WorldWideScience

Sample records for generating glass optics

  1. Glass and Process Development for the Next Generation of Optical Fibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ballato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications involving optical fibers have grown considerably in recent years with intense levels of research having been focused on the development of not only new generations of optical fiber materials and designs, but also on new processes for their preparation. In this paper, we review the latest developments in advanced materials for optical fibers ranging from silica, to semi-conductors, to particle-containing glasses, to chalcogenides and also in process-related innovations.

  2. Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.

  3. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  4. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  5. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  6. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  7. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Soft-glass Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian

    This Ph.D.-project presents numerical simulations of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fiber laser systems based on various soft-glass materials. Extensive numerical modeling is performed in order to understand and characterize the generated SC. This includes a review of the generalized...

  8. Measuring Mechanical Properties Of Optical Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses mechanical tests measuring parameters of strength and fracture mechanics of optical glasses. To obtain required tables of mechanical properties of each glass of interest, both initial-strength and delayed-fracture techniques used. Modulus of rupture measured by well-known four-point bending method. Initial bending strength measured by lesser-known double-ring method, in which disk of glass supported on one face near edge by larger ring and pressed on its other face by smaller concentric ring. Method maximizes stress near center, making it more likely specimen fractures there, and thereby suppresses edge effects. Data from tests used to predict reliabilities and lifetimes of glass optical components of several proposed spaceborne instruments.

  9. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    and a final sealing at the interconnects can be performed using a suitable polymer. Packaged MEMS on glass are advantageous within Optical MEMS and for sensitive capacitive devices. We report on experiences with bonding SOI to Pyrex. Uniform DRIE shallow and deep etching was achieved by a combination......A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...... of an optimized device layout and an optimized process recipe. The behavior of the buried oxide membrane when used as an etch stop for the through-hole etch is described. No harmful buckling or fracture of the membrane is observed for an oxide thickness below 1 μm, but larger and more fragile released structures...

  10. Antireflective glass nanoholes on optical lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngseop; Bae, Sang-In; Eom, Jaehyeon; Suh, Ho-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2018-05-28

    Antireflective structures, inspired from moth eyes, are still reserved for practical use due to their large-area nanofabrication and mechanical stability. Here we report an antireflective optical lens with large-area glass nanoholes. The nanoholes increase light transmission due to the antireflective effect, depending on geometric parameters such as fill factor and height. The glass nanoholes of low effective refractive index are achieved by using solid-state dewetting of ultrathin silver film, reactive ion etching, and wet etching. An ultrathin silver film is transformed into nanoholes for an etch mask in reactive ion etching after thermal annealing at a low temperature. Unlike conventional nanopillars, nanoholes exhibit high light transmittance with enhancement of ~4% over the full visible range as well as high mechanical hardness. Also, an antireflective glass lens is achieved by directly employing nanoholes on the lens surface. Glass nanoholes of highly enhanced optical and mechanical performance can be directly utilized for commercial glass lenses in various imaging and lighting applications.

  11. Optical properties of zinc lead tellurite glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Hassan Alazoumi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tellurite glass systems in the form of [ZnO]x [(TeO20.7-(PbO0.3]1-x with x = 0.15, 0.17, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.25 mol% were prepared using the melt quenching technique. XRD of the prepared samples have been measured for all samples. Both FTIR (280–4000 cm−1 and UV-Vis (200–800 nm spectra have been measured. Optical band gap and refractive index were calculated for every glass sample. Density of glass, molar volume and oxygen packing density (OPD were obtained. Values of the direct, indirect band gap ranged were found in the range 3.41–3.94 eV and 2.40–2.63 eV with increasing of ZnO concentration. Refractive index 2.58 and dielectric constant 6.66 were heigh at 17 ZnO mol% concentration. Molar polarizability, metallization criterion, polaron radius have been calculated for every glass composition. Keywords: Tellurite, Glass, Optical band gap, Refractive index

  12. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO 3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li 2 O - 25 Nb 2 O 5 - 40 SiO 2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author) [fr

  13. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi Ming Oo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3x (TeO2100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases.

  14. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Hooi Ming; Mohamed-Kamari, Halimah; Wan-Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud

    2012-01-01

    A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3)x (TeO2)100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases. PMID:22605999

  15. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: pengfei.wang@dit.ie [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic [Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Farrell, Gerald [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2015-02-09

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 μm diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 μm (single-stem) and 48 μm (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 10{sup 5} (single-stem) and 7 × 10{sup 6} (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  16. Ultraviolet optical absorptions of semiconducting copper phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a quantitative investigation of the change in UV optical absorption in semiconducting copper phosphate glasses with batch compositions of 40, 50, and 55 percent CuO, as a function of the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glasses for each glass composition. It was found that optical energy gap, E(opt), of copper phosphate glass is a function of both glass composition and Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glass. E(opt) increases as the CuO content for fixed Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio and the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio for fixed glass composition are reduced.

  17. Effect of composition and temperature on the second harmonic generation in silver phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidakis, I.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.; Kosma, K.; Lemonis, A.; Stratakis, E.

    2018-01-01

    We herein employ nonlinear laser imaging microscopy to explicitly study the dynamics of second harmonic generation (SHG) in silver iodide phosphate glasses. While glasses of this family have gained extensive scientific attention over the years due to their superior conducting properties, considerably less attention has been paid to their unique nonlinear optical characteristics. In the present study, firstly, it is demonstrated that SHG signal intensity is enhanced upon increasing silver content due to the random formation of silver microstructures within the glass network. Secondly, the SHG temperature dynamics were explored near the glass transition temperature (Tg) regime, where significant glass relaxation phenomena occur. It is found that heating towards the Tg improves the SHG efficiency, whereas above Tg, the capacity of glasses to generate second harmonic radiation is drastically suppressed. The novel findings of this work are considered important in terms of the potential employment of these glasses for the realization of advanced photonic applications like optical-switches and wavelength conversion devices.

  18. Optical properties of zinc lead tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazoumi, Salah Hassan; Aziz, Sidek Abdul; El-Mallawany, R.; Aliyu, Umar Sa'ad; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ushah, Abdulbaset

    2018-06-01

    Tellurite glass systems in the form of [ZnO]x [(TeO2)0.7-(PbO)0.3]1-x with x = 0.15, 0.17, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.25 mol% were prepared using the melt quenching technique. XRD of the prepared samples have been measured for all samples. Both FTIR (280-4000 cm-1) and UV-Vis (200-800 nm) spectra have been measured. Optical band gap and refractive index were calculated for every glass sample. Density of glass, molar volume and oxygen packing density (OPD) were obtained. Values of the direct, indirect band gap ranged were found in the range 3.41-3.94 eV and 2.40-2.63 eV with increasing of ZnO concentration. Refractive index 2.58 and dielectric constant 6.66 were heigh at 17 ZnO mol% concentration. Molar polarizability, metallization criterion, polaron radius have been calculated for every glass composition.

  19. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  20. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  1. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  2. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund

    During my PhD studies I have worked with intense lasers and optical fibres. In our conceptual universe the colour of light (wavelength) does not depend on the material in which it propagates. At high intensities however, nonlinear effects change the behaviour of light and rise of new wavelength...... with laser-like intensity is obtained, which otherwise is impossible without the use of more complicated equipment. Until recently, supercontinuum covering the mid-infrared was not possible due to absorption in the silica glass optical fibres are made of. In our project infrared transparent materials...... such as ZBLAN and chalcogenide have been investigated. Using ZBLAN it has been possible to generated a supercontinuum stretching beyond 4200 nm. Supercontinuum generation requires knowledge about the physical properties of the optical fibre in which the pulse-broadening takes place. Consequently thorough...

  3. Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M.

    Previous research in the field of Flame Hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of glasses has focused on the production of low cost optical devices for the field of telecommunications. The originality of this doctoral research resides in the exploration of this technology in the fabrication of optical bio-chemical sensors, with integrated "Lab-on-a-chip" devices. To achieve this goal, we have combined and applied different microfabrication processes for the manufacture of sensor platforms using FHD. These structures are unique in that they take advantage of the intrinsic benefits of the microfabrication process, such as, miniaturisation and mass production, and combine them with the properties of FHD glass, namely: low loss optical transducing mechanisms, planar technologies and monolithic integration. This thesis demonstrates that FHD is a suitable technology for biosensing and Lab- on-a-Chip applications. The objective is to provide future researchers with the necessary tools to accomplish an integrated analytical system based on FHD. We have designed, fabricated, and successfully tested a FHD miniaturised sensor, which comprised optical and microfluidic circuitry, in the framework of low volume fluorescence assays. For the first time, volumes as low as 570 pL were analysed with a Cyanine-5 fluorophore with a detection limit of 20 pM, or ca. 6000 molecules (+/-3sigma) for this platform. The fabrication of the sensor generated a compilation of processes that were then utilised to produce other possible optical platforms for bio-chemical sensors in FHD, e.g. arrays and microfluidics. The "catalogue" of methods used included new recipes for reactive ion etching, glass deposition and bonding techniques that enabled the development of the microfluidic circuitry, integrated with an optical circuitry. Furthermore, we developed techniques to implement new tasks such as optical signal treatment using integrated optical structures, planar arraying of sensors, a separating element for

  4. Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Young Hong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report strong third-harmonic generation in monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to an amorphous silica (glass substrate; the photon energy is in three-photon resonance with the exciton-shifted van Hove singularity at the M point of graphene. The polarization selection rules are derived and experimentally verified. In addition, our polarization- and azimuthal-rotation-dependent third-harmonic-generation measurements reveal in-plane isotropy as well as anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear optical responses of graphene. Since the third-harmonic signal exceeds that from bulk glass by more than 2 orders of magnitude, the signal contrast permits background-free scanning of graphene and provides insight into the structural properties of graphene.

  5. Holes generation in glass using large spot femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Yuval; Kotler, Zvi; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput, symmetrical, holes generation in fused silica glass using a large spot size, femtosecond IR-laser irradiation which modifies the glass properties and yields an enhanced chemical etching rate. The process relies on a balanced interplay between the nonlinear Kerr effect and multiphoton absorption in the glass which translates into symmetrical glass modification and increased etching rate. The use of a large laser spot size makes it possible to process thick glasses at high speeds over a large area. We have demonstrated such fabricated holes with an aspect ratio of 1:10 in a 1 mm thick glass samples.

  6. Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon; Deegan, John; Lindberg, George

    2015-06-01

    As the desire to have compact multispectral imagers in various DoD platforms is growing, the dearth of multispectral optics is widely felt. With the limited number of material choices for optics, these multispectral imagers are often very bulky and impractical on several weight sensitive platforms. To address this issue, NRL has developed a large set of unique infrared glasses that transmit from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and expand the glass map for multispectral optics with refractive indices from 2.38 to 3.17. They show a large spread in dispersion (Abbe number) and offer some unique solutions for multispectral optics designs. The new NRL glasses can be easily molded and also fused together to make bonded doublets. A Zemax compatible glass file has been created and is available upon request. In this paper we present some designs, optics fabrication and imaging, all using NRL materials.

  7. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  8. Theoretical study of the structure and optical properties of rare-earth-doped BeF2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, S.; Weber, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the local structure of a glass can be deduced directly from its optical spectra by testing such a procedure on a model system. The model system was Eu 3+ -doped BeF 2 glass generated the Monte Carlo technique of statistical mechanics. The optical energy levels of Eu 3+ were calculated from a point charge model. Using the resulting spectra as data, it is shown that details of the structure of the rare-earth ion sites of the simulated glass cannot be reconstructed uniquely from the data. Based on these results, it is concluded that reliable glass structure cannot be deduced from optical spectra

  9. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses (SDGs) are per- formed under femtosecond laser pulse excitation. Z-scan experiments with 800 nm wave- length pulses are used to excite SDG samples in the resonance and non-resonance regimes. Schott colour glass filter OG 515 shows stronger ...

  10. Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optical absorption spectra of these glasses were recorded in the range 300–700 nm at room ... cause of their potential as hosts of rare earth elements for ... nature of these glasses was examined by X-ray diffraction ... absorption coefficient).

  11. Nitrogen doped germania glasses with enhanced optical and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Poulsen, Christian; Leistiko, Otto

    1997-01-01

    A new type of ultraviolet photosensitive germanium doped glass has been developed for use in the fabrication of optical waveguide structures. By adding ammonia to the source gases during a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of these glasses, ultraviolet induced refractive index changes of ...

  12. Mechanical, dielectric and optical assessment of glass composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The band gap, Urbach energy and the extinction coefficient of the glass composites have been ... icate glasses during our previous studies.7 Lanthanum oxide. (La2O3) .... vs. incident photon energy hν are used to determine the type of optical ...

  13. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  14. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  15. Optical and physical properties of samarium doped lithium diborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharaju, N.; Sardarpasha, K. R.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ doped lithium di-borate glasses with composition 30Li2O-60B2O3-(10-x) PbO, (where 0 molar volume with samarium ion content indicates the openness of the glass structure. The gradual increase in average separation of boron-boron atoms with VmB clearly indicates deterioration of borate glass network, which in turn leads to decrease in the oxygen packing density. The replacements of Sm2O3 for PbO depolymerise the chain structure and that would increase the concentration of non-bridging oxygens. The marginal increase of optical band gap energy after 1.0 mol.% of Sm2O3 is explained by considering the structural modification in lead-borate. The influence of Sm3+ ion on physical and optical properties in lithium-lead-borate glasses is investigated and the results were discussed in view of the structure of borate glass network.

  16. Optical and mechanical anisotropy of oxide glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, J.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    products [1], whereas stretching (frozen-in strain) results in optical and mechanical anisotropy of glass fibers, which is quantified inter alia by the specific birefringence [2]. The paper will stress the later effects by combining previous results on the structural origins of birefringence...... and anisotropic shrinkage in silica and phosphate fibers with recent studies on relaxation of optical anisotropy in E-glass fibers [3,4].......Upon fiber drawing, glass forming oxide melts are thermally quenched and mechanically stretched. High cooling rates (up to 106 K/min) of quenched glass fibres lead to higher enthalpy state of liquids, thereby, to higher fictive temperature than regular quenching (e.g. 20 K/min) of bulk glass...

  17. Silver metaphosphate glass wires inside silica fibers--a new approach for hybrid optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chhavi; Rodrigues, Bruno P; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-02-22

    Phosphate glasses represent promising candidates for next-generation photonic devices due to their unique characteristics, such as vastly tunable optical properties, and high rare earth solubility. Here we show that silver metaphosphate wires with bulk optical properties and diameters as small as 2 µm can be integrated into silica fibers using pressure-assisted melt filling. By analyzing two types of hybrid metaphosphate-silica fibers, we show that the filled metaphosphate glass has only negligible higher attenuation and a refractive index that is identical to the bulk material. The presented results pave the way towards new fiber-type optical devices relying on metaphosphate glasses, which are promising materials for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing and spectral filtering.

  18. Surface analysis of Borkron glass for neutron optics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoux, B.; Maaza, M.; Maaza, M.; Samuel, F.; Sella, C.

    1991-01-01

    Grazing Angle Neutron Reflectometry, Optical and Mechanical Roughness Profilometry techniques have been used to study the effects of the polishing operations on the surface of Borkron Schott glass (special borosilicate glass for neutron optics applications) as the polishing tool pressure P and the mean grain size of the polishing powder Φ. The neutron reflectivity investigations have shown that there is formation of a layer at the surface glass substrate. This layer is less dense than the bulk substrate and its thickness is around 60A. The optical and mechanical profilometry measurements have shown that both roughness and waviness decrease with P and Φ. All the experimental results show a good correlation between the neutron refractive index, the thickness and the roughness of the surface layer and the waviness of the glass surface with the two mechanical polishing parameters. The previous techniques have been completed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements

  19. Performance of magneto-optical glass in optical current transducer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yan; Lu, Yunhe; Liu, Zhao; Yu, Xueliang; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    First, a theoretical analysis was performed on the effect of temperature on the performance of the sensing element of paramagnetic rare earth-doped magneto-optical glass material that can be used in an optical current transducer application. The effect comprises two aspects: the linear birefringence and the Verdet constant. On this basis, rare earth-doped glass temperature characteristics were studied, and the experimental results indicated that the linear birefringence of rare earth-doped glass increased with increasing temperature, while its magneto-optical sensitivity decreased. Comparative experiments performed for various concentrations of rare earth dopant in the glass revealed that changes in the dopant concentration had no significant effect on the performance of magneto-optical glass. At last, a comparison between rare earth-doped magneto-optical and diamagnetic dense flint glass showed that the sensitivity of the former was six times that of the latter, although the temperature stability of the former was poorer. - Highlights: • Theoretical analysis on the effects of temperature on RE glass. • Rare earth doping leads to higher magneto-optical sensitivity. • The sensitivity of the RE glass is six times that of the dense flint glass

  20. Precision glass molding: Toward an optimal fabrication of optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangchi; Liu, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    It is costly and time consuming to use machining processes, such as grinding, polishing and lapping, to produce optical glass lenses with complex features. Precision glass molding (PGM) has thus been developed to realize an efficient manufacture of such optical components in a single step. However, PGM faces various technical challenges. For example, a PGM process must be carried out within the super-cooled region of optical glass above its glass transition temperature, in which the material has an unstable non-equilibrium structure. Within a narrow window of allowable temperature variation, the glass viscosity can change from 105 to 1012 Pas due to the kinetic fragility of the super-cooled liquid. This makes a PGM process sensitive to its molding temperature. In addition, because of the structural relaxation in this temperature window, the atomic structure that governs the material properties is strongly dependent on time and thermal history. Such complexity often leads to residual stresses and shape distortion in a lens molded, causing unexpected changes in density and refractive index. This review will discuss some of the central issues in PGM processes and provide a method based on a manufacturing chain consideration from mold material selection, property and deformation characterization of optical glass to process optimization. The realization of such optimization is a necessary step for the Industry 4.0 of PGM.

  1. Optical and Mechanical Properties of Glass Blown In Vacuo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, andrew; Tucker, Dennis; Mooney, Theodore; Herren, Kenneth; Gregory, Don A.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretically, the strength of glass processed in vacuum should be higher due to outgassing of contaminants normally present in the glass, such as bulk water in the form of OH bonds that tends to weaken the glass structure. In this research, small discs of a few types of glass have been subjected to various temperatures for extended periods of time in vacuum. Their strength was then tested using a standard flexure technique, facilitated by a custom-designed test fixture, and the results were compared to glass tested in air using the same fixture. The purpose of the glass blowing investigation was to prove the basic feasibility of a high-level concept for in-space manufacture of optical elements. The central requirement was that the glass bubble had to be blown into a support structure such that the bubble could be handled by manipulation of the structure. The blown bubble attached itself to a mullite ring geometrically and mechanically, as a demonstration in the initial experiments described here, by expanding through and around it. The vacuum system used was custom made, as were most of the components of the system, such as the heating element, the glass and ring support structure, and the gas inlet system that provided the pressure needed to blow the glass.

  2. Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-09-12

    An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.

  3. The structural heterogeneity and optical properties in chalcogenide glass films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurgalin, Max; Fuflyigin, Vladimir N; Anderson, Emilia G

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic structure and optical properties of glassy films prepared by vapour phase deposition process from the germanium-arsenic-selenium family of chalcogenide glasses have been studied. A number of different molecular clusters or domains that can exist in the glass structure are found to play a significant role in determining the absorption characteristics and refractive index of the glass films. Modifications of the glass structure can be described by a variation of relative concentrations of the clusters and can be effected by modifications of film chemical composition and deposition conditions. Changes in absorption spectra are directly correlated with variation in relative concentrations of the structural fragments with different electronic bandgap properties. Experimental results suggest structural heterogeneity and support validity of the cluster structural model for the chalcogenide glasses

  4. Optical properties of lead–tellurite glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    392. Table 1. Density, molar volume, optical energy bandgap, refractive index, molar refraction and polarizability of oxide ion for. Sm2O3–PbO–TeO2 glasses. Glass composition (mol%). Energy. Molar. Polarizability. Density Molar volume bandgap. Refractive refraction. (αe). Sm2O3. PbO. TeO2. (ρ) (g/cm. 3. ) (Vm) (cm. –3. ).

  5. Optical and spectroscopic properties of Eu-doped tellurite glasses and glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, W.; Elhouichet, H.; Gelloz, B.; Férid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tellurite glasses doped with trivalent europium were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique, in the chemical composition of (85−x) TeO 2 +5La 2 O 3 +10TiO 2 +xEu 2 O 3 by varying the concentration of the rare-earth ion in the order 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mol%. Using Judd–Ofelt analysis, we calculated intensity parameters (Ω 2 and Ω 4 ), spontaneous emission probabilities, the radiative lifetime, luminescence branching factors, the quantum yield of luminescence, and the stimulated emission cross-sections for 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu 3+ ion concentration have been discussed and compared with other glasses. The luminescence intensity ratio, quantum efficiency and emission cross-section values support that the TeEu1.5 tellurite glass is a suitable candidate for red laser source applications. Optical properties for Eu 3+ doped tellurite glass, heated for different temperature, were investigated. Crystalline phases for α-TeO 2 , γ-TeO 2 and TiTe 3 O 8 system were determined by the XRD method. The effect of heat treatment on luminescence properties in the tellurite glass was discussed. By using Eu 3+ as a probe, the local structure of rare-earth ion in tellurite glass, vitro-ceramic and ceramic glass has been investigated. The evaluated J–O intensity parameters have been used to calculate different radiative and laser characteristic parameters of the 5 D 0 excited level. The large magnitudes of stimulated emission cross-section (σ e ), branching ratio (β) and Gain bandwidth (σ e ×Δλ eff ) obtained for 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 (613 nm) transition for ceramic glass indicate that the present glass ceramic is promising host material for Eu 3+ doped fiber amplifiers. The measured lifetime of 5 D 0 excited state increases with increase of the heat treatment which further indicate that some Eu 3+ ions were successfully embedded in the crystal phase and prove the low phonon energy environment of Eu 3+ ions

  6. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  7. Optical Characterization of Zinc Modified Bismuth Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Parmar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical characterization of glass samples in the system 40SiO2 · xZnO · (60-xBi2O3 with x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 prepared by conventional melt-quench technique has been carried out in the light of Hydrogenic Excitonic Model (HEM. The absorption coefficient spectra show good agreement with theoretical HEM for the present glass system and the values of different parameters like Eg, R, Γ1, Γc, and Co have been estimated from fitting of this model. The values of energy band gap estimated from fitting of HEM with experimental data are in good agreement with those obtained from Tauc’s plot for direct transitions. The band gap energy is found to increase with increase of ZnO content. The decrease in values of Urbach energy with increase in ZnO content indicates a decrease in defect concentration in the glass matrix on addition of ZnO content. Optical constants n and k obey k-k consistency and the dielectric response of the studied glass system is similar to that obtained for Classical Electron Theory of Dielectric Materials. The calculated values of the metallization criterion (M show that the synthesized glasses may be good candidates for new nonlinear optical materials.

  8. Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Steffensen, Henrik; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the formation of extreme events or rogue waves in soft glass tellurite fibers and demonstrate that optical loss drastically diminishes shot-to-shot fluctuations characteristic of picosecond pumped supercontinuum (SC). When loss is neglected these fluctuations include...... distributions. Our results thus implicitly show that rogue waves will not occur in any SC spectrum that is limited by loss, such as commercial silica fiber based SC sources. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  9. Material Removal Rate for Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) of Optical Glasses with Nanodiamond MR Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a material removal rate model for MRF of optical glasses using nanodiamond MR fluid. The new model incorporates terms for drag force, polishing particle properties, chemical durability and glass composition into an existing model that contains only terms for the glass mechanical properties. Experimental results for six optical glasses are given that support this model

  10. Material Removal Rate for Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) of Optical Glasses with Nanodiamond MR Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-07-13

    We present a material removal rate model for MRF of optical glasses using nanodiamond MR fluid. The new model incorporates terms for drag force, polishing particle properties, chemical durability and glass composition into an existing model that contains only terms for the glass mechanical properties. Experimental results for six optical glasses are given that support this model.

  11. Optical and Physical Investigations of Lanthanum Bismuth Borate glasses doped with Ho2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P.; Jagannath, G.; Eraiah, B.; Kokila, M. K.

    2018-02-01

    Holmium doped 10La2O3-15Bi2O3-(75-x) B2O3 (Ho3+: LBB) glasses have been prepared by melt quench technique and the impact of holmium ions concentration on optical and physical properties of present glasses have been examined. Ho3+ dependent density, molar volume, refractive index, rare earth ion concentration, polaron radius, inter ionic distance, field strength and energy band gap are calculated and tabulated. Amorphous nature of the all glasses has been confirmed by XRD patterns. The room temperature (RT) Uv-Vis absorption spectrum doped with 1 mol% of Ho2O3 exhibit eight prominent bands centred at 895, 641, 537, 486, 472, 467, 451 and 416 due to transition between ground state to various excited states. The results show that, the density is increases and molar volume of the glasses is decreases with an increase in Ho2O3 concentration and consequently generate more non-bridging oxygen (NBOs) in the glass matrix. The Urbach energy is increases with holmium concentration which exemplifies the degree of disorder present in the LBB glasses. The considerable increase in field strength observed in present glasses is attributed to occurrence of strong bridge between Ho3+ and B- ions and this strong bridge is possibly due to the displacement between Ho3+ and oxygen atoms which are generated from the conversion BO3-BO4 units.

  12. Optical and spectroscopic study of erbium doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. F.; Lima, A. M. O.; Sandrini, M.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Pedrochi, F.; Barboza, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 10CaF2 - (29.9-0.4x)CaO - (60-0.6x)B2O3 - xTeO2 - 0,1Er2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 30 and 50 mol %) glasses were synthesized, and their optical and spectroscopic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction, density, glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tx), refraction index, luminescence, radiative lifetime and optical absorption measurements were carried out. Molar volume (Vm), thermal stability (Tx-Tg), electronic polarizability (αm), optical bang gap energy (Eg) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters Ωt (2,4,6) were also calculated. The results are discussed in terms of tellurium oxide content. The increase of TeO2 in the glasses composition increases density, refractive index and electronic polarizability. The optical band gap energy decreases varying from 3.37 to 2.71 eV for the glasses with 10 and 50 mol% of TeO2, respectively. The optical absorption coefficient spectra show characteristic bands of Er3+ ions. Furthermore, these spectra in NIR region show a decrease of hydroxyl groups as a function of TeO2 addition. Luminescence intensity and radiative lifetimes at 1530 nm show an increasing with the TeO2 content. The JO parameters of Er:CaBTeX glasses follow the trend Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 and the quality factor values (Ω4/Ω6) were between 1.37 and 3.07. By comparing the measured lifetime with the calculated radiative decay time, quantum efficiency was calculated. The luminescence emission intensity at 1530 nm decreases with the increase of temperature. The lifetime values show a slight trend to decrease with the temperature increase, from 300 to 420 K, for all the samples.

  13. Thermal and optical properties of Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, G; Demirata, B; Oveçoğlu, M L; Genç, A

    2001-02-01

    Ultraviolet, visible (UV/VIS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements were carried out in order to investigate the optical and thermal properties of various 0.5 mol.% Tm2O3 containing (1 - x)TeO2 + xLiCl glasses in molar ratio. The samples were prepared by fusing the mixture of their respective reagent grade powders in a platinum cricuble at 750 degrees C for 30 min. DTA curves taken in the 23-600 degrees C temperature range with a heating rate of 10 degrees C/min reveal a change in the value of the glass transition temperature, Tg, while melting was not observed for the glasses containing LiCl content less than 50 mol.%. These glasses were found to be moisture-resistant. However, the glasses with LiCl content higher than 50 mol.%, in which a melting peak was observed at Tc = 401 degrees C, were moisture-sensitive. Absorption measurements in the UV/VIS region of the glasses without Tm2O3 content show that the Urbach cutoff occurs at about 320 nm and, is relatively independent of the LiCl content. Six absorption bands were observed in the Tm2O3 doped glasses corresponding to the absorption of the 1G4, 3F2, 3F3 and 3F4, 3H5 and 3H4 levels from the 3H6 ground level of Tm3+ ions. The spectra also show that the integrated absorption cross-section of each band depends on the glass composition. Judd-Ofelt theory was used to determine the Judd-Ofelt parameters as well as the radiative transition probabilities for the metastable levels of Tm3+ ions in (0.3)LiCl + (0.7) TeO2: 0.01 Tm2O3 glass which is moisture-resistant.

  14. Optical and spectroscopic investigation on Calcium Borotellurite glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, E. C.; Lodi, T. A.; Gomes, B. R. A.; Melo, G. H. A.; Pedrochi, F.; Steimacher, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the glass formation in Calcium Borotellurite (CBTx) system and their optical properties were studied. Six glass samples were prepared by melt-quenching technique and the samples obtained are transparent, lightly yellowish, without any visible crystallites. The results showed that TeO2 addition increases the density, the electronic polarizability and, consequently, the refractive index. The increase of electronic polarizability and optical basicity suggest that TeO2 addition increases the non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration. The increase of TeO2 shifts the band edge to longer wavelength owing to increase in non-bridging oxygen ions, resulting in a linear decrease of optical energy gap. The addition of TeO2 increases the temperature coefficient of the optical path length (dS/dT) in room temperature, which are comparable to phosphate and lower than Low Silica Calcium Alumino Silicate (LSCAS) glasses. The values of dS/dT present an increase as a function of temperature for all the samples measured. The results suggest that CBTx is a good candidate for rare-earth doping and several optical applications.

  15. Structural and optical study of tellurite-barium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelowska, I.; Reben, M.; Burtan, B.; Sitarz, M.; Cisowski, J.; Yousef, El Sayed; Knapik, A.; Dudek, M.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the effect of barium oxide on the structural, thermal and optical properties of the TeO2-BaO-Na2O (TBN) and TeO2-BaO-WO3 (TBW) glass systems. Raman spectra allow relating the glass structure and vibration properties (i.e. vibrational frequencies and Raman intensities) with the glass composition. Raman spectra show the presence of TeO4 and TeO3+1/TeO3 units that conform with the glass matrix. Differential thermal analysis DTA, XRD measurements have been considered in term of BaO addition. The spectral dependence of ellipsometric angles of the tellurite-barium glass has been studied. The optical measurements were conducted on Woollam M2000 spectroscopic ellipsometer in spectral range of 190-1700 nm. The reflectance and transmittance measurements have been done on spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer, Lambda 900 in the range of 200-2500 nm (UV-VIS-NIR). From the transmittance spectrum, the energy gap was determined.

  16. Multimode supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is considered in chalcogenide fibres when taking into account both polarisations and the necessary higher order modes. In particular we focus on high pulse energy supercontinuum generation with long pump pulses. The modeling indicates that when only a single...

  17. Crystal growth and optical properties of CdS-doped lead silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Liu Qiming; Zhao Xiujian

    2007-01-01

    The crystal growth and optical properties of CdS microcrystallite-doped lead silicate glass is investigated in this paper. The existence of CdS nanocrystals was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results reveal that a two-stage heat-treat procedure can produce a better size distribution of CdS nanocrystals than a one-stage heat-treat procedure in glasses. The second harmonic generation (SHG) from the base glass and CdS microcrystallite doped glasses was observed, and the effects of the heat treatments and the thermal poling temperature on the crystallization of CdS and second-order harmonic (SH) intensity were discussed, respectively. It is indicated that samples doped with CdS microcrystallite showed larger SH intensity than that of the base glass. Use of a higher thermal poling temperature than the glass transformation temperature does not result in a good SH intensity in glasses

  18. Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zughbi, A.; Kharita, M.H.; Shehada, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs suggested being used as raw materials for the production of radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic wastes, namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This method makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as raw material for Radiation Shielding Glass and concrete. The heavy metal oxides increase its density, which make this type of glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glass have been characterized to determine heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different Gamma-Ray energies. Empirical methods have been used by using the Gamma-Ray source cobalt-60 and computational method by using the code XCOM. Measured and calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effects of irradiation by gamma rays of cobalt-60 on the optical transparency for each part of the CRTs glass have been studied. The Results had shown that some parts of CRTs glass have more resistant to Gamma radiation than others. The study had shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes could be recycled to be used as radiation shielding glass. This proposed use of CRT glass is only limited to the available quantity of CRT world-wide. - Highlights: • A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented. • The glass from CRTs used as raw materials for radiation shielding glass. • The resulted glass have good optical properties and stability against radiations.

  19. Selection of Optical Glasses Using Buchdahl's Chromatic Coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation attempted to extend the method of reducing the size of glass catalogs to a global glass selection technique with the hope of guiding glass catalog offerings. Buchdahl's development of optical aberration coefficients included a transformation of the variable in the dispersion equation from wavelength to a chromatic coordinate omega defined as omega = (lambda - lambda(sub 0))/ 1 + 2.5(lambda - lambda(sub 0)) where lambda is the wavelength at which the wavelength is calculated and lambda(sub 0) is a base wavelength about which the expansion is performed. The advantage of this approach is that the dispersion equation may be written in terms of a simple power series and permits direct calculation of dispersion coefficients. While several promising examples were given, a systematic application of the technique to an entire glass catalog and analysis of the subsequent predictions was not performed. The goal of this work was to apply the technique in a systematic fashion to glasses in the Schoft catalog and assess the quality of the predictions.

  20. Ruby coloured lead glasses by generation of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C. [Fundacion Centro Nacional del Vidrio, Pocillo, 1, 40100 La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia) (Spain); Villegas, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mavillegas@cenim.csic.es

    2004-11-15

    Both yellow and red superficial ruby lead crystal glasses have been obtained by Ag{sup +} ion-exchange. For red ruby colouring lead glass substrates were previously doped with reducing oxides (arsenic, antimony, cerium and tin). The best experimental conditions for silver ion-exchange were determined. The optical absorption behaviour of the samples was studied to point out the influence of the parameters involved in the ion-exchange process. Moreover, other parameters affecting the final colouring of the glasses (kind of dopant, dopant concentration, etc.) were also analysed. The dopant percentage added to the lead crystal glass is the most important factor for developing superficial red ruby colouring. Antimony oxide doped lead glass ion-exchanged with silver showed the most intense red ruby colouring, even for a doping concentration lower than those of arsenic oxide doped samples able to enhance similar colour. Spectral saturation appeared for the highest doping concentration and for the most severe ion-exchange conditions. Chromatic coordinates were calculated from the corresponding transmission visible spectra. The colour purity showed by the samples obtained satisfies the ornamental requirements that motivated this research.

