Rogers, R C

    2001-01-01

    The present study used activation of the c-Fos oncogene protein within neurons in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as a marker of neuronal excitation in response to systemic endotoxin challenge [i.e. , lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. Specifically, we investigated whether vagal connections with the brain stem are necessary for LPS cytokine- induced activation of DVC neurons. Systemic exposure to LPS elicited a significant activation of c-Fos in neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and area postrema of all thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats examined, regardless of the integrity of their vagal nerves. That is, rats with both vagi cervically transected were still able to respond with c-Fos activation of neurons in the DVC. Unilateral cervical vagotomy produced a consistent but small reduction in c-Fos activation in the ipsilateral NST of all animals within this experimental group. Given that afferent input to the NST is exclusively excitatory, it is not surprising that unilateral elimination of all vagal afferents would diminish NST responsiveness (on the vagotomized side). These data lead us to conclude that the NST itself is a primary central nervous system detector of cytokines.

  12. A likelihood ratio-based method to predict exact pedigrees for complex families from next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Verena; Kamphans, Tom; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Krawitz, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology considerably changed the way we screen for pathogenic mutations in rare Mendelian disorders. However, the identification of the disease-causing mutation amongst thousands of variants of partly unknown relevance is still challenging and efficient techniques that reduce the genomic search space play a decisive role. Often segregation- or linkage analysis are used to prioritize candidates, however, these approaches require correct information about the degree of relationship among the sequenced samples. For quality assurance an automated control of pedigree structures and sample assignment is therefore highly desirable in order to detect label mix-ups that might otherwise corrupt downstream analysis. We developed an algorithm based on likelihood ratios that discriminates between different classes of relationship for an arbitrary number of genotyped samples. By identifying the most likely class we are able to reconstruct entire pedigrees iteratively, even for highly consanguineous families. We tested our approach on exome data of different sequencing studies and achieved high precision for all pedigree predictions. By analyzing the precision for varying degrees of relatedness or inbreeding we could show that a prediction is robust down to magnitudes of a few hundred loci. A java standalone application that computes the relationships between multiple samples as well as a Rscript that visualizes the pedigree information is available for download as well as a web service at www.gene-talk.de CONTACT: heinrich@molgen.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Rapid 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing of polymicrobial clinical samples for diagnosis of complex bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Salipante

    Full Text Available Classifying individual bacterial species comprising complex, polymicrobial patient specimens remains a challenge for culture-based and molecular microbiology techniques in common clinical use. We therefore adapted practices from metagenomics research to rapidly catalog the bacterial composition of clinical specimens directly from patients, without need for prior culture. We have combined a semiconductor deep sequencing protocol that produces reads spanning 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions 1 and 2 (∼360 bp with a de-noising pipeline that significantly improves the fraction of error-free sequences. The resulting sequences can be used to perform accurate genus- or species-level taxonomic assignment. We explore the microbial composition of challenging, heterogeneous clinical specimens by deep sequencing, culture-based strain typing, and Sanger sequencing of bulk PCR product. We report that deep sequencing can catalog bacterial species in mixed specimens from which usable data cannot be obtained by conventional clinical methods. Deep sequencing a collection of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis (CF patients reveals well-described CF pathogens in specimens where they were not detected by standard clinical culture methods, especially for low-prevalence or fastidious bacteria. We also found that sputa submitted for CF diagnostic workup can be divided into a limited number of groups based on the phylogenetic composition of the airway microbiota, suggesting that metagenomic profiling may prove useful as a clinical diagnostic strategy in the future. The described method is sufficiently rapid (theoretically compatible with same-day turnaround times and inexpensive for routine clinical use.

  14. Generation of mercury and cadmium cationic complexes from oxidation processes observed in the presence of dimethylmercury and dimethylcadmium at mercury, platinum, and glass carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, A.M.; McLachian, N.M.

    1988-03-01

    Electrochemical oxidation processes at mercury, platinum, and glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of Me/sub 2/Hg generate a mercury-rich cationic complex that is believed to be (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ or a closely related species. At mercury electrodes, direct participation of the electrode is involved in the electrochemical reaction, which is postulated to occur according to Me/sub 2/Hg + 2Hg ..-->.. (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/. Reduction of the mercury-rich cation (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ at a platinum electrode leads to deposition of elemental mercury and regeneration of Me/sub 2/Hg at the mercury-plated platinum electrode: (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ ..-->.. Me/sub 2/Hg + 2Hg. At platinum and glassy carbon electrodes, (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ is also produced as a product of controlled potential electrolysis experiments. In this case, the initially generated (Me/sub 2/Hg)/sup +/ complex is formed at very positive potentials. (Me/sub 2/Hg)/sup +/ then reacts rapidly to generate the cationic methyl mercury complex. The overall process at platinum and glassy carbon electrodes is proposed as 3Me/sub 2/Hg ..-->.. (Me/sub 2/Hg/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ + 4Me/sup ./ + 2e/sup -/. Oxidation processes associated with the presence of Me/sub 2/Cd are also electrode-dependent. At mercury electrode, alkyl and metal exchange occurs via a bimetallic alkylcadmium-mercury intermediate: Me/sub 2/Cd + Hg ..-->.. Me/sub 2/Hg + Cd/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/. At platinum and glassy carbon electrodes the reaction occurs at more positive potentials than at mercury electrodes and generates inorganic cadmium ions: Me/sub 2/Cd ..-->.. Cd/sup 2 +/ + 2Me/sup ./ + 2e/sup -/.

  15. Complex of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodin, A. I.; Red'kin, V. V.; Frolov, Y. D.; Korobkov, A. A.; Kemaev, O. V.; Kulik, M. V.; Shabalin, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    A set of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment is offered. The following technologies are regarded as core technologies for the complex: cryogenic technology nitrogen for displacement of hydrogen from the cooling circuit of turbine generators, cryo blasting of the power units by dioxide granules, preservation of the shutdown power units by dehydrated air, and dismantling and severing of equipment and structural materials of power units. Four prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power units may be built on the basis of selected technologies: Multimode nitrogen cryogenic system with four subsystems, cryo blasting system with CO2 granules for thermal-mechanical and electrical equipment of power units, and compressionless air-drainage systems for drying and storage of the shutdown power units and cryo-gas system for general severing of the steam-turbine power units. Results of the research and pilot and demonstration tests of the operational units of the considered technological systems allow applying the proposed technologies and systems in the prototype systems for shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment.

  16. Thermolysis of Half-Sandwich Vanadium(V) Imido Complexes to Generate Vanadium(III) Imido Species via a Vanadium(IV) Intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batinas, Aurora A.; Dam, Jeroen; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Bouwkamp, Marco W.

    2010-01-01

    Thermolysis of half-sandwich vanadium imido complexes Cp(RN)V(i-Pr(2)N)Me (R = p-Tol, 1a; R = t-Bu, 1b) results in a mixture of products, including vanadium(IV) dimers [CpVMe](2)(mu-RN)(2), i-Pr(2)NH, i-PrNCMe(2), CH(4), and one or more paramagnetic species. In the presence of dmpe (dmpe =

  17. A Vignette (User’s Guide) for “An R Package for Statistical Analysis of Chemistry, Histopathology, and Reproduction Endpoints Including Repeated Measures and Multi-Generation Studies (StatCharrms).”

    Science.gov (United States)

    StatCharrms is a graphical user front-end for ease of use in analyzing data generated from OCSPP 890.2200, Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) and OCSPP 890.2300, Larval Amphibian Gonad Development Assay (LAGDA). The analyses StatCharrms is capable of perfor...

  18. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  19. The AGAAAAGA palindrome in PrP is required to generate a productive PrPSc-PrPC complex that leads to prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, Eric M; Mastrianni, James A

    2005-07-22

    The molecular hallmark of prion disease is the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to an insoluble, proteinase K-resistant, pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Once generated, PrPSc propagates by complexing with, and transferring its pathogenic conformation onto, PrPC. Defining the specific nature of this PrPSc-PrPC interaction is critical to understanding prion genesis. To begin to approach this question, we employed a prion-infected neuroblastoma cell line (ScN2a) combined with a heterologous yeast expression system to independently model PrPSc generation and propagation. We additionally applied fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis to the latter to specifically study PrP-PrP interactions. In this report we focus on an N-terminal hydrophobic palindrome of PrP (112-AGAAAAGA-119) thought to feature intimately in prion generation via an unclear mechanism. We found that, in contrast to wild type (wt) PrP, PrP lacking the palindrome (PrPDelta112-119) neither converted to PrPSc when expressed in ScN2a cells nor generated proteinase K-resistant PrP when expressed in yeast. Furthermore, PrPDelta112-119 was a dominant-negative inhibitor of wtPrP in ScN2a cells. Both wtPrP and PrPDelta112-119 were highly insoluble when expressed in yeast and produced distinct cytosolic aggregates when expressed as fluorescent fusion proteins (PrP::YFP). Although self-aggregation was evident, fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies in live yeast co-expressing PrPSc-like protein and PrPDelta112-119 indicated altered interaction properties. These results suggest that the palindrome is required, not only for the attainment of the PrPSc conformation but also to facilitate the proper association of PrPSc with PrPC to effect prion propagation.

  20. Automated mass action model space generation and analysis methods for two-reactant combinatorially complex equilibriums: An analysis of ATP-induced ribonucleotide reductase R1 hexamerization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoyevitch Tomas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonucleotide reductase is the main control point of dNTP production. It has two subunits, R1, and R2 or p53R2. R1 has 5 possible catalytic site states (empty or filled with 1 of 4 NDPs, 5 possible s-site states (empty or filled with ATP, dATP, dTTP or dGTP, 3 possible a-site states (empty or filled with ATP or dATP, perhaps two possible h-site states (empty or filled with ATP, and all of this is folded into an R1 monomer-dimer-tetramer-hexamer equilibrium where R1 j-mers can be bound by variable numbers of R2 or p53R2 dimers. Trillions of RNR complexes are possible as a result. The problem is to determine which are needed in models to explain available data. This problem is intractable for 10 reactants, but it can be solved for 2 and is here for R1 and ATP. Results Thousands of ATP-induced R1 hexamerization models with up to three (s, a and h ATP binding sites per R1 subunit were automatically generated via hypotheses that complete dissociation constants are infinite and/or that binary dissociation constants are equal. To limit the model space size, it was assumed that s-sites are always filled in oligomers and never filled in monomers, and to interpret model terms it was assumed that a-sites fill before h-sites. The models were fitted to published dynamic light scattering data. As the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC of the 3-parameter models was greater than the lowest of the 2-parameter models, only models with up to 3 parameters were fitted. Models with sums of squared errors less than twice the minimum were then partitioned into two groups: those that contained no occupied h-site terms (508 models and those that contained at least one (1580 models. Normalized AIC densities of these two groups of models differed significantly in favor of models that did not include an h-site term (Kolmogorov-Smirnov p -15; consistent with this, 28 of the top 30 models (ranked by AICs did not include an h-site term and 28