  1. An optical fibre-type silicate glass thermoluminescent detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zheng; Dai Honggui; Hu Shangze; Liu Jian; Fang Jie

    1991-01-01

    A description of dosimetric properties and the preparation method of an optical fibre-type silicate glass thermoluminescent detector (TLD) is presented. Results showed that this new phosphor is a good one which could be used as a routine dosimeter in the range 10 -1 -10 3 Gy. The preparation method is a new one which differs greatly from all previous ones. Furthermore this kind of detector is small and of low weight. (orig.)

  2. In-plane spectroscopy with optical fibers and liquid-filled APEX™ glass microcuvettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, William R; Tantawi, Khalid Hasan; Williams, John D; Waddell, Emanuel; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Chemical etching and laser drilling of microstructural glass results in opaque or translucent sidewalls, limiting the optical analysis of glass microfluidic devices to top down or non-planar topologies. These non-planar observation topologies prevent each layer of a multilayered device from being independently optically addressed. However, novel photosensitive glass processing techniques in APEX™ have resulted in microfabricated glass structures with transparent sidewalls. Toward the goal of a transparent multilayered glass microfluidic device, this study demonstrates the ability to perform spectroscopy with optical fibers and microcuvettes fabricated in photosensitive APEX™ glass. (technical note)

  3. Drilling of optical glass with electroplated diamond tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. J.; Luan, C. G.; Yu, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    K9 optical glass drilling experiments were carried out. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tools with small slots and under heat treatment in different temperature were fabricated. Scan electro microscope was applied to analyze the wear of electroplated diamond tool. The material removal rate and grinding ratio were calculated. Machining quality was observed. Bond coating hardness was measured. The experimental results show that coolant is needed for the drilling processes of optical glasses. Heat treatment temperature of diamond tool has influence on wearability of diamond tool and grinding ratio. There were two wear types of electroplated diamond tool, diamond grit wear and bond wear. With the machining processes, wear of diamond grits included fracture, blunt and pull-out, and electroplated bond was gradually worn out. High material removal rates could be obtained by using diamond tool with suitable slot numbers. Bright nickel coating bond presents smallest grains and has better mechanical properties. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tool with slot structure and heat treatment under 200°C was suitable for optical glass drilling.

  4. Optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-06-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (39-x)B2O3+30TeO2+15MgO+15K2O +xEu2O3 (where x = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 wt%) have been prepared by following conventional melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses have been studied by recording the optical absorption and luminescence measurements. Through the optical absorption spectra, bonding parameters (β¯, δ) have been calculated to identify the ionic/covalent nature of the glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis have been carried out using the luminescence spectra. The JO parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were used to calculate the radiative properties for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu3+ ion concentration have been studied and discussed with similar studies.

  5. Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughbi, A.; Kharita, M. H.; Shehada, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs suggested being used as raw materials for the production of radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic wastes, namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This method makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as raw material for Radiation Shielding Glass and concrete. The heavy metal oxides increase its density, which make this type of glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glass have been characterized to determine heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different Gamma-Ray energies. Empirical methods have been used by using the Gamma-Ray source cobalt-60 and computational method by using the code XCOM. Measured and calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effects of irradiation by gamma rays of cobalt-60 on the optical transparency for each part of the CRTs glass have been studied. The Results had shown that some parts of CRTs glass have more resistant to Gamma radiation than others. The study had shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes could be recycled to be used as radiation shielding glass. This proposed use of CRT glass is only limited to the available quantity of CRT world-wide.

  6. Modeling of excimer laser radiation induced defect generation in fluoride phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-01-01

    Fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses with low phosphate content are high-transparent in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range and attractive candidates for UV-optics. Their optical properties are complementary to fluoride crystals. The anomalous partial dispersion makes them desirable for optical lens designs to reduce the secondary spectrum. Their UV transmission is limited by trace impurities introduced by raw materials and decreases when exposed to UV-radiation (lamps, lasers). The experiments of the paper published previously in this journal were used in order to separate radiation induced absorption bands in the fluoride phosphate glass FP10. In this paper the generation mechanism of the phosphorus-oxygen related hole center POHC 2 is investigated in detail in glasses of various compositions (various phosphate and impurity contents) in order to predict the transmission loss in case of long-time irradiation. Experiments were carried out using ArF- and KrF-excimer lasers (ns-pulses). POHC 2 generation strongly depends on the phosphate content and on the content of Pb 2+ . A model was developed on these terms. Rate equations are formulated, incorporating the influence of the Pb 2+ -content on the defect generation, a two-step creation term including an energy transfer process and a one-photon bleaching term. This results in a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Absorption coefficients and lifetimes of the excited states were calculated as well. Experimental results compared well with the numerical analysis of the theoretical rate equations

  7. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-03-30

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers.

  8. All-optical fast random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-09-13

    We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.

  9. Experimental and theoretical approach on the optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with dysprosium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimah, M. K.; Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Muhammad, F. D.

    2018-04-01

    A series of glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2)0.7(B2O3)0.3]0.7(ZnO)0.3}1 - x(Dy2O3)x where x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction were synthesized through conventional melt-quenching method. The most common way to fabricate a glass material is by fusion of two or more component oxides followed by their quenching. This technique is known as melt-quenching technique. Kaur et al. (2016) [1] highlighted that the melt-quenching method able to enhance the mechanical properties like hardness and flexural strength of the material. The nature of the glass systems is proven to be amorphous based on the XRD pattern. The FTIR spectra of the glass systems confirm the existence of five bands which are assigned for the BO4, BO3, TeO4 and TeO3 vibrational groups. The density of the glass systems is increased with the addition of Dy2O3 while the molar volume is found to be inversely proportional to the density of the proposed glass. The optical properties of the glasses are determined through the absorption spectra obtained from the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. From the absorption spectra, the indirect and direct optical band gaps and the Urbach energy are found to be inversely proportional to each other. As the molar fraction of the Dy2O3 increased, the optical band gaps are observed to increase as opposed to the Urbach energy. For this glass system, the values of refractive index, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and the optical basicity are found to decrease as the addition of the dysprosium oxide is increased. From the emission spectra, two intense blue and yellow emission bands are observed, which correspond to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions of Dy3 + ions respectively. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the zinc borotellurite glass systems are found to be located in the white light region. Generation of white light The generation of the white light can be achieved by using two emission bands which comprise of the yellow

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Y.; Hioki, T.; Motohiro, T.; Noda, S.; Kurauchi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke , of Sn + ion-implanted silica glass was found to be similar 10 -6 esu. This value is as large as those reported for semiconductor-doped glasses. Silica glass substrates were implanted with Sn + ions at an acceleration energy of 400 keV to a dose of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Metallic Sn microcrystallites of 4-20 nm in diameter were found to be embedded in the silica glass matrix. The average volume fraction of the Sn microcrystallites was evaluated to be 28%. vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke and the imaginary part of the dielectric function, Im ε, had peaks at the same wavelength of 500 nm owing to surface plasmon resonance. The peak width of vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke was nearly half of that of Im ε, which can be explained by an effective medium theory. ((orig.))

  11. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  12. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  13. Optical bleaching of bismuth implanted silica glass: A threshold effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Magruder, R.H. III; Weeks, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The near surface regions of high purity silica glass discs, Spectrosil A, were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 key and room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at ∼5 μA/cm 2 were subsequently bleached with a 5.0 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser. The laser had an average pulse duration of ∼20 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. It was found that the bleaching was dependent upon the power density of the laser for a constant total integrated energy. Ion backscattering and optical absorption measurements were made before and after laser irradiation. Large changes in optical density and depth distribution of the implanted ions were observed at power densities of ≥45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse. Onset of threshold for bleaching of silica glass implanted with 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at 160 key and at room temperature is between 30 and 45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse

  14. New generation of optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  15. Optimizing the next generation optical access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Soto, Ana Cardenas; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Several issues in the design and optimization of the next generation optical access network (NG-OAN) are presented. The noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities are considered to optimize the video distribution link in a passive optical network (PON). A discussion of the effect...

  16. Effects of Nanodiamond Abrasive Friability in Experimental MR Fluids with Phosphate Laser Glass LHG-8 and Other Optical Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Spencer, K.E.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2005-09-22

    Research is currently being conducted to better understand the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in the removal process of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF). The following presents removal rate data for a set of six optical glasses that were spotted (not polished out) with four different MR fluids, as well as texturing/smoothing data for phosphate laser glass LHG-8.

  17. The micro-optic photovoltaic behavior of solar cell along with microlens curved glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jin; Wu, Keke; Cheng, Jian; Li, Ping; Zheng, Jiahua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microlens array may be micro-ground on curved photovoltaic glass substrate. • Its micro-optical structure absorbs and scatters the inclined light to solar cell. • It increases conversion efficiency and fill factor in weak and inclined lights. • It improves electricity generation by about 4 times in scattered cloudy daylight. • It produces stronger electricity generation in cloudy day than in sunny day. - Abstract: A hybrid of microlens structure and curved surface may produce high value-added micro-optic performance. Hence, the microlens array is proposed on macro curved glass substrate of thin film solar cell. The objective is to understand how the micro-optic behavior of microlens curved array influences indoor power conversion efficiency and outdoor electricity generation. First, the absorptivities of visible light and infrared light were analyzed in connection with the curved microlens sizes; then the microlens curved glass substrate was fabricated by a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) micro-grinding with micro diamond wheel V-tip; finally, its photovoltaic properties and electricity generation were measured, respectively. It is shown that the microlens curved surface may strongly absorb and scatter light to solar cell. It increases the absorptivity of visible light against plane surface, but it decreases the one of infrared light against microlens surface. When it is applied to solar cell, it enhances the power conversion efficiency by 3.4–10.6% under oblique illumination. When it is applied to solar device, it increases the electricity generation of daylight by 119–106% against microlens surface and by 260–419% against traditional plane surface, respectively. The surprising finding is that it produces much larger electricity generation during cloudy day than during sunny day, but traditional plane surface does not so

  18. Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of chromium in different host glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachheb, R., E-mail: raouialach66@gmail.com [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Herrmann, A. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstraße 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Damak, K. [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Rüssel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstraße 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Maâlej, R. [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2017-06-15

    The optical absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra, and emission lifetimes of chromium (III) were investigated in a wide variety of oxide glasses (aluminosilicate, aluminate and phosphate). For all glasses, weak crystal field strengths were deduced from the absorption spectra. The effect of the glass matrix and the Cr{sup 3+} concentration on the fluorescence properties of Cr{sup 3+} ions were investigated. An increased fluorescence intensity of Cr{sup 3+}was found for glasses of low optical basicity, the spectral position of the Cr{sup 3+} absorption and emission, however, was hardly influenced by the glass composition. The optical absorption spectra of the chromium doped aluminosilicate and aluminate glasses showed the presence of Cr{sup VI}, while in phosphate glasses most chromium occurred as Cr{sup 3+} ions. Furthermore, for the glass with the lowest basicity, the Cr{sup 3+}concentration was optimized in order to achieve maximum fluorescence emission intensity.

  19. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  20. Modified magnetic and optical properties of manganese nanoparticles incorporated europium doped magnesium borotellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Siti Maisarah; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the modified optical and magnetic properties of europium (Eu{sup 3+}) ions doped and Manganese nanoparticles (NPs) embedded Magnesium Borotellurite glass synthesized via melt quenching method. The influence of varying Mn NPs concentrations on the magnetic, absorption and emission properties of such glass samples are determined. Stables, transparent and amorphous glasses are obtained. The observed modification of the electronic polarizability is interpreted in terms of the generation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and bridging oxygen (BO) in the amorphous network. TEM images manifested the growth of Mn NPs with average diameter 11±1 nm. High-resolution TEM reveals that the lattice spacing of manganese nanoparticles is 0.308 nm at (112) plane. The emission spectra revealed four prominent peaks centered at 587 nm, 610 nm, 651 nm and 700 nm assigned to the transition from {sup 5}D{sub 0} →{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=1, 2, 3, 4) states of Eu{sup 3+} ion. A significant drop in the luminescence intensity due to the incorporation of Mn NPs is ascribed to the enhanced energy transfer from the Eu{sup 3+} ion to NPs. Prepared glass systems exhibited paramagnetic behavior. - Highlights: • The europium doped magnesium borotellurite glasses embedded Mn NPs prepared using the conventional melt-quenching method. • The TEM result reveals the size of Mn NPs while its planar spacing has been determined by HRTEM. • The luminescence properties of TeO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MgO–Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} glasses have been investigated as effect of Mn NPs content. • The magnetization measurement of glass sample is carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)

  1. Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K.; Litzkendorf, D.; Grimm, S.; Kobelke, J.; Schwuchow, A.; Ludwig, A.; Leich, M.; Jetschke, S.; Dellith, J.; Auguste, J.-L.; Leparmentier, S.; Humbert, G.; Werner, G.

    2013-03-01

    We report on SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 glasses - with and without Yb2O3 - suitable for nonlinear and fiber laser applications. We also present successful supercontinuum generation and fiber laser operation around 1060 nm in step-index fibers. We have optimized the glass compositions in terms of thermal and optical requirements for both a high La2O3 (24 mol%) and Yb2O3(6 mol%) concentration. The aluminum concentration was adjusted to about 21 mol% Al2O3 to increase the solubility of lanthanum and ytterbium in the glass beyond possible MCVD based techniques. The glasses have been characterized by dilatometrical methods to find transition temperatures from 860 to 880°C and thermal expansion coefficients between 4.1 and 7.0 × 10-6 K-1. Structured step index fibers with a SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 core and silica cladding have been realized showing a fiber loss minimum of about 500 dB/km at 1200 nm wavelength. The chromatic dispersion could be adjusted to shift the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) close to the pump wavelength of 1550 nm in a supercontinuum generation setup. First fiber laser experiments show an efficiency of about 41 % with a remarkably reduced photodarkening compared to MCVD based fibers.

  2. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  3. Chalcogenide glasses as optical and ion-conducting materials. Kogaku oyobi ion dendo zairyo toshite no chalcogenide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toge, N.; Minami, T. (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Nonoxide glasses whose main constituent are chalcogen elements like S, Se, or Te etc. show a lot of various properties, for instance, high infrared transmittancy and semi-conductivity which are already well known. Additionally, the optical properties change a lot along with the phase transition's happening between crystal and noncrystal under comparative low temperature. Further, it is also observed that the glasses containing proper cation appear high ion-conductivity. This paper supplies a brief reviews of chalcogenide glasses used as materials for infrared fiber, phase transition optical memory and superionic conductor, wherein the former two have already on the stage of utilization, particularly the realization of a rewritable optical memory is possible by using chalcogenide glasses film, and ion-conductor is in the phase to have shown the possibility of high conductivity while the development thereof is being expected. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Optical Interconnection Via Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Zhou, Shaomin

    1995-01-01

    Method of free-space optical interconnection developed for data-processing applications like parallel optical computing, neural-network computing, and switching in optical communication networks. In method, multiple optical connections between multiple sources of light in one array and multiple photodetectors in another array made via computer-generated holograms in electrically addressed spatial light modulators (ESLMs). Offers potential advantages of massive parallelism, high space-bandwidth product, high time-bandwidth product, low power consumption, low cross talk, and low time skew. Also offers advantage of programmability with flexibility of reconfiguration, including variation of strengths of optical connections in real time.

  5. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu3+ and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldiño, U.; Speghini, A.; Berneschi, S.; Bettinelli, M.; Brenci, M.; Pasquini, E.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO 3 ) 3 –2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb 3+ excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emissions of Eu 3+ , europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb 3+ emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer might take place between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag + –Na + ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu 3+ is sensitized by Tb 3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light

  6. Optical spectroscopy of rare earth-doped oxyfluoro-tellurite glasses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... glass matrix with different RE ions for optical properties is of importance. ... Figure 1. XRD pattern of the tellurite glasses studied. Table 1. Composition and glass transition ... convoluted using Gaussian line shape. Parameters like .... On the other hand, in Er3+ ion, the ground state 4I15/2 itself has manifold.

  7. Using refraction in thick glass plates for optical path length modulation in low coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Niklas; Schlobohm, Jochen; Pösch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-09-01

    In Michelson interferometer setups the standard way to generate different optical path lengths between a measurement arm and a reference arm relies on expensive high precision linear stages such as piezo actuators. We present an alternative approach based on the refraction of light at optical interfaces using a cheap stepper motor with high gearing ratio to control the rotation of a glass plate. The beam path is examined and a relation between angle of rotation and change in optical path length is devised. As verification, an experimental setup is presented, and reconstruction results from a measurement standard are shown. The reconstructed step height from this setup lies within 1.25% of the expected value.

  8. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Amer Almasri

    Full Text Available The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3 based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature. Keywords: Soda lime silica glass, Wollastonite, Sintering, Structural properties, Optical properties

  9. Thermal Stability and Optical Activity of Erbium Doped Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, D.; Koughia, K.; Kasap, S. O.; Maeda, K.; Sakai, T.; Ikuta, J.; Ivanova, Z. G.

    The glass transition and crystallization temperatures (T g , T c ), heat capacity, thermal stability and glass uniformity of GeSGa, GeSeGa, Ge(SeTe)Ga chalcogenide glasses doped with Er3+ by the addition of Er2S3 have been investigated by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Temperature-Modulated DSC (TMDSC). While some of the glasses have two crystallization peaks, these glasses were nonetheless optically actively and uniform. Essential optical properties have been evaluated, such as the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and lifetime as a function of the glass composition. We present typical results to emphasize some of the important characteristics of these systems and discuss trends within a glass system; and also highlight differences between glass systems.

  10. Chemically etched sharpened tip of transparent crystallized glass fibers with nonlinear optical Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Itaru; Benino, Yasuhiko; Komatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2007-01-01

    Glass fibers with a diameter of ∼100 μm are drawn by just pulling up melts of 40BaO·20TiO 2 ·40SiO 2 glass, and transparent crystallized glass fibers consisting of nonlinear optical fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals (particle size: ∼100-200 nm) are fabricated by crystallization of glass fibers. Precursor glass fibers and nanocrystallized glass fibers are etched chemically using a meniscus method, in which an etching solution of 0.1wt%-HF/hexane is used. Glass fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is ∼L=200 μm and the tip angle is ∼θ=23deg) are obtained. It is found that etched nanocrystallized glass fibers also have sharpened tips (L=50 μm, θ=80deg). Compared with precursor glass fibers, nanocrystallized glass fibers show a high resistance against chemical etching in a 0.1 wt%HF solution. Although sharpened tips in nanocrystallized glass fibers do not have nanoscaled apertures, the present study suggests that nanocrystallized glass fibers showing second harmonic generations would have a potential for fiber-type light control optical devices. (author)

  11. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  12. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  13. Optical Subsystems for Next Generation Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....

  14. Optical basicity and electronic polarizability of zinc borotellurite glass doped La3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Halimah

    Full Text Available Zinc borotellurite glasses doped with lanthanum oxide were successfully prepared through melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glass system was validated by the presence of a broad hump in the XRD result. The refractive index of the prepared glass samples was calculated by using the equation proposed by Dimitrov and Sakka. The theoretical value of molar refraction, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and metallization criterion were calculated by using Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Meanwhile, expression proposed by Duffy and Ingram for the theoretical value of optical basicity of multi-component glasses were applied to obtain energy band gap based optical basicity and refractive index based optical basicity. The optical basicity of prepared glasses decreased with the increasing concentration of lanthanum oxide. Metallization criterion on the basis of refractive index showed an increasing trend while energy band gap based metallization criterion showed a decreasing trend. The small metallization criterion values of the glass samples represent that the width of the conduction band becomes larger which increase the tendency for metallization of the glasses. The results obtained indicates that the fabricated glasses have high potential to be applied on optical limiting devices in photonic field. Keywords: Borotellurite glasses, Refractive index, Electronic polarizability, Oxide ion polarizability, Optical basicity, Metallization criterion

  15. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of optical breakdown in BK7 glass induced by an extended-cavity femtosecond laser oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Binh T; Phillips, Mark C; Miller, Paul A; Kimmel, Mark W; Britsch, Justin; Cho, Seong-Ho

    2009-02-16

    Using an extended-cavity femtosecond oscillator, we investigated optical breakdown in BK7 glass caused by the accumulated action of many laser pulses. By using a pump-probe experiment and collecting the transmitted pump along with the reflected pump and the broadband light generated by the optical breakdown, we measured the build-up time to optical breakdown as a function of the pulse energy, and we also observed the instability of the plasma due to the effect of defocusing and shielding created by the electron gas. The spectrum of the broadband light emitted by the optical breakdown and the origin of the material modification in BK7 glass was studied. We developed a simple model of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma that is consistent with the observed behavior of the reflection, absorption, and transmission of the laser light.

  17. Femtosecond single-beam direct laser poling of stable and efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, G.; Marquestaut, N.; Royon, A.; Canioni, L.; Petit, Y.; Dussauze, M.; Rodriguez, V.; Cardinal, T.

    2014-01-01

    We depict a new approach for the localized creation in three dimensions (3D) of a highly demanded nonlinear optical function for integrated optics, namely second harmonic generation. We report on the nonlinear optical characteristics induced by single-beam femtosecond direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. The original spatial distribution of the nonlinear pattern, composed of four lines after one single laser writing translation, is observed and modeled with success, demonstrating the electric field induced origin of the second harmonic generation. These efficient second-order nonlinear structures (with χ eff (2)  ∼ 0.6 pm V −1 ) with sub-micron scale are impressively stable under thermal constraint up to glass transition temperature, which makes them very promising for new photonic applications, especially when 3D nonlinear architectures are desired

  18. Structural and optical properties of Tb-doped Na-Gd metaphosphate glasses and glass-ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moretti, F.; Vedda, A.; Nikl, Martin; Nitsch, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), 155103/1-155103/7 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200100626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Na-Gd metaphosphate glass * glass -ceramics * NaGd(PO 3 ) 4 * optical properties * structural properties * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009

  19. Demonstration of glass-based photonic interposer for mid-board-optical engines and electrical-optical circuit board (EOCB) integration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H.; Neitz, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its optical transparency and superior dielectric properties glass is regarded as a promising candidate for advanced applications as active photonic interposer for mid-board-optics and optical PCB waveguide integration. The concepts for multi-mode and single-mode photonic system integration are discussed and related demonstration project results will be presented. A hybrid integrated photonic glass body interposer with integrated optical lenses for multi-mode data communication wavelength of 850 nm have been realized. The paper summarizes process developments which allow cost efficient metallization of TGV. Electro-optical elements like photodiodes and VCSELs can be directly flip-chip mounted on the glass substrate according to the desired lens positions. Furthermore results for a silicon photonic based single-mode active interposer integration onto a single mode glass made EOCB will be compared in terms of packaging challenges. The board level integration strategy for both of these technological approaches and general next generation board level integration concepts for photonic interposer will be introductorily discussed.

  20. Eternal 5D optical data storage in glass (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, Peter G.; Cerkauskaite, Ausra; Drevinskas, Rokas; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-09-01

    A decade ago it has been discovered that during femtosecond laser writing self-organized subwavelength structures with record small features of 20 nm, could be created in the volume of silica glass. On the macroscopic scale the self-assembled nanostructure behaves as a uniaxial optical crystal with negative birefringence. The optical anisotropy, which results from the alignment of nano-platelets, referred to as form birefringence, is of the same order of magnitude as positive birefringence in crystalline quartz. The two independent parameters describing birefringence, the slow axis orientation (4th dimension) and the strength of retardance (5th dimension), are explored for the optical encoding of information in addition to three spatial coordinates. The slow axis orientation and the retardance are independently manipulated by the polarization and intensity of the femtosecond laser beam. The data optically encoded into five dimensions is successfully retrieved by quantitative birefringence measurements. The storage allows unprecedented parameters including hundreds of terabytes per disc data capacity and thermal stability up to 1000°. Even at elevated temperatures of 160oC, the extrapolated decay time of nanogratings is comparable with the age of the Universe - 13.8 billion years. The recording of the digital documents, which will survive the human race, including the eternal copies of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Newton's Opticks, Kings James Bible and Magna Carta, is a vital step towards an eternal archive. Additionally, a number of projects (such as Time Capsule to Mars, MoonMail, and the Google Lunar XPRIZE) could benefit from the technique's extreme durability, which fulfills a crucial requirement for storage on the Moon or Mars.

  1. Generation of optical vortices in an integrated optical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Rebeca; Kusko, Mihai; Kusko, Cristian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the generation of optical vortices in an optical integrated circuit is numerically demonstrated. The optical vortices with topological charge m = ±1 are obtained by the coherent superposition of the first order modes present in a waveguide with a rectangular cross section, where the phase delay between these two propagating modes is Δφ = ±π/2. The optical integrated circuit consists of an input waveguide continued with a y-splitter. The left and the right arms of the splitter form two coupling regions K1 and K2 with a multimode output waveguide. In each coupling region, the fundamental modes present in the arms of the splitter are selectively coupled into the output waveguide horizontal and vertical first order modes, respectively. We showed by employing the beam propagation method simulations that the fine tuning of the geometrical parameters of the optical circuit makes possible the generation of optical vortices in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Also, we demonstrated that by placing a thermo-optical element on one of the y-splitter arms, it is possible to switch the topological charge of the generated vortex from m = 1 to m = -1.

  2. Optical transitions of Ho(3+) in oxyfluoride glasses and upconversion luminescence of Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2015-05-05

    Optical properties of Ho(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical properties of gold nanoparticle embedded Er{sup 3+} doped lead–tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazali, E.S.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.; Arifin, R.; Rohani, M.S.; Awang, A.

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped lead–tellurite glass with and without GNPs has been synthesized. • The existence of Au NPs with average diameter of 6.09 nm dispersed in glass matrix. • Plasmonic effect from Au NPs exert prominent enhancement in UC. - Abstract: Enhanced optical properties of rare earth doped glasses for sundry applications are current challenges in materials science and technology. Series of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) embedded Er{sup 3+} doped TeO{sub 2}–PbO–PbO{sub 2} glasses are synthesized and the influences of GNPs on the optical behaviors are examined. XRD spectra confirm the amorphous nature of all the glass samples. TEM images display the existence of a broad distribution of spherical crystalline GNPs with average diameter ∼6.09 nm. UV–Vis–NIR spectra reveal seven absorption bands centered at 490, 526, 551, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm due to the absorptions from the ground state to different excited states. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of gold (Au{sup 0}) are evidenced at 556 and 585 nm. The sizable decrease in the optical band gap (2.82–1.09 eV) with the increase of GNPs concentration from 0.025 to 0.1 mol% is attributed to the generation of higher NPs nucleation sites. The intensity parameters related to the radiative transitions within 4f{sup n} configuration of Er{sup 3+} ion are determined and analyzed using Judd–Ofelt (J–O) theory. The room temperature up-conversion emission spectra under 779 nm excitations shows three peaks centered at 520, 550 and 660 nm corresponding to the transitions from {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} excited states to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground state. Significant enhancement in the luminescence intensity is primarily ascribed to surface plasmon resonance mediated strong local field effect of GNPs in the proximity Er{sup 3+} ion and radiative energy transfer. The maximum enhancement are evident for green and red bands at 0.05 mol% of Au. The stimulated

  4. Glass formation and the third harmonic generation of Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A. H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies-Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Klymovych, O. S.; Zmiy, O. F. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Av. 13, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamuruyeva, O. V. [Department of Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Av. 13, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Alahmed, Z. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chyský, J.; Bila, Jiri [Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kamarudin, H. [Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-10-14

    We have performed the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties namely the third harmonic generation (THG) of the glass-formation region in the Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. The samples were synthesized by direct single-temperature method from high-purity elementary substances. We have found that the value of disorder parameter Δ depends on the composition of the glassy alloys. The measurements show that increasing the Cu{sub 2}Se concentration leads to increased slope of the absorption edge, which may be explained by the decrease of the height of random potential relief for the electrons in the tails of the state density which border the band edges. A very sharp increase in the THG at low temperature was observed. Significant enhancement in THG was obtained with decreasing the energy gap, which agreed well with the nonlinear optical susceptibilities obtained from other glasses.

  5. Glass formation and the third harmonic generation of Cu2Se–GeSe2–As2Se3 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Klymovych, O. S.; Zmiy, O. F.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamuruyeva, O. V.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Chyský, J.; Bila, Jiri; Kamarudin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties namely the third harmonic generation (THG) of the glass-formation region in the Cu 2 Se–GeSe 2 –As 2 Se 3 system. The samples were synthesized by direct single-temperature method from high-purity elementary substances. We have found that the value of disorder parameter Δ depends on the composition of the glassy alloys. The measurements show that increasing the Cu 2 Se concentration leads to increased slope of the absorption edge, which may be explained by the decrease of the height of random potential relief for the electrons in the tails of the state density which border the band edges. A very sharp increase in the THG at low temperature was observed. Significant enhancement in THG was obtained with decreasing the energy gap, which agreed well with the nonlinear optical susceptibilities obtained from other glasses.

  6. Mesomorphic glass nanocomposites made of metal alkanoates and nanoparticles as emerging nonlinear-optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbovskiy, Y.; Klimusheva, G.; Mirnaya, T.

    2016-09-01

    Mesomorphic metal alkanoates is very promising yet overlooked class of nonlinear-optical materials. Metal alkanoates can exhibit a broad variety of condensed states of matter including solid crystals, plastic crystals, lyotropic and thermotropic ionic liquid crystals, liquids, mesomorphic glasses, and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Glass-forming properties of metal alkanoates combined with their use as nano-reactors and anisotropic host open up simple and efficient way to design various photonic nanomaterials. Despite very interesting physics, the experimental data on optical and nonlinearoptical properties of such materials are scarce. The goal of the present paper is to fill the gap by discussing recent advances in the field of photonic materials made of metal alkanoates, organic dyes, and nanoparticles. Optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the following materials are reviewed: (i) mesomorphic glass doped with organic dyes; (ii) smectic glass composed of cobalt alkanoates; (iii) semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a glassy host; (iv) metal nanoparticles - glass (the cobalt octanoate) nanocomposites.

  7. Ferric oxide quantum dots in stable phosphate glass system and their magneto-optical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaje, Sunil N.; Apte, Sanjay K. [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Kumar, Ganpathy [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Drive, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Panmand, Rajendra P.; Naik, Sonali D. [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Mahajan, Satish M., E-mail: smahajan@tntech.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Drive, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Chand, Ramesh [Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Electronics Niketan, 6, CGO Complex, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kale, Bharat B., E-mail: bbkale@cmet.gov.in [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: We report synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles (NCs) content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in Verdet constant with concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and there is a threefold enhancement in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite. Highlights: ► We synthesize ferric oxide embedded low melting stable phosphate glass nanocomposite. ► Glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide show particle size in the range of 4–12 nm. ► The host phosphate glass itself shows fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm). ► Glasses doped with 0.25% ferric oxide show high Verdet constant (30.525°/T cm). ► The as synthesis glasses may have potential application in magneto optical devices. -- Abstract: Herein, we report the synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. The optical study clearly showed red shift in optical cut off with increasing ferric oxide concentration. The band gap of the host glass was observed to be 3.48 eV and it shifted to 3.14 eV after doping with ferric oxide. The glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide showed particle size of 4–6 nm and 8–12 nm, respectively. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in the Verdet constant as per increasing concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and threefold enhancement was observed in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite.

  8. Structural characterizations and optical properties of new Li–Sr–Nb-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yi-Mu [Department of Electronic Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, S.M. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yung, S.W., E-mail: hwyang@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zhang, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Fuzhou University, Fujian (China); Huang, Y.S.; Wu, J.J. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, C.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new Li{sub 2}O–SrO–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system was prepared by a high-temperature alumina crucible, and structural characterization and optical properties were investigated. Proper content of Li{sub 2}O and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was employed to replace partial SrO and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} to improve the optical properties. It was observed that the enhancement of the refractive index from 1.75 to 1.85 is mainly due to the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} content. An addition of Li{sub 2}O significantly increases the optical transmittance; optical transparency can be enhanced from 60% to higher than 85% in the UV–visible region with addition of 20–40 mol% Li{sub 2}O species. However, optical transmittance is monotonically decreased from about 90% to 80% under 10–30 mol% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition. The 40P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–20Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–20SrO–20Li{sub 2}O glasses demonstrate the optimum refractive index (n > 1.75) and high optical transparency (>80%) in the UV–visible region. Furthermore, the effect of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the structural transition was focused on the (60 − y)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–yNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–20SrO–20Li{sub 2}O vitreous system since the transition of FTIR spectra reveals that the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} has more pronounced effect than Li{sub 2}O in the glass network due to the higher covalent extent and electronegativity. Addition of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} generates Nb–O bonds by dissociating P–O chains and results in the decrease in the intensity of the (PO{sub 2}), (POP), and (PO{sub 3}) absorption bands. The O1s-XPS analysis shows that Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition dissociates symmetric bridging oxygens in P–O–P bonding and forms asymmetric bridging oxygens in P–O–Nb and non-bridging Nb–O{sup -} bonds, in which octahedral [NbO{sub 6}] unit is eventually substituted by [NbO{sub 4}] tetrahedral unit in the Li–Sr–Nb phosphate glasses. - Highlights: • The prepared glasses demonstrate great optical properties

  9. Physical, thermal, infrared and optical properties of Nd3+ doped lithium–lead-germanate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeranna Gowda, V.C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure–property relationships of neodymium doped lithium–lead-germanate glasses were investigated. The density was found to increase with the increase of Nd 2 O 3 concentration and its variation is explained in terms of its molecular mass, structural transformation and packing density. Addition of modifier oxide to lead-germanate glass suggests a decreased free space within the glass matrix, resulting in the formation of stiff network. The increase in glass transition temperature specifies strengthening of glass by forming bridging oxygens. The optical properties of glass were measured employing UV–visible spectroscopy. The refractive index values varied nonlinearly with Nd 2 O 3 concentration and were speculated to depend on the electronic polarizability of oxide glasses. The frequencies of the infrared absorption bands were affected marginally and the absorption peaks revealed that the glass matrix consists of [GeO 4/2 ], [GeO 6/2 ] and [PbO 4/2 ] structural units

  10. Depth estimation of laser glass drilling based on optical differential measurements of acoustic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodesky, Niv; Ozana, Nisan; Berg, Yuval; Dolev, Omer; Danan, Yossef; Kotler, Zvi; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We present the first steps of a device suitable for characterization of complex 3D micro-structures. This method is based on an optical approach allowing extraction and separation of high frequency ultrasonic sound waves induced to the analyzed samples. Rapid, non-destructive characterization of 3D micro-structures are limited in terms of geometrical features and optical properties of the sample. We suggest a method which is based on temporal tracking of secondary speckle patterns generated when illuminating a sample with a laser probe while applying known periodic vibration using an ultrasound transmitter. In this paper we investigated lasers drilled through glass vias. The large aspect ratios of the vias possess a challenge for traditional microscopy techniques in analyzing depth and taper profiles of the vias. The correlation of the amplitude vibrations to the vias depths is experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Optical vortex beams: Generation, propagation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen

    An optical vortex (also known as a screw dislocation or phase singularity) is one type of optical singularity that has a spiral phase wave front around a singularity point where the phase is undefined. Optical vortex beams have a lot of applications in areas such as optical communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) system, optical tweezers, optical trapping and laser beam shaping. The concepts of optical vortex beams and methods of generation are briefly discussed. The properties of optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence have been studied. A numerical modeling is developed and validated which has been applied to study the high order properties of optical vortex beams propagating though a turbulent atmosphere. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage that vectorial vortex beams may be more stable and maintain beam integrity better when they propagate through turbulent atmosphere. As one important application of optical vortex beams, the laser beam shaping is introduced and studied. We propose and demonstrate a method to generate a 2D flat-top beam profile using the second order full Poincare beams. Its applications in two-dimensional flat-top beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under low numerical aperture focusing have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A novel compact flat-top beam shaper based on the proposed method has been designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that high quality flat-top profile can be obtained with steep edge roll-off. The tolerance to different input beam sizes of the beam shaper is also verified in the experimental demonstration. The proposed and experimentally verified LC beam shaper has the potential to become a promising candidate for compact and low-cost flat-top beam shaping in areas such as laser processing/machining, lithography and medical treatment.

  12. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayle, M.; Waugh, D.G.; Colston, B.J.; Lawrence, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  13. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Waugh, D.G., E-mail: d.waugh@chester.ac.uk [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom); Colston, B.J. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  14. Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Changtao; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Huang, Cheng; Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Qin, Fei; Yang, Jing; Gu, Min; Hong, Minghui; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    The catenary is the curve that a free-hanging chain assumes under its own weight, and thought to be a “true mathematical and mechanical form” in architecture by Robert Hooke in the 1670s, with nevertheless no significant phenomena observed in optics. We show that the optical catenary can serve as a unique building block of metasurfaces to produce continuous and linear phase shift covering [0, 2π], a mission that is extremely difficult if not impossible for state-of-the-art technology. Via catenary arrays, planar optical devices are designed and experimentally characterized to generate various kinds of beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). These devices can operate in an ultra-broadband spectrum because the anisotropic modes associated with the spin-orbit interaction are almost independent of the incident light frequency. By combining the optical and topological characteristics, our approach would allow the complete control of photons within a single nanometric layer. PMID:26601283

  15. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushama, D., E-mail: sushasukumar@gmail.com [Research Awardee, LAMP, Dept. of Physics, Nit, Calicut, India and Dept. of Physics, M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}‐WO{sub 3}‐La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  16. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushama, D.

    2014-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er 2 O 3 doped TeO 2 ‐WO 3 ‐La 2 O 3 Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption

  17. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, D.

    2014-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er2O3 doped TeO2-WO3-La2O3 Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  18. Optical and electrical characterizations of multifunctional silver phosphate glass and polymer-based optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Maxime; Ledemi, Yannick; Morency, Steeve; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Messaddeq, Younès

    2017-03-03

    In recent years, the fabrication of multifunctional fibers has expanded for multiple applications that require the transmission of both light and electricity. Fibers featuring these two properties are usually composed either of a single material that supports the different characteristics or of a combination of different materials. In this work, we fabricated (i) novel single-core step-index optical fibers made of electrically conductive AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and (ii) novel multimaterial fibers with different designs made of AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and optically transparent polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) polymers. The multifunctional fibers produced show light transmission over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1000 nm for the single-core fibers and from 400 to 1000 nm for the multimaterial fibers. Furthermore, these fibers showed excellent electrical conductivity with values ranging between 10 -3 and 10 -1  S·cm -1 at room temperature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Multimodal taper-tipped fibre microprobes were then fabricated and were characterized. This advanced design could provide promising tools for in vivo electrophysiological experiments that require light delivery through an optical core in addition to neuronal activity recording.

  19. Evaluation of the optical axis tilt of zinc oxide films via noncollinear second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F. A.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Sibilia, C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated noncollinear second harmonic generation form zinc oxide films, grown on glass substrates by dual ion beam sputtering technique. At a fixed incidence angle, the generated signal is investigated by scanning the polarization state of both fundamental beams. We show that the map of the generated signal as a function of polarization states of both pump beams, together with the analytical curves, allows to retrieve the orientation of the optical axis and eventually, its angular tilt, with respect to the surface normal.

  20. Dielectric and optical properties of glasses of CdO-B2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, V.N.; Mal'tsev, V.T.; Panich, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Dielectric and optical properties of glasses of CdO-B 2 O 3 system are investigated. It is shown, that on changing the composition, cadmic-borate glasses undergo structural changes, similar to those, taking place in lead-borate glasses, and the maximum part of the boron atoms in the oxygen tetrahedral coordination is at CdO:B 2 O 3 =3:2

  1. Scintillation and optical properties of TiO2-ZnO-Al2O3-B2O3 glasses and glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    13TiO2-xZnO-17Al2O3-(70 - x)B2O3 (x = 17, 26, and 35) glasses were prepared by a melt-quenching method, and the obtained glass samples were heated at temperatures 30 °C above the glass transition temperature of corresponding glass in order to obtain glass-ceramics. The obtained glass-ceramic samples were confirmed to have anatase (x = 17) and rutile (x = 26 and 35) phases from X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, the scintillation and optical properties were evaluated and discussed the difference between the glass-ceramic and glass samples. In the scintillation spectra under X-ray irradiation, a broad emission peak was observed around 450 nm in all the samples, and the new peak around 500 nm appeared in the anatase-precipitated glass-ceramic. The intensities of the glass-ceramic samples were enhanced in comparison with the corresponding glasses because the glass-ceramics includes TiO2 crystallites with defect centers which act as effective emission centers. The scintillation decay curves of the glass and glass-ceramic samples were approximated by one and a sum of two exponential decay functions, respectively. The faster component of glass and glass-ceramic samples would be caused by the host emission, and the slower component of glass-ceramic sample would be ascribed to the emission of Ti3+.

  2. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  3. Optical properties of thermally reduced bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.H.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion...... pressure of hydrogen. Here, we present results on the effect of the heat-treatment on the optical properties of bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses.......Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion...

  4. From Selenium- to Tellurium-Based Glass Optical Fibers for Infrared Spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lucas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses are based on sulfur, selenium and tellurium elements, and have been studied for several decades regarding different applications. Among them, selenide glasses exhibit excellent infrared transmission in the 1 to 15 µm region. Due to their good thermo-mechanical properties, these glasses could be easily shaped into optical devices such as lenses and optical fibers. During the past decade of research, selenide glass fibers have been proved to be suitable for infrared sensing in an original spectroscopic method named Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS. FEWS has provided very nice and promising results, for example for medical diagnosis. Then, some sophisticated fibers, also based on selenide glasses, were developed: rare-earth doped fibers and microstructured fibers. In parallel, the study of telluride glasses, which can have transmission up to 28 µm due to its atom heaviness, has been intensified thanks to the DARWIN mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA. The development of telluride glass fiber enables a successful observation of CO2 absorption band located around 15 µm. In this paper we review recent results obtained in the Glass and Ceramics Laboratory at Rennes on the development of selenide to telluride glass optical fibers, and their use for spectroscopy from the mid to the far infrared ranges.

  5. Composition dependence of the optical and structural properties of Eu-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Wu, D.Q.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Europium doped oxyfluoride glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method for the light emitting diodes applications. The optical and structural properties of these glasses were studied by means of photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates, X...... compositions. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain how the glass structure affects the reduction of Eu ions as well as optical properties of the glasses.......Europium doped oxyfluoride glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method for the light emitting diodes applications. The optical and structural properties of these glasses were studied by means of photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates, X...... on the base glass compositions. For certain base glass compositions, CaF2 crystals can form during the melt cooling process, and thereby enhance the conversion from Eu3+ to Eu2+. The formation of CaF2 crystals can be suppressed by adding CaO, Al2O3 and B2O3, but enhanced by adding Na2O and K2O in glass...

  6. Optical magnetic flux generation in superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ultrafast phenomena; femtosecond laser; optical magnetic flux generation. PACS Nos 85.25.Oj; 74.25.-q; 42.65.Re. 1. Introduction. Excitation and observation of ultrafast phenomena in solid states are of essential interest in the field of condensed matter physics. Recent femtosecond (fs) laser technology is now.

  7. The relationship between structural and optical properties of Se-Ge-As glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayebloo, M.; Rezvani, M.; Tavoosi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the structural and optical characterization of bulk Se-Ge-As glasses has been investigated. In this regards, six different Se60Ge40-xAsx (0 ≤ x ≤ 25) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique in quartz ampoule. The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The fundamental absorption edge for all the glasses was analyzed in terms of the theory proposed by Davis and Mott. According to achieved results, fully amorphous phase can easily form in different Se-Ge-As systems. The thermal and optical characteristic of Se60Ge40-xAsx glasses shows anomalous behavior at 5 mol% of As for the glass transition temperature, transmittance, absorption edge, optical energy gap and Urbach energy. The highest glass transition temperature, transmittance, optical energy gap and Urbach energy properties were achieved in Se60Ge35As5 glass as a result of the highest connectivity of cations and anions in glass network.

  8. [Morphological, optical, and structural characteristics of glass sponge spicules and the photoreceptor hypothesis of their survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskiĭ, S S; Kul'chin, Iu N; Galkina, A N; Sergeev, A A

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, structure, and optical characteristics of spicules of some sea glass sponges have been studied. The results obtained are interpreted from the point of view of their possible role in the survival of the organism of sponges.

  9. Asymptotic solutions of glass temperature profiles during steady optical fibre drawing

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.; Breward, C. J. W.; Cummings, L. J.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we derive realistic simplified models for the high-speed drawing of glass optical fibres via the downdraw method that capture the fluid dynamics and heat transport in the fibre via conduction, convection and radiative heating. We

  10. The segmentation of the HMD market: optics for smart glasses, smart eyewear, AR and VR headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Saeedi, Ehsan; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the various optical technologies that have been developed to implement HMDs (Head Mounted Displays), both as AR (Augmented Reality) devices, VR (Virtual Reality) devices and more recently as smart glasses, smart eyewear or connected glasses. We review the typical requirements and optical performances of such devices and categorize them into distinct groups, which are suited for different (and constantly evolving) market segments, and analyze such market segmentation.

  11. A new generation all-optical Cs BEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, M.; Haller, E.; Flir, A.; Rojas Kopeinig, G.; Naegerl, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We have recently produced a Cs BEC in a new generation setup. The condensate is formed in a glass cell, allowing maximum optical access and rapid switching of magnetic fields compared to our first Cs BEC experiment. After a pre-cooling stage consisting of a MOT and 3D Raman sideband cooling, we load 10 7 atoms at a temperature of 1.5 μK in a large-volume crossed optical dipole trap, generated by a high power laser diode stack. To reach degeneracy the atoms are transferred to a focused 'dimple' trap where the density is high enough to allow for efficient evaporation. We report on the progress of loading the BEC in an optical lattice, which together with tunable s-wave scattering length and several Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields will offer many possibilities for exciting experiments towards the complete control of all degrees of freedom for ultracold molecules. The regime of zero scattering length is another interesting area of study. A BEC without perturbing mean-field shifts is ideally suited for a detailed study of Bloch oscillations in the noninteracting regime. It will also be possible to extend and improve previous BEC based experiments to determine the fine structure constant via a measurement of the photon recoil in an atom interferometer. (author)

  12. Composition dependence of the optical and structural properties of Eu-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chaofeng; Wu, Dongqun; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Meimei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Eu doped oxyfluoride glasses for LED applications are studied. • Conversion of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ is realized in the glasses prepared in air atmosphere. • CaF 2 crystals formed during melt cooling enhance the conversion of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ . • Content of CaF 2 crystals can be controlled by adjusting base glass compositions. - Abstract: Europium doped oxyfluoride glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method for the light emitting diodes applications. The optical and structural properties of these glasses were studied by means of photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinates, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. We find that the spontaneous reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ is realized by Eu 3+ ions occupying the sites of Ca 2+ in the glasses prepared in air atmosphere. The Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ conversion efficiency, optical performances and structure of the glasses strongly depend on the base glass compositions. For certain base glass compositions, CaF 2 crystals can form during the melt cooling process, and thereby enhance the conversion from Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ . The formation of CaF 2 crystals can be suppressed by adding CaO, Al 2 O 3 and B 2 O 3 , but enhanced by adding Na 2 O and K 2 O in glass compositions. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain how the glass structure affects the reduction of Eu ions as well as optical properties of the glasses

  13. Second harmonic generation in resonant optical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Matt; Moore, Jeremy; Friedmann, Thomas A.; Olsson, Roy H.; Wiwi, Michael; Padilla, Camille; Douglas, James Kenneth; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel

    2018-01-09

    An optical second-harmonic generator (or spontaneous parametric down-converter) includes a microresonator formed of a nonlinear optical medium. The microresonator supports at least two modes that can be phase matched at different frequencies so that light can be converted between them: A first resonant mode having substantially radial polarization and a second resonant mode having substantially vertical polarization. The first and second modes have the same radial order. The thickness of the nonlinear medium is less than one-half the pump wavelength within the medium.

  14. Properties and structure of high erbium doped phosphate glass for short optical fibers amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneschal, Karine; Smektala, Frederic; Bureau, Bruno; Floch, Marie Le; Jiang Shibin; Luo, Tao; Lucas, Jacques; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2005-01-01

    New phosphate glasses have been developed in order to incorporate high rare-earth ions concentrations. These glasses present a great chemical stability and a high optical quality. The phosphate glass network is open, very flexible, with a linkage of the tetrahedrons very disordered and contains a larger number of non-bridging oxygens (66%). The great stability and resistance against crystallization associated with the possibility to incorporate high doping concentration of rare-earth ions in these phosphate glasses make them very good candidates for the realization of ultra short single mode amplifiers with a high gain at 1.55 μm

  15. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  16. Compositional dependence thermal and optical properties of a novel germanate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rabaie, S.; Taha, T.A.; Higazy, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of zinc lithium germanate glasses of the composition (45−x)Li 2 O–xZnO–55GeO 2 have been synthesized via melt quenching technique. Dependencies of their thermal and optical properties on composition were investigated. It is found that the gradual replacement of Li 2 O by ZnO, decreases the glass transition temperature from 430 to 280 °C and increases the thermal stability (ΔT) of the studied glasses. The optical band gap E opt also decreases from 2.31 to 1.40 eV with increasing the mole content of ZnO

  17. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on optical properties of erbium doped bismuth-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavamurthy, K.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal oxide contained glasses are very promising candidates in shielding and photonic materials. In this paper, we studied the effect of γ-ray irradiation on optical properties of Er2O3-Bi2O3-TeO2 glasses through UV-Visible spectrophotometer. After γ-ray exposure, the optical band gap decreases and Urbach energy increases, which is due to creation of defects within the glass network as a result increases the number of non-bridging oxygens.

  18. Preparation and investigation of Ge-S-I glasses for infrared fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmuzhov, A. P.; Sukhanov, M. V.; Plekhovich, A. D.; Snopatin, G. E.; Churbanov, M. F.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Ermakov, R. P.; Kotereva, T. V.; Shiryaev, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    Glass samples of [GeSx]90I10 (x = 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 2.3, 2.45, 2.6) compositions were prepared, and some their thermal, optical properties as well as tendency to crystallization were investigated. The compositional dependences of glass transition temperature, volume fraction of crystallized phase and activation energy of glass formation (Eg) have nonmonotonic character with a maximum for [GeS2.0]90I10 glass. Glasses of 85.8GeS2-14.2GeI4 and [GeS1.5]90I10 compositions are identified as promising for preparation of optical fiber. For the first time, Ge-S-I glass fibers were produced. Minimum optical losses in 85.8GeS2-14.2GeI4 glass fiber were 2.7 dB/m at a wavelength of 5.1 μm, and that in [GeS1.5]90I10 glass fiber were 14.5 dB/m at 5.5 μm.

  19. Physical and optical studies in mixed alkali borate glasses with three types of alkali ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samee, M.A.; Awasthi, A.M.; Shripathi, T.; Bale, Shashidhar; Srinivasu, Ch.; Rahman, Syed

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 glasses through optical properties, density and modulated DSC studies. → Optical band gap (E opt ) and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. → The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. → The glass stability S is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. - Abstract: So far only a handful of publications have been concerned with the study of the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses containing three types of alkali ions. In the present work, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the glass system (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 . (0 ≤ x ≤ 40 mol%) through density and modulated DSC studies. The density and glass transition temperature of the present glasses varies non-linearly exhibiting mixed alkali effect. The glass stability is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the present glasses through optical properties. From the absorption edge studies, the values of indirect optical band gap (E opt ), direct optical band gap and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. The average electronic polarizability of oxide ions α O 2- , optical basicity Λ, and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter A have been examined to check the correlations among them and bonding character. Based on good correlation among electronic polarizability of oxide ions, optical basicity and interaction parameter, the present Li 2 O-Na 2 O-K 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses are classified as normal ionic (basic) oxides.

  20. Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2018-03-30

    Optical chirality (OC)-one of the fundamental quantities of electromagnetic fields-corresponds to the instantaneous chirality of light. It has been utilized for exploring chiral light-matter interactions in linear optics, but has not yet been applied to nonlinear processes. Motivated to explore the role of OC in the generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, we first separate the OC of transversal and paraxial beams to polarization and orbital terms. We find that the polarization-associated OC of attosecond pulses corresponds approximately to that of the pump in the quasimonochromatic case, but not in the multichromatic pump cases. We associate this discrepancy with the fact that the polarization OC of multichromatic pumps vary rapidly in time along the optical cycle. Thus, we propose new quantities, noninstantaneous polarization-associated OC, and time-scale-weighted polarization-associated OC, and show that these quantities link the chirality of multichromatic pumps and their generated attosecond pulses. The presented extension to OC theory should be useful for exploring various nonlinear chiral light-matter interactions. For example, it stimulates us to propose a tricircular pump for generation of highly elliptical attosecond pulses with a tunable ellipticity.

  1. Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2018-03-01

    Optical chirality (OC)—one of the fundamental quantities of electromagnetic fields—corresponds to the instantaneous chirality of light. It has been utilized for exploring chiral light-matter interactions in linear optics, but has not yet been applied to nonlinear processes. Motivated to explore the role of OC in the generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, we first separate the OC of transversal and paraxial beams to polarization and orbital terms. We find that the polarization-associated OC of attosecond pulses corresponds approximately to that of the pump in the quasimonochromatic case, but not in the multichromatic pump cases. We associate this discrepancy with the fact that the polarization OC of multichromatic pumps vary rapidly in time along the optical cycle. Thus, we propose new quantities, noninstantaneous polarization-associated OC, and time-scale-weighted polarization-associated OC, and show that these quantities link the chirality of multichromatic pumps and their generated attosecond pulses. The presented extension to OC theory should be useful for exploring various nonlinear chiral light-matter interactions. For example, it stimulates us to propose a tricircular pump for generation of highly elliptical attosecond pulses with a tunable ellipticity.

  2. Effect of CeO2 addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedam, R.S.; Ramteke, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) ions play an important role in modern technology as an active ion in many optical materials. RE-doped glasses were used in many optical devices because of abundant number of the absorption and emission bands arising from the transitions between the RE elements energy levels. Among all rare earth, glasses containing CeO 2 are extensively studied for scintillating applications. Radiation length of CeO 2 containing lithium silicate glasses decreases and absorption edge in transmittance shift towards longer wavelength. In the present study an attempt has been made to verify similar results in borate containing glasses. Therefore glass series 15Li 2 O-xCeO 2 -(85''x)B 2 O 3 where x= 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 mol% was prepared by conventional melt quench technique. Their electrical and optical properties have been investigated. It is observed that the conductivity of these glasses decreases while density, glass transition temperature and refractive index increases with the addition of CeO 2 . The conductivity of the glasses is mostly controlled by the activation energy. Since the lithium fraction in the present series is kept constant, the decrease in conductivity for glasses may be attributed to the reduction in the number of available vacant sites for the mobile lithium ions when boron is substituted with CeO 2 . The radiation length was determined using density values and it was found to decrease with the addition of CeO 2 . The absorption coefficient a were determined near the absorption edge of different photon energy for all glass samples and plot of (αhν) 1/2 Vs. hν (Tauc's plot) is shown. It is observed that the optical band gap energy (E g Opt ) decreases with the addition of CeO 2

  3. The influence of Ge on optical and thermo- mechanical properties of S-Se chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Kavitha; Babu Devarasetty, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    S-Se-Ge glasses were prepared by melt quenching method to investigate the effect of Germanium on thermo-mechanical and optical properties of chalcogenide glasses. The glassy nature of the samples has been verified by x-ray diffraction and DSC studies that the samples are glassy in nature. The optical band gap of the samples was estimated by the absorption spectrum fitting method. The optical band gap increased from 1.61 ev for x = 0 sample to 1.90 ev for x = 40 sample and is explained in terms of cohesive energies. The basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, Volume (Vh) and formation energy (Eh) of micro voids in the glassy network, as well as the modulus of Elasticity (E) have been calculated for prepared glasses.in present glasses. The variation in these parameters with Ge content correlated with heat of atomization of alloys.

  4. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  5. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  6. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Allen Haynes, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. (paper)

  7. Optical, physical and structural studies of boro-zinc tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri Pavani, P.; Sadhana, K.; Chandra Mouli, V.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the modification effect of the modifier ZnO on boro-tellurite glass, a series of glasses with compositions 50B 2 O 3 -(50-x)ZnO-xTeO 2 have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the samples was confirmed through X-ray diffraction technique. Optical absorption and IR structural studies are carried out on the glass system. The optical absorption studies revealed that the cutoff wavelength increases while optical band gap (E opt ) and Urbach energy decreases with an increase of ZnO content. Refractive index evaluated from E opt was found to increase with an increase of ZnO content. The compositional dependence of different physical parameters such as density, molar volume, oxygen packing density, optical basicity, have been analyzed and discussed. The IR studies showed that the structure of glass consists of TeO 4 , TeO 3 /TeO 3+1 , BO 3 , BO 4 and ZnO 4 units. -- Research highlights: → Novel boro-zinc tellurite ternary glasses that can compete with boro-tellurite and zinc tellurite glasses are successfully prepared. → Boro-zinc tellurite ternary glasses are of higher refractive index compared with zinc tellurite glasses. → Optical, physical and structural properties of the novel ternary glass system are explained.→ At 30 mol% of ZnO, TeO 4 is replaced by ZnO 4 indicating the presence of ZnO 4 network.

  8. Optical characterization of luminescent silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debieu, Olivier

    2008-12-16

    Interstellar dust in nebulae and in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM) of galaxies contains a component which exhibits efficient visible-near infrared luminescence ranging from 500 to 1000 nm, known as Extended Red Emission (ERE). Silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) are discussed as possible carriers of the ERE. We employed the accelerator facilities of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Jena to implant Si ions into fused silica windows. An excess concentration of silicon atoms is thus produced in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix which, by applying an annealing at 1100 C, condensates to silicon nanoparticles and crystallizes. Although the condensation and crystallization occur after an annealing of one minute,10, 15 the samples were annealed during one hour in order to well-passivate the nc-Si, that means, to reduce effectively the number of Si-dangling bonds at the nc-Si surface that are efficient non-radiative recombination centers. 10, 16 Upon excitation with UV light, most of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} samples revealed strong PL. We implanted into our luminescent nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems other atomic elements, as for instance magnesium and calcium, which form silicates if their oxide is combined with SiO{sub 2}. The purpose is to simulate the conditions for silicates containing nc-Si. In order to understand the effect of the incorporation of foreign atoms on the PL properties of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems, we proceeded to similar experiments with Er and Ge. As has been demonstrated by several authors, 17, 18 the presence of nc-Si in a glass matrix enhances considerably the emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at 1.536{mu}m. At the same time, the PL of nc-Si is considerably quenched. Since the solubility of Er in crystalline silicon is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than in SiO{sub 2}, the optically active Er{sup 3+} ions are believed to be localized outside the nc-Si core, demonstrating that ions present in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix influence the PL

  9. Tm-Yb Doped Optical Fiber Performance with Variation of Host-Glass Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of Thulium-Ytterbium doped optical fiber comprising different host glass through the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD coupled with solution doping technique is presented. The material and optical performance of different fibers are compared with special emphasis on their lasing efficiency for 2 µm application.

  10. Optically transparent glass micro-actuator fabricated by femtosecond laser exposure and chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, B.L.K.; Bellouard, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond laser manufacturing combined with chemical etching has recently emerged as a flexible platform for fabricating three-dimensional devices and integrated optical elements in glass substrates. Here, we demonstrate an optically transparent micro-actuator fabricated out of a single piece of

  11. Radiation-optical properties of the glasses for the space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishin, A.I.; Tseplyaev, L.I.

    2006-01-01

    The data are presented and generalized on variations of optical properties of glass and light guides under simulative cosmic ionizing radiation. It is shown that changes in optical properties (coloration, bleaching, opacity, luminescence) under ionizing radiation are associated with color centers formation and annealing [ru

  12. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  13. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated.

  14. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V

    2015-05-01

    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  15. Planar ultra thin glass seals with optical fiber interface for monitoring tamper attacks on security eminent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M.; Flachenecker, G.; Schade, W.; Gorecki, C.; Thoma, A.; Rathje, R.

    2017-11-01

    Optical seals consisting of waveguide Bragg grating sensor structures in ultra thin glass transparencies have been developed to cover security relevant objects for detection of unauthorized access. For generation of optical signature in the seals, femtosecond laser pulses were used. The optical seals were connected with an optical fiber to enable external read out of the seal. Different attack scenarios for getting undetected access to the object, covered by the seal, were proven and evaluated. The results presented here, verify a very high level of security. An unauthorized detaching and subsequent replacement by original or copy of the seals for tampering would be accompanied with a very high technological effort, posing a substantial barrier towards an attacker. Additionally, environmental influences like temperature effects have a strong but reproducible influence on signature, which in context of a temperature reference database increases the level of security significantly.

  16. Long term bleaching of optical glasses darkened by Co60 ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Typical camera designs include optical glass elements that may be affected by the ionizing radiation present in the natural space environment. Ordinary optical glasses darken at low (10(to the 3rd power) rad) dose levels when exposed to ionizing radiation. This darkening decreases the sensitivity of optical sensors. Optical glass flats of FK 51, LaK 0, PK 51A, and ZK Ny were exposed to a 10.6 krad dose of ionizing radiation. Spectrophotometer traces determined the transmittance of the samples as a function of wavelength in the range 350 to 850 nm before and at various time intervals after the irradiation. These measured values were then use to evaluate the rate of recovery or ''bleaching'' of the exposed samples. To prevent accelerated bleaching, the samples were kept at room temperature and away from light, except during measurement. Tables of the measured data and plots of the transmissivity vs. wavelength at various times after irradiation are presented

  17. Optical and structural investigation on sodium borosilicate glasses doped with Cr2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, E.; Rezvani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, Sodium borosilicate glasses with chemical composition of 60% SiO2-20% B2O3-20%Na2O doped with different contents of Cr2O3 were prepared by melting-quenching method. Physical, structural and optical properties of glasses were investigated by studying density and molar volume, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectra and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in density of glasses with the increase of Cr2O3 that can be due to addition of oxide with high molar mass. The optical absorption spectra of un-doped glass reveals UV absorption due to trace iron impurities with no visible band however Cr2O3 doped glasses shows absorption in visible range that are characteristic. Increasing of Cr3 + ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to Sodium borosilicate glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 3.79 to 2.59 (ev) and 3.36 to 2.09 (ev), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Cr3 + ions as the network former which asserts improvement of semiconducting behavior in presence of Cr2O3.

  18. RESEARCH OF THERMO-OPTICAL INHOMOGENEITIES IN Yb-Er GLASS AT DIODE PUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khramov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Investigation method of thermo-optical distortions in solid-state lasers was developed and presented. The method can be easily used for research of small diameter (approximately 2 mm active elements. Method. The experimental method described in this paper is based on the registration of deviation of the energy center of the probe beam passing through the thermally stressed active element. Main Results. We have presented experimental results of the thermal lens optical power research in the active element made of Yb-Er glass pumped transversely by a laser diode in the following modes: without generating, free-running and Q-switching. We have submitted obtained dependences of the optical power on the pumping energy. The measurements have been performed for the two polarization components at two wavelengths (632.8 nm and 1550 nm showing the absence of explicit astigmatism of the thermal lens. Practical Relevance. Knowledge of the thermal regime of such lasers gives the possibility for more precise calculation of the resonator parameters in terms of the thermal lens occurrence.

  19. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3(x). ZnO(40−x)V2O5(60)(where x = 0·1–0·5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been ...

  20. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  1. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  2. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  3. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H.; Golovchak, R.; Zurawska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of γ-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge 23.5 Sb 11.8 S 64.7 glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovko Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.

  5. Role of oxygen on the optical properties of borate glass doped with ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Lithium tungsten borate glass (0.56-x)B 2 O 3 -0.4Li 2 O-xZnO-0.04WO 3 (0≤x≤0.1 mol%) is prepared by the melt quenching technique for photonic applications. Small relative values of ZnO are used to improve the glass optical dispersion and to probe as well the role of oxygen electronic polarizability on its optical characteristics. The spectroscopic properties of the glass are determined in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm) using a Fresnel-based spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Lorentz-Lorenz theory, as ZnO content increases on the expense of B 2 O 3 the glass molar polarizability increased due to an enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of the chemical bonds of glass. The role of oxide ion polarizability is explained in accordance with advanced measures and theories such as optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, the outer most cation binding energy in Yamashita-Kurosawa's interionic interaction parameter and Sun's average single bond strength. FT-IR measurements confirm an increase in bridging oxygen bonds, as a result of replacement of ZnO by B 2 O 3 , which increase the UV glass transmission window and transmittance. - Graphical abstract: O1s, Yamashita-Kurosawa's parameter and average single bond strength of charge overlapping between electronic shells are used to explain enhanced oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases refractive index of glasses. Highlights: → New borate glass for photonic application is prepared. → The dispersion property of the glass is effectively controlled using small amounts of ZnO. → ZnO is used to probe the glass structure and investigate the role of oxygen on the obtained optical properties of the glasses. → Modern theories are used to explain enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of chemical bonds of the glass.

  6. Replicative manufacturing of complex lighting optics by non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilkamp, Holger; Vu, Anh Tuan; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-09-01

    The advantages of LED lighting, especially its energy efficiency and the long service life have led to a wide distribution of LED technology in the world. However, in order to make fully use of the great potential that LED lighting offers, complex optics are required to distribute the emitted light from the LED efficiently. Nowadays, many applications use polymer optics which can be manufactured at low costs. However, due to ever increasing luminous power, polymer optics reach their technological limits. Due to its outstanding properties, especially its temperature resistance, resistance against UV radiation and its long term stability, glass is the alternative material of choice for the use in LED optics. This research is introducing a new replicative glass manufacturing approach, namely non-isothermal glass molding (NGM) which is able to manufacture complex lighting optics in high volumes at competitive prices. The integration of FEM simulation at the early stage of the process development is presented and helps to guarantee a fast development cycle. A coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to define the geometry of the glass preform as well as to define the mold surface geometry. Furthermore, simulation is used to predict main process outcomes, especially in terms of resulting form accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments conducted on a commercially available molding machine are presented to validate the developed simulation model. Finally, the influence of distinct parameters on important process outcomes like form accuracy, surface roughness, birefringence, etc. is discussed.

  7. The electronic and optical properties of germanium tellurite glasses containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Various transition metal oxides, such as TiO 2 , V 2 O 5 , NiO, CuO, and ZnO are added to germanium-tellurite glass and measurements are reported of the electrical conductivity, density, optical absorption, infra-red absorption spectra, and electron spin resonance. It is found that the d.c. conductivity of glasses containing the same amount of V 2 O 5 is higher than that of germanium tellurite glasses containing a similar amount of other transition metal oxides, and is due to hopping between localized states. The optical absorption measurements show that the fundamental absorption edge is a function of glass composition and the optical absorption is due to forbidden indirect transitions. From the infra-red absorption spectra, it is found that the addition of transition metal oxides does not introduce any new absorption band in the infra-red spectrum of germanium tellurite glasses. A small shift of existing absorptions toward higher wave number is observed. The ESR measurements revealed that some transition metal ions are diamagnetic while others are paramagnetic in the glass network. (author)

  8. Optical and structural characterization of rare earth doped niobium phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, F.F.; Martinelli, J.R.; Gomes, L.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphate glasses containing up to 45mol% of niobium were obtained. X-ray diffraction, infrared, Raman, and optical absorption spectroscopy were used to analyze those materials. The refractive index varies from 1.70 to 1.85 as the amount of Nb increases. Niobium phosphate glasses with optical transparence in the (400-2500nm) range were produced. The cut off varied from 342nm to 378nm as a function of the Nb concentration. The cut off is due to the charge transfer O 2 ->Nb 5+ . Glasses containing 10mol% of Nb 2 O 5 are the most promising materials to be used as rare-earth ions hosts because they are chemically resistant, and show optical transparency in the spectral range of visible to infrared. Doping the glasses with 1-5mol% of Er, Ho, Pr, and Yb ions does not change the glass structure, as measured by X-ray diffraction, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The fluorescence lifetimes were determined for Nd, Yb, and Er, and the absorption cross-section were determined for all ions. The energy transfer in co-doped Yb-Er system was measured, and the lifetime of excited states and the luminescence efficiency were determined to be 91% for the Er 4 I 11/2 level, in the Yb-Er co-doped glasses

  9. Radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses test results on a selected set of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit, Michel; Gussarov, Andrei; Berghmans, Francis; Doyle, Dominic; Ulbrich, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    It is well known within the Space optics community that radiation may significantly affect transmittance of glasses. To overcome this drawback, glass manufacturers have developed Cerium doped counterparts of classical glasses. This doped glasses display much less transmittance sensitivity to radiation. Still, the impact of radiation on refractive index is less known and may affect indifferently classical or Cerium doped glasses. ESTEC has initialised an R&D program with the aim of establishing a comprehensive data base gathering radiation sensitivity data, called Dose coefficients, for all the glass optical parameters (transmittance / refractive index / compaction……). The first part of this study, to define the methodology for such a data base, is run by ASTRIUM SAS in co-operation with SCK CEN. This covers theoretical studies associated to testing of a selected set of classical and "radiation hardened" glasses. It is proposed here to present first the theoretical backgrounds of this study and then to give results which have been obtained so far.