  1. Viral strategies for studying the brain, including a replication-restricted self-amplifying delta-G vesicular stomatis virus that rapidly expresses transgenes in brain and can generate a multicolor golgi-like expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Ozduman, Koray; Wollmann, Guido; Ho, Winson S C; Simon, Ian; Yao, Yang; Rose, John K; Ghosh, Prabhat

    2009-10-20

    Viruses have substantial value as vehicles for transporting transgenes into neurons. Each virus has its own set of attributes for addressing neuroscience-related questions. Here we review some of the advantages and limitations of herpes, pseudorabies, rabies, adeno-associated, lentivirus, and others to study the brain. We then explore a novel recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (dG-VSV) with the G-gene deleted and transgenes engineered into the first position of the RNA genome, which replicates only in the first brain cell infected, as corroborated with ultrastructural analysis, eliminating spread of virus. Because of its ability to replicate rapidly and to express multiple mRNA copies and additional templates for more copies, reporter gene expression is amplified substantially, over 500-fold in 6 hours, allowing detailed imaging of dendrites, dendritic spines, axons, and axon terminal fields within a few hours to a few days after inoculation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is first detected within 1 hour of inoculation. The virus generates a Golgi-like appearance in all neurons or glia of regions of the brain tested. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, calcium digital imaging with fura-2, and time-lapse digital imaging showed that neurons appeared physiologically normal after expressing viral transgenes. The virus has a wide range of species applicability, including mouse, rat, hamster, human, and Drosophila cells. By using dG-VSV, we show efferent projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus terminating in the periventricular region immediately dorsal to the nucleus. DG-VSVs with genes coding for different color reporters allow multicolor visualization of neurons wherever applied.

  2. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Alfred I

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99% of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase, or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days. These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve

  3. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan; Geller, Alfred I

    2009-06-16

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (approximately 99%) of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase), or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex) supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days). These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed

  4. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  5. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  6. Coupled ice sheet - climate simulations of the last glacial inception and last glacial maximum with a model of intermediate complexity that includes a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.

    2017-04-01

    Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.

  7. Identification of an Isothiocyanate on the HypEF Complex Suggests a Route for Efficient Cyanyl-Group Channeling during [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Cofactor Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven T Stripp

    Full Text Available [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze uptake and evolution of H2 in a wide range of microorganisms. The enzyme is characterized by an inorganic nickel/ iron cofactor, the latter of which carries carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. In vivo generation of these ligands requires a number of auxiliary proteins, the so-called Hyp family. Initially, HypF binds and activates the precursor metabolite carbamoyl phosphate. HypF catalyzes removal of phosphate and transfers the carbamate group to HypE. In an ATP-dependent condensation reaction, the C-terminal cysteinyl residue of HypE is modified to what has been interpreted as thiocyanate. This group is the direct precursor of the cyanide ligands of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site cofactor. We present a FT-IR analysis of HypE and HypF as isolated from E. coli. We follow the HypF-catalyzed cyanation of HypE in vitro and screen for the influence of carbamoyl phosphate and ATP. To elucidate on the differences between HypE and the HypEF complex, spectro-electrochemistry was used to map the vibrational Stark effect of naturally cyanated HypE. The IR signature of HypE could ultimately be assigned to isothiocyanate (-N=C=S rather than thiocyanate (-S-C≡N. This has important implications for cyanyl-group channeling during [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor generation.

  8. Type IX secretion: the generation of bacterial cell surface coatings involved in virulence, gliding motility and the degradation of complex biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D; Glew, Michelle D; Gorasia, Dhana G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is present in over 1000 sequenced species/strains of the Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes superphylum. Proteins secreted by the T9SS have an N-terminal signal peptide for translocation across the inner membrane via the SEC translocon and a C-terminal signal for secretion across the outer membrane via the T9SS. Nineteen protein components of the T9SS have been identified including three, SigP, PorX and PorY that are involved in regulation. The inner membrane proteins PorL and PorM and the outer membrane proteins PorK and PorN interact and a complex comprising PorK and PorN forms a large ring structure of 50 nm in diameter. PorU, PorV, PorQ and PorZ form an attachment complex on the cell surface of the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis T9SS substrates bind to PorV suggesting that after translocation PorV functions as a shuttle protein to deliver T9SS substrates to the attachment complex. The PorU component of the attachment complex is a novel Gram negative sortase which catalyses the cleavage of the C-terminal signal and conjugation of the protein substrates to lipopolysaccharide, anchoring them to the cell surface. This review presents an overview of the T9SS focusing on the function of T9SS substrates and machinery components. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  10. Highly Fluorinated Ir(III)-2,2':6',2″-Terpyridine-Phenylpyridine-X Complexes via Selective C-F Activation: Robust Photocatalysts for Solar Fuel Generation and Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Jonathan A; Mills, Isaac N; Transue, Wesley J; Bernhard, Stefan

    2016-08-03

    A series of fluorinated Ir(III)-terpyridine-phenylpyridine-X (X = anionic monodentate ligand) complexes were synthesized by selective C-F activation, whereby perfluorinated phenylpyridines were readily complexed. The combination of fluorinated phenylpyridine ligands with an electron-rich tri-tert-butyl terpyridine ligand generates a "push-pull" force on the electrons upon excitation, imparting significant enhancements to the stability, electrochemical, and photophysical properties of the complexes. Application of the complexes as photosensitizers for photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from water and as redox photocatalysts for decarboxylative fluorination of several carboxylic acids showcases the performance of the complexes in highly coordinating solvents, in some cases exceeding that of the leading photosensitizers. Changes in the photophysical properties and the nature of the excited states are observed as the compounds increase in fluorination as well as upon exchange of the ancillary chloride ligand to a cyanide. These changes in the excited states have been corroborated using density functional theory modeling.

  11. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions...... of neurons in the midbrain raphe complex that projects to forebrain circuits regulating anxiety states, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BL) in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells...... that activated neurons were serotonergic, non-serotonergic, or both. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to anxiogenic stimuli activates a subset of neurons in the midbrain raphe complex projecting to amygdala anxiety circuits Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/10...

  12. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons...... of neurons in the midbrain raphe complex that projects to forebrain circuits regulating anxiety states, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BL) in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells...

  13. Characterizing the Trade Space Between Capability and Complexity in Next Generation Cloud and Precipitation Observing Systems Using Markov Chain Monte Carlos Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Mace, G. G.; Posselt, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    As we begin to contemplate the next generation atmospheric observing systems, it will be critically important that we are able to make informed decisions regarding the trade space between scientific capability and the need to keep complexity and cost within definable limits. To explore this trade space as it pertains to understanding key cloud and precipitation processes, we are developing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm suite that allows us to arbitrarily define the specifications of candidate observing systems and then explore how the uncertainties in key retrieved geophysical parameters respond to that observing system. MCMC algorithms produce a more complete posterior solution space, and allow for an objective examination of information contained in measurements. In our initial implementation, MCMC experiments are performed to retrieve vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation properties from a spectrum of active and passive measurements collected by aircraft during the ACE Radiation Definition Experiments (RADEX). Focusing on shallow cumulus clouds observed during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology EXperiment (IPHEX), observing systems in this study we consider W and Ka-band radar reflectivity, path-integrated attenuation at those frequencies, 31 and 94 GHz brightness temperatures as well as visible and near-infrared reflectance. By varying the sensitivity and uncertainty of these measurements, we quantify the capacity of various combinations of observations to characterize the physical properties of clouds and precipitation.

  14. Macrophage activation by a vanadyl-aspirin complex is dependent on L-type calcium channel and the generation of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinuevo, Maria Silvina; Etcheverry, Susana Beatriz; Cortizo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is the result of a tight balance between bone resorption and bone formation where macrophage activation is believed to contribute to bone resorption. We have previously shown that a vanadyl(IV)-aspirin complex (VOAspi) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in culture. In this study, we assessed VOAspi and VO effects and their possible mechanism of action on a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Both vanadium compounds inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine completely reversed the VOAspi-induced macrophage cytotoxicity, while it could not block the effect of VO. VOAspi also stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) and enhanced the expression of both constitutive and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide syntases (NOS). All these effects were abolished by nifedipine. Althogether our finding give evidence that VOAspi-induced macrophage cytotoxicity is dependent on L-type calcium channel and the generation of NO though the induction of eNOS and iNOS. Contrary, the parent compound VO exerted a cytotoxic effect by mechanisms independent of a calcium entry and the NO/NOS activation

  15. NH NMR shifts of new structurally characterized fac-[Re(CO)3(polyamine)]n+ complexes probed via outer-sphere hydrogen-bonding interactions to anions, including the paramagnetic [Re(IV)Br6]2- anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-06-21

    fac-[Re(I)(CO)(3)L](n) complexes serve as models for short-lived fac-[(99m)Tc(I)(CO)(3)L](n) imaging tracers (L = tridentate ligands forming two five-membered chelate rings defining the L face). Dangling groups on L, needed to achieve desirable biodistribution, complicate the NMR spectra, which are not readily understood. Using less complicated L, we found that NH groups (exo-NH) projecting toward the L face sometimes showed an upfield shift attributable to steric shielding of the exo-NH group from the solvent by the chelate rings. Our goal is to advance our ability to relate these spectral features to structure and solution properties. To investigate whether exo-NH groups in six-membered rings exhibit the same effect and whether the presence of dangling groups alters the effect, we prepared new fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](n+) complexes that allow direct comparisons of exo-NH shifts for six-membered versus five-membered chelate rings. New complexes were structurally characterized with the following L: dipn [N-3-(aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine], N'-Medipn (3,3'-diamino-N-methyldipropylamine), N,N-Me(2)dipn (N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine), aepn [N-2-(aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine], trpn [tris-(3-aminopropyl)amine], and tren [tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine]. In DMSO-d(6), the upfield exo-NH signals were exhibited by all complexes, indicating that the rings sterically shield the exo-NH groups from bulky solvent molecules. This interpretation was supported by exo-NH signal shift changes caused by added halide and [ReBr(6)](2-) anions, consistent with outer-sphere hydrogen-bond interactions between these anions and the exo-NH groups. For fac-[Re(CO)(3)(dipn)]PF(6) in acetonitrile-d(3), the exo-NH signal shifted further downfield in the series, Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-), and the plateau in the shift change required a lower concentration for smaller anions. These results are consistent with steric shielding of the exo-NH groups by the chelate rings. Nevertheless, despite its size, the shape

  16. A computer model for one-dimensional mass and energy transport in and around chemically reacting particles, including complex gas-phase chemistry, multicomponent molecular diffusion, surface evaporation, and heterogeneous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.

    1992-01-01

    Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.