  10. Optical and EPR studies of barium alumino borate glasses containing Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamad Raheem; Phani, A. V. Lalitha; Narsimha Chary, M.; Shareefuddin, Md.

    2018-05-01

    Glass containing Cu2+ ions in (30-x) BaO-xAl2O3-69.5B2O3-0.5CuO (0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol %) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. Peak free X-ray diffractograms confirmed the amorphous nature of the glass samples. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR were studied to understand the effect of modifier oxide and CuO dopant. From EPR spectra the spin-Hamiltonian parameter were evaluated. The ground state of Cu2+ is dx2-y2 (2B1g state) and the site symmetry around Cu2+ is tetragonally distorted octahedral. A broad optical absorption band was observed for all the glasses containing Cu2+ ions corresponding to the 2B1g → 2B2g transition. The optical band gap and Urbach energy values are calculated.

  11. Physical and optical property studies on Bi3+ ion containing vanadium sodium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G.; Meera, B. N.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    xBi2O3-(15-x)V2O5-45B2O3-40Na2O glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the glasses is verified using powder XRD. Densities and molar volume have been determined as a function of bismuth content and interestingly both increases as a function of bismuth content. Further oxygen packing density (OPD) is found to decrease with bismuth content. The increase in the molar volume as a function of bismuth content may be due to structural changes in the glass network. The optical properties performed from the optical absorption spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200-1100 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The theoretical optical basicity of the oxides have also been estimated. The calculated energy band gap values increases with increase in Bi2O3 content.

  12. Optical waveguides in fluoride lead silicate glasses fabricated by carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-liang; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-feng; Lü, Peng; Li, Wei-nan; Liu, Chun-xiao

    2018-03-01

    The carbon ion implantation with energy of 4.0 MeV and a dose of 4.0×1014 ions/cm2 is employed for fabricating the optical waveguide in fluoride lead silicate glasses. The optical modes as well as the effective refractive indices are measured by the prism coupling method. The refractive index distribution in the fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is simulated by the reflectivity calculation method (RCM). The light intensity profile and the energy losses are calculated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) and the program of stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM), respectively. The propagation properties indicate that the C2+ ion-implanted fluoride lead silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for fabricating optical devices.

  13. New techniques for optical absorption measurement of implanted nanoparticles in float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, I.; Townsend, P.D.; Chandler, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    New techniques are reported for optical absorption and waveguide loss measurement of copper, gold and silver implanted float glass. Implantations were carried out on the tin face of the float glass since this face is an optical waveguide. Specially made triangle shape masks were used during implantation to study the optical loss-implant length relation. Absorption coefficients were extracted as 2.4 and 1 cm -1 for the gold and silver implants at 633 nm, respectively. These values were found to be implant condition dependent. To analyse the shape of nanoparticles a sandwiched structure was used in an optical absorption measurement set-up in which two guiding faces were put in contact. The sandwiched structure places the colloids at the centre of the optical field distribution rather than on the boundary zone. These experiments have revealed that the copper and the gold particles may have non-spherical shapes, whereas for silver, the formation of spherical nanoparticles is more likely

  14. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  15. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  16. Optical generation of matter qubit graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S C; Eisert, J; Stace, T M

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme for rapidly entangling matter qubits in order to create graph states for one-way quantum computing. The qubits can be simple three-level systems in separate cavities. Coupling involves only local fields and a static (unswitched) linear optics network. Fusion of graph-state sections occurs with, in principle, zero probability of damaging the nascent graph state. We avoid the finite thresholds of other schemes by operating on two entangled pairs, so that each generates exactly one photon. We do not require the relatively slow single qubit local flips to be applied during the growth phase: growth of the graph state can then become a purely optical process. The scheme naturally generates graph states with vertices of high degree and so is easily able to construct minimal graph states, with consequent resource savings. The most efficient approach will be to create new graph-state edges even as qubits elsewhere are measured, in a 'just in time' approach. An error analysis indicates that the scheme is relatively robust against imperfections in the apparatus

  17. New composite glass materials for non linear optical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menke, Y.; Ferraris, M.; Corbari, C.

    2004-01-01

    Metal nanocluster composite glasses were prepared via evaporation of a thin gold layer followed by diffusion. The effect of the deposition conditions, resulting in different evaporated gold thicknesses, and the influence of diffusion temperature and time have been studied. Resonance enhancement o...

  18. Fabrication of silicon based glass fibres for optical communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon based glass fibres are fabricated by conventional fibre drawing process. First, preform fabrication is carried out by means of conventional MCVD technique by using various dopants such as SiCl4, GeCl4, POCl3, and FeCl3. The chemicals are used in such a way that step index single mode fibre can be drawn.

  19. Physical, structural and optical characterizations of borate modified bismuth-silicate-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwal, Neelam; Kundu, R. S.; Nanda, Kirti; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2015-10-01

    Quaternary bismuthate glasses with compositions xB2O3-(80 - x) Bi2O3-15SiO2-5TeO2 have been prepared by melt-quench technique. X-ray diffraction studies were performed to ascertain the amorphous nature of samples. The density, molar volume and crystalline volume decrease with increase in B2O3 content whereas the glass transition temperature shows the reverse trend. The Raman and FTIR spectra of the studied glasses indicate that B2O3 has been found to exist in the form of BO3 trigonal and BO4 tetrahedral structural units and vibrations corresponding to these structural units increase with increase in B2O3 content. SiO2 is present in the form of SiO4 tetrahedral structural units and TeO2 in the form of TeO3 structural units. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier [BiO6 octahedra] as well as network former [BiO3 pyramids] for all the glass compositions. The optical band gap energy has been calculated from the fitting of both Mott and Davis's model and Hydrogenic excitonic model with the experimentally observed absorption spectra. A good fitting of experimental data with HEM indicates the excitonic formation in the studies glass system. The values of optical band gap energy show nonlinear behavior due to the structural changes that take place in the present glass samples. The Urbach energy calculated using Urbach empirical formula for studied glass samples suggest the possibility of reduction in defect concentrations. The metallization criterion of the presently studied samples suggests that the prepared glasses may be potential candidates for nonlinear optical applications.

  20. Photo-induced changes of silicate glasses optical parameters at multi-photon laser radiation absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, O.M.; Glebov, L.B.; Mekryukov, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigations of the mechanisms of photo-induced changes of alkali-silicate (crown) and lead-silicate (flint) glasses optical parameters upon the exposure to the intense laser radiation, and the basic regularities of these processes are reported. These investigations were performed in Research Center open-quotes S. I. Vavilov State Optical Instituteclose quotes during last 15 years. The kinetics of stable and unstable CC formation and decay, the effect of widely spread impurity ions on these processes, the characteristics of fundamental and impure luminescence, the kinetics of refractive index change under conditions of multi-photon glass matrix excitation, and other properties are considered. On the basis of analysis of received regularities it was shown that the nonlinear coloration of alkali-silicate glasses (the fundamental absorption edge is nearly 6 eV) takes place only as a result of two-photon absorption. Important efforts were aimed at the detection of three- or more photon matrix ionization of these glasses, but they were failed. However it was established that in the lead silicate glasses the long-wave carriers mobility boundary (> 5.6 eV) is placed considerably higher the fundamental absorption edge (∼ 3.5 eV) of material matrix. This results in that the linear color centers formation in the lead silicate glasses is not observed. The coloration of these glasses arises only from the two- or three-photon matrix ionization, and the excitation occurs through virtual states that are placed in the fundamental absorption region. In the report the available mechanisms of photo-induced changes of glasses optical parameters, and some applied aspects of this problem are discussed

  1. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  2. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  3. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  4. The optical properties of TeO2-Based Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, M.R.; Isahak, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of binary glasses based on TeO2-PbCl2 has been prepared and their spectroscopy in the UV-Visible and IR regions has been investigated. It was found that the IR cut-off edge can go beyond 7μm and are largely influenced by the absorption due to Te-O-Te stretching vibrations around 638-644 cmsup -1 peaks

  5. The optical properties of TeO2-Based Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahar, M R; Isahak, R [University Technology of Malaysia, Skudai Johor (Malaysia)

    1994-03-01

    A series of binary glasses based on TeO2-PbCl2 has been prepared and their spectroscopy in the UV-Visible and IR regions has been investigated. It was found that the IR cut-off edge can go beyond 7{mu}m and are largely influenced by the absorption due to Te-O-Te stretching vibrations around 638-644 cmsup -1 peaks.

  6. Comparison of optical properties of Eu3+ ions in the silica gel glasses obtained by different preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendziewicz, J.; Sokolnicki, J.; Keller, B.; Borzechowska, M.; Strek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Silica-gel glasses doped with Eu 3+ ions were obtained by different preparation techniques. The absorption, emission and excitation spectra of the obtained glasses were measured in the range of 77-300 K. The energy levels diagrams of Eu 3+ ions were derived. An intensity analysis of f-f transitions was performed. In particular, polymeric structure behaviour of europium compounds entrapped in silica gel glasses was temperature controlled during the preparation of glasses. Their optical properties were investigated. (author)

  7. Gamma radiation shielding and optical properties measurements of zinc bismuth borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, P.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Kim, H.J.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 10ZnO:xBi 2 O 3 :(90−x)B 2 O 3 , (ZBB) glasses were prepared. • Radiation shielding and optical properties were investigated. • Higher 25 mol% of Bi 2 O 3 show better shielding property compared with concretes. • ZBB glasses can develop as a Pb-free radiation shielding material. - Abstract: In this work, the zinc bismuth borate (ZBB) glasses of the composition 10ZnO:xBi 2 O 3 :(90−x)B 2 O 3 (where x = 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol%) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Their radiation shielding and optical properties were investigated and compared with theoretical calculations. The mass attenuation coefficients of ZBB glasses have been measured at different energies obtained from a Compton scattering technique. The results show a decrease of the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and effective electron density values with increasing of gamma-ray energies; and good agreements between experimental and theoretical values. The glass samples with Bi 2 O 3 concentrations higher than 25 mol% (25 and 30 mol%) were observed with lower mean free path (MFP) values than all the standard shielding concretes studied. These results are indications that the ZBB glasses in the present study may be developed as a lead-free radiation shielding material in the investigated energy range

  8. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Binita; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index (η 2 ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility (χ (3) ). The real and imaginary parts of χ (3) are obtained in the orders of 10 -10 e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of χ (3) , to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of Te nanoparticles-doped germanate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhousu; Guo, Qiangbing; Liu, Chang; Ma, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    Te nanoparticles (NPs)-doped GeO2-MgO-B2O3-Al2O3-TeO2 glasses were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope observation, the coloration of the glass at high TeO2 concentration is ascribed to the precipitation of elemental Te NPs with a size of 5-10 nm in the germanate glass. Optical absorption spectra and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the glass samples were analyzed by UV-3600 spectrophotometry and Z-scan technique, respectively. The nonlinear absorption coefficient ( β) and the imaginary part of the third-order NLO susceptibility (Im χ (3)) were estimated to be 1.74 cm/GW and 1.142 × 10-12 esu for laser power of 95 μW, respectively. Due to the excellent NLO properties, the Te NPs-doped germanate glasses may have potential applications for ultrafast optical switch and photonics.

  10. Absorption, fluorescence and second harmonic generation in Cr3+-doped BiB3O6 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, W.; Fuks-Janczarek, I.; Wojciechowski, A.; Kityk, I. V.; Kiisk, V.; Majchrowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Brik, M. G.; Nagy, G. U. L.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis, spectral properties and photoinduced nonlinear optical effects of chromium-doped BiB3O6 glass are studied in the present paper. Absorption, excitation and time resolved luminescence spectra are presented and luminescence decay behavior is discussed. Detailed analysis of the obtained spectra (assignment of the most prominent spectral features in terms of the corresponding Cr3+ energy levels, crystal field strength Dq, Racah parameters B and C) was performed. A weak photostimulated second harmonic generation signal was found to increase drastically due to poling by proton implantation in the investigated sample.

  11. Investigation on surface, electrical and optical properties of ITO-Ag-ITO coated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Coruhlu Turgay; Senturk Kenan; Keskin Sinan; Seker Sedat; Dobrovolskiy Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the optical and electrical properties of thick ITO-Ag-ITO multilayer coating onto glass. ITO-Ag-ITO coatings with thickness of ITO layers 110 nm, 185 nm and intermediate Ag layer thickness 40 nm were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The optical, electrical and atomic properties of the coating were examined by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy

  12. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  13. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Berneschi, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Brenci, M. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pasquini, E. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pelli, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Righini, G.C. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}–2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} →{sup 7}F{sub 2} emissions of Eu{sup 3+}, europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb{sup 3+} emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer might take place between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag{sup +}–Na{sup +} ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu{sup 3+} is sensitized by Tb{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light.

  14. Properties and structure of Faraday rotating glasses for magneto optical current transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Ma, Q.; Wang, H.; Wang, Q.; Hao, Y.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    High heavy metal oxides (60–100mol.%) ternary PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 (PBB) glasses were fabricated and characterized. Using a homemade single lightway DC magnetic setup, Verdet constants of PBB glasses were measured to be 0.0923–0.1664min/G cm at 633nm wavelengths. Glasses with substitution of PbO by Bi2O3 were studied in terms of their Faraday effects. PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 = 50–40–10mol.% exhibited good thermal stability, high Verdet constant (0.1503min/G cm) and good figure of merit (0.071). Based on this glass, a magneto optical current sensor prototype was constructed and its sensitivity at different currents was evaluated to be 8.31nW/A. © 2. (Author)

  15. Optical and physical properties of sodium lead barium borate glasses doped with praseodymium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkennavar, Susheela K.; Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.; Kokila, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium doped sodium lead barium borate glasses have been prepared using single step melt quenching technique. The XRD spectrum confirms amorphous nature of glasses. The optical absorbance studies were carried out on these glasses using PekinElemer Lambda-35 Uv-Vis spectrometer in the range of 200 -1100 nm. The optical direct band gap energies were found to be in the range of 3.62 eV to 3.69 eV and indirect band gap energies were found to be in the range of 3.57 eV to 3.62eV. The refractive indices were measured by using Abbe refractometer the values are in the range of 1.620 to 1.625.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of antimony oxide glasses doped with holmium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunatha, S.; Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru – 560 056. India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Holmium doped lithium-antimony-lead borate glasses having 1 mol% AgNO{sub 3} with composition 50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20PbO-25Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5Li{sub 2}O have been prepared using single step melt quenching technique. The XRD spectrum confirms amorphous nature of glasses. The optical absorbance studies were carried out on these glasses. The optical direct band gap energies were found to be in the range of 3.10 eV to 3.31 eV and indirect band gap energies were found to be in the range of 2.28 eV to 3.00 eV. The refractive indexes have been calculated by using Lorentz-Lorenz formula and the calculated values in the range of 2.31 to 2.37.

  17. Structural and optical properties of antimony-germanate-borate glass and glass fiber co-doped Eu3+ and Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Baranowska, Agata; Pisarski, Wojciech A; Pisarska, Joanna; Jadach, Renata; Sitarz, Maciej; Dorosz, Dominik

    2018-08-05

    In the paper analysis of structural and luminescent properties of antimony-germanate-borate glasses and glass fiber co-doped with 0.6AgNO 3 /0.2Eu 2 O 3 are presented. Heat treatment of the fabricated glass and optical fiber (400 °C, 12 h) enabled to obtain Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with average size 30-50 nm on their surface. It has been proofed that silver ions migrate to the glass surface, where they are reduced to Ag 0 nanoparticles. Simultaneously, FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment of the glass and optical fiber increases the local symmetry of the Eu 3+ site. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical properties of 3d transition metal ion-doped sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hongli; Tanner, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Photographs of undoped (SiO 2 ) 50 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 (SiNaB) glass and transition metal ion-doped (TM) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 49.5 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 glass samples. - Highlights: • 3d transition metal ion (from Ti to Zn) doped SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses. • Optical properties of doped glasses investigated. • V(IV,V); Cr(III, VI); Mn(II,III); Fe(II,III); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II) by XANES, DRS. • Strong visible absorption but only vanadium ion gives strong emission in glass. - Abstract: SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses doped with 3d-transition metal species from Ti to Zn were prepared by the melting-quenching technique and their optical properties were investigated. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra of V, Cr, and Mn-doped glasses indicate that the oxidation states of V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI) and Mn(II, III) exist in the studied glasses. The oxidation states revealed from the diffuse reflectance spectra of the glasses are V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI), Mn(III), Fe(II, III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II). Most of the 3d transition element ions exhibit strong absorption in the visible spectral region in the glass. Under ultraviolet excitation, the undoped sodium borosilicate glass produces weak and broad emission, while doping of vanadium introduces strong and broad emission due to the V(V) charge transfer transition. Only weak emission is observed from Ti(IV), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II), partly resulting from the strong electron–phonon coupling of the 3d-electrons and the relatively high phonon energy of the studied glass host, with the former leading to dominant nonradiative relaxation based on multiphonon processes for most of the 3d excited states

  19. Optical bistability in Er-Yb codoped phosphate glass microspheres at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Jonathan M.; O'Shea, Danny G.; Shortt, Brian J.; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optical bistability in Er(3+)-Yb(3+) phosphate glass microspheres at 295 K. Bistability is associated with both Er(3+) fluorescence and lasing behavior, and chromatic switching. The chromatic switching results from an intrinsic mechanism exploiting the thermal coupling

  20. Optical band gap and spectroscopic study of lithium alumino silicate glass containing Y3+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M S; Rezvani, M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different amounts of Y2O3 dopant on lithium alumino silicate (LAS) glass has been studied in this work. Glasses having 14.8Li2O-20Al2O3-65.2SiO2 (wt%) composition accompanied with Y2O3 dopant were prepared by normal melting process. In order to calculate the absorption coefficient of samples, transmittance and reflectance spectra of polished samples were measured in the room temperature. Optical properties i.e. Fermi energy level, direct and indirect optical band gaps and Urbach energy were calculated using functionality of extinction coefficient from Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Tauc's plot and the exponential part of absorption coefficient diagram, respectively. It has been clarified that variation in mentioned optical parameters is associated with the changes in physical properties of samples i.e. density or molar mass. On the other hand, increasing of Y3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to LAS glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 1.97 to 1.67 and 3.46 to 2.1 (eV), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Y3+ ions as the network former in the track of SiO4 tetrahedrals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the optical band gap in certain ternary phosphate and TeO2 based glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, H.; Tichý, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2011), s. 1277-1281 ISSN 1842-6573 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : optical band gap * heavy metal oxide glasses Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2011 http://oam-rc.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=1737&catid=69

  2. Optical properties of Er-doped GeS2-Ga2S3 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, Z.G.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Kincl, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2009), s. 1269-1272 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glasses * optical properties * luminescence Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.433, year: 2009

  3. Optical Properties of Erbium Zinc Tellurite Glass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidek Hj. Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Er3+-doped tellurite glasses with molar compositions of xEr2O3-20ZnO-(80-xTeO2 (x=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mole% (EZT have been successfully synthesized by the melt-quenching method. Density and molar volume have been measured. UV-VIS absorption spectra in the wavelength range of 400–800 nm at room temperature has been measured. The band gap for every composition has been calculated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 400–650 nm and at room temperature has been evaluated.

  4. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  5. Dynamic array generation and pattern formation for optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P.C.; Glückstad, J.

    2000-01-01

    The generalised phase contrast approach is used for the generation of optical arrays of arbitrary beam shape, suitable for applications in optical tweezers for the manipulation of biological specimens. This approach offers numerous advantages over current techniques involving the use of computer......-generated holograms or diffractive optical elements. We demonstrate a low-loss system for generating intensity patterns suitable for the trapping and manipulation of small particles or specimens....

  6. Thermal, optical and structural properties of Dy3+ doped sodium aluminophosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Anupinder; Thakur, Vanita; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-03-01

    Trivalent Dysprosium doped sodium aluminophosphate glasses with composition 50P2O5-10Al2O3-(20-x)Na2O-20CaO-xDy2O3 (x varying from 0 to 5 mol%) were prepared by melt quench technique. The density of the prepared samples was measured using Archimedes principle and various physical properties like molar volume, rare earth ion concentration, polaron radius, inter nuclear distance and field strength were calculated using different formulae. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out to study the thermal stability of prepared glasses. The UV Visible absorption spectra of the dysprosium doped glasses were found to be comprised of ten absorption bands which correspond to transitions from ground state 6H15/2 to various excited states. The indirect optical band gap energy of the samples was calculated by Tauc's plot and the optical energy was found to be attenuated with Dy3+ ions. The photoluminescence spectrum revealed that Dy3+ doped aluminophosphate glasses have strong emission bands in the visible region. A blue emission band centred at 486 nm, a bright yellow band centred at 575 nm and a weak red band centred at 668 nm were observed in the emission spectrum due to excitation at 352 nm wavelength. Both FTIR and Raman spectra assert slight structural changes induced in the host glass network with Dy3+ ions.

  7. Processing and optical characterization of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, C. R.; Das, Sangeeta; Gautam, S. S.; Madheshiya, Abhishek; Singh, Anod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, various compositions of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with a fixed amount of germanium were synthesized using the rapid melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the synthesized glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The structural and optical properties were deduced using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of borate groups in triangular and tetrahedral coordination. Infrared and Raman analyses detected the vibrational bonds of Gesbnd Osbnd Ge, Bsbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, and Pbsbnd Osbnd Ge. The energy band gaps were evaluated for the prepared glass samples based on Tauc plots of the UV-Vis spectra. The calculated values of the optical band gap decreased from 2.91 to 2.85 eV as the PbO content increased from x = 0.0 to x = 0.7. Furthermore, the Urbach energy was studied based on the UV-Vis results to confirm the disordered structure of the glass. The calculated densities of the glass samples (1.5835 g/cm3 to 3.9184 g/cm3) increased as the concentration of PbO increased, whereas they decreased with the molar volume.

  8. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... probe beam in the transverse direction coupled with an optical streak .... (650 ps) was split using a beam splitter after the fifth amplifier stage in the ..... [17] A S Joshi et al, Fusion Engg. Design 44, 067 (1999). [18] A K Sharma ...

  9. Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neustruev, V.B.

    1994-01-01

    This review presents the state of the art of the study of germanium-related colour centres in silica glass and silica-based fibres. Most attention is concentrated on the dominant colour centres such as the Ge-related oxygen-deficient centres and paramagnetic Ge(n) centres, all of them having ultraviolet absorption bands. The hypothetical models and formation mechanisms proposed so far for these colour centres are discussed in detail. The origins of the models and formation mechanisms and their weak and strong points are analysed. The origin of the less well studied Ge-related colour centres in the visible spectral range (GeH, GeX, drawing-dependent defects) is also discussed. (author)

  10. Ag clustering investigation in laser irradiated ion-exchanged glasses by optical and vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave, E., E-mail: enrico.trave@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Calvelli, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Quaranta, A. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Rahman, A.; Mariotto, G. [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modify the properties of Ag{sup +} exchanged glasses by thermal and laser treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced microstructural changes are analyzed by optical and Raman spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-based species in the glass show a peculiar PL activity in the UV-Vis range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman and OA analysis allow for determining the Ag cluster size evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser processing leads to different cluster formation and fragmentation mechanisms. - Abstract: Ion exchange process is widely used to dope silicate glass layers with silver for several applications, ranging from light waveguide to nanostructured composite glass fabrication. The silver-doped structure and its physical properties depend on the preparation parameters as well as on subsequent treatments. In particular, laser irradiation of the ion exchanged glasses has been demonstrated to be an effective tool to control cluster size and size distribution. Nevertheless, a complete comprehension of the basic phenomena and a systematic characterization of these systems are still lacking. In this paper, an extended optical characterization is presented for soda-lime glass slides, doped with silver by Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange, thermally treated and irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser beam at different wavelengths, and for different energy density. The samples were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, namely, optical absorption, photoluminescence and micro-Raman analysis. The availability of all these characterization techniques allowed pointing out a suitable scenario for the Ag clustering evolution as a function of the ion exchange, annealing and laser irradiation parameters.

  11. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  12. Role of lithium ions on the physical, structural and optical properties of zinc boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S.; Ahlawat, N.; Parmar, R.; Dhankhar, S.; Kundu, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium zinc boro tellurite glasses with compositions xLi2O-(100-x) [0.25ZnO-0.15B2O3-0.60TeO2] [where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%] have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared system is ascertained by X-ray diffraction. The density and molar volume are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Li2O. The differential scanning calorimetry is used to calculate the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the observed values are found to be decreased. The IR and Raman spectra indicate that Li2O acts as a network modifier in the glass matrix. In the present system, tellurium exists as TeO4 and TeO3, B2O3 in the form of BO4 and BO3 and zinc oxide exists as ZnO4 structural units. The values of the optical band gap are estimated from the fitting of Mott and Davis's and model. A better convergence is achieved between experimental observed spectra of absorption coefficient and hydrogenic excitonic model. The optical band gap energy increases, whereas refractive index and molar refractivity follow the reverse trend with Li2O. The range of metallization criterion suggests that these glasses may be a potential candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  13. Synthesis and optical property of holmium doped Lithium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, V. L.; Eraiah, B.

    2017-05-01

    The new glass system 60B2O3-30PbO-(10-x)Li2O-xHo2O3 (where x =0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The XRD spectrum confirms the amorphous nature of the sample. The density of these glasses is measured by using Archimedes principle, the values range from 4.23 g/cm-3 to 4.34 g/cm-3 and the corresponding molar volumes are calculated. The optical absorbance studies were carried out on these glasses in the wavelength range of 200nm to 1100nm. The measured optical direct band gap energies were in the range of 3.072eV to 3.259eV and the optical indirect band gap energies in the range of 2.658eV to 2.846eV. The refractive indices of these glasses were measured by using Abbe refractometer and the corresponding polarizabilities of oxide ions are calculated by using Lorentz-Lorentz relations.

  14. Structural and optical properties of Eu3+ activated low cost zinc soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alia Sheh Omar

    Full Text Available A low cost method was employed to synthesize ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors using recyclable bottle glass as silica source. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.% glasses were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR, UV-visible (Uv-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Structural investigation using XRD measurement had broadened the halo peak with the doping of dopants. FTIR spectra showed the glass system consists of –OH and SiO4 bands. Meanwhile, the optical measurement using UV-Vis absorption has been induced a blue shift of the electronic absorption edge. The emission peak intensity of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors was enhanced with the progression of doping concentration and thus, revealed their potential as red emitting phosphors under 400 nm excitation. Keywords: Eu3+ doped ZnO-SLS glasses, Solid state method, Optical band gap, Photoluminescence

  15. Optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with trivalent dysprosium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Halimah, M. K.; Muhammad, F. D.; Faznny, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    The zinc borotellurite doped with dysprosium oxide glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2) 0 . 7(B2O3) 0 . 3 ] 0 . 7(ZnO) 0 . 3 } 1 - x(Dy2O3)x (where x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and optical properties of the proposed glass systems were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the glass systems is confirmed by using XRD technique. The infrared spectra of the glass systems indicate three obvious absorption bands which are assigned to BO3 and TeO4 vibrational groups. Based on the absorption spectra obtained, the direct and indirect optical band gaps, as well as the Urbach energy were calculated. It is observed that both the direct and indirect optical band gaps increase with the concentration of Dy3+ ions. On the other hand, the Urbach energy is observed to decrease as the concentration of Dy3+ ions increases.

  16. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  17. Generation of optical vortices with an adaptive helical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Devinder Pal

    2011-04-01

    Generation of optical vortices using a new design of adaptive helical mirror (AHM) is reported. The new AHM is a reflective device that can generate an optical vortex of any desired topological charge, both positive and negative, within its breakdown limits. The most fascinating feature of the AHM is that the topological charge of the optical vortex generated with it can be changed in real time by varying the excitation voltage. Generation of optical vortices up to topological charge 4 has been demonstrated. The presence of a vortex in the optical field generated with the AHM is confirmed by producing both fork and spiral fringes in an interferometric setup. Various design improvements to further enhance the performance of the reported AHM are discussed. Some of the important applications of AHM are also listed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-05

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Golovchak, R. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Zurawska, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of {gamma}-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge{sub 23.5}Sb{sub 11.8}S{sub 64.7} glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  1. Characterization of leached surface layers on simulated high-level waste glasses by sputter-induced optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, C.; Tsong, I.S.T.; White, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The leaching process in simulated waste encapsulant glasses was studied by measuring the compositional depth-profiles of H (from water), the glass framework formers Si and B, the alkalis Na and Cs, the alkaline earths Ca and Sr, the transition metals Mo and Fe, the rare-earths La, Ce, and Nd, using the technique of sputter-induced optical emission. The leaching process of these glasses is highly complex. In addition to alkali/hydrogen exchange, there is breakdown of the glass framework, build-up of barrier layers on the surface, and formation of layered reaction zones of distinctly different chemistry all within the outer micrometer of the glass

  2. Optical properties of some terrestrial rocks and glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    The optical constants of five naturally occurring rocks have been determined in the spectral range between 0.2 and 50 microns. Between 0.2 and 5 microns, the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction were found from a combination of reflectivity and transmission measurements by using Beer's law and the Fresnel reflectivity equation. At wavelengths beyond 5 microns, only reflectivity measurements could be made and both constants were found from an application of classical dispersion theory.

  3. Near-field scanning optical microscopy based nanostructuring of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimmalgi, A; Hwang, D J; Grigoropoulos, C P

    2007-01-01

    Nanofabrication, at lateral resolutions beyond the capability of conventional optical lithography techniques, is demonstrated here. Femtosecond laser was used in conjunction with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes (NSOMs) to nanostructure thin metal films. Also, the possibility of using these nanostructured metal films as masks to effectively transfer the pattern to the underlying substrate by wet etching process is shown. Two different optical nearfiled processing schemes were studied for near-field nanostructuring. In the first scheme, local field enhancement in the near-field of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) probe tip irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses was utilized (apertureless NSOM mode) and as a second approach, femtosecond laser beam was spatially confined by cantilevered NSOM fiber tip (apertured NOSM mode). The minimized heat- and shock-affected areas introduced during ultrafast laser based machining process, allows processing of even high conductivity thin metal films with minimized formation of any interfacial compounds between the metal films and the underlying substrate. Potential applications of this method may be in the fields of nanolithography, nanofluidics, nanoscale chemical and gas sensors, high-density data storage, nano-opto-electronics, as well as biotechnology related applications

  4. Optical properties of BaO added bioactive Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edathazhe, Akhila B.; Shashikala, H. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the effect of BaO addition on the optical properties of bioactive Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses for biomedical optics applications. The phosphate glasses with composition (26-x)Na2O-xBaO-29CaO-45P2O5 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%) have been prepared by melt-quenching technique at 1100°C. The refractive index of glasses increased with BaO content. The optical band gap and Urbach energy of synthesized glasses were derived from the optical absorption spectra by using UV-Visible spectrometer. The addition of 5 mol% of BaO increased the band gap energy of glasses due to the formation of ionic cross-links in the glass structure. The defect and interstitial bonds formation in theglasses decreased with BaO additions as indicated by reductions in the Urbach energy values. No such variations in the band gap and Urbach energy values of glasses were observed with BaO content from 5 to 15 mol%. The molar and oxide ion polarizability values were calculated from the band gap and molar volume of glasses. The increase in the calculated optical basicity and metallization criteria of glasses supported the rise in band gap energy values with BaO additions. As the melting temperature of glasses decreased from 1200 to 1100°C, the refractive index increased as supported by the measured density values. The band gap energy is not changed with melting temperature. The Urbach energy decreased with decrease in melting temperature in case of BaO-free Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses, whereas it increased in case of BaO added glasses due to the role of BaO as modifying oxide.

  5. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Introduction This presentation summarizes recent activity in monitoring spacecraft health status using passive remote optical nonimaging ...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation...It is beneficial to the observer/analyst to understand the fundamental optical signature variability associated with these detection and

  6. The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkina, K. V.; Dubrovin, V. D.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses is studied. Multicomponent photosensitive glasses of the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, antimony, silver) and halogenides (fluorine and bromine) are synthesized. Ultraviolet irradiation and thermal treatment below the glass-transition temperature of the glasses cause the formation of silver molecular clusters, which exhibit luminescence in the visible and infrared regions. UV irradiation and thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature lead to the growth of silver nanoparticles with plasmon resonance peak in the region of 420 nm. Further thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature shifts the plasmon-resonance maximum by 70 nm to longer wavelengths, which is related to the growth of a crystalline shell consisting of mixed silver and sodium bromides on nanoparticles. This formation of a crystalline phase on colloidal centers results in a local increase in the refractive index of the irradiated region by +Δ n 900 ppm compared to the nonirradiated region. Photo-thermo-refractive glasses with increased silver concentration are promising photosensitive materials for creating holographic optical elements and devices for line narrowing and stabilizing filters, spectral beam combiners, and filters for increasing the spectral brightness of laser diodes. A positive change in the refractive index of Photo-thermo-refractive glasses provides the possibility of recording in them 3D waveguide and integrated-optical structures.

  7. Synthesis and different optical properties of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Buddhadev; Dutta, Dibakar; Ghosh, Subhankar

    2017-06-01

    A series of Gd2O3 doped sodium zinc tellurite [xGd2O3-(0.8-x) TeO2-0.1Na2O-0.1ZnO] glasses are prepared by the conventional melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. UV-vis spectrophotometric studies within the wavelength range from 230 nm-800 nm are carried out in the integrating sphere mode to study the effect of Gd2O3 doping on the optical band gap (Eg), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (εr) and susceptibility (χ). Other physical properties like molar volume, molar refraction, polarizability, metallization criterion, number density of rare-earth ions (N), polaron radius (rp), inter ionic distance (ri), molar cation polarizability (∑αi), number of oxide ions in chemical composition (NO2-), optical band gap based electronic oxide ion polarizability (αO2-) and optical basicity (Λ) of glass samples have been studied on the basis of UV-vis spectra and density profile of the different glasses.

  8. Natural Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded zinc–tellurite glasses: Polarizability and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widanarto, W.; Sahar, M.R.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Arifin, R.; Rohani, M.S.; Hamzah, K.; Jandra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Modifying the optical behavior of zinc–tellurite glass by embedding magnetic nanoparticles has implication in nanophotonics. A series of zinc–tellurite glasses containing natural Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with composition (80 − x)TeO 2 ·xFe 3 O 4 ·20ZnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) in mol% are synthesized by melt quenching method and their optical properties are investigated using FTIR and UV–vis–NIR spectroscopies. Lorentz–Lorenz relations are exploited to determine the refractive index, molar refraction and electronic polarizability. The sharp absorption peaks of FTIR spectra show a shift from 667 cm −1 to 671 cm −1 in the presence of nanoparticles that increase the non-bridging oxygen, confirmed by the intensity change of the TeO 3 peak at 752 cm −1 . A new peak around 461 cm −1 is also observed which is attributed to the band characteristic of covalent Fe–O linkages. A decrease in the Urbach energy as much as 0.122 eV and the optical energy band gap with the increase of Fe 3 O 4 concentration (0.5–1.0 mol%) is evidenced. Electronic polarizability of the glasses increases with increasing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles concentration up to 1 mol%. Interestingly, the polarizability tends to decrease with the further increase of Fe 3 O 4 concentration at 2 mol%. The role of magnetic nanoparticles in influencing the structural and optical behavior are examined and understood. - Highlights: ► Incorporation of natural Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the zinc–tellurite glass. ► Influence of magnetic nanoparticles in modifying structure and optical properties. ► Enhancement of refraction index and change in electronic polarizability

  9. Dy3+-doped nano-glass ceramics comprising NaAlSiO4 and NaY9Si6O26 nanocrystals for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Ruchika; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, José M.F.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Davinder Paul; Falconieri, Mauro; Sharma, Gopi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environment safe glass ceramics were fabricated via heat treatment. ► Optical and structural properties were studied before and after heat treatment. ► White light generation with single RE 3+ ion-doping was observed under UV excitation. ► Emission color temperature was between fluorescent tube and daylight values. - Abstract: The radiative emission properties of the Dy 3+ ions in oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics have been investigated for the generation of white light. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the glass ceramics reveals the presence of NaAlSiO 4 nanocrystals along with secondary phase of NaY 9 Si 6 O 26 in the glass matrix after a suitable thermal treatment of the pristine glasses. Intense white light emission has been observed when the samples are excited with 350 nm light. Yellow to blue emission intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been determined from the visible luminescence spectra. All color coordinates are found to lie in the white region of the chromaticity color diagram proposing the suitability of the present studied materials for color display devices.

  10. Influence of hydrogen on optical destruction of the irradiated quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M.R.; Beysembayeva, Kh.B.; Sabitov, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of concentration impurity of hydrogen on optical destruction of a quartz glass was investigated. As objects of researches the fragments of capsules of industrial lamps OQG, intended for job in low and hard load operation, modes i.e. lamp IFF-500 and IFF-8000 respectively were taken. The results of the elemental analysis of capsules lamps IFF-500 and IFF-8000 showed their complete identity. The exception was made only for an impurity of H, contents of which in a material of an environment of a lamp capsule IFF-500 was almost of the order higher than in quartz glass of lamp capsule IFF-8000 (10 -2 %). Absence in structure of investigated by us of Cl ions, as well as the available concentration of H, allowed to make the conclusion, that the quartz glasses used for manufacturing of environments of lamps capsules, investigated by us, are the full pump lamps and represent glasses of gas melt up; and the quartz glass of a lamp IFF-500 was melt- up or is processed in hydrogen. As of spectra of absorption results of research showed, quartz glass of an of a lamp capsule IFF-500, containing highest quantity impurity of hydrogen, at flux, not exceeding 10 18 neutron/cm 2 , is less painted in comparison with an capsule IFF-8000. Smaller density of coloring of capsules containing higher concentration H, is connected to the hydrogen, existing in glass, blocks the potential centers of capture holes as defective aluminum oxygen tetrahedron of non-bridge of oxygen. The authors found out, that at high γ-radiation and influence flux of neutrons leads to degradation of regular ≡Si-O-Si≡ connections in quartz glasses producing defects as non-bridge oxygen and three-coordinate of silicon, and also production of vacancies of oxygen. By results of the researches, carried out by us, at increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in quartz glass process of structural defective formation intensifies. Research of beam durability of quartz glasses of environments of not

  11. Effects of nuclear radiation on the optical properties of cerium-doped glass (accelerator applications)

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, B; Van de Voorde, M H

    1976-01-01

    Some twenty types of glass containing 0.5-4% CeO/sub 2/ have been irradiated in a /sup 60/Co gamma cell and in the mixed neutron-gamma field of a nuclear reactor, at total integrated doses of up to 5*10 /sup 9/ rad (CH). The resulting colouration has been assessed quantitatively by measuring the light transmission with reference to air, in the range 360-510 nm. From the results, certain types of glass suitable for applications in nuclear engineering can be selected. Specifically, it was found that 1-2% CeO/sub 2/ content is usually sufficient to obtain radiation-resistant optical glass: the reduction in light transmission above 450 nm is nil at 10/sup 8/ rad (CH), below 10% at 10/sup 9/ rad (CH), and below 20% at 5*10/sup 9/ rad (CH); the post-irradiation fading is negligible.

  12. Optical trapping with Bessel beams generated from semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Dudelev, V V; Losev, S N; Soboleva, K K; Deryagin, A G; Kuchinskii, V I; Sibbett, W; Rafailov, E U

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study generation of Bessel beams from semiconductor lasers with high beam propagation parameter M 2 and their utilization for optical trapping and manipulation of microscopic particles including living cells. The demonstrated optical tweezing with diodegenerated Bessel beams paves the way to replace their vibronic-generated counterparts for a range of applications towards novel lab-on-a-chip configurations

  13. Study of the optical properties of TeO2-PbO-TiO2 glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul F. Cuevas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the preparation and some optical properties of high refractive index TeO2-PbO-TiO2 glass system. Highly homogeneous glasses were obtained by agitating the mixture during the melting process in an alumina crucible. The characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, light absorption and linear refractive index measurements. The results show a change in the glass structure as the PbO content increases: the TeO4 trigonal bipyramids characteristics of TeO2 glasses transform into TeO3 trigonal pyramids. However, the measured refractive indices are almost independent of the glass composition. We show that third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities calculated from the measured refractive indices using Lines' theoretical model are also independent of the glass composition.

  14. Novel High Temperature and Radiation Resistant Infrared Glasses and Optical Fibers for Sensing in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballato, John [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2018-01-22

    One binary and three series of ternary non-oxide pure sulfide glasses compositions were investigated with the goal of synthesizing new glasses that exhibit high glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures, infrared transparency, and reliable glass formability. The binary glass series consisted of Ges2 and La2S3 and the three glass series in the x(nBaS + mLa2S3) + (1-2x)GeS2 ternary system have BaS:La2S3 modifier ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with . With these glasses, new insights were realized as to how ionic glasses form and how glass modifiers affect both structure and glass formability. All synthesized compositions were characterized by Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to better understand the fundamental structure, optical, and thermal characteristics of the glasses. After a range of these glasses were synthesized, optimal compositions were formed into glass disks and subjected to gamma irradiation. Glass disks were characterized both before and after irradiation by microscope imaging, measuring the refractive index, density, and UV-VIS-IR transmission spectra. The final total dose the samples were subjected to was ~2.5 MGy. Ternary samples showed a less than 0.4% change in density and refractive index and minimal change in transmission window. The glasses also resisted cracking as seen in microscope images. Overall, many glass compositions were developed that possess operating temperatures above 500 °C, where conventional chalcogenide glasses such as As2S3 and have Tgs from ~200-300 °C, and these glasses have a greater than Tc – Tg values larger than 100 °C and this shows that these glasses have good thermal stability of Tg such that they can be fabricated into optical fibers and as such can be considered candidates for high temperature infrared fiber optics. Initial fiber fabrication efforts showed that selected glasses could be drawn but larger

  15. Chromatic correction for a VIS-SWIR zoom lens using optical glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Williams, Daniel J. L.; McCarthy, Peter; Visconti, Anthony J.; Bentley, Julie L.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2015-09-01

    With the advancement in sensors, hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared (SWIR 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm) now has wide applications, including night vision, haze-penetrating imaging, etc. Most conventional optical glasses can be material candidates for designing in the SWIR as they transmit up to 2.2 μm. However, since SWIR is in the middle of the glasses' major absorption wavebands in UV and IR, the flint glasses in SWIR are less dispersive than in the visible spectrum. As a result, the glass map in the SWIR is highly compressed, with crowns and flints all clustering together. Thus correcting for chromatic aberration is more challenging in the SWIR, since the Abbé number ratio of the same glass combination is reduced. Conventionally, fluorides, such as CaF2 and BaF2, are widely used in designing SWIR system due to their unique dispersion properties, even though they are notorious for poor manufacturability or even high toxicity. For lens elements in a zoom system, the ray bundle samples different sections of the each lens aperture as the lens zooms. This creates extra uncertainty in correcting chromatic aberrations. This paper focuses on using only commercially available optical glasses to color-correct a 3X dual-band zoom lens system in the VIS-SWIR. The design tools and techniques are detailed in terms of material selections to minimize the chromatic aberrations in such a large spectrum band and all zoom positions. Examples are discussed for designs with different aperture stop locations, which considerably affect the material choices.

  16. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa M. Kaky

    Full Text Available In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 − xTeO2. (10ZnO. (10WO3. (5Na2O. (5TiO2. (xBi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol% have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65–150 cm−1, R2 (280–550 cm−1, R3 (880–950 cm−1 and R4 (916–926 cm−1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV–Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF, and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched. Keywords: Tellurite glasses, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, TGA/DSC

  17. Optical transitions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glasses and compositional and thermal effect on upconversion luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu; Liu, Zhuo; Guo, Tao

    2014-01-24

    Optical properties of Tm(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980 nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, temperature, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and Optical Properties of Lead-Boro-Tellurrite Glasses Induced by Gamma-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric studies of lead borotellurite glasses were carried out before and after gamma irradiation exposure. The increasing peak on the TeO4 bi-pyramidal arrangement and TeO3+1 (or distorted TeO4 is due to augmentation of irradiation dose which is attributed to an increase in degree of disorder of the amorphous phase. The structures of lead tellurate contain Pb3TeO6 consisting of TeO3 trigonal pyramid connected by PbO4 tetragonal forming a three-dimensional network. The decrease of glass rigidity is due to irradiation process which is supported by the XRD diffractograms results. The decreasing values of absorption edge indicate that red shift effect occur after irradiation processes. A shift in the optical absorption edge attributed to an increase of the conjugation length. The values of optical band gap, Eopt were calculated and found to be dependent on the glass composition and radiation exposure. Generally, an increase and decrease in Urbach’s energy can be considered as being due to an increase in defects within glass network.

  19. Structural and optical properties of lead-boro-tellurrite glasses induced by gamma-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud Wan; Aziz, Sidek Abdul; Rahman, Azhar Abdul

    2013-02-04

    Spectrophotometric studies of lead borotellurite glasses were carried out before and after gamma irradiation exposure. The increasing peak on the TeO(4) bi-pyramidal arrangement and TeO(3+1) (or distorted TeO(4)) is due to augmentation of irradiation dose which is attributed to an increase in degree of disorder of the amorphous phase. The structures of lead tellurate contain Pb(3)TeO(6) consisting of TeO(3) trigonal pyramid connected by PbO(4) tetragonal forming a three-dimensional network. The decrease of glass rigidity is due to irradiation process which is supported by the XRD diffractograms results. The decreasing values of absorption edge indicate that red shift effect occur after irradiation processes. A shift in the optical absorption edge attributed to an increase of the conjugation length. The values of optical band gap, E(opt) were calculated and found to be dependent on the glass composition and radiation exposure. Generally, an increase and decrease in Urbach's energy can be considered as being due to an increase in defects within glass network.

  20. Optical and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped cadmium-sodium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh

    2017-10-01

    Neodymium doped cadmium sodium borate glasses having composition xCdO-(40-x) Na2CO3-59.5H3BO3-0.5Nd2O3; x = 10, 20 and 30 mol% were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. Conventional methods were used to determine the physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, and rare earth ion concentration. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The calculated intensity parameters were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratio (βR) for the various fluorescent levels of Nd3+ ion in the prepared glass series. The effect of the compositional changes on the spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+ ions have been studied and reported. The value of Ω2 is found to decrease with the decrease in the sodium content and the corresponding increase in the cadmium content. This can be ascribed to the changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the change in rare earth oxygen (RE-O) covalency. Florescence spectra has been used to determine the peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σp) for the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2,4I11/2,4I13/2 transitions of the Nd3+ ion. The reasonably higher values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards the efficacy of these glasses as laser host materials. However, the glass with more sodium content is found to show better lasing properties.

  1. Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. By assessing the eccentricity of the elliptic shape of a 2D optical correlation spectrum the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved through a very simple relationship. This method yielded both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system.

  2. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  3. Spectral dependence of nonlinear optical absorption of silica glass with copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A N; Nikitin, S I; Smirnov, M A; Stepanov, A L

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of silica glass with copper nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation were investigated by z-scan method in nanosecond time scale. The reverse saturation absorption (RSA) at the wavelength range of 450–540 nm and saturation absorption (SA) at 550–585 nm were observed. It was supposed that the two-photon electron absorption from bound of d-states determined the RSA effect and the SA is due to saturation of plasmon excitation.

  4. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  5. Electrical, dielectric, and optical properties of Sb2O3–Li2O–MoO3 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubliha, M.; Soltani, M.T.; Trnovcová, V.; Legouera, M.; Labaš, V.; Kostka, Petr; Le Coq, D.; Hamzaoui, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 428, NOV 15 (2015), s. 42-48 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : lithium molybdenum–antimonite glasses * electrical conductivity * electrical relaxation * dielectric response * optical properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  6. Optical absorption and gamma-radiation-shielding parameter studies of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Sayyed, M. I.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Dong, M. G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations (0.1‒2.0 mol%) of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses with 10 mol% Li2O (alkali) or MgO (alkaline) have been synthesized and their optical absorption and radiation shielding features were studied. For both Li2O and MgO series 0.5 mol% Tm3+-doped glass samples, the evaluated Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4, and 6) Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from experimental oscillator strengths were used in estimating the radiative transition probabilities ( A R), branching ratios ( β R), and radiative lifetimes ( τ R) for several emission transitions. Using the XCOM software, the mass attenuation coefficients ( µ/ ρ) for all the fabricated glasses were evaluated within the 0.015‒10 MeV energy range. Also, the ( µ/ ρ) values were calculated at 0.356, 0.662, 1.173, and 1.33 MeV photon energies by MCNP5 simulation code and the results were compared with those obtained by XCOM. The ( µ/ ρ) values for Li2O, as well as MgO series glasses, increase with the addition of Tm2O3 and these values for MgO series glasses are slightly higher with respect to Li2O series glasses. From the ( µ/ ρ) values, effective atomic number ( Z eff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) were calculated and the HVL and MFP results revealed that high-energy photons have more penetration into a glass sample compared to low-energy photons. Further, geometric progression (GP) fitting method was utilized to calculate the exposure buildup factor (EBF) within the 0.015‒15 MeV energy range. The 2.0 mol% Tm2O3-doped glasses show a better ability to attenuate gamma-rays in comparison to other glass samples, so the addition of Tm2O3 content leads to improvement of the shielding efficiency of the prepared glasses.

  7. Characteristics of colloids generated during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.

    1993-10-01

    Aqueous colloidal suspensions were generated by reacting nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90 degrees C at different ratios of the glass surface area to solution volume (S/V). The colloids have been characterized in terms of size, charge, identity, and stability with respect to salt concentration, pH, and time, by examination using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and transmission electron microscopy. The colloids are predominately produced by precipitation from solution, possibly with contribution from reacted layers that have spallated from the glass. These colloids are silicon-rich minerals. The colloidal suspensions agglomerate when the salinity of the solutions increase. The following implications for modeling the colloidal transport of contaminants have been derived from this study: (1) The sources of the colloids are not only solubility-limited real colloids and the pseudo colloids formed by adsorption of radionuclides onto a groundwater colloid, but also from the spalled surface layers of reacted waste glasses. (2) In a repository, the local environment is likely to be glass-reaction dominated and the salt concentration is likely to be high, leading to rapid colloid agglomeration and settling; thus, colloid transport may be insignificant. (3) If large volumes of groundwater contact the glass reaction site, the precipitated colloids may become resuspended, and colloid transport may become important. (4) Under most conditions, the colloids are negatively charged and will deposit readily on positively charged surfaces. Negatively charged surfaces will, in general, facilitate colloid stability and transport

  8. On the structural-optical correlations in radiation-modified chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskyy, T; Tsmots, V [Solid State Microelectronics Laboratory, Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, 24 I. Franko Str., Drohobych, 82100 (Ukraine); Kaban, I; Hoyer, W [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Shpotyuk, O, E-mail: kavetskyy@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska Str., Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine)

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we report our recent results on the gamma-irradiation-induced structural transformations in the Ge-Sb-S glasses as observed from the structural studies using high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in comparison with the optical measurements using VIS/IR spectroscopy techniques. The structural-optical correlations in the radiation-induced effects are established. The structural changes upon irradiation are explained in the frames of the concept of coordination topological defects formation.

  9. On the structural-optical correlations in radiation-modified chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavetskyy, T; Tsmots, V; Kaban, I; Hoyer, W; Shpotyuk, O

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report our recent results on the gamma-irradiation-induced structural transformations in the Ge-Sb-S glasses as observed from the structural studies using high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in comparison with the optical measurements using VIS/IR spectroscopy techniques. The structural-optical correlations in the radiation-induced effects are established. The structural changes upon irradiation are explained in the frames of the concept of coordination topological defects formation.

  10. Optical Property Requirements for Glasses, Ceramics and Plastics in Spacecraft Window Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary draft of a standard published by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) that is intended to provide uniform window optical design requirements in support of the development of human-rated spaceflight hardware. The material covered in this standard is based on data from extensive testing by the Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, and compiled into requirements format by the NASA JSC Structural Engineering Division. At the time of this initial document release, a broader technical community has not reviewed this standard. The technical content of this standard is primarily based on the Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Window Optical Properties Requirements, CxP 72407, Baseline. Unlike other optical requirements documents available for human rated spacecraft, this document includes requirements that ensure functionality for windows that contain glass/ceramic and/or plastic window substrate materials. These requirements were derived by measuring the optical properties of fused silica and aluminosilicate glass window assemblies and ensuring that the performance of any window assembly that includes a plastic pane or panes will meet the performance level of the all-glass assemblies. The resulting requirements are based upon the performance and parameter metrology testing of a variety of materials, including glass, transparent ceramics, acrylics, and polycarbonates. In general, these requirements are minimum specifications for each optical parameter in order to achieve the function specified for each functional category, A through D. Because acrylic materials perform at a higher level than polycarbonates in the optics regime, and CxP/Orion is planning to use acrylic in the Orion spacecraft, these requirements are based heavily on metrology from that material. As a result, two of the current Category D requirements for plastics are cited in

  11. Experimental investigations of optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glass waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannberg, P.; Possner, T.; Braeuer, A.; Bartuch, U.

    1988-01-01

    Both, thermal and electronic optical nonlinearities are studied in semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) waveguides which are fabricated in commercially available sharp-cut filters by Cs + -K + ion exchange. The relaxation time in photodarkened substrates is measured to be 30 ps. By means of a prism coupling set-up the saturation value of the nonlinear index change is determined. Furthermore, a high stability dual-beam interferometer is presented for the measurement of both, thermal and electronic nonlinear refractive index n 2 in planar waveguides. Conclusions about the application of SDG to opto-optical switching are given. (author)

  12. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  13. Influence of samarium ions (Sm3+) on the optical properties of lithium zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    New glass samples with composition xSm2O3-(15-x) Li2O-45ZnO-40P2O5, where x= 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol % are prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. X-ray Diffraction measurements were performed to confirm their amorphous nature. Densities of these glasses were measured by Archimedes method. Optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectra which was recorded at room temperature in the UV-Vis region. Electronic transitions specific to the rare earth ion were observed from the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Optical direct band gap and indirect band gap energies were measured and their values were found to be between 4.23-4.74 eV and 3.02-3.67 eV, respectively. Refractive index has been measured with respect to different concentrations of Sm2O3. Polaron radius, inter-nuclear distance, field strength, dielectric constant and polarizability of oxide ions have been calculated. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements have been performed by excitation in the UV-Visible range, which resulted in the significant fluorescence peaks. The luminescence color of the glass system has been characterized using Commission International de l'Eclairage de France 1931 chromaticity diagram.

  14. Investigations on structural and optical behavior of Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (30-x)B2O3+30TeO2+23MgO+17PbF2+xEr2O3 (where x=0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 in wt%) were synthesized by melt quenching technique. The structural and optical behaviors have been investigated through FTIR, absorption and emission spectral analysis. The UV-vis- NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the bonding parameters (β ¯, δ), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6), Optical band gap and Urbach's energy of the prepared glasses. The radiative properties such as transition probability (AR), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE ), branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the luminescence spectra. The optical properties of the prepared glasses with varying Er3+ ion concentration have been studied and reported in the present work.

  15. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular-Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina; Merlo, Sabina

    2018-02-16

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances.

  16. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular–Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances. PMID:29462907

  17. Ge22As20Se58 glass ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides for mid-IR integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, James M.; Mackenzie, Mark D.; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero-dispersi...... ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide devices in GASIR-1 for mid-IR integrated optics applications. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.......Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero......-dispersion wavelength. Z-scan measurements of bulk samples have also been performed to determine the nonlinear refractive index. Finally, midIR supercontinuum generation has been shown when pumping the waveguides with femtosecond pulses centered at 4.6 mu m. Supercontinuum spanning approximately 4 mu m from 2.5 to 6...

  18. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd2O3 doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algradee, M. A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O. M.; Alwany, A. Elwhab B.

    2017-08-01

    The Nd3+-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd2O3 content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system.

  19. Linear Optical Properties of Zinc Borotellurite Glass Doped with Lanthanum Oxide Nanoparticles for Optoelectronic and Photonic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faznny Mohd Fudzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the optical properties of glasses for the sake of optical application in various fields is an ongoing challenge in materials science and technology. Thus, the optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with lanthanum oxide nanoparticles (La2O3 NPs with the chemical composition of {[(TeO20.7(B2O30.3]0.7(ZnO0.3}1−x (La2O3 NPsx, where x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 molar fraction, have been investigated. Characterization techniques such as x-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy are employed to yield the structural properties and optical parameter of the glass. The amorphous nature of the fabricated glasses is confirmed with the presence of a broad hump via XRD diffraction pattern. The decreasing amount of high polarizable nonbridging oxygen as the concentration of La2O3 NPs increases has contributed to the increasing trend of energy band gap in the range of 2.70 to 3.52 eV and decreasing value of refractive index between 2.34 and 2.48. The fabricated glasses that have a higher refractive index than the widely used fiber material, pure silica glass, indicate that zinc borotellurite glass doped with lanthanum nanoparticles is a promising material to be applied as optical fibers.

  20. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3-PbI2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Gao; Liu Cunming; Luo Lan; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of new selenium-based GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses have been measured using the optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique, with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses. The 0.70GeSe 2 -0.15Ga 2 Se 3 -0.15PbI 2 glass has the largest third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility in GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glass system with χ (3) of 5.28x10 12 esu. In addition, the response time of glasses is sub-picosecond, which is predominantly associated with electron cloud. Local structure of the glasses has been identified by using Raman studies, while the origins of the observed nonlinear optical response are discussed. The [Ge(Ga)Se 4 ] tetrahedral and lone-pair electrons from highly polarizable Pb atom in glasses play an important role in enhanced NLO response. These results as well as their good chemical stability indicate that GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses are promising materials for photonic applications of third-order nonlinear optical signal processing.

  1. Optical Splitters Based on Self-Imaging Effect in Multi-Mode Waveguide Made by Ion Exchange in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Barkman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Design and modeling of single mode optical multi-mode interference structures with graded refractive index is reported. Several samples of planar optical channel waveguides were obtained by Ag+, Na+ and K+, Na+ one step thermal ion exchange process in molten salt on GIL49 glass substrate and new special optical glass for ion exchange technology. Waveguide properties were measured by optical mode spectroscopy. Obtained data were used for further design and modeling of single mode channel waveguide and subsequently for the design of 1 to 3 multimode interference power splitter in order to improve simulation accuracy. Designs were developed by utilizing finite difference beam propagation method.

  2. Using optical spectroscopy to characterize the material of a 16th c. stained glass window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglia, A.; Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Nys, K.; Terryn, H.; Thienpont, H.

    In this paper we studied the transmittance spectra of a collection of several glass samples taken from a 16th century stained window of the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium. We recorded the optical spectra for all the samples in the region between 350 and 1600 nm. The goal of our research was to reveal information about the composition of the glass artifacts in a fast and non-destructive way. Analysis of the optical spectra allowed us in the first place to identify the type of colorants that were used. It was possible to recognize metal ions, such as Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Mn3+, Cr3+ and Cu2+. Also colors made of metal nanoparticles, such as silver and copper colloids were successfully identified. The recognition of the coloring agents is of particular interest in dating the glass pieces. This is because some colorants were only used in certain periods. Green glass colored by chromium was produced only after the mid 19th century onwards. Our study showed that 3 of the 10 pieces were colored by this element and they originate as such from a later period. A second conclusion refers to the applied fluxing agent. By analyzing the spectral position of the first cobalt absorption band, we were able to classify the glass pieces as potash based (used in medieval times) or soda-based (used in modern times) and therefore to classify them as original or as restoration material. From the 10 blue colored samples, 7 of them were recognized as original material. Finally, for the naturally colored parts the analysis of the spectra allowed us to group them based on cobalt impurities.

  3. Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical properties of TeO2-Bi2O3-GeO2-Li2O glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimowa, Louiza; Piroeva, Iskra; Atanasova-Vladimirova, S.; Petrova, Nadia; Ganev, Valentin; Titorenkova, Rositsa; Yankov, Georgi; Petrov, Todor; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, synthesis and characterization of novel quaternary tellurite glass system TeO2-Bi2O3-GeO2-Li2O is presented. The compositions include TeO2 and GeO2 as glass formers while different proportion of Bi2O3 and Li2O act as network modifiers. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy are applied to study the structural, thermal and optical properties of the studied glasses. Obtained glasses possess a relatively low glass transition temperature (around 300 °C) if compared to other tellurite glasses, show good thermal transparency in the visible and near infra-red (from 2.4 to 0.4 μm) and can double the frequency of laser light from its original wavelength of 1064 nm to its second-harmonic at 532 nm (i.e. second harmonic generation).

  4. Red light generation through the lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses activated by Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Suriya Murthy, N.; Muralidharan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses containing 0.05 to 2.0 wt% of Eu3+ ions were prepared through melt quenching technique. Structural characteristics of title glasses were identified through XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. The optical properties of the prepared glasses were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectra. From the resultant spectra, we have obtained the bonding parameters (δ), nephelauxetic ratio (β), direct and indirect band gaps and Urbach energy (ΔE) values. A deep red luminescence due to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions could be observed for the title glasses. The local site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions and the degree of Eu3+-O2- covalence were assessed from the luminescence intensity ratio of 5D0 → 7F2/5D0 → 7F1 transitions. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, calculated from the luminescence spectra, were used to estimate the radiative parameters like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βexp, βcal) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) concerning the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions. The important laser parameters, gain bandwidth and optical gain are also estimated. The decay curves associated with the transition from 5D0 state was found to be single-exponential at all Eu3+ ion concentrations. CIE colour coordinates and colour purity of the prepared glasses were estimated from the CIE chromaticity diagram.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the structural and optical properties of tellurite glasses doped erbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jlassi, I., E-mail: ifa.jlassi@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus ElManar 2092 (Tunisia); Hraiech, S.; Ferid, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-03-15

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of the heat treatment was investigated on the based glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and optical properties were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Judd-Ofelt model is applied to Er absorption spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL spectra and PL lifetime were recorded for all the samples at 1.53 {mu}m.

  6. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped barium lithium fluoroborate glasses for near-infrared (NIR) emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Suresh, K.

    2018-04-01

    The neodymium doped barium lithium fluoroborate (Nd3+: BLFB) glasses with the chemical composition (70-x) H3BO3 - 10 Li2CO3 - 10 BaCO3- 5 CaF2-5 ZnO - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 in wt %) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and characterised through optical absorption, near infrared emission and decay-time measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The optical absorption spectra and emission spectra were recorded in the wavelength ranges of 190-1100 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined from the systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium ions in the prepared glasses. The emission spectra exhibited three prominent peaks at 874, 1057, 1331 nm corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 11/2, 13/2 transitions levels respectively in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition increases with the increase in neodymium concentration up to 0.5 wt% and the concentration quenching mechanism was observed for 1 wt% and 2 wt% concentrations. The lifetime of the 4F3/2 level was found to decrease with increasing Nd3+ ion concentration. The nature of energy transfer process was a single exponential curve which was studied for all the glasses and analysed.

  7. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 - x)TeO2. (10)ZnO. (10)WO3. (5)Na2O. (5)TiO2. (x)Bi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65-150) cm-1, R2 (280-550) cm-1, R3 (880-950) cm-1 and R4 (916-926) cm-1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV-Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF), and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched.

  8. Structural characterization and compositional dependence of the optical properties of Ge-Ga-La-S chalcohalide glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lini; Jiao, Qing; Lin, Changgui; Dai, Shixun; Nie, Qiuhua

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, chalcogenide glasses of 80GeS2sbnd (20sbnd x)Ga2S3sbnd xLa2S3 (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 mol%) were synthesized through the traditional melt-quenching technique. The effects of La2S3 addition on the thermal, optical, and structural properties of Gesbnd Gasbnd S glasses were investigated. Results showed that the synthesized glasses possessed considerably high glass transition temperature, improved glass forming ability, high refractive index, and excellent infrared transmittance. A redshift at the visible absorbing cut-off edge lower than 500 nm was observed with increasing of La2S3 content. Direct and indirect optical band gap values were calculated. SEM result suggested that this glass system owned better glass forming ability and uniformity. Raman spectral analysis indicated that the introduction of La2S3 induced the dissociation of Gesbnd Ge metal bonds and transformed the [S3Gesbnd GeS3] structure to GeS4 tetrahedrons. Consequently, the connectivity between tetrahedrons of the vitreous network was enhanced. This work suggests that La2S3 modified Ge-Gasbnd Lasbnd S glass is a promising material for infrared optical research.

  9. Preliminary study on rotary ultrasonic machining of Bk-7 optical glass rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Izman, S.; Khoo, C.Y.; Zainal Abidin, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental observation on rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of BK7 optical glass rod. BK7 is a common technical optical glass for high quality optical components due to its high linear optical transmission in the visible range and is chemically stable. RUM is a hybrid machining process that combines the material removal mechanisms of diamond grinding and ultrasonic machining (USM) and it is non-thermal, non-chemical, creates no change in the microstructure, chemical or physical properties of the work piece. In the RUM, a controlled static load is applied to the rotating core drill with metal bonded diamond abrasive and is ultrasonically vibrated in the axial direction. A water-soluble coolant was used to cool the tool and sample during machining processes. By using DOE (Design of Experiment) approach, the effect of spindle speed and feed rate to the ultrasonic machinability had been developed. The main effects and two-factor interactions of process parameters (spindle speed) and feed rate) on output variables (MRR, surface roughness, opaqueness, chipping thickness and chipping size) are studied. (author)

  10. Thermal and optical bleaching of radiation effects in silver activated metaphosphate glass - its use in U.V. dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Ramanathan, G.; Gangadharan, P.

    1976-01-01

    While investigating the use of silver activated metaphosphate glass in radiation dosimetry, using its properties of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) in the range 20 mR to 10 3 R and of optical absorbance changes at higher exposures, a difference in the behaviour of the centers responsible for the two phenomenon was observed when the glass was exposed to 253.7 nm u.v. Ultraviolet exposure was observed to bleach the radiophotoluminescence in an irradiated glass whereas it was observed to induce photoluminescence in an unirradiated glass. Thermal behaviour of the two centers was also different. After heating the glass for 5 min at a number of temperatures, a gradual increase in RPL was observed up to 200 0 C. Above 200 0 C, the thermal treatment bleached the RPL. The optical absorbance was bleached from room temperature upwards. (U.K.)