  17. Non-respiratory neurons in the Bötzinger complex exhibiting appropriate firing patterns to generate the emetic act in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H; Koga, T

    1992-08-01

    This work was performed to prove the hypothesis that the pattern generator for the emetic act exists in the Bötzinger complex (BOT) and is driven by vagal afferents via the subpostrema portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (mNST). Non-respiratory neurons (78) intermingling with BOT respiratory neurons in decerebrate dogs responded to pulse train stimulation of vagal afferents with a mean latency of 387 ms. During retching induced by vagal stimulation, one-half of the non-respiratory neurons exhibited high frequency burst firings synchronous with each retch (SH-firing, SH-neurons) and one-third of these neurons showed similar firings synchronous with the periods between retches (BH-firing, BH-neurons). Two-thirds of the SH-neurons and one-half of the BH-neurons fired with gradually augmenting frequencies (augmenting firing) during the period prior to retching, which may correspond to the period of prodromal signs of vomiting. Three SH-neurons were observed at fictive expulsion: all 3 exhibited burst firings concomitant with expulsion. During cooling block of transmission in the mNST, stimulation of the vagus nerve ipsilateral to the cooling failed to induce not only retching but also augmenting firing and SH-firing in all 11 BOT SH-neurons observed. In contrast, contralateral vagal stimulation induced retching and neuronal firings which had been observed before the cooling. These results support the hypothesis mentioned above. Respiratory firings were changed during retching in all BOT respiratory neurons observed. Respiratory firings were depressed during retching in the majority (15/25) of inspiratory (I) neurons and in a few expiratory (E) neurons (6/45). SH-firing was exhibited by 3 I- and 13 E-neurons. A few (2) I- and half (23) E-neurons showed BH-firing. These results indicate that all BOT respiratory neurons participate in central patterning of the emetic act.

  18. Evaluating complex interventions in end of life care: the MORECare statement on good practice generated by a synthesis of transparent expert consultations and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Evans, Catherine J; Grande, Gunn; Preston, Nancy; Morgan, Myfanwy; McCrone, Paul; Lewis, Penney; Fayers, Peter; Harding, Richard; Hotopf, Matthew; Murray, Scott A; Benalia, Hamid; Gysels, Marjolein; Farquhar, Morag; Todd, Chris

    2013-04-24

    Despite being a core business of medicine, end of life care (EoLC) is neglected. It is hampered by research that is difficult to conduct with no common standards. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidance on the best methods for the design and conduct of research on EoLC to further knowledge in the field. The Methods Of Researching End of life Care (MORECare) project built on the Medical Research Council guidance on the development and evaluation of complex circumstances. We conducted systematic literature reviews, transparent expert consultations (TEC) involving consensus methods of nominal group and online voting, and stakeholder workshops to identify challenges and best practice in EoLC research, including: participation recruitment, ethics, attrition, integration of mixed methods, complex outcomes and economic evaluation. We synthesised all findings to develop a guidance statement on the best methods to research EoLC. We integrated data from three systematic reviews and five TECs with 133 online responses. We recommend research designs extending beyond randomised trials and encompassing mixed methods. Patients and families value participation in research, and consumer or patient collaboration in developing studies can resolve some ethical concerns. It is ethically desirable to offer patients and families the opportunity to participate in research. Outcome measures should be short, responsive to change and ideally used for both clinical practice and research. Attrition should be anticipated in studies and may affirm inclusion of the relevant population, but careful reporting is necessitated using a new classification. Eventual implementation requires consideration at all stages of the project. The MORECare statement provides 36 best practice solutions for research evaluating services and treatments in EoLC to improve study quality and set the standard for future research. The statement may be used alongside existing statements and provides a first step in

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  1. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  2. Real-World Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Experience Compared With Second-Generation Metallic Drug-Eluting Stents in Complex Coronary Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Naotaka; Ueda, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takahiro; Chamaria, Surbhi; Bhatheja, Samit; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Rabiei, Samaneh; Barrientos, Yonandy; Kapur, Vishal; Barman, Nitin; Sweeny, Joseph; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sharma, Samin K; Kini, Annapoorna S

    2018-04-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the acute outcomes of Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) and second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in routine clinical practice. There is a paucity of data regarding BVS use in a real-world patient population. The study population comprised 40 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with BVS implantation at a tertiary-care center in New York, New York between July and December of 2016. An optimal implantation technique including adequate lesion preparation, mandatory postdilation, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was used in all cases. De novo lesions treated with BVS were compared to lesions treated with DES matched by OCT calcium arc, scaffold/stent size, use of atherectomy device, and lesion postdilation. Acute lumen gain, minimal device area, malapposition, eccentricity, and symmetry index were assessed using OCT. We analyzed OCT images of 40 BVS cases and 40 matching DES cases from 35 and 40 patients, respectively. Compared to the DES group, the BVS group demonstrated similar acute lumen gain, minimal scaffold/stent area, eccentricity index, and symmetry index after PCI. There were fewer malapposed struts detected after BVS implantation; however, malapposition distance and length were not different between the groups. BVS implantation in a real-world patient population with optimal implantation technique resulted in similar stent expansion and better strut apposition compared to DES implantation.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and Genetic Similarities Within a New Generation of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii Complex Resistotypes in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöl, Aydin; Dedeić-Ljubović, Amela; Salimović-Bešić, Irma; Hukic, Mirsada

    2016-12-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (ACB complex) is a nosocomial pathogen. Due to its high ability to develop antibiotic resistance, it has become a problematic challenge in the modern healthcare system. The molecular and genetic mechanisms of gaining multidrug resistance in ACB complex are well known. This study focuses on providing an overview of the antibiotic resistance profiles, genetic similarities and resistotypes, and general characteristics of carbapenem-resistant ACB complex (CRACB) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). In light of the data collected in this study, together with the already known information concerning antibiotic resistance of ACB complex, we intend to further elucidate the antibiotic therapy for CRACB strain resistotypes in BiH.

  4. Results of a Second-generation Constrained Condylar Prosthesis in Complex Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Mean 5.5-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Ye

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Second-generation modular CCK prostheses are a safe and practical treatment for both primary and revision knees that cannot be balanced. However, further studies focusing on different types of constrained prostheses are required to validate these results.

  5. Coffin-Siris syndrome and related disorders involving components of the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complex: historical review and recent advances using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosho, Tomoki; Miyake, Noriko; Carey, John C

    2014-09-01

    This issue of Seminars in Medical Genetics, American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C investigates the human diseases caused by mutations in the BAF complex (also known as the mammalian SWI/SNF complex) genes, particularly focusing on Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS). CSS is a rare congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID), coarse facial appearance, feeding difficulties, frequent infections, and hypoplasia/aplasia of the fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. In 2012, 42 years after the first description of CSS in 1970, five causative genes (SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, ARID1B), all encoding components of the BAF complex, were identified as being responsible for CSS through whole exome sequencing and pathway-based genetic screening. The identification of two additional causative genes (PHF6, SOX11) followed. Mutations in another BAF complex gene (SMARCA2) and (TBC1D24) were found to cause clinically similar conditions with ID, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome and DOORS syndrome, respectively. Also, ADNP was found to be mutated in an autism/ID syndrome. Furthermore, there is growing evidences for germline or somatic mutations in the BAF complex genes to be causal for cancer/cancer predisposition syndromes. These discoveries have highlighted the role of the BAF complex in the human development and cancer formation. The biology of BAF is very complicated and much remains unknown. Ongoing research is required to reveal the whole picture of the BAF complex in human development, and will lead to the development of new targeted therapies for related disorders in the future. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bis-picolinamide Ruthenium(III) Dihalide Complexes: Dichloride-to-Diiodide Exchange Generates Single trans Isomers with High Potency and Cancer Cell Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Aida M; Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rodríguez-Bárzano, Andrea; Lucas, Stephanie J; Janeway, Felix D; Shepherd, Helena J; Pask, Christopher M; Phillips, Roger M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2017-05-05

    A library of new bis-picolinamide ruthenium(III) dihalide complexes of the type [RuX 2 L 2 ] (X=Cl or I, L=picolinamide) have been synthesised and characterised. The complexes exhibit different picolinamide ligand binding modes, whereby one ligand is bound (N,N) and the other bound (N,O). Structural studies revealed a mixture of cis and trans isomers for the [RuCl 2 L 2 ] complexes but upon a halide exchange reaction to yield [RuI 2 L 2 ], only single trans isomers were detected. High cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines was observed, with the potencies of some complexes similar to or better than cisplatin. The conversion to [RuI 2 L 2 ] substantially increased the activity towards cancer cell lines by more than twelvefold. The [RuI 2 L 2 ] complexes displayed potent activity against the A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer) cell line, with a more than fourfold higher potency than cisplatin. Equitoxic activity was observed against normoxic and hypoxic cancer cells, which indicates the potential to eradicate both the hypoxic and aerobic fractions of solid tumours with similar efficiency. The activity of selected complexes against non-cancer ARPE-19 cells was also tested. The [RuI 2 L 2 ] complexes were found to be more potent than the [RuCl 2 L 2 ] analogues and also more selective towards cancer cells with a selectivity factor in excess of sevenfold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  8. Tele-operation of the electric power generation and transmission in large complex; Teleoperacao da geracao e transmissao de energia eletrica em complexo de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Jose Sidnei Colombo

    1992-07-01

    This work presents the specification and development outstanding aspects of a large supervisory and control power system. The engineering experiment, named SSCH - Hierarchical Supervision and Control System, occurred between 1982 and 1992 at Sao Paulo State and is an industrial automation power system most expressive cases carried out in this decade. More than complex development technical details, important management aspects concerning with large project execution are discussed. The SSCHs special characteristics are its dimension, complexity and realtime network analysis resources, applied to large power systems. (author)

  9. A new species complex including Claviceps fusiformis and Claviceps hirtella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D. E.; Olšovská, Jana; Man, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2008), s. 95-110 ISSN 1560-2745 Grant - others:US(US) Intsormil Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alkaloids * cenchrus * claviceps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2008

  10. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of unsteady air loads is an essential step in any aeroelastic analysis. The subsonic doublet lattice method (DLM) is used extensively for this purpose due to its simplicity and reliability. The body models available with the popular...

  11. On Measuring the Complexity of Networks: Kolmogorov Complexity versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Morzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular methods of estimating the complexity of networks is to measure the entropy of network invariants, such as adjacency matrices or degree sequences. Unfortunately, entropy and all entropy-based information-theoretic measures have several vulnerabilities. These measures neither are independent of a particular representation of the network nor can capture the properties of the generative process, which produces the network. Instead, we advocate the use of the algorithmic entropy as the basis for complexity definition for networks. Algorithmic entropy (also known as Kolmogorov complexity or K-complexity for short evaluates the complexity of the description required for a lossless recreation of the network. This measure is not affected by a particular choice of network features and it does not depend on the method of network representation. We perform experiments on Shannon entropy and K-complexity for gradually evolving networks. The results of these experiments point to K-complexity as the more robust and reliable measure of network complexity. The original contribution of the paper includes the introduction of several new entropy-deceiving networks and the empirical comparison of entropy and K-complexity as fundamental quantities for constructing complexity measures for networks.