  11. Structural and optical investigations on Dy{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshvaran, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India); Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari_ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India)

    2011-07-07

    Highlights: > The structural and optical properties have been studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. > The prepared glasses posses ionic nature and the ionic nature gradually increases when the tellurium di-oxide content increases in the host matrix. > The radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime ({tau}{sub rad}), stimulated emission cross section ({sigma}{sub P}{sup E}) and branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) are calculated for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transitions. > The decay curve of the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+}:BXTD glasses is well fitted for single exponential. > The stimulated emission cross section for the Dy{sup 3+}:B3TD glass possess higher value and therefore it is suggested for suitable laser applications. - Abstract: Dy{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses were prepared by following melt quenching technique with the chemical composition (69 - x)H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} + xTeO{sub 2} + 15Mg{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + 15K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + 1Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) by varying the tellurium dioxide content. The structural and optical properties have been studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. The XRD pattern has been used to confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The FTIR spectra reveals the presence of B-O vibrations and Te-O stretching modes of TeO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 6} units in the prepared glasses. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the oscillator strength, bonding parameters ({beta}-bar and {delta}) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub {lambda},} {lambda} = 2, 4 and 6). The radiative transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross section ({sigma}{sub P}{sup E}) and the experimental, calculated branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) have been calculated from the luminescence spectra

  12. Improvement of BaO:B2O3:Fly ash glasses: Radiation shielding, physical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuscharoen, S.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Limsuwan, P.; Chewpraditkul, W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BaO:B 2 O 3 :Fly ash glasses have been improved in radiation Shielding, physical and optical properties. ► The visible light transmission of RHA glass was better than SiO 2 . ► At all BaO concentrations, exhibited the better half values layer in comparison window and ordinary concrete. -- Abstract: Rice husk ash glass (RHA-glass) of composition xBaO:(80 − x)B 2 O 3 :20RHA where x = 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 wt.% have been prepared using melt-quenching method and investigated on their optical, physical and gamma-rays shielding properties. The densities of these glass samples were increased with increasing of BaO content, due to higher molecular weight of BaO comparing with B 2 O 3 . The molar volume of these glasses was increased with increasing content of BaO; BaO acts as modifier to increase the loose packing. The visible light transmission of RHA glass was better than SiO 2 glass prepared in same formula and preparing condition. The experimental values of gamma ray shielding properties such as; mass attenuation coefficients, atomic cross sections and effective atomic numbers, were found in good agreement with the theoretical values as calculated from WinXCom. Moreover the glass system at all BaO concentrations, exhibited the better half values layer in comparison window and ordinary concrete.

  13. Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, R; Wachtler, K; Wachtler, M; Bettinelli, M; Speghini, A; Ajò, D

    2001-09-01

    Zinc tellurite glasses of compositions 19ZnO-80TeO2-1Ln2O3 with Ln = Eu, Er, Nd and Tm were prepared by melt quenching. The absorption spectra were measured and from the experimental oscillator strengths of the f-->f transitions the Judd-Ofelt parameters ohm(lambda) were obtained. The values of the ohm(lambda) parameters are in the range usually observed for oxide glasses. For Nd3+ and Er3+, luminescence spectra in the near infrared were measured and the stimulated emission cross sections sigma(p) were evaluated for some laser transitions. The high values of sigma(p), especially for Nd3+, make them possible candidates for optical applications. Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) spectra of the Eu3+ doped glass were measured at 20 K, and the energies of the Stark components of the 7F1 and 7F2 states were obtained. A crystal field analysis was carried out assuming a C2v site symmetry. The behaviour of the crystal field ratios B22/B20 and B44/B40 agrees reasonably well with the values calculated using the geometric model proposed by Brecher and Riseberg. The crystal field strength at the Eu3+ sites appears to be very low compared to other oxide glasses.

  14. Effect of Erbium Nanoparticles on Optical Properties of Zinc Borotellurite Glass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium nanoparticles (NPs doped zinc borotellurite glasses have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique with the chemical composition {[(TeO20.70(B2O30.30]1-x(ZnOx}1-y(Er3O2y (where y=0.005,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04,0.05. The structural properties of the prepared glasses were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and FTIR analysis. It was confirmed that the prepared glasses are amorphous. The bonding parameters of the glasses were analyzed by using FTIR analysis and were confirmed to be ionic in nature. The refractive index increases as the content of erbium NPs increases. The optical absorption spectra revealed that fundamental absorption edge shifts to longer wavelength as the content of erbium NPs increases. The value of band gap had been calculated and shown to be decreased with an increase content of erbium NPs. The Urbach energy was shown to be linearly increased with an increase content of erbium NPs oxides.

  15. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  16. Optical and luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped sodium silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisittipokakun, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the optical and luminescence properties of Dy2O3 doped Na2O-BaO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses. The Dy3+ ion is chosen as dopant because it emits three visible bands, blue (470-485 nm; 4F9/2→6H15/2), yellow (570-580 nm; 4F9/2→6H13/2) and red (640-655 nm; 4F9/2→6H11/2) luminescence and finds its applications in the fields of laser, white LEDs, telecommunication technology and display devices. NaBaBiSiDy glasses with the compositions of (30-x)SiO2: 10Bi2O3: 30Na2O: 30BaO: xDy2O3 where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by melt-quenching technique and characterized by using density, optical absorption photoluminescence (PL) and decay rate measurements as function of different concentrations. The density (ρ), molar volume (VM) and refractive index obtained were found to increase with increase in the concentration of Dy2O3 in the glass matrix. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated from emission spectra and analyzed with CIE color diagram and appear in the white light region under ultraviolet excitation.

  17. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses for WLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (79.5-x) B2O3+xTeO2+10Bi2O3+10PbF2+0.5Dy2O3 (where x = 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical properties of the prepared glasses have been studied through absorption and emission spectral measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap energy, Urbach's energy and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the absorption spectra. The radiative properties like transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) and branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the emission spectra using JO theory. The strong emissions in the visible region, large stimulated emission cross-section and higher branching ratio values observed for the title glasses are found to be suitable for lasers and WLED applications.

  18. Optical absorption and fluorescence studies of praseodymium ion in chloroborophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Y.K.; Tandon, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The interest in optical absorption and fluorescence studies of rare earth ions in glassy materials is increasing continuously in connection with laser research and related application. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of praseodymium ion in chloroborophosphate glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The chloroborophosphate glass specimens having composition in mob.% Na 2 0 (26.08), B 2 0 3 (14.57), P 2 0 5 (44.85), ZnCl 2 (14.50), Pr 6 0 11 (R) [R= 0.0,0.1 and 0.2 moi.%] have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The spectra consists of seven absorption bands and three fluorescence bands. The observed optical spectra are discussed in terms of energy state and the intensity of the transitions. The various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon, Lande', Racah and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofeit intensity parameters and laser parameters have also been computed. These results shows that praseodymium doped chloroborophosphate glass specimen can be considered as good hosts for laser applications

  19. Effect of lithium addition on thermal and optical properties of zinc-tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, E.A., E-mail: emanattamohammed@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, K.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, P.O 71452, Assiut (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Khulais (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-x Li{sub 2}O-20ZnO) (0 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 10) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR results revealed that the glassy matrix is composed of TeO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 4} and ZnO{sub 4} units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some physical properties as a function of Li{sub 2}O content have been evaluated. - Abstract: Glasses with the composition, (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-xLi{sub 2}O-20ZnO with x = 0, 5 and 10 (in mol%), were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. Properties such as density, molar volume, glass transition activation energy, crystallization activation energy and thermal stability as a function of Li{sub 2}O content are reported. FTIR results revealed that the glassy matrix is composed of TeO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 3+1}, TeO{sub 4} units and ZnO{sub 4} structural units. The optical transmission studies revealed that the {lambda}{sub cutoff} wavelength and optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) decreases with the addition and increase of Li{sub 2}O content while Urbach energy (E{sub 0}) and refractive index increases.

  20. Thermal effects on light emission in Yb3+ -sensitized rare-earth doped optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, E.A.; Araujo, M.T. de; Gouveia-Neto, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature effect upon infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion fluorescence emission in off-resonance infrared excited Yb 3+ -sensitized rare-earth doped optical glasses is theoretically and experimentally investigated. We have examined samples of Er3+/Yb 3+ -codoped Ga 2 S 3 :La 2 O 3 chalcogenide glasses and germanosilicate optical fibers, and Ga2O3:La 2 O 3 chalcogenide and fluoroindate glasses codoped with Pr 3+ /Yb 3+ , excited off-resonance at 1.064μm. The experimental results revealed thermal induced enhancement in the visible upconversion emission intensity as the samples temperatures were increased within the range of 20 deg C to 260 deg C. The fluorescence emission enhancement is attributed to the temperature dependent multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes excitation process of the ytterbium-sensitizer. A theoretical approach that takes into account a sensitizer temperature dependent effective absorption cross section, which depends upon the phonon occupation number in the host matrices, has proven to agree very well with the experimental data. As beneficial applications of the thermal enhancement, a temperature tunable amplifier and a fiber laser with improved power performance are presented. (author)

  1. Potential prospects in archaeological research by using optical spectroscopy through a black glass ocular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, P.; Meulebroeck, W.; Thienpont, H.; Nys, K.

    The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the potential usefulness of optical spectroscopy within the archaeological discourse. We therefore use the standardized color coordinates and the transmittance spectra in the region between 350- 1650 nm of nine fragmented Roman black glass artifacts from archaeological contexts in Avenches (Switzerland) and an intact piece from Tongeren (Belgium). Firstly, we demonstrate how the use of UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy can help the archaeologist in understanding the various excavated features containing glass artifacts. The analysis of the optical spectra of Roman black glass artifacts demonstrates in the first place that an object has a very homogenous composition. The clustering of the different fragments with characteristic spectra permits to connect the pieces from various areas of an excavation to one single object or to several objects from the same batch. These results provide the archaeologist the possibility to merge recognized layers or to connect different features in the surrounding area. Secondly, we demonstrate how the use of UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy can help improve the analysis process. This inexpensive method can facilitate a more convenient and purposive sampling by means of a preliminary inquiry, selecting the most interesting pieces out of a large group of artifacts suitable for chemical analysis.

  2. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  3. Study of structure and optical properties of Fe2O3.CaO.Bi2O3 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, Sujata; Duhan, Sarita; Agarwal, Ashish; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2009-01-01

    Glasses with compositions 0.05Fe 2 O 3 .0.95{xCaO.(100 - x)Bi 2 O 3 } (20 ≤ x ≤ 40 mol.%) have been prepared using the normal melt quench technique. The density and molar volume have been determined. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the glass matrix. The optical studies in the UV-VIS-NIR region for all these glasses show a sharp cutoff and a large transmitting window. The values of both of the optical band gap (E g ) and width tails (ΔE) are determined. It is observed that E g is decreased and ΔE increased with the increase of CaO in the glass matrix. The metallization criterion (M), interaction parameter (A th ), average electronic polarizability of the oxide ion (α O 2- ) and optical basicity (Λ) of these glasses are determined from the values of optical band gap. Small value of M makes them appealing candidates for non-linear optical materials. Both α O 2- and Λ increase with increase in CaO content. The compositional dependence of the above properties are discussed and correlated to the structure of the glass.

  4. A new generation of ultra-dense optical I/O for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodawski, Mitchell S.; Kopp, Victor I.; Park, Jongchul; Singer, Jonathan; Hubner, Eric E.; Neugroschl, Daniel; Chao, Norman; Genack, Azriel Z.

    2014-03-01

    In response to the optical packaging needs of a rapidly growing silicon photonics market, Chiral Photonics, Inc. (CPI) has developed a new generation of ultra-dense-channel, bi-directional, all-optical, input/output (I/O) couplers that bridge the data transport gap between standard optical fibers and photonic integrated circuits. These couplers, called Pitch Reducing Optical Fiber Arrays (PROFAs), provide a means to simultaneously match both the mode field and channel spacing (i.e. pitch) between an optical fiber array and a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). Both primary methods for optically interfacing with PICs, via vertical grating couplers (VGCs) and edge couplers, can be addressed with PROFAs. PROFAs bring the signal-carrying cores, either multimode or singlemode, of many optical fibers into close proximity within an all-glass device that can provide low loss coupling to on-chip components, including waveguides, gratings, detectors and emitters. Two-dimensional (2D) PROFAs offer more than an order of magnitude enhancement in channel density compared to conventional one-dimensional (1D) fiber arrays. PROFAs can also be used with low vertical profile solutions that simplify optoelectronic packaging while reducing PIC I/O real estate usage requirements. PROFA technology is based on a scalable production process for microforming glass preform assemblies as they are pulled through a small oven. An innovative fiber design, called the "vanishing core," enables tailoring the mode field along the length of the PROFA to meet the coupling needs of disparate waveguide technologies, such as fiber and onchip. Examples of single- and multi-channel couplers fabricated using this technology will be presented.

  5. Photoinduced non-linear optical effects in the ZnS-Al, In-Sn doped film-glass nanometer-sized interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityk, I.V.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Ebothe, J.; El Hichou, A.; El Idrissi, B.; Addou, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effective nanometer-sized thin layer (about 1-2 nm) located between a crystalline ZnS film and glass substrate is studied here using photoinduced optical and second-order non-linear optical (second harmonic generation (SHG) and electrooptics effects) techniques. A photoinduced shift of the effective energy gap is found for the first time in ZnS films doped with the same amount (4 at.%) of different elements, namely, In, Al and Sn. The photoinduced second-order non-linear optical properties (linear electrooptics (LEO) and SHG) of the specimens show a good correlation with the corresponding features of the linear optical susceptibilities, particularly, the imaginary part of dielectric susceptibility near the absorption edge. The maximal response of the photoinduced signal is observed for the pump-probe delaying time of about 20 ps. The performed experimental measurements indicate that the observed effects are stimulated by two factors: the first one is connected with the interface potential gradients at the glass-ZnS film boarder; the second one is a consequence of the additional polarization due to the insertion of Al, In and Sn atoms. The observed phenomenon may be proposed as a sensitive tool for investigation of thin semiconducting-glass interface layer. Moreover, such nanolayers may be applied in quantum electronic devices

  6. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy 3+ doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy 3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K gl ), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy 2 O 3 with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  7. Structure-dependent tuning of electro-optic and thermoplastic properties in triphenyl groups containing molecular glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traskovskis, Kaspars, E-mail: kaspars.traskovskis@rtu.lv [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Laipniece, Lauma [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Tokmakovs, Andrejs [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Kokars, Valdis [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Rutkis, Martins [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2015-04-01

    The series of seven molecular compounds composed of D–π–A chromophores and triphenylmethyl auxiliary groups were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and quantum chemical calculations. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of compounds were determined by second harmonic generation measurements in corona poled thin glassy films. The results show that triphenylmethyl auxiliary groups are effective at shielding undesirable dipole interactions in solid phase thus increasing NLO efficiency of materials. Thermal stability up to 108 °C was achieved for a polar order in poled samples. - Highlights: • Triphenylmethyl groups can be used to reduce solid phase dipole interactions in organic molecular materials. • NLO efficiency of a poled material is higher, if a number of present triphenyl groups increases. • NLO efficiency of materials decreases, if polarity of used chromophores increases. • Thermal stability of polar order up to 108 °C can be achieved in poled organic glasses.

  8. Fabrication of optical fiber of zinc tin borophosphate glass with zero photoelastic constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Akira; Oba, Yuya; Takebe, Hiromichi

    2015-10-01

    An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing.

  9. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A. E-mail: anna.galli@mater.unimib.it; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E

    2004-12-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C.

  10. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C

  11. Third-order optical nonlinearities in bulk and fs-laser inscribed waveguides in strengthened alkali aluminosilcate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Martins, Renato J.; De Boni, Leonardo; Arnold, Craig B.; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of advanced photonics devices requires materials with large optical nonlinearities, fast response times and high optical transparency, while at the same time allowing for the micro/nano-processing needed for integrated photonics. In this context, glasses have been receiving considerable attention given their relevant optical properties which can be specifically tailored by compositional control. Corning Gorilla® Glass (strengthened alkali aluminosilicate glass) is well-known for its use as a protective screen in mobile devices, and has attracted interest as a potential candidate for optical devices. Therefore, it is crucial not only to expand the knowledge on the fabrication of waveguides in Gorilla Glass under different regimes, but also to determine its nonlinear optical response, both using fs-laser pulses. Thus, this paper reports, for the first time, characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearities of Gorilla Glass, as well as linear and nonlinear characterization of waveguide written with femtosecond pulses under the low repetition rate regime (1 kHz).

  12. Exotic Optical Fibers and Glasses: Innovative Material Processing Opportunities in Earth's Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Rasky, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Exotic optical fibers and glasses are the platform material for photonics applications, primarily due to their superior signal transmission (speed, low attenuation), with extending bandwidth deep into the infrared, exceeding that of silica fibers. Gravitational effects (convection sedimentation) have a direct impact on the phase diagram of these materials and influence melting properties, crystallization temperatures, and viscosity of the elemental mix during the manufacturing process. Such factors constitute limits to the yield, transmission quality, and strength and value of these fibers; they also constrain the range of applications. Manufacturing in a gravity-free environment such as the Earth's Orbit also helps with other aspects of the fabrication process (i.e., improved form factor of the manufacturing unit, sustainability). In this article, revolutionary developments in the field of photonics over the past decade merge with the paradigm shift in the privatization of government-owned capabilities supporting a more diverse infrastructure (parabolic, suborbital, orbital), reduced price, and increased frequency to access space and the microgravity environment. With the increased dependence on data (demand, bandwidth, efficiency), space and the microgravity environment provide opportunities for optimized performance of these exotic optical fibers and glasses underlying the development of enabling technologies to meet future data demand. Existing terrestrial markets (Internet, telecommunications, market transactions) and emerging space markets (on-orbit satellite servicing, space manufacturing, space resources, space communications, etc.) seem to converge, and this innovative material processing opportunity of exotic optical fibers and glasses might just be that "killer app": technologically competitive, economically viable, and with the ability to close the business case.

  13. The influence of ytterbium doping on the optical properties of tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Burtan, Bozena [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Podchorazych 1, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Reben, Manuela; Wasylak, Jan [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH - University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Cisowski, Jan [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Podchorazych 1, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Jarzabek, Bozena [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland)

    2011-09-15

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of rare earth ion Yb{sup 3+} doping on the thermal and optical properties of tellurite glass (TG) of the TeO{sub 2}-ZnO-PbO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The reflectance, transmittance and ellipsometric measurements have been done. Decreasing of the refractive index of TG with the Yb{sup 3+} ion doping has been concluded. For determination of the refractive index variation in the bulk, the small angle light scatter (SALS) measurements have been carried out. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Optical enhancement of phosphor-converted wLEDs using glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuğrul; Şentürk, Ufuk; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2017-10-01

    YAG:Ce3+ is a yellow-source compound commonly used in phosphor conversion layers for direct coating or remote phosphor configurations in LED illumination. This material, however, suffers from a high correlated color temperature, and low color-rendering index due to its deficiency in the red spectrum. In this study, glass beads (GB) with an average particle diameter of 10 μm were introduced to the conversion layer of a YAG:Ce3+ particulate-filled polydimethylsiloxane matrix composite structure and found to improve the optical features of the resulting composite.

  15. Occluded object reconstruction for first responders with augmented reality glasses using conditional generative adversarial networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Kyongsik; Lu, Thomas; Chow, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Firefighters suffer a variety of life-threatening risks, including line-of-duty deaths, injuries, and exposures to hazardous substances. Support for reducing these risks is important. We built a partially occluded object reconstruction method on augmented reality glasses for first responders. We used a deep learning based on conditional generative adversarial networks to train associations between the various images of flammable and hazardous objects and their partially occluded counterparts....

  16. Testing of Piezo-Actuated Glass Micro-Membranes by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Sabina; Poma, Paolo; Crisà, Eleonora; Faralli, Dino; Soldo, Marco

    2017-02-25

    In this work, we have applied optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR), implemented with infra-red light propagating in fiberoptic paths, to perform static and dynamic analyses on piezo-actuated glass micro-membranes. The actuator was fabricated by means of thin-film piezoelectric MEMS technology and was employed for modifying the micro-membrane curvature, in view of its application in micro-optic devices, such as variable focus micro-lenses. We are here showing that OLCR incorporating a near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode as the read-out source is suitable for measuring various parameters such as the micro-membrane optical path-length, the membrane displacement as a function of the applied voltage (yielding the piezo-actuator hysteresis) as well as the resonance curve of the fundamental vibration mode. The use of an optical source with short coherence-time allows performing interferometric measurements without spurious resonance effects due to multiple parallel interfaces of highly planar slabs, furthermore selecting the plane/layer to be monitored. We demonstrate that the same compact and flexible setup can be successfully employed to perform spot optical measurements for static and dynamic characterization of piezo-MEMS in real time.

  17. Optical spectroscopy and luminescence properties of Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses for green luminescent device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Prasad, V.; Damodaraiah, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    Ho3+ doped zinc fluorophosphate (ZFP) glasses with molar chemical compositions, (60-x) NH4H2PO4+20ZnO+10BaF2+10NaF+xHo2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized through physical, structural, optical, excitation, luminescence and decay curve analysis. From the absorption spectra, spectral intensities (fexp and fcal), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), radiative transition probabilities (AT), radiative lifetimes (τR) and branching ratios (βR) were evaluated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrices. From the photoluminescence spectra, peak stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for all Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses. The Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses show strong green emission at 545 nm and red emission at 656 nm under excitation, 450 nm. The measured lifetimes (τmeas) of (5S2)5F4 level of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were obtained from decay profiles. The CIE color coordinates of Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses were calculated from emission spectra and 1.0 mol% of Ho3+ doped ZFP glass matrix gives green emission. Hence, these results confirm that the Ho3+ doped ZFP glasses could be considered as a promising candidate for visible green laser applications.

  18. Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Rocha, U. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Brazil; Guedes, Ilde [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

  19. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy

    2012-08-20

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  20. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm -1 and 0.088 cm -1 were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively

  1. A Microsystem Based on Porous Silicon-Glass Anodic Bonding for Gas and Liquid Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rendina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently presented an integrated silicon-glass opto-chemical sensor forlab-on-chip applications, based on porous silicon and anodic bonding technologies. In thiswork, we have optically characterized the sensor response on exposure to vapors of severalorganic compounds by means of reflectivity measurements. The interaction between theporous silicon, which acts as transducer layer, and the organic vapors fluxed into the glasssealed microchamber, is preserved by the fabrication process, resulting in optical pathincrease, due to the capillary condensation of the vapors into the pores. Using theBruggemann theory, we have calculated the filled pores volume for each substance. Thesensor dynamic has been described by time-resolved measurements: due to the analysischamber miniaturization, the response time is only of 2 s. All these results have beencompared with data acquired on the same PSi structure before the anodic bonding process.

  2. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy; Centeno, Anthony; Mendis, Budhika G.; Reehal, H. S.; Alford, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  3. Dy{sup 3+} ions as optical probes for studying structure of boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyen, Vu Phi, E-mail: vptuyen@gust-edu.vast.vn [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Graduate University of Science and Technology – VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sengthong, Bounyavong; Quang, Vu Xuan [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Van Do, Phan [Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Tuyen, Ho; Xuan Hung, Le [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Thanh, Nguyen Trong [Institute of Materials Science – VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nogami, Masayuki [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Toyota Physical and Chemical research Institute (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomokatsu [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokisocho Showaku, 466-8555 Nagoya, Aichiken (Japan); Huy, Bui The, E-mail: buithehuy.nt@gmail.com [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dy{sup 3+}-doped glasses with various compositions (35+x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+ (45−x)TeO{sub 2}+9.5ZnO+10Na{sub 2}O+0.5Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0; 10 and 20) were prepared by a melt–quenching technique. The Dy{sup 3+} ions are used as an optical probe, of which the Judd–Ofelt parameters, the phonon-side band, and the Raman spectra were quantitatively estimated to search the change of glass structure (the change of the ratio of [BO{sub 4}] to [BO{sub 3}] units, formation of the non-bridging oxygens (NBO{sup −}), the change of [TeO{sub 3}] to [TeO{sub 4}] units) as a function of the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 6} values of Dy{sup 3+}-doped boro-tellurite samples are larger than that of Dy{sup 3+}-doped borate or tellurite sample. The CIE chromaticity color coordinates were calculated for the luminescence spectra of Dy{sup 3+} ions of the glasses with the different compositions and they were all located in the vicinity of white light center of the color coordination diagram.

  4. Investigations on optical properties of Sm3+ ion doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Sm3+ doped Boro-phosphate glasses with the chemical composition 60H3BO3+20Li2CO3+10ZnO+(10-x) H6NO4P+xSm2O3 (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized through optical absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The band gap energies corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach's energy values were estimated from the absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been derived to predict the radiative properties of the various emission transitions. In order to identify the emission color of the prepared glasses, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram. The energy transfer process takes place between Sm3+-Sm3+ ions through cross-relaxation mechanism have also been investigated and the results were discussed and reported.

  5. Investigations on optical properties of Sm{sup 3+} ion doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram – 624302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Sm{sup 3+} doped Boro-phosphate glasses with the chemical composition 60H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}+20Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}+10ZnO+(10−x) H{sub 6}NO{sub 4}P+xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized through optical absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The band gap energies corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach’s energy values were estimated from the absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been derived to predict the radiative properties of the various emission transitions. In order to identify the emission color of the prepared glasses, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram. The energy transfer process takes place between Sm{sup 3+}−Sm{sup 3+} ions through cross-relaxation mechanism have also been investigated and the results were discussed and reported.

  6. Asymptotic solutions of glass temperature profiles during steady optical fibre drawing

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2013-03-12

    In this paper we derive realistic simplified models for the high-speed drawing of glass optical fibres via the downdraw method that capture the fluid dynamics and heat transport in the fibre via conduction, convection and radiative heating. We exploit the small aspect ratio of the fibre and the relative orders of magnitude of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the heat transfer to reduce the problem to one- or two-dimensional systems via asymptotic analysis. The resulting equations may be readily solved numerically and in many cases admit exact analytic solutions. The systematic asymptotic breakdown presented is used to elucidate the relative importance of furnace temperature profile, convection, surface radiation and conduction in each portion of the furnace and the role of each in controlling the glass temperature. The models derived predict many of the qualitative features observed in real industrial processes, such as the glass temperature profile within the furnace and the sharp transition in fibre thickness. The models thus offer a desirable route to quick scenario testing, providing valuable practical information about the dependencies of the solution on the parameters and the dominant heat-transport mechanism. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  7. Optical klystron and harmonic generation free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The optical field evolution of an optical klystron free electron laser is analytically described for both low gain and high gain cases. The harmonic optical klystron (HOK in which the second undulator is resonant on the higher harmonic of the first undulator is analyzed as a harmonic amplifier. The optical field evolution equation of the HOK is derived analytically for both the CHG mode (coherent harmonic generation, the quadratic gain regime and the HGHG mode (high gain harmonic generation, the exponential gain regime, the effects of energy spread, energy modulation, and dispersion in the whole process are taken into account. The linear theory is given and discussed for the HGHG mode. The analytical formula is given for the CHG mode.

  8. Potential of OFDM for next generation optical access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Daniel; Weis, Erik; Breuer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the requirements for next generation optical access (NGOA) networks and analyzes the potential of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) for the use in such network scenarios. First, we show the motivation for NGOA systems based on the future requirements on FTTH access systems and list the advantages of OFDM in such scenarios. In the next part, the basics of OFDM and different methods to generate and detect optical OFDM signals are explained and analyzed. At the transmitter side the options include intensity modulation and the more advanced field modulation of the optical OFDM signal. At the receiver there is the choice between direct detection and coherent detection. As the result of this discussion we show our vision of the future use of OFDM in optical access networks.

  9. Triple modifier effect on physical, optical and structural properties of boro tellurite zinc lithium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, P.; Srinivasu, D.; Narsimlu, N.; Ch. Srinivas, Kavitha, B.; Deshpandhe, Uday; Kumar, K. Siva

    2018-05-01

    To investigate physical, optical and structural properties of glass samples of the Quaternary system (60-x)B2O3-xTeO2-10ZnO-30Li2O with x=0,5,10,15, and 20 mol% were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of all samples. Physical parameters like density, molar volume, Oxygen packing density and etc. calculated. Density of glass samples increased with the increase of TeO2 concentration due to the replacement of lighter B2O3 with heavier TeO2. Optical properties has studied with the help of UV-Visible spectra. Cut off wavelength is increases whereas Eopt and Urbache energies is decreased except intermediate mole fraction of TeO2 at which the triple modifier effect can be observed. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the network consists of TeO3 and TeO6 structural units along with BO3 and BO4 units.

  10. Optical transmission of silica glass during swift-heavy-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaksin, Oleg; Okubo, Nariaki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Amekura, Hiroshi; Kono, Kenichiro; Kishimoto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles fabricated by heavy-ion implantation of insulators are promising for non-linear optical applications. Spectra of optical transmission of silica glass in the visible region were measured during and after implantation of 3 MeV Cu 2+ ions. Three absorption bands contribute to the spectra: transient absorption (TA) at 2.34 eV, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 2.21 eV and a tail of residual absorption (RA), which increases when the photon energy is increased from 2.2 to 2.6 eV. The TA and a change of the SPR peak strongly contribute to the total transient absorption obtained as the difference in absorption during and after irradiation. The effect of RA shows up as a decrease of absorption after switching on the ion beam. The TA provides a means for selective electronic excitation by a laser during implantation of silica glass. The precipitation of Cu atoms and the growth of Cu nanoparticles are well distinguishable stages of nanoparticle formation. The SPR peak appears at a fluence of 3.3 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the onset of precipitation. At fluences higher than 3.4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , when the growth of nanoparticles predominates, the fluence dependence of the SPR peak is linear

  11. Structural and optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Veeran, P. K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2013-03-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses (69 - x)B2O3 + xTeO2 + 15Na2CO3 + 15NaF + 1Eu2O3 (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been prepared and their structural and optical properties were studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. The FTIR spectra reveal the presence of B-O-B bond bending vibrations and Te-O-Te or O-Te-O linkage bending vibrations in the prepared glasses. The absorption spectral measurements were used to calculate the bonding parameters (β¯, δ). The direct, indirect allowed band gap (Eopt), band tail parameter (B) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values of the prepared glasses have also been determined from the absorption spectral measurements. The phonon sideband is observed from the excitation spectra on the higher energy side of the 7F0 → 5D2 transition. The phonon energy (hω) and the electron-phonon coupling constant (g) were also derived from the phonon sideband spectra. Through the luminescence spectra, Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) and the luminescence intensity ratio (R) have been determined. The JO parameters have also been used to calculate the radiative properties like transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE), radiative lifetime (τrad), and branching ratios (βR) for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The experimental lifetime of the 5D0 level is found to be single exponential for all the prepared glasses. The obtained results were discussed and reported in the present work.

  12. Optical absorption and emission characteristics of Pr{sup 3+}-doped RTP glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.V.R. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jamalaiah, B.C. [Department of Physics, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Tirupati (India); Sasikala, T. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Rama Moorthy, L., E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Pusan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung Hyun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Judd-Ofelt (J-O) parameters are calculated for Pr{sup 3+}ions doped alkaline earth potassium titanium phosphate (RTP, where R=Mg, Ca, Sr) glasses. The best fit for the oscillator strengths has been obtained by omitting the {sup 3}H{sub 4}->{sup 3}P{sub 2} hypersensitive transition. In all the three glasses, the J-O parameters follow the same trend as OMEGA{sub 2}OMEGA{sub 6}. These J-O intensity parameters are then used to compute the radiative properties such as the radiative transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (beta{sub R}) and radiative lifetimes (tau{sub R}) for the observed fluorescence bands. The fluorescence spectra obtained upon 445 nm excitation exhibited an intense emission band centered at 484 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}H{sub 4}), four medium intense bands at 525 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 1}->{sup 3}H{sub 5}), 598 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}->{sup 3}H{sub 4}), 608 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}H{sub 6}) and 641 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}F{sub 2}) and one weak band at 669 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 1}->{sup 3}F{sub 3}). The experimental branching ratios (beta{sub exp}) obtained from steady state fluorescence are compared with the calculated values. The decay curves measured from the {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited metastable state are found to be single exponential in all the glasses. The gain bandwidths (sigma{sub e}xDELTAlambda{sub P}) and optical gain (sigma{sub e}xtau{sub m}) parameters suggest that the RTP glasses could be used for laser active materials to emit intense blue emission at 484 nm.

  13. Crossed optical and chemical evaluations of modern glass soiling in various European urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Chabas, Anne; Ausset, Patrick; Lefevre, Roger

    As part of the MULTI-ASSESS and VIDRIO EC projects, the soiling of modern glass is characterised in various European urban atmospheres. Our original methodology relies on crossed chemical measurements of the deposit (evaluation of the ion, elemental and organic carbon contents, and subsequent "mass closure") and exhaustive measurements of glass optical properties (light reflectance, transmittance and absorption). Samples were exposed sheltered from rain in Athens, Krakow, London, Montelibretti (Italy), Prague and Troyes (France), during increasing exposure durations, up to more than two years. Although a slowing down of the deposition rate is observed for some species at some sites, no obvious saturation phenomenon seems to occur for the particle deposition. The chemical composition of the deposit is shown to reflect the atmospheric environment of the exposure site. Some post-deposit evolutions, such as the disappearance of ammonium and possibly of particulate organic matter, are found to occur. For thin deposits, the glass optical properties (e.g. light absorption and diffuse transmittance) are found to evolve quasi-linearly with species concentrations (EC and ions, respectively). However, for conditions creating heavier deposits such as long time exposures in rather polluted environments, a saturation phenomenon is observed. Using a simple model, light absorption, which is primarily due to EC particles, is shown to reach the saturation level ( S) for A≈16% and the concentration for which the semi-saturation level is reached (C 1/2) is found to be about 15 μgC of EC/cm 2. For diffuse transmittance, due to scattering species, these parameters are found to be about 30% and 65 μg of ions/cm 2, respectively. These values may be considered as representative of the soiling in Europe.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiations on the optical properties of ionic copper-activated sol-gel silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Helou, Nissrine; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Studying the impact of radiations on doped silica glasses is essential for several technological applications. Herein, bulk silica glasses, activated with various concentrations of luminescent monovalent copper (Cu+), have been prepared using the sol-gel technique. Thereafter, these glasses were subjected to X- or γ-rays irradiation at 1 MGy(SiO2) accumulated dose. The effect of these ionizing radiations on the optical properties of these glasses, as a function of the Cu-doping content, were investigated using optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Before any irradiation, the glass with the lowest copper concentration exhibits blue and green luminescence bands under UV excitation, suggesting that Cu+ ions occupy both cubic and tetragonal symmetry sites. However, at higher Cu-doping level, only the green emission band exists. Moreover, we showed that the hydroxyl content decreases with increasing copper doping concentration. Both X and γ radiation exposures induced visible absorption due to HC1 color centers in the highly Cu-doped glasses. In the case of the lower Cu-doped glass, the Cu+ sites with a cubic symmetry are transformed into sites with tetragonal symmetry.

  15. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Buczynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range.

  16. Effect of the Copper on Thermo - Mechanical and Optical Properties of S-Se-Cu Chalcogenide Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Kavitha; Babu Devarasetty, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The S15Se85-xCux (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) chalcogenide glasses are synthesized using melt quenching technique and the effect of Copper on thermal, mechanical and optical properties of chalcogenide glasses are investigated. The glassy natures of the prepared samples were verified by X-ray diffraction and DSC studies. The optical band gap of the samples is estimated and it is observed that optical band gap is decreased with increasing of the copper content and is discussed in terms of cohesive energy and coordination number. The basic thermo-mechanical parameters such as micro-hardness, Volume (Vh) and formation energy (Eh) of micro voids in the glassy network and the modulus of Elasticity (E) are calculated in present glasses. The composition dependence of micro hardness is discussed in terms of heat of atomization energy.

  17. Finishing of precision generated metal optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.C.; Sonderman, J.B.

    1975-08-01

    Diamond turning and precision generation of aspheric metal surfaces has promoted a change in lapping techniques due to the extremely close figure tolerances and surface finishes that have been achieved. Special tooling, diamond abrasive, silicon oil and special techniques used to polish the unusual aspheric figures are described. The studies include small flat diamond turned samples of copper, electroplated copper, electroplated silver, electroplated nickel and silver as well as large aspheres such as an f/0.75, 35 cm dia copper ellipse. Results from cleaning studies on flat samples using ultrasonics and vapor degreasers are also summarized. Interferograms of wavefront distortion and analysis of focal volume are included as well as 10.6 μm reflectivity and a summary of laser damage experiments. (TFD)

  18. Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping

    2005-03-01

    C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).

  19. Advanced optical components for next-generation photonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S. J. B.

    2003-08-01

    Future networks will require very high throughput, carrying dominantly data-centric traffic. The role of Photonic Networks employing all-optical systems will become increasingly important in providing scalable bandwidth, agile reconfigurability, and low-power consumptions in the future. In particular, the self-similar nature of data traffic indicates that packet switching and burst switching will be beneficial in the Next Generation Photonic Networks. While the natural conclusion is to pursue Photonic Packet Switching and Photonic Burst Switching systems, there are significant challenges in realizing such a system due to practical limitations in optical component technologies. Lack of a viable all-optical memory technology will continue to drive us towards exploring rapid reconfigurability in the wavelength domain. We will introduce and discuss the advanced optical component technologies behind the Photonic Packet Routing system designed and demonstrated at UC Davis. The system is capable of packet switching and burst switching, as well as circuit switching with 600 psec switching speed and scalability to 42 petabit/sec aggregated switching capacity. By utilizing a combination of rapidly tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency (ULCF) arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR), the system is capable of rapidly switching the packets in wavelength, time, and space domains. The label swapping module inside the Photonic Packet Routing system containing a Mach-Zehnder wavelength converter and a narrow-band fiber Bragg-grating achieves all-optical label swapping with optical 2R (potentially 3R) regeneration while maintaining optical transparency for the data payload. By utilizing the advanced optical component technologies, the Photonic Packet Routing system successfully demonstrated error-free, cascaded, multi-hop photonic packet switching and routing with optical-label swapping. This paper will review the advanced optical component technologies

  20. New generation of devices for all-optical communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesk, I.; Runser, R.J.; Prucnal, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    To increase the transmission capacity of future communication networks is becoming very critical. This task can only be accomplished by taking advantage of optical networks where multiplexing techniques such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM) are employed. To avoid electronic bottlenecks a whole new generation of ultrafast devices is needed. To fulfill these needs a new class of all optical devices has been proposed and developed. By taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers in combination with the fiber interferometers a new generation of ultrafast all-optical de multiplexers and wavelength converters has been demonstrated. Other switching technologies are also promising for the future. The latest technologies in the area of micro machining have created very attractive low cost MEMS. Recently announced use of bubble technology for all-optical switching might also lead to the development of next generation large scale switching fabrics. This paper is an overview of the recent development in these areas. (authors)

  1. Wavelength-selective bleaching of the optical spectra of trapped electrons in organic glasses. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraszczak, J.; Willard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Further resolution of the inhomogeneous optical spectra of trapped electrons (e - /sub t/) in organic glasses has been obtained from wavelength selective bleaching and thermal decay studies on 3-methylpentane-d 14 (3MP-d 14 ) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) following γ irradiation in the temperature region of 20 K, and limits on the degree of resolution achievable have been indicated. Exposure of 3MP-d 14 to light of wavelengths >2100 nm (from a tunable laser) reduces the optical densities at the bleaching wavelength and longer to zero, while ''peeling off'' a portion of the O.D. at all shorter wavelengths but leaving the remainder of the spectrum unaffected. The fraction of the integrated optical spectrum, ∫OD d (eV), removed by bleaching at each wavelength tested, and also by thermal decay, is equivalent to the fraction of the total e - /sub t/ spins removed and measured by ESR. 1064 nm light bleaches the spectrum nearly uniformly, confirming that the spectra of all of the e - /sub t/ have blue tails with similar ease of bleaching. Heretofore unobserved low temperature thermal decay of e - /sub t/ occurs at 20 and 40 K (20% of the spin concentration in 30 min, 35% in 3h). The rate of decay of the optical spectrum decreases with decreasing wavelength of observation (2.5, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.5 μ), but at each wavelength is the same at 40 K as at 20 K, consistent

  2. Optical properties and crystallization kinetics of (TeO{sub 2})(ZnO)(TiO{sub 2}) glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalci, Idris [Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty, Harran University, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Koerpe, Nese Oeztuerk [Department of Materials Science, Eskisehir, Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Duran, Tugba; Oezdemir, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Ternary tellurite based glasses in the (TeO{sub 2})(ZnO)(TiO{sub 2}) system were prepared and its optical properties and crystallization kinetics investigated by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). All the glasses were transparent from visible to near infrared region for different ZnO glass compositions (x=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mol). In the experiment, optical band gap and Urbach energies were estimated from the optical absorption spectra between 400 and 800 nm wavelength region. The observed results confirm that the addition of ZnO glass composition from 0.05 to 0.30 mol increases the optical band gap energy from 2.94 to 3.0 eV. In addition, glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallization (T{sub p}) and melting temperature (T{sub m}) were determined by using the DTA plots. Finally, DTA results obtained with a heating rate of 20 C/min show that the peak crystallization temperature increases from 463 to 533 C as the ZnO content increases from 0.05 to 0.30 mol (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2011-01-01

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  4. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-02-25

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  5. Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shverdin, M.Y.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.; Harris, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    We make use of coherent control of four-wave mixing to the ultraviolet as a diagnostic and describe the generation of a periodic optical waveform where the spectrum is sufficiently broad that the envelope is approximately a single-cycle in length, and where the temporal shape of this envelope may be synthesized by varying the coefficients of a Fourier series. Specifically, using seven sidebands, we report the generation of a train of single-cycle optical pulses with a pulse width of 1.6 fs, a pulse separation of 11 fs, and a peak power of 1 MW

  6. Laser-induced radial birefringence and spin-to-orbital optical angular momentum conversion in silver-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Jafar Mostafavi; Khalesifard, Hamid Reza; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Samples of Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glass that have been subject to intense laser irradiation may develop novel optical properties, as a consequence of the formation of patterns of silver nanoparticles and other structures. Here, we report the observation of a laser-induced permanent transverse birefringence, with the optical axis forming a radial pattern, as revealed by the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion occurring in a probe light beam. The birefringence pattern can be modeled well as resulting from thermally-induced stresses arising in the silver-doped glass during laser exposure, although the actual mechanism leading to the permanent anisotropy is probably more complex.

  7. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on optical properties of ZnO-PbO-B2O3 glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, G.; Thind, K.S.; Manupriya, -

    2006-01-01

    Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on some optical properties of xZnO(.)2xPbO(.)(1-3x)B2O3 glasses have been studied in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. Decrease in transmittance indicates the formation of color-center defects. Values for the energy-band gap, the width of the energy tail above...... the mobility gap and the cut-off wavelength have been measured before and after irradiation. Changes in the optical properties are explained in terms of radiation-induced structural defects and the composition of the glass....

  8. Technological advances in tellurite glasses properties, processing, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manzani, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to the synthesis, optical properties, and photonics applications of tellurite glasses. The book begins with an overview of tellurite glasses, followed by expert chapters on synthesis, properties, and state-of-the-art applications ranging from laser glass, optical fibers, and optical communications through color tuning, plasmonics, supercontinuum generation, and other photonic devices. The book provides in-depth information on the the structural, linear, and non-linear optical properties of tellurite glasses and their implications for device development. Real-world examples give the reader valuable insight into the applications of tellurite glass. A detailed discussion of glass production methods, including raw materials and melting and refining oxide- and fluoro-tellurite glasses, is also included. The book features an extensive reference list for further reading. This highly readable and didactic text draws on chemical composition, glass science,...

  9. Development of tellurium oxide and lead-bismuth oxide glasses for mid-wave infra-red transmission optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Beiming; Rapp, Charles F.; Driver, John K.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Goldstein, Jonathan; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal oxide glasses exhibiting high transmission in the Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) spectrum are often difficult to manufacture in large sizes with optimized physical and optical properties. In this work, we researched and developed improved tellurium-zinc-barium and lead-bismuth-gallium heavy metal oxide glasses for use in the manufacture of fiber optics, optical components and laser gain materials. Two glass families were investigated, one based upon tellurium and another based on lead-bismuth. Glass compositions were optimized for stability and high transmission in the MWIR. Targeted glass specifications included low hydroxyl concentration, extended MWIR transmission window, and high resistance against devitrification upon heating. Work included the processing of high purity raw materials, melting under controlled dry Redox balanced atmosphere, finning, casting and annealing. Batch melts as large as 4 kilograms were sprue cast into aluminum and stainless steel molds or temperature controlled bronze tube with mechanical bait. Small (100g) test melts were typically processed in-situ in a 5%Au°/95%Pt° crucible. Our group manufactured and evaluated over 100 different experimental heavy metal glass compositions during a two year period. A wide range of glass melting, fining, casting techniques and experimental protocols were employed. MWIR glass applications include remote sensing, directional infrared counter measures, detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents, laser detection tracking and ranging, range gated imaging and spectroscopy. Enhanced long range mid-infrared sensor performance is optimized when operating in the atmospheric windows from ~ 2.0 to 2.4μm, ~ 3.5 to 4.3μm and ~ 4.5 to 5.0μm.

  10. Stable optical frequency comb generation and applications in arbitrary waveform generation, signal processing and optical data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozharar, Sarper

    This thesis focuses on the generation and applications of stable optical frequency combs. Optical frequency combs are defined as equally spaced optical frequencies with a fixed phase relation among themselves. The conventional source of optical frequency combs is the optical spectrum of the modelocked lasers. In this work, we investigated alternative methods for optical comb generation, such as dual sine wave phase modulation, which is more practical and cost effective compared to modelocked lasers stabilized to a reference. Incorporating these comblines, we have generated tunable RF tones using the serrodyne technique. The tuning range was +/-1 MHz, limited by the electronic waveform generator, and the RF carrier frequency is limited by the bandwidth of the photodetector. Similarly, using parabolic phase modulation together with time division multiplexing, RF chirp extension has been realized. Another application of the optical frequency combs studied in this thesis is real time data mining in a bit stream. A novel optoelectronic logic gate has been developed for this application and used to detect an 8 bit long target pattern. Also another approach based on orthogonal Hadamard codes have been proposed and explained in detail. Also novel intracavity modulation schemes have been investigated and applied for various applications such as (a) improving rational harmonic modelocking for repetition rate multiplication and pulse to pulse amplitude equalization, (b) frequency skewed pulse generation for ranging and (c) intracavity active phase modulation in amplitude modulated modelocked lasers for supermode noise spur suppression and integrated jitter reduction. The thesis concludes with comments on the future work and next steps to improve some of the results presented in this work.

  11. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  12. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-10-30

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems.

  13. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  14. Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kristensen, P; Yan, M F

    2009-01-01

    Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even...

  15. Optical Properties of Ternary TeO2-B2O3-ZnO Glass System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuni, J N; Halimah, M K; Talib, Z A; Sidek, H A A; Daud, W M; Zaidan, A W; Khamirul, A M, E-mail: nfarhanayuni@gmail.com, E-mail: halimah@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    A series of ternary tellurite based glasses [(TeO2)70 (B203)30]100-x [ZnO]x glasses with different compositions of ZnO (x= 5 to 30 wt.% in steps of 5 wt.%) have been synthesized by melt quenching method. The role of ZnO to the glasses structure was studied by IR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra revealed broad, weak and strong absorption bands in the investigated range of wavenumber from 280-4000 cm-1 which associated with their corresponding bond modes of vibration and the glass structure. The indirect optical band gap and the direct optical band gap are in the range 2.08-3.12 and 1.54-2.36 eV, respectively. A decrease in the values of energy band gap Eg may come down to the reason that the non-bridging oxygen ion content increases with increasing ZnO content and shifting the band edge to lower energies. The optical band gap and Urbach energies were calculated from the absorption spectra measured between 190 and 900 nm at room temperature. The refractive index, n of the glasses change from 1.84-2.00 while the molar refractivities decrease from 13.06 to 12.00 with the increase of ZnO in mol%.

  16. Optical properties of ternary TeO2-B2O3-ZnO Glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Halimah, M.K.; Talib, Z.A.; Sidek, H.A.A.; Daud, W.M.; Zaidan, A.W.; Khamirul, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A series of ternary tellurite based glasses [ (TeO 2 ) 70 (B 2 0 3 ) 30 ] 100-x [ZnO] x glasses with different compositions of ZnO (x= 5 to 30 wt.% in steps of 5 wt.%) have been synthesized by melt quenching method. The role of ZnO to the glasses structure was studied by IR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra revealed broad, weak and strong absorption bands in the investigated range of wavenumber from 280 - 4000 cm -1 which associated with their corresponding bond modes of vibration and the glass structure. The indirect optical band gap and the direct optical band gap are in the range 2.08-3.12 and 1.54-2.36 eV, respectively. An increase in the values of energy band gap E g may come down to the reason that the non-bridging oxygen ion content decreases with increasing ZnO content and shifting the band edge to higher energies. The optical band gap and Urbach energies were calculated from the absorption spectra measured between 190 and 900 nm at room temperature. The refractive index, n of the glasses change from 1.84 - 2.00 while the molar refractivities decrease from 13.06 to 12.00 with the increase of ZnO in mol %. (author)

  17. Optical Properties of Ternary TeO2-B2O3-ZnO Glass System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuni, J N; Halimah, M K; Talib, Z A; Sidek, H A A; Daud, W M; Zaidan, A W; Khamirul, A M

    2011-01-01

    A series of ternary tellurite based glasses [(TeO2)70 (B203)30]100-x [ZnO]x glasses with different compositions of ZnO (x= 5 to 30 wt.% in steps of 5 wt.%) have been synthesized by melt quenching method. The role of ZnO to the glasses structure was studied by IR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra revealed broad, weak and strong absorption bands in the investigated range of wavenumber from 280-4000 cm-1 which associated with their corresponding bond modes of vibration and the glass structure. The indirect optical band gap and the direct optical band gap are in the range 2.08-3.12 and 1.54-2.36 eV, respectively. A decrease in the values of energy band gap Eg may come down to the reason that the non-bridging oxygen ion content increases with increasing ZnO content and shifting the band edge to lower energies. The optical band gap and Urbach energies were calculated from the absorption spectra measured between 190 and 900 nm at room temperature. The refractive index, n of the glasses change from 1.84-2.00 while the molar refractivities decrease from 13.06 to 12.00 with the increase of ZnO in mol%.

  18. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3+/Tb3+/Eu3+: ZnB glasses generating white light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S

    2017-03-15

    A promising energy transfer (Tm 3+ →Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II) x -[O(-II)] y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ : ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 ), green (547nm: 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ) and red (616nm: 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 ) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb 3+ in ET from Tm 3+ →Eu 3+ was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ ) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-range structure of barium tellurite glasses and its correlation with stress-optic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjot; Khanna, Atul; Fábián, Margit

    2018-06-01

    The atomic parameters of metal ion-oxygen speciation such as bond-lengths and nearest neighbor distances for Ba-O, Te-O and O-O pairs, co-ordination numbers and bond angle distributions for O-Ba-O, O-Te-O and O-O-O linkages are determined by neutron diffraction and Reverse Monte Carlo simulations on the series of xBaO-(100-x)TeO2 glasses containing 10, 15 and 20 mol% BaO. The glass network depolymerizes and the average Te-O co-ordination number decreases from 3.60 ± 0.02 to 3.48 ± 0.02 with increase in BaO concentration. Te-O bond lengths are in the range: 1.97 ± 0.01–1.92 ± 0.01 Å. Ba2+ is mostly in octahedral coordination and the Ba-O bond lengths are in the range: 2.73 ± 0.01 to 2.76 ± 0.03 Å. Te-O co-ordination number is also determined by Raman spectroscopy and it shows good agreement with the neutron data. The short-range structural properties i.e. metal ion coordination number (Nc) and bond lengths (d) were correlated with the stress-optic response. The bonding characteristic, Br values were determined from the structural data of xBaO-(100-x)TeO2 glasses and were used to predict the stress-induced birefringence properties.

  20. Crystallization kinetics and optical properties of titanium-lithium tetraborate glass containing europium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, E.A. [Al Azhar University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Cairo (Egypt); Ratep, A. [Ain Shams University, Physics Department, Faculty of Girls, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Khalek, E.K.; Kashif, I. [Al-Azhar University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-07-15

    The crystallization kinetics and optical properties of [60 Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-30 TiO{sub 2}-10 Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}] (mol%) glass sample have been investigated. The present glass sample exhibits three crystallization exothermic peaks (T{sub p1}, T{sub p2,} and T{sub p3}) corresponding to the formation of LiBO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7,} and EuTiO{sub 3} phases, respectively. The presence of phase separation in the glass sample has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM). The mean values of Avrami exponent (n = 3.1 and 4) around T{sub p1} and T{sub p2}, indicate that the bulk crystallization with a constant number of nuclei and with an increasing number of nuclei, respectively. The values of the local activation energy as a function of the fraction of crystallization (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.9) decrease for the crystallization of LiBO{sub 2} and EuTiO{sub 3} and increase for the crystallization of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. The values of n(χ) for T{sub p3} and T{sub p2} in the range (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.9) and (0.1 ≤ χ ≤ 0.4), respectively, are larger than 4 indicate that the presence of anomalous in Avrami exponent. The trend of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2} > Ω{sub 4} > Ω{sub 6}) and the bonding parameter (δ) indicate that the lower symmetry and the highest covalent nature of the bonding around Eu{sup 3+} ions. (orig.)

  1. Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Razzari, Luca; Moss, David J.; Coen, Stéphane; Erkintalo, Miro; Chembo, Yanne K.; Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan; Del'Haye, Pascal; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Weiner, Andrew M.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    -integrated technologies. Indeed, it is well acknowledged by the electronics industry that future generations of computer processing chips will inevitably require an extremely high density of copper-based interconnections, significantly increasing the chip power dissipation to beyond practical levels [15-17]; hence, conventional approaches to chip design must undergo radical changes. On-chip optical networks, or optical interconnects, can offer high speed and low energy per-transferred-bit, and micro-resonators are widely seen as a key component to interface the electronic world with photonics. Many information technology industries have recently focused on the development of integrated ring resonators to be employed for electrically-controlled light modulators [14-17], greatly advancing the maturity of micro-resonator technology as a whole. Recently [11-13], the demonstration of OFC sources in micro-resonators fabricated in electronic (i.e. in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)) compatible platforms has given micro-cavities an additional appeal, with the possibility of exploiting them as light sources in microchips. This scenario is creating fierce competition in developing highly efficient OFC generators based on micro-cavities which can radically change the nature of information transport and processing. Even in telecommunications, perhaps a more conventional environment for optical technologies, novel time-division multiplexed optical systems will require extremely stable optical clocks at ultra-high pulse repetition-rates towards the THz scale. Furthermore, arbitrary pulse generators based on OFC [18,19] are seen as one of the most promising solutions for this next generation of high-capacity optical coherent communication systems. This review will summarise the recent exciting achievements in the field of micro-combs, namely optical frequency combs based on high-Q micro-resonators, with a perspective on both the potential of this technology, as well as the open questions

  2. Spectroscopic and optical properties of the VO2+ ion doped TeO2-TiO2-ZnO-Nb2O5 glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna; Upender, G.; Sreenivasulu, V.; Prasad, M.

    2016-04-01

    Studies such as optical absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out on VO2+ ion doped TeO2-TiO2-ZnO-Nb2O5 glass system. Raman and FTIR spectra of the glasses revealed the presence of [TeO3], [TeO4] and [NbO6] structural units in the glass network. The Urbach energy (Δ E), cut-off wavelength (λ c ), optical band gap ( E opt ), optical basicity (Λ) and electron polarizability ( α) of the glasses were determined from optical absorption studies. The density ( ρ), molar volume ( V m ), oxygen molar volume ( V o ) and refractive index ( n) were also measured. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated from the EPR studies. When Nb2O5 was increased at the expense of ZnO, the density, optical band gap and Urbach energy of the glasses increased, and the electronic polarizability and optical basicity decreased. The EPR spectra clearly showed that vanadium was in the glass as VO2+ and occupied octahedral sites with tetrahedral compression. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters g‖ and g⊥ decreased as Nb2O5 content increased in the glass. The glass transition temperature ( T g ) also increased with increasing Nb2O5 content in the glass.

  3. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  4. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A; Yasinskii, V M; Filimonenko, D S; Rostova, E; Dietler, G; Sekatskii, S K

    2018-01-01

    In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF) and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm) and the probe's tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO 2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000-6000) of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006). We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  5. Optical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy3+ and Sm3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasser Saleh Mustafa Alajerami; Suhairul Hashim; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan; Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Azman Kasim

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed the interesting properties of trivalent lanthanide ions when doped in various types of glasses. Optical and physical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy 3+ then with Sm 3+ ions were determined by measuring their absorption and luminescence spectra in the visible region. The absorption spectra of Dy 3+ showed eight absorption bands with hypersensitive transition at 1265 nm ( 6 H 15/2 → 6 F 11/2 - 6 H 9/2 ) and three PL emission bands at 588 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 ), 660 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 ) and 775 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 ). Regarding the Sm3 + , nine absorption bands were observed with hypersensitive transition at 1237 nm ( 6 H 5/2 - 6 F 7/2 ); the PL spectrum showed four prominent peaks at 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 5/2 (yellow color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 (bright orange color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 9/2 (orange reddish color) and 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 11/2 (red color), respectively. Finally, a series of physical parameters such as the oscillator strengths, refractive index, ions concentration, Polaron radius and other parameters were calculated for each dopant.

  6. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smirnov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm and the probe’s tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000–6000 of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006. We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  7. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  8. Er3+ phosphate glass optical waveguide amplifiers at 1.5 μm on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingchao; Faber, Anne J.; de Waal, Henk

    1996-01-01

    RF-sputtering techniques were employed to produce Er-doped phosphate glass films on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. Film compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-deposited films showed very low Er luminescence lifetimes. By postannealing of deposited films in pure oxygen, Er photoluminescence emission lifetime of the 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition could be increased from 1 - 2 ms to 8 - 9 ms. The long Er lifetime of the deposited films is very promising for achieving an optical gain. A dependence of measured lifetimes on pump power was observed which are related to a up-conversion quenching process. After postannealing, the sputtered waveguides showed relatively low attenuation loss at the potential pumping and signaling wavelengths. The loss spectrum from 700 nm to 1600 nm was measured by two-prism coupling. The films were easy to be patterned by lithography and ridge channel waveguides were developed by argon plasma etching.

  9. Structure and Optical Properties of Doped SiO2 Mesoporous Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hernández-Padrón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic mesoporous silica glasses were synthesized. The presence of Cu2+ and Fe3+ cations during the synthesis of sol-gel precursors leads to different morphologies and pore sizes. The materials are characterized via IR and Raman scattering spectra to detect surface groups and -Si-O-Si- rings (i.e., 3–6 Si atoms and morphology is examined through electron microscopy. N2 sorption isotherms reveal details of the mesoporous structure of the materials, which are endowed with significantly large surface areas and pore volumes. Vapor percolation occurs in these samples because of a void arrangement consisting of pore bulges delimited by narrower necks. The optical characterization shows the luminescence spectrum and thermoluminescent behavior subjected to successive exposures of beta particles.

  10. Effect of PbO on optical properties of tellurite glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazoumi, S. H.; Sidek, H. A. A.; Rammah, Y. S.; El-Mallawany, R.; Halimah, M. K.; Matori, K. A.; Zaid, M. H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Binary (1 - x)(TeO2) - x(PbO), x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 mol% glass system was fabricated using melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was employed to confirm the amorphous nature. The microanalysis of the major components was performed using energy dispersive EDX and X-ray spectrometry. Both the molar volume and the density were measured. FTIR and UV spectra were recorded at 400-4000 cm-1 and 220-800 nm, respectively. The optical band gap (Eopt), Urbach's energy (Eu), index of refraction (n) were calculated using absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) and derivation of absorption spectrum fitting (DASF) methods. Molar refraction Rm and molecular polarizability αm have been calculated according to (ASF) method.

  11. Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Fontes, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated a unique computerized glass puller that can make parabolic or elliptically tapered glass capillaries for microbeam x-ray experiments from hollow glass tubing. We have produced optics that work in a single-bounce imaging mode or in a multi-bounce condensing mode. The imaging-mode capillaries have been used to create 20 to 50 micron diameter x-ray beams at 12 keV that are quite useful for imaging diffraction patterns from tiny bundles of carbon and Kevlar fibers. The condensing-mode capillaries are useful for creating submicron diameter beams and show great promise in x-ray fluorescence applications with femtogram sensitivity for patterned Er and Ti dopants diffused into an optically-active lithium niobate wafer

  12. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korečko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Červený, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 10 (2010), s. 1794-1808 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rasters made of glass * greenhouse * solar architecture * fresnel lens * mathematical simulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2010

  13. Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.

  14. Efficient On-chip Optical Microresonator for Optical Comb Generation: Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyunghun

    An optical frequency comb is a series of equally spaced frequency components. It has gained much attention since Nobel physics prize was awarded John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hansch for their contribution to the optical frequency comb technique in 2005. The optical frequency comb has been extensively studied because of its precision as a tool for spectroscopy, and is now widely used in bio- and chemical sensors, optical clocks, mode-locked dark pulse generation, soliton generation, and optical communication. Recently, thanks to the developments in nanotechnology, the optical frequency comb generation is made possible at a chip-scale level with microresonators. However, because the threshold power of the optical frequency comb generation is beyond the capability of the on-chip laser source, efficient microresonator is required. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-compact and highly efficient strip-slot direct mode coupler, aiming to achieve slotted silicon microresonator cladded with nonlinear polymer Poly-DDMEBT in SOI platform. As an application of the strip-slot direct mode coupling, a double slot fiber-to-chip edge coupler is demonstrated showing 2 dB insertion loss reduction compared to the conventional single tip edge coupler. For silicon nitride platform, we investigated evanescent wave coupling of microresonator, focusing on bus waveguide geometry optimization. The optimized waveguide width offers an efficient excitation of a fundamental mode in the resonator waveguide. This investigation can benefit low threshold comb generation by enhancing the extinction ratio. We experimentally demonstrated the high Q-factor micro-ring resonator with intrinsic Q of 12.6 million as well as the single FSR comb generation with 63 mW.

  15. Fracture strengths of chair-side-generated veneers cemented with glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaslan, S; Bagis, B; Akan, E; Mutluay, M M; Vallittu, P K

    2015-01-01

    CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) systems have refreshed the idea of chair-side production of restorations, but the fracture of ceramic veneers remains a problem. Cementation with glass fibers may improve the fracture strengths and affect the failure modes of CAD/CAM-generated ceramic veneers. Therefore, this study compared the fracture strengths of ceramic veneers produced at chair side and cemented with or without glass fibers with those of composite veneers. Thirty intact mandibular incisors were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 10) and treated with CAD/CAM-fabricated veneers cemented with dual-cure composite resin luting cement (CRLC; Group 1), CAD/CAM-fabricated veneers cemented with a glass fiber network (GFN) and dual-cure CRLC (Group 2), and a direct particulate filler composite veneer constructed utilizing fiber and a restorative composite resin (Group 3). The specimens were tested with a universal testing machine after thermal cycling treatment. The loads at the start of fracture were the lowest for traditionally fabricated composite veneers and higher for CAD/CAM-generated. Veneers cemented either without or with the GFN. The failure initiation loads (N) for the veneers were 798.92 for Group 1, 836.27 for Group 2, and 585.93 for Group 3. The predominant failure mode is adhesive failure between the laminates and teeth for Group 1, cohesive failure in the luting layer for Group 2, and cohesive laminate failure for Group 3, which showed chipping and small fractures. Ceramic material is a reliable alternative for veneer construction at chair side. Fibers at the cementation interface may improve the clinical longevity and provide higher fracture strength values.

  16. Soliton generation from a multi-frequency optical signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoiu, N-C; Mel'nikov, I V; Mihalache, D; Etrich, C; Lederer, F

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the generation of optical solitons in a monomode optical fibre from a superposition of soliton-like optical pulses at different frequencies. It is demonstrated that the structure of the emerging optical field is highly dependent on the number of input channels, the inter-channel frequency separation, the time shift between the pulses belonging to adjacent channels, and the polarization of the pulses. Also, it is found that there exists a critical frequency separation above which wavelength-division multiplexing with solitons is feasible and that this critical frequency increases with the number of transmission channels. Moreover, for the case in which only two channels are considered, we analyse the propagation of the emerging two-soliton solutions in the presence of several perturbations important for optical networks: bandwidth-limited amplification, nonlinear amplification, and amplitude and phase modulation. Finally, the influence of the birefringence of the fibre on the structure of the emerging optical field is discussed. (review article)

  17. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  18. Quasi-optical millimeter wave rotating TE62 mode generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaopu; Zhang Conghui; Wang Zhong; Guo Feng; Chen Hongbin; Hu Linlin; Pan Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    The design,measurement technique and experimental results of rotating TE 6 2 mode generator are presented. The source includes millimeter wave optical system and open coaxial wave guide system. The millimeter wave optical system consists of pyramid antenna, hyperbolical reflector, parabolic reflector and quasi parabolic reflector. The open coaxial wave guide system contains open coaxial wave guide cavity, cylinder wave guide and output antenna. It is tested by network analyser and millimeter wave near field pattern auto-test system, and the purity of rotating TE 6 2 mode at 96.4 GHz is about 97%. (authors)

  19. Frequency comb generation in a continuously pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, S.; Parisi, M.; Ricciardi, I.; Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Erkintalo, M.; Maddaloni, P.; De Natale, P.; Wabnitz, S.; De Rosa, M.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate optical frequency comb generation in a continuously pumped optical parametric oscillator, in the parametric region around half of the pump frequency. We also model the dynamics of such quadratic combs using a single time-domain mean-field equation, and obtain simulation results that are in good agreement with experimentally observed spectra. Moreover, we numerically investigate the coherence properties of simulated combs, showing the existence of correlated and phase-locked combs. Our work could pave the way for a new class of frequency comb sources, which may enable straightforward access to new spectral regions and stimulate novel applications of frequency combs.

  20. Restocking the optical designers' toolbox for next-generation wearable displays (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard C.

    2015-09-01

    Three years ago, industry and consumers learned that there was more to Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) than the long-lasting but steady market for defense or the market for gadget video player headsets: the first versions of Smart Glasses were introduced to the public. Since then, most major consumer electronics companies unveiled their own versions of Connected Glasses, Smart Glasses or Smart Eyewear, AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) headsets. This rush resulted in the build-up of a formidable zoo of optical technologies, each claiming to be best suited for the task on hand. Today, the question is not so much anymore "will the Smart Glass market happen?" but rather "which optical technologies will be best fitted for the various declinations of the existing wearable display market," one of the main declination being the Smart Glasses market.

  1. Composition dependent structural and optical properties of PbF₂-TeO₂-B₂O₃-Eu₂O₃ glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Akshatha; Raviprakash, Y; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Kamath, Sudha D

    2015-12-05

    Boric oxide based quaternary glasses in the system PbF2-TeO2-B2O3-Eu2O3 have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Density, molar volume, FTIR, UV-Vis techniques were used to probe the structural modifications with incorporation of europium ions in the glass network. An increase in glass density & decrease in molar volume (Vm) values proved the structural changes occurring in coordination of boron atom [conversion of BO3 units to BO4]. This resulted in the increase of the compaction of the prepared glasses with increase in Eu2O3 contents. The amorphous natures of the samples were ascertained by XRD and metallization criterion (M) studies. XPS study showed the values of core-level binding energy [O1s, Eu3d, Eu4d, Te3d, Te4d, Pd4f, Pb5d, O1s, and F1s] of (PbF2-TeO2-B2O3-Eu2O3) the glass matrix. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of present glasses were investigated in the frequency range of 1 Hz-10 MHz and temperature range of 313-773K. The study of dielectric measurements proved good insulating and thermal stability of the prepared glasses. At room temperature, dielectric loss [tanδ] values were negligibly small for prepared glasses and increased with increase in temperature. FTIR spectroscopy results were in good agreement with optical band energy gap, density, molar volume and hardness values revealing network modifications caused by europium ions in the glass structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  3. Microstructural and Optical Properties of Porous Alumina Elaborated on Glass Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, W.; Gaidi, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2013-03-01

    A transparent porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure was formed on a glass substrate using the anodization of a highly pure evaporated aluminum layer. A parametric study was carried out in order to achieve a fine control of the microstructural and optical properties of the elaborated films. The microstructural and surface morphologies of the porous alumina films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pore diameter, inter-pore separation, and the porous structure as a function of anodization conditions were investigated. It was then found that the pores density decreases with increasing the anodization time. Regular cylindrical porous AAO films with a flat bottom structure were formed by chemical etching and anodization. A high transmittance in the 300-900 nm range is reported, indicating a fulfilled growth of the transparent sample (alumina) from the aluminum metal. The data showed typical interference oscillations as a result of the transparent characteristics of the film throughout the visible spectral range. The thickness and the optical constants ( n and k) of the porous anodic alumina films, as a function of anodizing time, were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) regions.