  12. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6 ± 0.2 µM for DPPACH and 1.3 ± 0.2 µM for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 µM for DPPACH and 7.8 ± 0.4 µM for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities.

  13. Third-generation electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray interface with improved stability and sensitivity for automated capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry analysis of complex proteome digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Zhang, Zhenbin; Mou, Si; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-05-01

    We have reported a set of electrokinetically pumped sheath flow nanoelectrospray interfaces to couple capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. A separation capillary is threaded through a cross into a glass emitter. A side arm provides fluidic contact with a sheath buffer reservoir that is connected to a power supply. The potential applied to the sheath buffer drives electro-osmosis in the emitter to pump the sheath fluid at nanoliter per minute rates. Our first-generation interface placed a flat-tipped capillary in the emitter. Sensitivity was inversely related to orifice size and to the distance from the capillary tip to the emitter orifice. A second-generation interface used a capillary with an etched tip that allowed the capillary exit to approach within a few hundred micrometers of the emitter orifice, resulting in a significant increase in sensitivity. In both the first- and second-generation interfaces, the emitter diameter was typically 8 μm; these narrow orifices were susceptible to plugging and tended to have limited lifetime. We now report a third-generation interface that employs a larger diameter emitter orifice with very short distance between the capillary tip and the emitter orifice. This modified interface is much more robust and produces much longer lifetime than our previous designs with no loss in sensitivity. We evaluated the third-generation interface for a 5000 min (127 runs, 3.5 days) repetitive analysis of bovine serum albumin digest using an uncoated capillary. We observed a 10% relative standard deviation in peak area, an average of 160,000 theoretical plates, and very low carry-over (much less than 1%). We employed a linear-polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated capillary for single-shot, bottom-up proteomic analysis of 300 ng of Xenopus laevis fertilized egg proteome digest and identified 1249 protein groups and 4038 peptides in a 110 min separation using an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; peak capacity was ∼330. The

  14. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  15. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  16. Complex sentences in sign languages: Modality, typology, discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Herrmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Sign language grammars, just like spoken language grammars, generally provide various means to generate different kinds of complex syntactic structures including subordination of complement clauses, adverbial clauses, or relative clauses. Studies on various sign languages have revealed that sign

  17. Photo release of nitrous oxide from the hyponitrite ion studied by infrared spectroscopy. Evidence for the generation of a cobalt-N2O complex. Experimental and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón Villalba, M Elizabeth; Franca, Carlos A; Güida, Jorge A

    2017-04-05

    The solid state photolysis of sodium, silver and thallium hyponitrite (M 2 N 2 O 2 , M=Na, Ag, Tl) salts and a binuclear complex of cobalt bridged by hyponitrite ([Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ ) were studied by irradiation with visible and UV light in the electronic absorption region. The UV-visible spectra for free hyponitrite ion and binuclear complex of cobalt were interpreted in terms of Density Functional Theory calculations in order to explain photolysis behavior. The photolysis of each compound depends selectively on the irradiation wavelength. Irradiation with 340-460nm light and with the 488nm laser line generates photolysis only in silver and thallium hyponitrite salts, while 253.7nm light photolyzed all the studied compounds. Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow the photolysis process and to identify the generated products. Remarkably, gaseous N 2 O was detected after photolysis in the infrared spectra of sodium, silver, and thallium hyponitrite KBr pellets. The spectra for [Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ suggest that one cobalt ion remains bonded to N 2 O from which the generation of a [(NH 3 ) 5 CoNNO] +3 complex is inferred. Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations confirm the stability of this last complex and provide the theoretical data which are used in the interpretation of the electronic spectra of the hyponitrite ion and the cobalt binuclear complex and thus in the elucidation of their photolysis behavior. Carbonate ion is also detected after photolysis in all studied compounds, presumably due to the reaction of atmospheric CO 2 with the microcrystal surface reaction products. Kinetic measurements for the photolysis of the binuclear complex suggest a first order law for the intensity decay of the hyponitrite IR bands and for the intensity increase in the N 2 O generation. Predicted and experimental data are in very good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  19. Application of transcerebral, weak (1 microT) complex magnetic fields and mystical experiences: are they generated by field-induced dimethyltryptamine release from the pineal organ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D R; Persinger, M A

    2003-12-01

    During the last 15 years weak, complex magnetic fields have been applied across the two cerebral hemispheres at the level of the temporoparietal lobes of more than 500 volunteers. Most of these subjects have reported visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensations as well as experiences of detachment from the body of 'sentient beings'. Similar but more intense experiences were reported by Strassman in 2001 for volunteers who were injected with N,n-dimethyltryptamine, a compound Strassman hypothesized as the primary mediator of these experiences. If this speculation is valid, then subjects who are exposed to the very weak, complex fields known to elicit similar experiences should display significant increases in the metabolites of this compound within their blood.

  20. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  1. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  2. Exploiting coumarin-6 as ancillary ligands in 1,10-phenanthroline Ir(iii) complexes: generating triplet photosensitisers with high upconversion capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Conway-Kenny, R; Wang, J; Cui, X; Zhao, J; Draper, S M

    2018-02-12

    A series of new Ir(iii) complexes incorporating 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethylamino)coumarin (coumarin 6) and ethynylpyrene (EP) functionalised 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were developed. [Ir(iii)(coumarin 6) 2 (3-EP-phen)](PF 6 ) (Ir-3) proved to be the most promising material in triplet photosensitising applications. Highly absorbing at λ = 485 nm (ε = 1.31 × 10 5 M -1 cm -1 ), it exhibits high upconversion and singlet oxygen quantum yields (Φ UC = 27.5%, Φ Δ = 81.5%) and an exemplary upconversion capability (η = 3.60 × 10 6 M -1 cm -1 ).

  3. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  4. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  5. Physical bases of the generation of short-term earthquake precursors: A complex model of ionization-induced geophysical processes in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Karelin, A. V.; Davidenko, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the current understanding of the interaction between geospheres from a complex set of physical and chemical processes under the influence of ionization. The sources of ionization involve the Earth's natural radioactivity and its intensification before earthquakes in seismically active regions, anthropogenic radioactivity caused by nuclear weapon testing and accidents in nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage, the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and active geophysical experiments using artificial ionization equipment. This approach treats the environment as an open complex system with dissipation, where inherent processes can be considered in the framework of the synergistic approach. We demonstrate the synergy between the evolution of thermal and electromagnetic anomalies in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This makes it possible to determine the direction of the interaction process, which is especially important in applications related to short-term earthquake prediction. That is why the emphasis in this study is on the processes proceeding the final stage of earthquake preparation; the effects of other ionization sources are used to demonstrate that the model is versatile and broadly applicable in geophysics.

  6. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  8. Gas–liquid chromatographic method for analysing complex mixtures of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids (cis9trans11 and trans10cis12 isomers) and long-chain (n-3 or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids: Application to the intramuscular fat of beef meat

    OpenAIRE

    Aldai, Noelia; Osoro, Koldo; Barrón, L.J. (L.); Nájera, A.I. (A.)

    2012-01-01

    The optimisation and validation of a gas–liquid chromatographic (GLC) method using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed by a derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane was carried out trying to overcome all the difficulties posed by the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids (FAs) in animal fat tissues. The presented method allowed sensitive, selective and simultaneous determination of a wide range of different FAs, including short-chain FAs, branched-chain FAs and conj...

  9. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  10. A silica-supported double-decker silsesquioxane provides a second skin for the selective generation of bipodal surface organometallic complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff

    2012-11-12

    A well-defined silica-based material with a homogeneous nanolayer presenting identical pairs of vicinal silanols has been prepared by reaction of the surface organometallic species [≡SiOZr(CH 2CMe 3) 3], obtained on a silica dehydroxylated at 900 °C, with the double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (OH) 2DD(OH) 2. The surface structure has been established using extensive NMR characterization ( 1H, 13C, 29Si, HETCOR, double-quantum, triple-quantum). Treatment with Zr(CH 2CMe 3) 4 leads to the first well-defined single-site bipodal grafted bis-neopentyl zirconium complex. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Thermodynamic stability and energetics of DNA duplexes containing major intrastrand cross-links of second-generation antitumor dinuclear Pt(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Jakub; Kasparkova, Jana; Farrell, Nicholas P; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-02-01

    The effects of major DNA intrastrand cross-links of antitumor dinuclear Pt(II) complexes [{trans-PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)-μ-{trans-(H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(6)NH(2))}](4+) (1) and [{PtCl(DACH)}(2)-μ-{H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(6)NH(2))}](4+) (2) (DACH is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane) on DNA stability were studied with emphasis on thermodynamic origins of that stability. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing the single 1,2, 1,3, or 1,5 intrastrand cross-links at guanine residues in the central TGGT, TGTGT, or TGTTTGT sequences, respectively, were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. The unfolding of the platinated duplexes was accompanied by unfavorable free energy terms. The efficiency of the cross-links to thermodynamically destabilize the duplex depended on the number of base pairs separating the platinated bases. The trend was 1,5→1,2→1,3 cross-link of 1 and 1,5→1,3→1,2 cross-link of 2. Interestingly, the results showed that the capability of the cross-links to reduce the thermodynamic stability of DNA (ΔG(298)(0)) correlated with the extent of conformational distortions induced in DNA by various types of intrastrand cross-links of 1 or 2 determined by chemical probes of DNA conformation. We also examined the efficiency of the mammalian nucleotide excision repair systems to remove from DNA the intrastrand cross-links of 1 or 2. The efficiency of the excinucleases to remove the cross-links from DNA depended on the length of the cross-link; the trend was identical to that observed for the efficiency of the intrastrand cross-links to thermodynamically destabilize the duplex. Thus, the results are consistent with the thesis that an important factor that determines the susceptibility of the intrastrand cross-links of dinuclear platinum complexes 1 and 2 to be removed from DNA by nucleotide excision repair is the efficiency of these lesions to thermodynamically destabilize DNA.

  12. The complexities of 'otherness': reflections on embodiment of a young White British woman engaged in cross-generation research involving older people in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    If interviews are to be considered embodied experiences, than the potential influence of the embodied researcher must be explored. A focus on specific attributes such as age or ethnicity belies the complex and negotiated space that both researcher and participant inhabit simultaneously. Drawing on empirical research with stroke survivors in an ethnically mixed area of Indonesia, this paper highlights the importance of considering embodiment as a specific methodological concern. Three specific interactions are described and analysed, illustrating the active nature of the embodied researcher in narrative production and development. The intersectionality of embodied features is evident, alongside their fluctuating influence in time and place. These interactions draw attention to the need to consider the researcher within the interview process and the subsequent analysis and presentation of narrative findings. The paper concludes with a reinforcement of the importance of ongoing and meaningful reflexivity in research, a need to consider the researcher as the other participant, and specifically a call to engage with and present the dynamic nature of embodiment.

  13. Axon Regeneration Is Regulated by Ets-C/EBP Transcription Complexes Generated by Activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways are important for axon regeneration. Axonal injury induces expression of the svh-2 gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, stimulation of which by the SVH-1 growth factor leads to activation of the JNK pathway. Here, we identify ETS-4 and CEBP-1, related to mammalian Ets and C/EBP, respectively, as transcriptional activators of svh-2 expression following axon injury. ETS-4 and CEBP-1 function downstream of the cAMP and Ca2+-p38 MAPK pathways, respectively. We show that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ETS-4 promotes its complex formation with CEBP-1. Furthermore, activation of both cAMP and Ca2+ signaling is required for activation of svh-2 expression. Thus, the cAMP/Ca2+ signaling pathways cooperatively activate the JNK pathway, which then promotes axon regeneration.

  14. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  15. Magmatic Activity and Crustal Melting During Orogenesis: Laser-ablation U-Pb Geochronology of Dike and Leucosome Generations in Granulites of the Gruf Complex, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. A.; Oalmann, J.; Bousquet, R.; Moeller, A.

    2012-12-01

    Magmatic leucosomes and dikes in metamorphic terranes provide an opportunity to correlate accessory phase crystallization ages with the timing of deformation and metamorphic events, as well as larger scale magmatic intrusions. The Gruf Complex consists of upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies migmatitic gneisses and scarce, UHT sapphirine granulites and is bordered by the c. 31 Ma tonalite-granodiorite Bergell Intrusion and the c. 24 Ma Novate S-type leucogranite. Several mineralogically distinct types of leucosomes and dikes have been identified: 1) biotite-bearing leucosomes, which define the main foliation and are commonly folded; 2) hornblende- and biotite-bearing dikes, which are either boudinaged or crosscut the main foliation; 3) pegmatitic muscovite-, garnet-, beryll-bearing dikes, which commonly crosscut all other rock types. These field observations indicate a change in melt composition during and after the regional metamorphic event and its associated deformation. To correlate these melt types with the timing of metamorphism of the Gruf Complex, and the Bergell and Novate intrusions, U-Pb zircon ages were obtained from several dike and leucosome samples. Grains were separated, mounted in epoxy, and imaged by cathodoluminescence prior to U-Pb isotope analysis by LA-ICP-MS. The outermost zircon growth zones were targeted in order to determine the crystallization age of the host magma. All of the analyzed samples contain oscillatory-zoned domains with ages between 250 Ma and 300 Ma. A leucosome sample from within a brecciated metaperidotite enclave in the granulites contains equant, sector-zoned "soccer ball" zircon grains with an age of 32.4±1.0 Ma. Most dike samples contain unzoned or sector-zoned rims or mantles that range from 30-33 Ma. Most of the pegmatitic samples, regardless of their degree of deformation, contain zircon crystals with weakly zoned rims ranging from 24-27 Ma. However, some undeformed pegmatitic samples lack zircon domains

  16. A conserved residue, PomB-F22, in the transmembrane segment of the flagellar stator complex, has a critical role in conducting ions and generating torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Takashi; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors exploit the electrochemical potential gradient of a coupling ion (H(+) or Na(+)) as their energy source, and are composed of stator and rotor proteins. Sodium-driven and proton-driven motors have the stator proteins PomA and PomB or MotA and MotB, respectively, which interact with each other in their transmembrane (TM) regions to form an ion channel. The single TM region of PomB or MotB, which forms the ion-conduction pathway together with TM3 and TM4 of PomA or MotA, respectively, has a highly conserved aspartate residue that is the ion binding site and is essential for rotation. To investigate the ion conductivity and selectivity of the Na(+)-driven PomA/PomB stator complex, we replaced conserved residues predicted to be near the conserved aspartate with H(+)-type residues, PomA-N194Y, PomB-F22Y and/or PomB-S27T. Motility analysis revealed that the ion specificity was not changed by either of the PomB mutations. PomB-F22Y required a higher concentration of Na(+) to exhibit swimming, but this effect was suppressed by additional mutations, PomA-N194Y or PomB-S27T. Moreover, the motility of the PomB-F22Y mutant was resistant to phenamil, a specific inhibitor for the Na(+) channel. When PomB-F22 was changed to other amino acids and the effects on swimming ability were investigated, replacement with a hydrophilic residue decreased the maximum swimming speed and conferred strong resistance to phenamil. From these results, we speculate that the Na(+) flux is reduced by the PomB-F22Y mutation, and that PomB-F22 is important for the effective release of Na(+) from PomB-D24.

  17. [Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways in the era of ablation therapy of complex arrhythmias: a changing perspective for oncoming generation of electrophysiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, M; Chovančík, J; Wojnarová, D; Szymeczek, H; Pindor, J; Bulková, V; Neuwirth, R; Jiravský, O; Vavřík, D; Krawiec, S; Januška, J

    2012-06-01

    Catheter ablation of atrio-ventricular accessory pathways has become a routine treatment method. However, its perspective has been changing in the era of ablation of complex arrhythmias. This study was aimed at evaluating accessory pathways ablation efficacy within the last nine years at one center. From February 2002 to June 2011, catheter ablation of accessory pathways was performed in 247 patients (100 females, 42 ± 16 years). Elimination of accessory pathways conduction in both directions was the procedure endpoint. Immediate accessory pathways conduction elimination at the first ablation was achieved in 228 (92%) patients. Ablation failed to eliminate accessory pathways conduction in 19 (8%) patients, or accessory pathways conduction subsequently recurred in another 7 (3%) patients. Repeat ablation was completed in 20 (8%) patients, 2 patients underwent a third ablation procedure. In total, accessory pathway was permanently eliminated in 238 (96%) patients. Ablation failure was connected with a risky position in the vicinity of atrio-ventricular conduction system in 6 (67 %) out of 9 patients. By the individual A, B, C, D operators experience, efficacy of the first procedure/total efficacy, was 97%/99%, 90%/96%, 87%/87%, and 91%/91%, respectively (comparison of inter-operator efficacy of the first and repeat ablation by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test: p = 0,19 and 0,05, respectively). Accessory pathways ablation efficacy exceeds 95%, and ablation failure is dominantly related to the accessory pathways location close to the atrio-ventricular conduction system. Individual operator's experience was associated with a certain disparity between high and nearly absolute accessory pathways ablation efficacy.

  18. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL) obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin) gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix. PMID:23066875

  19. Affinity improvement of a therapeutic antibody by structure-based computational design: generation of electrostatic interactions in the transition state stabilizes the antibody-antigen complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kiyoshi

    Full Text Available The optimization of antibodies is a desirable goal towards the development of better therapeutic strategies. The antibody 11K2 was previously developed as a therapeutic tool for inflammatory diseases, and displays very high affinity (4.6 pM for its antigen the chemokine MCP-1 (monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1. We have employed a virtual library of mutations of 11K2 to identify antibody variants of potentially higher affinity, and to establish benchmarks in the engineering of a mature therapeutic antibody. The most promising candidates identified in the virtual screening were examined by surface plasmon resonance to validate the computational predictions, and to characterize their binding affinity and key thermodynamic properties in detail. Only mutations in the light-chain of the antibody are effective at enhancing its affinity for the antigen in vitro, suggesting that the interaction surface of the heavy-chain (dominated by the hot-spot residue Phe101 is not amenable to optimization. The single-mutation with the highest affinity is L-N31R (4.6-fold higher affinity than wild-type antibody. Importantly, all the single-mutations showing increase affinity incorporate a charged residue (Arg, Asp, or Glu. The characterization of the relevant thermodynamic parameters clarifies the energetic mechanism. Essentially, the formation of new electrostatic interactions early in the binding reaction coordinate (transition state or earlier benefits the durability of the antibody-antigen complex. The combination of in silico calculations and thermodynamic analysis is an effective strategy to improve the affinity of a matured therapeutic antibody.

  20. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frésard Laure

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix.

  1. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  2. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  3. In-process EDM truing to generate complex contours on metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels for precision grinding structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscotty, M.A.; Davis, P.J.; Saito, T.T.; Blaedel, K.L.; Griffith, L.

    1997-08-01

    The demand and use of precision grinding of structural ceramics continue to increase as the worldwide advanced ceramic industry surpasses $20 billion is sales. Included in this industry are engineering structural ceramics, electronic ceramics, bioceramics and others. These materials are used in applications such as engine components, casting and extrusion dies, bearings, medical implants, nozzles, thermal insulators, and more. Along with the variety of ceramic applications comes a broad range of precision requirements, which in turn leads to various required processes to accommodate a spectrum of specifications. A process for grinding ceramic components to micrometer tolerances was employed and further developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for two separate grinding projects

  4. Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Cercamondi, Colin I; Zeder, Christophe; Wild, Daniela; Adelmann, Horst; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability. We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains. We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios. Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice. Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at

  5. Complexity generation in fungal polyketide biosynthesis: a spirocycle-forming P450 in the concise pathway to the antifungal drug griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Ralph A; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Zhou, Hui; Tang, Yi

    2013-10-18

    Griseofulvin (1) is a spirocyclic fungal natural product used in treatment of fungal dermatophytes. Formation of the spirocycle, or the grisan scaffold, from a benzophenone precursor is critical for the activity of 1. In this study, we have systematically characterized each of the biosynthetic enzymes related to the biogenesis of 1, including the characterization of a new polyketide synthase GsfA that synthesizes the benzophenone precursor and a cytochrome P450 GsfF that performs oxidative coupling between the orcinol and the phloroglucinol rings to yield the grisan structure. Notably, the finding of GsfF is in sharp contrast to the copper-dependent dihydrogeodin oxidase that performs a similar reaction in the geodin biosynthetic pathway. The biosynthetic knowledge enabled the in vitro total biosynthesis of 1 from malonyl-CoA using all purified enzyme components. This work therefore completely maps out the previously unresolved enzymology of the biosynthesis of a therapeutically relevant natural product.

  6. Relaxation phenomena during polyelectrolyte complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex formation is a well-studied subject in colloid science. Several types of complex formation have been studied, including PEMs, macroscopic polyelectrolyte complexes, soluble complexes and polyelectrolyte complex micelles. The chemical nature of the complex-forming

  7. Generation of non-overlapping fiber architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Lévesque, M.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    step toward the computation of their physical properties. In this work, a realistic 3D model is developed to describe the architecture of a complex fiber structure. The domain of application of the model could include natural fibers composites, wood fibers materials, papers, mineral and steel wools......Numerical models generating actual fiber architecture by including parameters such as the fiber geometry and arrangement are a powerful tool to explore the relation between the fiber architecture and mechanical properties. The generation of virtual architectures of fibrous materials is the first...... and polymer networks. The model takes into account the complex geometry of the fiber arrangement in which a fiber can be modeled with a certain degree of bending while keeping a main fiber orientation. The model is built in two steps. First, fibers are generated as a chain of overlapping spheres or as a chain...

  8. Generative Processes: Thick Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are…

  9. Rare oxidation states of group V metal compounds generated by radiolysis in non aqueous solvents: experimental and theoretical study. Attempts for synthesis of heterometallic complexes containing niobium and uranium or thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Motais, B.

    1986-02-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear complexes of group V trivalent metals (V, Nb, Ta), coordinated with γ-picolin molecules and chlorine atoms, have been oxidized or reduced, respectively by the radical-ions CH 2 Cl 2 + or CH 3 CN - radiolytically generated in free-oxygen dichloromethane or acetonitrile. The mechanism of these reactions have been established from kinetic, spectroscopic data and in some cases, from EPR measurements and theoretical SWXα calculations. Some preliminary results about the reaction occurring between Cp 2 Nb-(CO)H and Cp 2 'M(CH 3 ) 2 (M=U or Th) (Cp = eta 5 - C 5 H 5 ; Cp = eta 5 - (C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) are also reported [fr

  10. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  11. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  12. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance

  13. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  15. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  16. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  17. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  18. Welding complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.K.; Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I.; Sakharnov, V.A.; Galyan, B.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Asoyants, G.B.

    1992-10-27

    A welding complex for construction of a continuous underwater pipeline is adapted to be installed aboard a ship. The complex includes a welding machine positionable at a joint of the pipeline with a pipe section to be welded, burr-removing trimmers positionable coaxially with the pipeline for displacement relative to the pipeline in the joint area, and a support device for the end part of the pipeline. A rotatably mounted holding device for setting, holding, and retaining the pipe section to be welded, the welding machine, and the trimmers is axially aligned with the end part of the pipeline. An accumulator is provided for storing and delivering successive pipe sections at a loading position laterally offset from the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it. The holding device includes a platform movable along the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it by a resistance butt welding machine, and a plate with a means for carrying the pipe section to be welded which is mounted on a pivot carried by the platform for rotation between the loading position and the aligning position. The welding complex of the invention provides for implementing resistance butt welding in construction of continuous underwater pipelines and ensures the accuracy of alignment and permanence of the gap between the edges being welded. The welding complex's structure allows handling of longer pipe sections, thus reducing the overall number of joints to be welded. 7 figs.

  19. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  20. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  1. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  2. Waste generator services implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999

  3. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  4. Investigation of complexes with bone affinity using the In vivo generator system {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho; Investigacion de complejos con afinidad osea utilizando el Sistema de Generador in vivo {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M

    2006-07-01

    The importance of this original research lies in the fact that it has proven that the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system is a stable complex that can be used as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies have been treated by myeloablative radiotherapy/chemotherapy and subsequent stem cell transplantation. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP or {sup 153}Sm-DTMP, have been proposed for delivering ablative radiation doses to marrow in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies or have shown excellent results in palliative bone metastasis pain therapy, respectively. As lanthanides have similar chemical characteristics the phosphonate with bone affinity (EDTMP) labeled with Dy/Ho can be used for marrow ablation while causing minimal irradiation to normal organs. This in vivo generator system has not been previously reported. The aim of this research was to label EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) with {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho; to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of both {sup 166}Dy-EDTMP and {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP complexes when the daughter {sup 166}Ho is formed as a dysprosium decay product; to determine the bone marrow cytotoxic and genotoxic effect in mice and to evaluate, by histopathology, the myeloablative potential of the [{sup 166}Dy]Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP in vivo generator system. {sup 166}Dy was obtained by neutron irradiation of enriched {sup 164}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Labeling was carried out in an aqueous phosphate medium at pH 8.0 by addition of {sup 166}DyCl{sub 3} to EDTMP at a molar ratio 1:1.75, with >99 % radiochemical purity, as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho-EDTMP is unstable after dilution in saline but stable in human serum with no translocation of the daughter nucleus

  5. 2-Phenylethylamine, a constituent of chocolate and wine, causes mitochondrial complex-I inhibition, generation of hydroxyl radicals and depletion of striatal biogenic amines leading to psycho-motor dysfunctions in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Mohanakumar, K P

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of high doses of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA; 25-75 mg/kg, i.p. for up to 7 days) have been investigated in Balb/c mice. Depression and anxiety, as demonstrated respectively by increased floating time in forced swim test, and reduction in number of entries and the time spent in the open arms in an elevated plus maze were observed in these animals. General motor disabilities in terms of akinesia, catalepsy and decreased swimming ability were also observed in these animals. Acute and sub-acute administration of PEA caused significant, dose-dependent depletion of striatal dopamine, and its metabolites levels. PEA caused dose-dependent generation of hydroxyl radicals in vitro in Fenton's reaction in test tubes, in isolated mitochondrial fraction, and in vivo in the striatum of mice. A significant inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-I; EC: 1.6.5.3) activity suggests the inhibition in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria resulting in hydroxyl radical generation. Nissl staining and TH immnunohistochemistry in brain sections failed to show any morphological aberrations in dopaminergic neurons or nerve terminals. Long-term over-consumption of PEA containing food items could be a neurological risk factor having significant pathological relevance to disease conditions such as depression or motor dysfunction. However, per-oral administration of higher doses of PEA (75-125 mg/kg; 7 days) failed to cause such overt neurochemical effects in rats, which suggested safe consumption of food items rich in this trace amine by normal population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  7. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  8. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  9. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  10. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lin DU; Gengchen SHI; Jingjing ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and com...

  11. New challenges in grid generation and adaptivity for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This volume collects selected contributions from the “Fourth Tetrahedron Workshop on Grid Generation for Numerical Computations”, which was held in Verbania, Italy in July 2013. The previous editions of this Workshop were hosted by the Weierstrass Institute in Berlin (2005), by INRIA Rocquencourt in Paris (2007), and by Swansea University (2010). This book covers different, though related, aspects of the field: the generation of quality grids for complex three-dimensional geometries; parallel mesh generation algorithms; mesh adaptation, including both theoretical and implementation aspects; grid generation and adaptation on surfaces – all with an interesting mix of numerical analysis, computer science and strongly application-oriented problems.

  12. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  13. Calibrated kallikrein generation in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, D; Sidelmann, J J; Olsen, L F

    2016-01-01

    generation method as a template. RESULTS: A suitable kallikrein specific fluorogenic substrate was identified (KM=0.91mM, kcat=19s(-1)), and kallikrein generation could be measured in undiluted plasma when silica was added as activator. Disturbing effects, including substrate depletion and the inner......-filter effect, however, affected the signal. These problems were corrected for by external calibration with α2-macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes. Selectivity studies of the substrate, experiments with FXII and PK depleted plasmas, and plasma with high or low complement C1-esterase inhibitor activity indicated...

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  16. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  17. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  18. Procedure generation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  19. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  20. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.

  2. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  3. Solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  4. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  5. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  6. phenanthroline complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHRANIL DE

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...

  7. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  8. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  9. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Avital, M.; Sabherwal, R.; Sumner, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some

  10. Generational Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    by Xers, and how Millennials not only accept but expect diversity (320 ff.). However, nothing is actually said to the effect that generational relations might be affected by the different styles of thinking, speaking, and values of women. Moreover, it seems likely that generations and their relations are different for people of color,.

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  14. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  15. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  16. Internal split field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  17. Next Generation Hydro Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Van Dam, A.; De Goede, E.; Icke, J.; Putten, H.

    2014-01-01

    An overview paper, describes motivation and main deliverables of the Next Generation Hydro Software (NGHS) project. Important technological innovations include development of the new computational core Delft3D Flexible Mesh, as well as the open modelling environment Delta Shell.

  18. Flywheel Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarsih, Pratitis; Bachtiyar, Fahmi; Rosyidin, Mufti; Prabawanto, Trisakti

    2014-01-01

    Lately, the needs of energy is increasing but its availability is very limited. Therefore,it is important to do more research on energy reform. Generator is one of the alternative energy which commonly used by the public, but it has a minus value such as the voltage instability and low efficiency of the generator . Based on those issues,so we made an application flywheel in electrical generator, which aims to produce a concept of power efficiency increase, stabilize the output voltage of the ...

  19. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell protein...

  20. Role of Mediator and Effects of Temperature on ortho-C-N Bond Fusion Reactions of Aniline Using Ruthenium Templates: Isolation and Characterization of New Ruthenium Complexes of the in-Situ-Generated Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suman K; Sengupta, Debabrata; Rath, Santi Prasad; Saha, Tanushri; Samanta, Subhas; Goswami, Sreebrata

    2017-05-01

    In this work, ortho-C-N bond fusion reactions of aniline are followed by the use of two different ruthenium mediators. Reaction of aniline with [Ru III (terpy)Cl 3 ] (terpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) resulted in a trans bis-aniline ruthenium(II) complex [1] + which upon oxidation with H 2 O 2 produced compound [2] + of a bidentate ligand, N-phenyl-1,2-benzoquinonediimine, due to an oxidative ortho-C-N bond fusion reaction. Complex [1] + and aniline (neat) at 185 °C produced a bis-chelated ruthenium complex (3). A previously reported complex [Ru II (N-phenyl-1,2-benzoquinonediimine)(aniline) 2 (Cl) 2 ] (5) undergoes similar oxidation by air at 185 °C to produce complex [3]. A separate chemical reaction between aniline and strongly oxidizing tetra-n-propylammonium perruthenate [(n-pr) 4 N] + [RuO 4 ] - in air produced a ruthenium complex [4] of a N 4 -tetraamidophenylmacrocycle ligand via multiple ortho-C-N bond fusion reaction. Notably, the yield of this product is low (5%) at 100 °C but increases to 25% in refluxing aniline. All these complexes are characterized fully by their physicochemical characterizations and X-ray structure determination. From their structural parameters and other spectroscopic studies, complex [2] + is assigned as [Ru II (terpy)(N-phenyl-1,2-benzoquinonediimine)(Cl)] + whereas complex [4] is described as a ruthenium(VI) complex comprised of a reduced deprotonated N-phenyl-1,2-diamidobenzene and N 4 -tetraamidophenylmacrocyclic ligand. Complex [2] + exhibits one reversible oxidation at 1.32 V and one reversible reduction at -0.75 V vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. EPR of the electrogenerated complexes has revealed that the oxidized complex is a ruthenium(III) complex with an axial EPR spectrum at g av = 2.06. The reduced complex [2], on the other hand, shows a single-line EPR signal at g av = 1.998. In contrast, complex [4] shows two successive one-electron oxidation waves at 0.5 and 0.8 V and an irreversible reduction wave at -0.9 V. EPR

  1. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  2. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  4. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  6. Preformed purified peptide/major histocompatibility class I complexes are potent stimulators of class I-restricted T cell hybridomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Pedersen, L O; Ortiz-Navarrete, V

    1994-01-01

    A panel of antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cell hybridomas has been generated to examine the capacity of peptide/class I complexes to stimulate T cells at the molecular level. Peptide/class I complexes were generated in detergent solution, purified...... be detected by the T cells. Preformed complexes were about 500,000 times more potent than free peptide in terms of T cell stimulation, demonstrating the physiological relevancy of the biochemically generated complexes. Surprisingly, the majority (including the most sensitive of the hybridomas) had lost CD8...... and quantitated. Latex particles were subsequently coated with known amounts of preformed complexes and used to stimulate the T cell hybridomas. Stimulation was specific, i.e. only the appropriate peptide/class I combination were stimulatory, and quite sensitive, i.e. as little as 300 complexes per bead could...

  7. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  8. Power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, L.E.J.; Liss, P.S.; Saunders, P.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews environmental aspects of large-scale power generation. It includes historic background of present-generation patterns and a discussion of fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable technologies

  9. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  10. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  11. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  12. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  13. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  14. PULSE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  15. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  16. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  17. EPIC Forest LAI Dataset: LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model) on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in VA and NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data depicts calculated and validated LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale,...

  18. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  19. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin DU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and compares their design and performance, and concludes key technologies and ongoing challenges for further progress. The paper is instructive and meaningful to for research work of related field.

  20. Generation Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  1. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  2. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  3. Motivating the Generations: Economic and Educational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Wade

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the various generations that include the greatest generation, the baby-boomers, generation X, and generation Y. The research encompasses many motivational elements that each generation covets, rejects, or shares. These generations are at different stages in life and each plays a vital role within our society. The workforce has…

  4. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  6. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  7. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  8. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  9. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  10. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  11. Compact SAW aerosol generator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.; Harazim, S.; Collins, D.J.; Br?nig, R.; Schmidt, H.; Menzel, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present ...

  12. Generator rotor dovetail cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the presentation the dovetail control and recommended arrangements of the large steam turbine generators are described. The company General Electric established a complete package comprising working schedule of rotor control and solutions of the problems of the dovetail cracking of the large steam turbine generator rotors with long-term operation. A part of the article is also the recommended packet including more items. (author)

  13. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  14. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  15. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  16. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  17. On the benefits of an integrated nuclear complex for Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Halsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated nuclear complex is proposed for location at the Nevada Test Site. In addition to solving the nuclear waste disposal problem, this complex would tremendously enhance the southern Nevada economy, and it would provide low cost electricity to each resident and business in the affected counties. Nuclear industry and the national economy would benefit because the complex would demonstrate the new generation of safer nuclear power plants and revitalize the industry. Many spin-offs of the complex would be possible, including research into nuclear fusion and a world class medical facility for southern Nevada. For such a complex to become a reality, the cycle of distrust between the federal government and the State of Nevada must be broken. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation through a public process led by state officials and culminating in a voter referendum

  18. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  19. Disordered Plamonics and Complex Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-05-01

    Complex systems are ensembles of interconnected elements where mutual interaction and an optimized amount of disorder produce advanced functionalities. These systems are abundant in our daily experience: typical examples are the brain, biological ecosystems, society, and finance. In the last century, researchers have investigated the fundamental properties of disordered systems, unveiling fascinating and counterintuitive dynamics. The main aim of this Dissertation is the study of a new platform of disorder-enhanced photonics systems, denoted as Complex Metamaterials. Due to its ultrafast time scale nanophotonics represents an ideal framework to investigate and harness complex dynamics. Starting from the theoretical modeling of disordered plasmonic systems, I discuss advanced real-life applications, including the generation of highly-resistant structural colors from porous metal surfaces and the realization of early-stage cancer detectors based on surface roughness and self-similarity. In addition to the effects of structural disorder on plasmonic systems I also investigate the complex emission dynamics from non-conventional nanolasers. Lasers represent the quintessential example of a complex photonic system due to the simultaneous presence of strong nonlinearities and multi-mode interactions. At the same time, the integration of nanolasers with silicon-based electronic circuitry represents one of the greatest technological challenges in the field of nanophotonics. By combining ab-initio simulations and analytical modeling, I characterize the nonlinear emission from three-dimensional plasmonic nanolasers known as SPASERs. My results show for the first time the occurrence of a spontaneous rotational emission in spherical SPASERs, which originates from the nonlinear interaction of several lasing modes. I further discuss how rotating nanolasers can be employed as a fundamental building block for integrated quantum simulators, random information sources, and brain

  20. EDA-EMERGE : An FP7 initial training network to equip the next generation of young scientists with the skills to address the complexity of environmental contamination with emerging pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Govender, Selvan; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin; Hu, Meng; Muz, Melis; Hollender, Juliane; Schirmer, Kristin; Schollee, Jennifer; Hidasi, Anita; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Rabova, Zuzana; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Sonavane, Manoj; Carere, Mario; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Schriks, Merijn; Thomas, Kevin; De Almeida, Ana Catarina; Froment, Jean; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Ahel, Marijan; Koprivica, Sanja; Hollert, Henner; Seiler, Thomas Benjamin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tindall, Andrew; Spirhanzlova, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The initial training network consortium novel tools in effect-directed analysis to support the identification and monitoring of emerging toxicants on a European scale (EDA-EMERGE) was formed in response to the seventh EU framework program call to train a new generation of young scientists (13 PhD

  1. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  2. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2010-08-26

    The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  3. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Emmert-Streib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. CONCLUSIONS: The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  4. Modeling Stochastic Complexity in Complex Adaptive Systems: Non-Kolmogorov Probability and the Process Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, William H

    2017-10-01

    Walter Freeman III pioneered the application of nonlinear dynamical systems theories and methodologies in his work on mesoscopic brain dynamics.Sadly, mainstream psychology and psychiatry still cling to linear correlation based data analysis techniques, which threaten to subvert the process of experimentation and theory building. In order to progress, it is necessary to develop tools capable of managing the stochastic complexity of complex biopsychosocial systems, which includes multilevel feedback relationships, nonlinear interactions, chaotic dynamics and adaptability. In addition, however, these systems exhibit intrinsic randomness, non-Gaussian probability distributions, non-stationarity, contextuality, and non-Kolmogorov probabilities, as well as the absence of mean and/or variance and conditional probabilities. These properties and their implications for statistical analysis are discussed. An alternative approach, the Process Algebra approach, is described. It is a generative model, capable of generating non-Kolmogorov probabilities. It has proven useful in addressing fundamental problems in quantum mechanics and in the modeling of developing psychosocial systems.

  5. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comp....... A comparison of the rare earth usage in different topologies of permanent magnet generators and superconducting generators is also presented....

  6. COMPLEX QUERY AND METADATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...

  7. Performance of second generation 10-watt Stirling generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Ritter, D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) development program is to devise a generator that produces at least 10 watts of DC power continuously with 58 to 60 watts of thermal input from a radioisotope. The first generation, or laboratory version, of a 10 watt Stirling generator set was described in previous IECEC proceedings. The second generation version of the generator set has been built and tested. The significant changes include the implementation of vacuum foil insulation with a much smaller volume, hermetic sealing, and elimination of most of the diagnostic instrumentation used for laboratory development. This paper describes the performance and operating characteristics of the second generation machine and compares it to the first generation machine. Endurance testing of the first generation machine and key components is also described

  8. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  9. Alkane metathesis with the tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2]/[(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] generated from well-defined surface organometallic complex [(≡SiO)TaVMe4

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2015-01-21

    By grafting TaMe5 on Aerosil700, a stable, well-defined, silica-supported tetramethyl tantalum(V) complex, [(≡SiO)TaMe4], is obtained on the silica surface. After thermal treatment at 150 °C, the complex is transformed into two surface tantalum methylidenes, [(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] and [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2], which are active in alkane metathesis and comparable to the previously reported [(≡SiO)2TaHx]. Here we present the first experimental study to isolate and identify a surface tantalum carbene as the intermediate in alkane metathesis. A systematic experimental study reveals a new reasonable pathway for this reaction.

  10. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  11. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  12. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  13. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  14. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  15. Self-assembling software generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-25

    A technique to generate an executable task includes inspecting a task specification data structure to determine what software entities are to be generated to create the executable task, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine how the software entities will be linked after generating the software entities, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine logic to be executed by the software entities, and generating the software entities to create the executable task.

  16. Steam generators - problems and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Steam-generator problems, largely a consequence of corrosion and fouling, have resulted in increased inspection requirements and more regulatory attention to steam-generator integrity. In addition, utilities have had to develop steam-generator life-management strategies, including cleaning and replacement, to achieve design life. This paper summarizes the pertinent data to 1993/1994, and presents an overview of current steam-generator management practices. (author)

  17. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Motivation . . . An abstract model to study the communicaiton required for computation. A tool for showing lower bounds in several computational models. The study often requires deep understanding of computation using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar ...

  18. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry, Xinyang 464000, 2Henan. Economy and Trade ... Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and ...

  19. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  20. Idea generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian H. T.; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2015-01-01

    . Using a straight proposal creation process is expected to create proposals that operate within the present sociocultural meaning. Whereas an approach seeking ambiguity and discrepancy in the initial ideation sparks a deeper sense-making process, which in return creates proposals that can be interpreted...... as having new sociocultural meaning in line with Vergantis definition of radical innovation. This paper discusses the results of an experiment with 32 students on idea generation and product concept development. The experiment was setup as and A-B comparison between two set of students with the same...... objective: designing a new coffee machine for a specific brand, but one group was asked to seek ambiguity and dissonance before creating proposals. Results indicate a very clear difference in the outcome in terms of radical changes in relation to. Group A produced 12 out of 16 proposals in the Styling...

  1. Statistical analysis of next generation sequencing data

    CERN Document Server

    Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is the latest high throughput technology to revolutionize genomic research. NGS generates massive genomic datasets that play a key role in the big data phenomenon that surrounds us today. To extract signals from high-dimensional NGS data and make valid statistical inferences and predictions, novel data analytic and statistical techniques are needed. This book contains 20 chapters written by prominent statisticians working with NGS data. The topics range from basic preprocessing and analysis with NGS data to more complex genomic applications such as copy number variation and isoform expression detection. Research statisticians who want to learn about this growing and exciting area will find this book useful. In addition, many chapters from this book could be included in graduate-level classes in statistical bioinformatics for training future biostatisticians who will be expected to deal with genomic data in basic biomedical research, genomic clinical trials and personalized med...

  2. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  3. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  4. Construction and optimization of a power complex with a distributed generation on the basis of renewables and methods of artificial intelligence (on the example of the Republic of Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic principles and classifications of small hydroelectric power stations depending on the power of system in which they work are provided. Especially, in the conditions of Tajikistan when all small hydroelectric power stations in some regions carry out the functions of big hydroelectric power stations. We suggest to use new classification by using function of fuzzy logic. The new concept of a power complex (HUB on the basis of the renewed energy source (RES is also offered.

  5. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  6. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena......? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...

  7. Toolsets Maintain Health of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    First featured in Spinoff 2001, Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI), of Wethersfield, Connecticut, adapted its Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System (TEAMS) toolset under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center to strengthen NASA's systems health management approach for its large, complex, and interconnected systems. Today, six NASA field centers utilize the TEAMS toolset, including TEAMS-Designer, TEAMS-RT, TEAMATE, and TEAMS-RDS. TEAMS is also being used on industrial systems that generate power, carry data, refine chemicals, perform medical functions, and produce semiconductor wafers. QSI finds TEAMS can lower costs by decreasing problems requiring service by 30 to 50 percent.

  8. Control-Oriented First Principles-Based Model of a Diesel Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Andersen, Palle

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a control-oriented tenth-order nonlinear model of a diesel driven generator set, using first principles modeling. The model provides physical system insight, while keeping the complexity at a level where it can be a tool for future design of improved automatic...... generation control (AGC), by including important nonlinearities of the machine. The nonlinearities are, as would be expected for a generator, primarily of bilinear nature. Validation of the model is done with measurements on a 60 kVA/48 kW diesel driven generator set in island operation during steps...

  9. Mentorship: A Generational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Three major generations are represented in today's workforce: Baby Boomers, Gen X, and Millennials. Each of these groups has a wide range of definitions, but here they are defined according to their most common definitions: Baby boomers include those born in the decade following the end of World War II and are between the ages of 50 and 70 years.…

  10. Next Generation Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zilai [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  11. Critique, generativity, and imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2011-01-01

    demands of providing foundations for knowledge and proper directions of political actions. Critique can be associated with generativity and imagination which includes creative and, at times, surrealistic elements. Such features of critique are relevant for the further development for critical enterprises...

  12. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  13. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  14. Time complexity and gate complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.

  15. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  17. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  18. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  19. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  20. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai, K L

    2011-01-01

    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  1. External split field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  2. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  3. Synthesis and reactivity of the cationic organosamarium(III) complex ((C sub 5 Me sub 5 ) sub 2 Sm(THF) sub 2 )(BPh sub 4 ), including the synthesis and structure of a metallocene with an alkoxy-tethered C sub 5 Me sub 5 ring, (C sub 5 Me sub 5 ) sub 2 Sm(O(CH sub 2 ) sub 4 C sub 5 Me sub 5 )(THF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W.J.; Ulibarri, T.A.; Chamberlain, L.R.; Ziller, J.W.; Alvarez, D. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA) Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

    1990-07-01

    (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(THF){sub 2} (1) reacts with AgBPh{sub 4} in THF to form Ag and ((C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(THF){sub 2})(BPh{sub 4}) (2) in high yield. 2 crystallizes from THF in space group P2/c (C{sub 2h}{sup 4}; No. 13) with unit cell parameters a = 10.594 (2) {angstrom}, b = 14.254 (3) {angstrom}, c = 16.199 (3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 107.32 (1){degree}, V = 2,335.3 (8) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 2 for D{sub calcd} = 1.260 g cm{sup {minus}3}. Complex 2 reacts with KC{triple bond}CR to form KBPh{sub 4} and (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(C{triple bond}CR)(THF) (R = Ph (3), CMe{sub 3} (4)). The reaction of 2 with KC{sub 5}Me{sub 5} generates (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})(THF) (5). 5 crystallizes from hexane in space group C2/c (No. 15; C{sub 2h}{sup 6}) with unit cell parameters a = 30.009 (6) {angstrom}, b = 13.996 (2) {angstrom}, c = 17.460 (3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 90.25 (2){degree}, V = 7,333 (2) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 8 for D{sub calcd} = 1.268 g cm{sup {minus}3}.

  4. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  5. The minimal complexity of adapting agents increases with fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil J Joshi

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the complexity and the fitness of evolved organisms, whether natural or artificial? It has been asserted, primarily based on empirical data, that the complexity of plants and animals increases as their fitness within a particular environment increases via evolution by natural selection. We simulate the evolution of the brains of simple organisms living in a planar maze that they have to traverse as rapidly as possible. Their connectome evolves over 10,000s of generations. We evaluate their circuit complexity, using four information-theoretical measures, including one that emphasizes the extent to which any network is an irreducible entity. We find that their minimal complexity increases with their fitness.

  6. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  7. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  8. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  9. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  10. Multi-objective optimization of an advanced combined cycle power plant including CO{sub 2} separation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Marechal, Francois; Burer, Meinrad; Favrat, Daniel [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland). Laboratory for Industrial Energy Systems

    2006-12-15

    This paper illustrates a methodology developed to facilitate the analysis of complex systems characterized by a large number of technical, economical and environmental parameters. Thermo-economic modeling of a natural gas combined cycle including CO{sub 2} separation options has been coupled within a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to characterize the economic and environmental performances of such complex systems within various contexts. The method has been applied to a case of power generation in Germany. The optimum options for system integration under different boundary conditions are revealed by the Pareto Optimal Frontiers. Results show the influence of the configuration and technical parameters on the electrical efficiencies of the Pareto optimal plants and their sub-systems. The results provide information on the relationship between power generation cost and CO{sub 2} emissions, and allow sensitivity analyses of important economical parameters like natural gas and electricity prices. Such a tool is of interest for power generation technology suppliers, for utility owners or for project investors, and for policy makers in the context of CO{sub 2} mitigation schemes including emission trading. (author)

  11. Generations, intergenerational relationships, generational policy: a multilingual compendium

    OpenAIRE

    Lüscher, Kurt; Hoff, Andreas; Lamura, Giovanni; Renzi, Marta; Sánchez, Mariano; Viry, Gil; Widmer, Eric; Klimczuk, Andrzej; Salles Oliveira, Paulo de

    2015-01-01

    The members of the International Network for the Analysis of Intergenerational Relations (Generationes) proudly present the most recent issue of the jointly produced compendium “Generations, Intergenerational Relations and Generational Policy”. This new version includes seven languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish (New) and Portuguese (New)). Its layout is designed for using it to translate the specific concepts and terminology of research into generations and interg...

  12. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  13. Advances in Parallelization for Large Scale Oct-Tree Mesh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Karman, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging problem. An automated method for the parallel generation of very large scale off-body hierarchical meshes is presented here. This work enables large scale parallel generation of off-body meshes by using a novel combination of parallel grid generation techniques and a hybrid "top down" and "bottom up" oct-tree method. Meshes are generated using hardware commonly found in parallel compute clusters. The capability to generate very large meshes is demonstrated by the generation of off-body meshes surrounding complex aerospace geometries. Results are shown including a one billion cell mesh generated around a Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle geometry, which was generated on 64 processors in under 45 minutes.

  14. Using natural gas generation to improve power system efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Junfeng; Kwok, Gabe; Xuan, Wang; Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2013-01-01

    China's electricity sector faces the challenge of managing cost increases, improving reliability, and reducing its environmental footprint even as operating conditions become more complex due to increasing renewable penetration, growing peak demand, and falling system load factors. Addressing these challenges will require changes in how power generation is planned, priced, and dispatched in China. This is especially true for natural gas generation, which is likely to play an important role in power systems worldwide as a flexible generation resource. Although natural gas is commonly perceived to be economically uncompetitive with coal in China, these perceptions are based on analysis that fails to account for the different roles that natural gas generation plays in power systems—baseload, load following, and peaking generation. Our analysis shows that natural gas generation is already cost-effective for meeting peak demand in China, resulting in improved capacity factors and heat rates for coal-fired generators and lower system costs. We find that the largest barrier to using natural gas for peaking generation in China is generation pricing, which could be addressed through modest reforms to support low capacity factor generation. - Highlights: • Using gas generation as a “capacity resource” in China could have multiple benefits. • Benefits include lower total costs, improved efficiency for coal generators. • Price reforms needed to support low capacity factor generation in China

  15. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  16. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  17. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  18. The MAGPIE Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, I. H.; Bayley, J. M.; Chittenden, J. P.; Choi, P.; Worley, J. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Haines, M. G.

    1994-03-01

    The construction of MAGPIE, a terawatt pulsed power facility, has been completed at Imperial College, London. The generator consists of four 2.4MV, 86kJ Marx banks each feeding a 5Ω coaxial pulse forming line. The pulse forming lines are connected, via four trigatron switches, to a vertical coaxial transfer line and hence to the load. The generator is specifically designed to drive high impedance loads, enabling radiative collapse experiments to be carried out in cryogenic Hydrogen fibres. This requires the capability to deliver 1.5MA into a 100nH load in 150ns. A review of the project to date is given. This includes the design philosophy behind the generator, emphasising its unique aspects, and an outline of the tests which have been carried out to optimise its performance. Results from the first stage in the commissioning of the generator are also presented. This involved the firing of the complete generator, charged to 60% of maximum voltage, into a 150nH load. Currents of approximately 700kA have been achieved with an average of 7ns first to last for the four trigatron switches.

  19. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  20. a New Generation Mining Head with Disc Tool of Complex Trajectory / GŁOWICA URABIAJĄCA Nowej Generacji Z NARZĘDZIAMI Dyskowymi O ZŁOŻONEJ Trajektorii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr; Kotwica, Krzysztof; Stopka, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    In Polish underground mining plenty of dog headings are drilled with mechanical methods with the use of arm roadheaders equipped with milling units. Cutting tools applied on the units - rotary tangent bits in unfavourable mining and geological conditions or improper work conditions are affected by an accelerated wear process. It influences the speed and costs of drilling such excavations. The article presents a new and innovative solution of a mining head with asymmetric disc tools of complex trajectory elaborated at the Department of Mining, Dressing and Transport Machines, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow as an alternative for standard milling units. Advantages of the applied mining method using so called back incision were described as well as principles of construction and work of the suggested solution of the head. In order to work out a construction of the head prototype it was necessary to determine principles and guidelines based on laboratory tests. A construction of a specially prepared laboratory stand for examination of disc tools of complex trajectory, planned research methodology, course of tests and obtained results were presented. An analysis of the results allowed determining the above listed principles and guidelines for a construction of a prototype head. They were the base to work out, with cooperation of the REMAG Ltd Company in Katowice, a technical project of a new head solution, adapted for mounting on the arm of a medium arm roadheader KR 150. A constructed head underwent tests on a research stand on the REMAG testing area and received positive preliminary tests results. W polskim górnictwie podziemnym bardzo duża liczba wyrobisk korytarzowych drążona jest metodami mechanicznymi z wykorzystaniem ramionowych kombajnów chodnikowych, wyposażonych w organy frezujące. Stosowane na tych organach narzędzia skrawające - noże styczno-obrotowe, w niekorzystnych warunkach górniczo-geologicznych lub przy nieprawid