  4. High aspect ratio nanoholes in glass generated by femtosecond laser pulses with picosecond intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sanghoon; Choi, Jiyeon; Noh, Jiwhan; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2018-02-01

    Because of its potential uses, high aspect ratio nanostructures have been interested for last few decades. In order to generate nanostructures, various techniques have been attempted. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of techniques for generating nanostructures inside a transparent material. For generating nanostructures by femtosecond laser ablation, previous studies have been attempted beam shaping such as Bessel beam and temporal tailored beam. Both methods suppress electron excitation at near surface and initiate interference of photons at certain depth. Recent researches indicate that shape of nanostructures is related with temporal change of electron density and number of self-trapped excitons. In this study, we try to use the temporal change of electron density induced by femtosecond laser pulse for generating high aspect ratio nanoholes. In order to reveal the effect of temporal change of electron density, secondary pulses are irradiated from 100 to 1000 ps after the irradiation of first pulse. Our result shows that diameter of nanoholes is increasing and depth of nanoholes is decreasing as pulse to pulse interval is getting longer. With manipulating of pulse to pulse interval, we could generate high aspect ratio nanoholes with diameter of 250-350 nm and depth of 4∼6 μm inside a glass.

  5. Optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals obtained by thermal treatment in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: patharo@ull.es; Lahoz, F. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Platas, J. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Caceres, J.M. [Dep. of Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Perez, S. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dep. of Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Capuj, N. [Dep. of Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Measurements of the optical properties of Er{sup 3+} ions in strontium barium niobate glass and glass ceramics have been carried out. The glasses have been fabricated using a melt-quenching method, and the glass ceramic samples have been obtained from the glass precursor by a thermal treatment. The ceramic samples formed by a glassy phase, and a crystalline phase contains nanocrystals of Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) doped with Er{sup 3+} ions with a mean size of {approx}50 nm, as confirmed with XRD. Green up-conversion emission has been obtained under excitation at 800 nm, and the temporal evolution of this emission has been reported with the purpose of determining the involved up-conversion mechanism. These optical measures have confirmed that the Er{sup 3+} ions have been incorporated into the SBN matrix, after a thermal treatment, which produced an increment of the up-conversion efficiency.

  6. Optical and structural investigation of Dy3+-Nd3+ co-doped in magnesium lead borosilicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T G V M; Rupesh Kumar, A; Neeraja, K; Veeraiah, N; Rami Reddy, M

    2014-01-24

    MgO-PbO-B2O3-SiO2-Nd2O3-Dy2O3 glasses are prepared by melt-quenching technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, luminescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral studied. XRD analysis evidently indicates that the prepared samples are fully amorphous nature. From the optical absorption spectra, the bonding environment surrounding the Dy(3+) and their energy level scheme in glass network is analyzed. Enhancement of Dy(3+) emission by non-radiative energy transfers from Nd(3+) has been observed here. The samples emits intensive bluish yellow color from the (4)F9/2→(6)H15/2, (6)H13/2 transition of Dy(3+) ions in these glasses which are nearer to white light and it is also supported by the chromaticity color coordinates. The FT-IR spectra reveal that network connectivity is increased with replacement of bonds B-O-B, Si-O-Si by more resistant B-O-Si bonds with gradually increasing the content of Dy(3+) ions in the glass network. Along with spectroscopic parameters some physical parameters like density, refractive index etc. are measured for the glasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dispersion and guidance characteristics of microstructured 68TeO2 - 22WO3 - 8La2O3 - 2Bi2O3 glass fibres for supercontinuum generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, Yu P; Nazaryants, V O; Kosolapov, A F; Astapovich, M S; Plotnichenko, V G; Dianov, Evgenii M; Moiseev, A N; Churbanov, M F; Dorofeev, V V; Chilyasov, A V; Snopatin, G E

    2010-01-01

    We report the preparation of a high-purity optical-quality four-component glass of composition 68TeO 2 - 22WO 3 - 8La 2 O 3 - 2Bi 2 O 3 , containing (2.7±0.5)x10 -5 mol % OH groups. Its refractive index has been determined in the range 0.9 - 5.45 μm using interference refractometry. The data are used to assess the dispersion and guidance characteristics of microstructured optical fibres potentially attractive for supercontinuum generation in the range 1 - 5 μm (optical fibres)

  8. Analysis of optical properties behaviour of CLEARCERAM, fused silica and CaF2 glasses exposed to simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Alvarado, C. G.; Núñez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instrumentation on-board satellites suffer degradation due to the hostile conditions of space environment. Space conditions produce instrumentation performances changes causing a decrease or a cancellation of their features. Particularly, space environment conditions have a significant influence on the optical properties of glasses which are part of space optical systems. Space environment characteristics which effects on the optical system have to be taken into account are: outgassing, volatile components, gas or water vapor which form part of the spacecraft materials, vacuum, microgravity, micrometeorites, space debris, thermal, mechanical and radiation environment and effects of the high atmosphere [1]. This work is focused on analyzing temperature variations and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation effects on the optical properties of several glasses used on space applications. Thermal environment is composed of radiation from the Sun, the albedo and the Earth radiation and the radiation from the spacecraft to deep space. Flux and influence of temperature on satellite materials depend on factors as the period of year or the position of them on the space system. Taking into account that the transfer mechanisms of heat are limited by the conduction and the radiation, high gradients of temperature are obtained in system elements which can cause changes of their optical properties, birefringence… Also, these thermal cycles can introduce mechanical loads into material structure due to the expansion and the contraction of the material leading to mechanical performances degradation [2]. However, it is the radiation environment the main cause of damage on optical properties of materials used on space instrumentation. This environment consists of a wide range of energetic particles between keV and MeV which are trapped by the geomagnetic field or are flux of particles that cross the Earth environment from the external of the Solar System [3]. The damage

  9. Optical and FT Infrared spectral studies of vanadium ions in cadmium borate glass and effects of gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAziz, T D; EzzElDin, F M; El Batal, H A; Abdelghany, A M

    2014-10-15

    Combined optical and infrared absorption spectra of V2O5-doped cadmium borate glasses were investigated before and after gamma irradiation with a dose of 8 Mrad (=8×10(4) Gy). The undoped base cadmium borate glass reveals a spectrum consisting of strong charge transfer UV absorption bands which are related to the presence of unavoidable contaminated trace iron impurities (mainly Fe(3+)). The V2O5-doped glasses reveal an extra band at 380nm and the high V2O5-content glass also shows a further band at about 420nm. The observed optical spectrum indicates the presence of vanadium ions mainly in the pentavalent state (d(0) configuration). The surplus band at 420nm shows that some trivalent vanadium ions are identified at high V2O5 content. The optical spectra of the glasses after gamma irradiation show small decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption which are interpreted by assuming the transformation of some Fe(3+) ions by photochemical reactions with the presence of high content (45mol%) of heavy massive CdO causing some shielding behavior. FT infrared absorption spectra of the glasses show vibrational bands due to collective presence of triangular and tetrahedral borate groups in their specific wavenumbers. The FTIR spectra are observed to be slightly affected by both the V2O5-dopants being present in modifying low percent or gamma irradiation due to the presence of high content heavy CdO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical third-harmonic generation using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, D.; Keto, J.W.; Becker, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better predict optical third-harmonic generation (THG) in transparent dielectrics, we model a typical ultrashort pulsed Gaussian beam, including both group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch of the fundamental and harmonic fields. We find that competition between the group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch leads to third-harmonic generation that is sensitive only to interfaces. In this case, the spatial resolution is determined by the group velocity walk-off length. THG of modern femtosecond lasers in optical solids is a bulk process, without a surface susceptibility, but bears the signature of a surface enhancement effect in z-scan measurements. We demonstrate the accuracy of the model, by showing the agreement between the predicted spectral intensity and the measured third-harmonic spectrum from a thin sapphire crystal

  11. Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in the presence of the external magnetic field and electric bias in semiconductor nano-structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. The obtained experimental data are presented in dependence of the strength of the magnetic field. The optically generated electron-spin precession frequency and dephasing time and rate are estimated. It is found that both the spin precession frequency and dephasing rate increase linearly with the external magnetic field up to about 9 T. However, the spin dephasing time is within sub-μs and is found to decrease exponentially with the strength of the external magnetic field. The results are discussed by exploring possible mechanisms of spin dephasing in low-dimensional semiconductor structures, where the quantum-confinement persists within the nano-range.

  12. Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2010-09-13

    Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in the presence of the external magnetic field and electric bias in semiconductor nano-structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. The obtained experimental data are presented in dependence of the strength of the magnetic field. The optically generated electron-spin precession frequency and dephasing time and rate are estimated. It is found that both the spin precession frequency and dephasing rate increase linearly with the external magnetic field up to about 9 T. However, the spin dephasing time is within sub-{mu}s and is found to decrease exponentially with the strength of the external magnetic field. The results are discussed by exploring possible mechanisms of spin dephasing in low-dimensional semiconductor structures, where the quantum-confinement persists within the nano-range.

  13. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  14. Correlation between optical and structural properties of copper oxide electrodeposited on ITO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoudi, O., E-mail: olfamassaoudi@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole BorjCedria, B.P. 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Makhlouf, H.; Souissi, A.; Ben assaker, I.; Karyaoui, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole BorjCedria, B.P. 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Bardaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole BorjCedria, B.P. 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Physics department, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Oueslati, M. [Unité de nano matériaux et photoniques, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, ElManar1, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole BorjCedria, B.P. 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Copper oxide films were grown by electrodeposition method with different applied potential. • Forouhi and Bloomer ellipsometric model were used. • Correlation between structural and optical proprieties was done. - Abstract: In this paper we study the growth of copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by electrochemical deposition. We vary the applied potential from −0.50 to −0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl in order to have a pure Cu{sub 2}O. The copper oxide thin films properties are obtained using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) in the frame of the Forouhi and Bloomer model. This model demonstrates that depending on the applied cathodic potential pure or mixed phases of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O can be obtained. Structural, morphological and optical properties are performed in order to confirm the SE results. X-ray diffraction analysis of the films reveals a mixed phase for a potential lower than −0.60V vs. Ag/AgCl while a high purity is obtained for this last potential. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) is evaluated using the tauc relation. Pure Cu{sub 2}O having a band gap of E{sub g} = 2.5 eV and a thickness around 900 nm are therefore successfully obtained with an applied potential of −0.60 V. Raman measurements show the characteristic modes of Cu{sub 2}O with a contribution of CuO modes at 618 cm{sup −1}. The intensity of the CuO modes decreases as the applied cathodic potential increases, leading to pure copper oxide layers.

  15. Glass fibre sensors for medical applications - fibre-optical dosimeter system. Cooperation project 1991-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results of a cooperation project on the applications of fibre-optical sensors in medical technology. The FADOS dosimeter system is presented which comprises an implantable glass fibre dosimeter. It can be applied in radiotherapy for online dose metering directly at the tumour or in the surrounding healthy tissue. The dosimeter is placed in a tissue-compatible flexible catheter tube and remains inside the body during the radiotherapy treatiment. The measuring principle is based on the effect of radiation-induced damping inside a glass fibre. (DG) [de

  16. Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    -matching point is located in the absorption region of the crystal, effectively absorbing the generated dispersive wave. By calculating the phase-matching curves for typically used frequency conversion crystals, we point out that the mid-IR absorption in the crystal in many cases automatically will filter away....... The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near......We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum...

  17. Review on structured optical field generated from array beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyue; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Zhi, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Structured optical field (SOF), which includes vortex beams, non-diffraction beams, cylindrical vector beams and so on, has been under intensive investigation theoretically and experimentally in recent years. Generally, current research focus on the extraordinary properties (non-diffraction propagation, helical wavefront, rotation of electrical field, et al), which can be widely applied in micro-particle manipulation, super-resolution imaging, free-space communication and so on. There are mainly two technical routes, that is, inner-cavity and outer-cavity (spatial light modulators, diffractive phase holograms, q-plates). To date, most of the SOFs generated from both technical routes involves with single monolithic beam. As a novel technical route, SOF based on array beams has the advantage in more flexible freedom degree and power scaling potential. In this paper, research achievements in SOF generation based on array beams are arranged and discussed in detail. Moreover, experiment of generating exotic beam by array beams is introduced, which illustrates that SOF generated from array beams is theoretically valid and experimentally feasible. SOF generated from array beams is also beneficial for capacity increasing and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distance.

  18. Physical and optical properties of calcium sulfate ultra-phosphate glass-doped Er2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Aliyu Mohammed; Hussin, R.; Deraman, Karim; Ahmad, N. E.; Danmadami, Amina M.; Yamusa, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of erbium on physical and optical properties of calcium sulfate ultra-phosphate glass was investigated using conventional melt quench process. Selected samples of composition 20CaSO4 (80 - x) P2O5- xEr2O3 with 0.1 ≤x ≤ 0.9 mol.% were prepared and assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to confirm the amorphous nature of the said samples. The structural units of phosphate-based glass were assessed from Raman spectra as ultra-(Q3), meta-(Q2), pyro-(Q1) and orthophosphate (Q0) units. Depolymerization process of the glasses was testified for higher calcium oxide content and UV-visible for optical measurement. Thermal analysis have been investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis. The results show the decomposition of materials in the temperature range of 25∘C-1000∘C. Er3+ absorption spectra were measured in the range of 400-1800nm. PL measurement was carried out in order to obtain the excitation and emission spectra of the samples. The emission spectra excited at 779nm comprises of 518nm, 550nm and 649nm of transition 4F9/2, 4S3/2 and 2H11/2 excited states to 4I15/2 ground state. In physical properties, the density calculated using Archimedes method is inversely proportional to molar volume with increase in Er3+ ions. Optical bandgap (Eg) were determined using Tauc’s plots for direct transitions where Eg (direct) decreases with increase in erbium content. The refractive index increases with decreasing molar volume; this may have a tendency for larger optical bandgap. The result obtained from the glass matrix indicates that erbium oxide-doped calcium sulfate ultra-phosphate may give important information for wider development of functional glasses.

  19. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application. PMID:27550827

  20. Multiple optical code-label processing using multi-wavelength frequency comb generator and multi-port optical spectrum synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritsuka, Fumi; Wada, Naoya; Sakamoto, Takahide; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Komai, Yuki; Anzai, Shimako; Izutsu, Masayuki; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-06-11

    In optical packet switching (OPS) and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, label generation and processing are key technologies. Recently, several label processors have been proposed and demonstrated. However, in order to recognize N different labels, N separate devices are required. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a large-scale, multiple optical code (OC)-label generation and processing technology based on multi-port, a fully tunable optical spectrum synthesizer (OSS) and a multi-wavelength electro-optic frequency comb generator. The OSS can generate 80 different OC-labels simultaneously and can perform 80-parallel matched filtering. We also demonstrated its application to OCDMA.

  1. Thermal and optical properties of Nd{sup 3+} ions in K–Ca–Al fluorophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganna, K. [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Viswanath, C.S. Dwaraka [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Narro-Garcia, R. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, Querétaro Mexico (Mexico); Ju, S.; Han, W.-T. [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jayasankar, C.K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Venkatramu, V., E-mail: vvramuphd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-10-15

    Fluorophosphate glasses of composition (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–K{sub 2}O–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–CaF{sub 2})-doped with various Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were prepared by a melt quenching technique and their thermal, vibrational and optical properties were investigated. Thermal stability of the fluorophosphate glass has been determined from differential scanning calorimetric thermograph. The vibrational modes of the present glass have been studied using Raman spectrum. The intensity parameters, Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4 and 6) as well as radiative properties for the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} level of Nd{sup 3+} ion, have been evaluated from the absorption spectra of 1.0 mol% Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glass using the Judd–Ofelt theory. Strong near infrared emission at 1.06 =m attributed to {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transition has been obtained for all the glasses upon 806 nm diode laser excitation. Decay analysis has been carried out and found that the lifetime for the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} level of Nd{sup 3+} ion was found to be higher compared to the other Nd{sup 3+}-doped glass host matrices. The quantum efficiency and saturation intensity have been determined to be 93% and 2.32×10{sup 8} W/m{sup 2}, respectively for 1.0 mol% Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glass. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.06 µm laser applications. - Highlights: • Nd{sup 3+}-doped K–Al–Ca fluorophosphate glasses were prepared and characterized. • Raman and DSC measurements have been carried out. • Strong near infrared emission at 1.06 μm ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transition) has been found. • Optical properties have been evaluated and compared to other host matrices. • Higher lifetime and quantum efficiency have been noticed in the studied glasses.

  2. Comparative study of silicate glasses containing Bi2O3, PbO and BaO: Radiation shielding and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdsiri, K.; Kaewkhao, J.; Chanthima, N.; Limsuwan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We change Bi 2 O 3 , PbO and BaO concentration in silicate glasses. → The densities of Bi 2 O 3 glasses more than PbO glasses and BaO glasses. → The Um of Bi 2 O 3 glasses and PbO glasses are comparable and more than BaO glasses. → This suggests that Bi 2 O 3 can replace PbO in radiation shielding glasses. - Abstract: The radiation shielding and optical properties of xBi 2 O 3 :(100-x)SiO 2 , xPbO:(100-x)SiO 2 and xBaO:(100-x)SiO 2 glass systems (where 30 ≤ x ≤ 70 is the composition by weight%) have been investigated. Total mass attenuation coefficients (μ m ) of glasses at 662 keV were improved by increasing their Bi 2 O 3 and PbO content, which raised the photoelectric absorption in glass matrices. Raising the BaO content to the same fraction range, however, brought no significant change to μ m . These results indicate that photon is strongly attenuated in Bi 2 O 3 and PbO containing glasses, and but not in BaO containing glass. The results from the optical absorption spectra show an edge that was not sharply defined; clearly indicating the amorphous nature of glass samples. It is observed that the cutoff wavelength for Bi 2 O 3 containing glass was longer than PbO and BaO containing glasses.

  3. New generation Li+ NASICON glass-ceramics for solid state Li+ ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelakshi; Dalvi, Anshuman

    2018-04-01

    Lithiumion conducting NASICON glass-ceramics have been prepared by a novel planetary ball milling assisted synthesis route. Structural, thermal and electrical investigations have been carried out on the novel composites composed of LiTi(PO4)3 (LTP) and 50[Li2SO4]-50[Li2O-P2O5] ionic glass reveal interesting results. Composites were prepared keeping the concentration of the ionic glass fixed at 20 wt%. X-ray diffraction and diffe rential thermal analysis confirm the glass-ceramic formation. Moreover, the structure of LTP remains intact during the glass -ceramic formation. Electrical conductivity of the glass-ceramic composite is found to be higher than that of the pristine glass (50LSLP) and LTP. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of LTP exhibit improvement in composite. Owing to high ionic conductivity and thermal stability, novel glass -ceramic seems to be a promising candidate for all solid-state battery applications.

  4. A short review on the pulsed laser deposition of Er3+ ion doped oxide glass thin films for integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irannejad, M.; Zhao, Z.; Jose, G.; Steenson, D.P.; Jha, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short pulsed (ns) excimer laser was employed as a technique for the deposition of more than 2 μm thick glassy films from phosphorous pentoxide and tungsten lanthanum modified tellurite bulk glasses. High quality glass thin films with measured propagation loss less than 0.15, 0.71 and 2.3 dB.cm -1 were obtained after optimization of deposition parameters for silica, siloxane and semiconductor substrates. The optical, spectroscopic and microstructural properties of deposited thin films were compared with bulk glass materials for demonstrating the differences in the properties, which must be optimized for device engineering. Channel waveguides were fabricated after using reactive ion etching technique, up to 2 μm thickness by using CHF 3 and Ar gas mixture

  5. Optical transitions of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Nie, Qiuhua; Xu, Tiefeng; Gao, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    Optical absorption and emission properties of the Er3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-WO3-Bi2O3 (TWB) glass has been investigated. The transition probabilities, excited state lifetimes, and the branching ratios have been predicted for Er3+ based on the Judd-Ofelt theory. The broad 1.5 microm fluorescence was observed under 970 nm excitation, and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 77 nm. The emission cross-section is calculated using the McCumber theory, and the peak emission cross-section is 1.03 x 10(-21) cm2 at 1.531 microm. This value is much larger than those of the silicate and phosphate glasses. Efficient green and weak red upconversion luminescence from Er3+ centers in the glass sample was observed at room temperature, and the upconversion excitation processes have been analyzed.

  6. A study on the optical, structural, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of a lithium bismuth germanium tungsten glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Shaaban M., E-mail: shaabansalem@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Khalek, E.K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, E.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I report, for the first time, the effect of WO{sub 3} on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, GeO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} glasses through structural, optical, conductivity and dielectric studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap E{sub op} for all types of electronic transitions, Urbach energy (E{sub r}), and refractive index determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WO{sub 3} promotes as bitter constituent the reduction of W{sup 6+} to W{sup 5+} giving the bluish color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared spectra reveal characteristic GeO{sub 4}, GeO{sub 6}, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BiO{sub 6}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on ac and dc conductivity the conductivity increased and activation energies decreased with increase of WO{sub 3} content at all frequencies. - Abstract: Glasses in the system (65 - x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-15Li{sub 2}O-20GeO{sub 2}-xWO{sub 3} (where x = 2, 5 and 10 mol%) were prepared by normal melt quenching method. The change in density and molar volume in these glasses indicates the effect of WO{sub 3} on the glass structure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra show that these glasses are made up of GeO{sub 4}, GeO{sub 6}, BiO{sub 6}, BiO{sub 3}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} basic structural units. The structural units of BiO{sub 6}, GeO{sub 6} and WO{sub 6} increase with the increasing of WO{sub 3} content. The optical constants of these glasses are determined over a spectral range, providing the complex dielectric constant to be calculated. Higher values for the refractive index and dispersion are recorded due to the high polarizability of bismuth and tungsten ions. The values of the optical band gap E{sub g} for all types of electronic transitions and refractive index have been determined and discussed. The dc conductivity measured in the temperature range 423-623 K obeys Arrhenius law. The dielectric constant ({epsilon} Prime ), dielectric loss (tan {delta}) and

  7. Preparation of glasses and glass ceramics of heavy metal oxides containing silver: optical, structural and electrochemical properties; Preparacao de vidros e vitroceramicas de oxidos de metais pesados contendo prata: propriedades opticas, estruturais e eletroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregadiolli, Bruna A. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru - SP (Brazil); Souza, Ernesto R.; Sigoli, Fernando A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas - SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Alencar, Monica A.S.; Benedetti, Assis V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara - SP (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo, E-mail: mnalin@ufscar.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP, (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Silver containing heavy metal oxide glasses and glass ceramics of the system WO{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} -PbO-AgCl with different AgCl contents have been prepared and their thermal, structural and optical properties characterized. Glass ceramics containing metallic silver nanoparticles have been prepared by annealing glass samples at temperatures above the glass transition and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The presence of the metallic clusters has been also confirmed by the observation of a surface plasmon resonance band in the visible range. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated the presence of metallic silver into the glasses, even before to perform the thermal treatment. (author)

  8. Physical and optical properties of lithium borosilicate glasses doped with Dy3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Gedam, R. S.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The borosilicate glasses with Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quench technique with varying concentration of Dy2O3. The glasses were characterized by the density calculation, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements. Density and molar volume of the glasses increases with increase in Dy3+ ions in the glass matrix. This behavior is correlated with the higher molecular weight and larger ionic radius of Dy3+ ion compared to the other constituents of glass matrix. Emission of Dy3+ doped glasses showed three bands at 482, 573 and at 665 nm which correspond to 6H15/2 (blue), 6H13/2 (yellow) and 6H11/2 (red) transitions. The emission spectra of glasses with different concentration of Dy3+ ions shows that, glasses with 0.5 mol% of Dy2O3 shows highest emission and decreases with further doping. CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showed that the emission of these glasses was in the white region. Photographs of these glasses under 349 nm Light emitting diode excitation also confirmed the white light emission from these glasses.

  9. On observation of the downconversion mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped tellurite glass using thermal and optical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.S.; Santos, F.A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Yukimitu, K.; Moraes, J.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Departamento de Física e Química, Av. Brasil, 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.H.C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Lima, S.M., E-mail: smlima@uems.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    In this work we report the observed downconversion (DC) mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped tellurite glasses (in mol%, 80TeO{sub 2}–10Li{sub 2}O–10TiO{sub 2}). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method and then studied using optical spectroscopy and thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). These characterizations enabled investigation of the radiative and nonradiative processes involved in energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium. The visible Er{sup 3+} fluorescence intensities decreased as a function of the Yb{sup 3+} concentration, and there was a corresponding increase in the ytterbium emission at around 980 nm. Simultaneously, there was a reduction in the heat-generated due nonradiative decays (∼21%) when ytterbium was added. This temperature change was measured by TLS measurements and the results corroborate with the indicated by spectroscopic interpretation. - Highlights: • Energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium in tellurite glass. • ∼56% of cross-relaxation efficiency from Er{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. • Downconversion effect in tellurite glasses. • Downconversion effect observation by thermal lens spectroscopy.

  10. Impact effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and FT infrared absorption spectra of some Nd3+-doped soda lime phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Elkashef, I. M.; Elbatal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study by two collective optical and FTIR spectral measurements some prepared Nd2O3-doped soda lime phosphate glasses before and after gamma irradiation with dose (9 Mrad). The spectral data reveal two strong UV absorption peaks which are correlated with unavoidable trace iron impurities beside extended additional characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped glass produces slight decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption and the generation of an induced visible band and these effects are controlled with two photochemical reduction of some Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions together with the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) or phosphorous oxygen hole center (POHC). The impact effect of gamma irradiation on the spectra of Nd2O3-doped glasses is limited due to suggested shielding behavior of neodymium ions. FT-infrared spectra show vibrational modes due to main Q2-Q3 phosphate groups and the response of gamma irradiation of the IR spectra is low and the limited variations are related to suggested changes in some bond angles and bond lengths which cause the observed decrease to the intensities of some IR bands.

  11. Impact of optical properties of front glass substrates on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells using lift-off process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akihiro, E-mail: ro005080@ed.ritsumei.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Minemoto, Takashi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Transmittance of a front glass is one of the important factors in the development of high efficiency superstrate-type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of optical properties of the front glass on the solar cell performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated using the lift-off process. First, optical properties of quartz substrates and soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates with various thicknesses were investigated. Although optical properties of the SLG substrates depend on the thickness, those of the quartz substrates hardly depend on the thickness. Secondly, the superstrate-type CIGS solar cells were fabricated using 1-mm-thick SLG or 1-mm-thick quartz substrates. As a result, the short-circuit current density of the superstrate-type CIGS solar cell with 1-mm-thick quartz substrate was approximately 7% higher than that with 1-mm-thick SLG substrate, and its conversion efficiency was 7.1%. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cells was also improved using the quartz substrate as a front glass because transmittance and absorptance of the quartz substrate were superior to those of the SLG substrate. We therefore conclude that optical properties of the front glasses play an important role in the improvement of the superstrate-type solar cells. - Highlights: • Superstrate type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells are fabricated by lift-off process. • Various glasses are used as front glass for lift-off. • The impact of optical properties of the glasses on cell performance is investigated. • Quartz front glass gives 7% higher short-circuit current than soda-lime glass. • High transmittance is desired for front glass.

  12. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  13. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2009-05-25

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  14. Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections Via Dynamic Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor); Zhou, Shao-Min (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system is presented for optically providing one-to-many irregular interconnections, and strength-adjustable many-to-many irregular interconnections which may be provided with strengths (weights) w(sub ij) using multiple laser beams which address multiple holograms and means for combining the beams modified by the holograms to form multiple interconnections, such as a cross-bar switching network. The optical means for interconnection is based on entering a series of complex computer-generated holograms on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator for real-time reconfigurations, thus providing flexibility for interconnection networks for large-scale practical use. By employing multiple sources and holograms, the number of interconnection patterns achieved is increased greatly.

  15. Single-photon generator for optical telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, T; Sakuma, Y; Hirose, S; Takemoto, K; Yokoyama, N; Miyazawa, T; Takatsu, M; Arakawa, Y

    2006-01-01

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulses from a single InAs/InP quantum dot in telecommunication bands (1.3-1.55 μm: higher transmittance through an optical fiber). First we prepared InAs quantum dots on InP (0 0 1) substrates in a low-pressure MOCVD by using a so-called InP 'double-cap' procedure. The quantum dots have well-controlled photo emission wavelength in the telecommunication bands. We also developed a single-photon emitter in which quantum dots were embedded. Numerical simulation designed the emitter to realize efficient injection of the emitted photons into a single-mode optical fiber. Using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss technique has proved that the photons through the fiber were single photons

  16. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meral, Kadem; Arik, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  17. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meral, Kadem, E-mail: kademm@atauni.edu.tr; Arik, Mustafa, E-mail: marik@tatauni.edu.tr; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  18. 3D characterization of thin glass x-ray mirrors via optical profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the "Characterization Universal Profilometer" (CUP), a new metrological instrument developed at the Brera Observatory for the 3D surface figure mapping of X-ray segmented mirrors. The CUP working principle is based on the measure of the the distance between the surface under test from a rigid reference dish. This approach is made possible by the coupled use of two sensors, the CHRocodile® optical device and the SIOS triple beam interferometer, mounted onto a proper system of x-y-z stage of translators. In this paper we describe the working principle of the new instrument. We will also present the results of the commissioning performed for a CUP breadboard developed at the Brera Observatory. The CUP offers the possibility to perform an high accuracy metrology of thin glass segments produced via hot slumping, to be used in future segmented X-ray mirrors like those foreseen aboard IXO or other projects that will make use of active X-ray mirrors.

  19. Correlation between short-range order, optical properties and UV-absorption ability in tellurate glasses; Poster M7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, H; Tews, W; Vogel, W; Kozhukharov, V [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    1989-01-01

    Tellurate glasses, with as second components Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], PbO, PbF[sub 2], PbCl[sub 2], PbBr[sub 2], PbSO[sub 4], ZnO, B[sub 2]O[sub 3], P[sub 2]O[sub 5], Li[sub 2]O, Na[sub 2]O, K[sub 2]O, MgO and BaO as well as some glasses from ternary TeO[sub 2]-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-RO systems (R is Pb, Ba and Zn ions), have been investigated. Transmittance spectra in UV and VIS region of some selected glasses have been measured. A correlation between optical properties and UV absorption edge of the transmittance have been done. Using p[sup 31]-NMR spectroscopy the structural changes on short-range level order are studied. A strong influence on the refraction and dispersion values as well as UV-absorption ability of the glasses is established. For p[sup 31] -NMR spectroscopy investigations of crystalline phosphotellurites and related phosphotellurite glasses the TeO[sub 2]-P[sub 2]O[sub 5B]aO ternary system have been chosen. (author).

  20. Optical analysis of RE(3+) (RE = Pr(3) (+) , Er(3) (+) and Nd(3) (+) ):cadmium lead boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Bhushana Reddy, M; Neelima, G; Ramanaiah, R; Nagamuni Reddy, K; Sahadeva Reddy, V; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    This article reports on the optical characterization of Pr(3) (+) -, Er(3) (+) - and Nd(3) (+) -doped cadmium lead boro tellurite (CLBT) glasses prepared using the melt quenching method. The visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) absorption spectra of these glasses were analyzed systematically. On measuring the NIR emission spectra of Er(3) (+) :CLBT glasses, a broad emission band centered at 1536 nm ((4) I13 /2  → (4) I15 /2 ) was observed, as were three NIR emission bands at 900 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I9 /2 ), 1069 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I11 /2 ) and 1338 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I13 /2 ) from Nd(3) (+) :CLBT glasses and an NIR emission band at 1334 nm ((1) G4  → (3) H5 ) from Pr(3) (+) :CLBT glasses at an excitation wavelength (λex ) of 514.5 nm (Ar(+) laser). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by 6.0 MeV silicon ion implantation in Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Han-Qing; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide by silicon ion implantation into Nd-doped phosphate glass at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a dose of 5.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The change in the surface morphology of the glass after the implantation can be clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The measurement of the dark mode spectrum of the waveguide is conducted using a prism coupler at 632.8 nm. The refractive index distribution of the waveguide is reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. The near-field optical intensity profile of the waveguide is measured using an end-face coupling system. The waveguide with good optical properties on the glass matrix may be valuable for the application of the Nd-doped phosphate glass in integrated optical devices.

  2. Nonlinear optical characterization of phosphate glasses based on ZnO using the Z-scan technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojdehi Masoumeh Shokati; Yunus Wan Mahmood Mat; Talib Zainal Abidin; Tamchek, N.; Fhan Khor Shing

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of a phosphate vitreous system [(ZnO) x − (MgO) 30−x − (P 2 O 5 ) 70 ], where x = 8, 10, 15, 18, and 20 mol% synthesized through the melt-quenching technique have been investigated by using the Z-scan technique. In the experiment, a continuous-wave laser with a wavelength of 405 nm was utilized to determine the sign and value of the nonlinear refractive (NLR) index and the absorption coefficient with closed and opened apertures of the Z-scan setup. The NLR index was found to increase with the ZnO concentration in the glass samples by an order of 10 −10 cm 2 ·W −1 . The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility were calculated by referring to the NLR index (n 2 ) and absorption coefficient (β) of the samples. The value of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility was presented by nonlinear refractive or absorptive behavior of phosphate glasses for proper utilization in nonlinear optical devices. Based on the measurement, the positive sign of the NLR index shows a self-focusing phenomenon. The figures of merit for each sample were calculated to judge the potential of phosphate glasses for application in optical switching

  3. Experimental Generation of Multimode Squeezing in an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kui; Cui Shu-Zhen; Yang Rong-Guo; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Gao Jiang-Rui

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that HG 01 (Hermit—Gauss) and HG 10 squeezed states can be generated simultaneously in an optical parametric amplifier. The HG 01 mode is a bright squeezed state and the HG 10 mode is a vacuum squeezed state. The squeezing of the HG 01 mode is −2.8 dB, and the squeezing of the HG 10 mode is −1.6 dB. We also demonstrate that the output field is also continuous-variable entanglement with orbital angular momentum. (general)

  4. Remote Generation of Entanglement for Individual Atoms via Optical Fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Qing, Guo; Hai-Yang, Zhong; Ying-Hui, Zhang; He-Shan, Song

    2008-01-01

    The generation of atomic entanglement is discussed in a system that atoms are trapped in separate cavities which are connected via optical fibres. Two distant atoms can be projected to Bell-state by synchronized turning off of the local laser fields and then performing a single quantum measurement by a distant controller. The distinct advantage of this scheme is that it works in a regime where Δ ≈ κ ≫ g, which makes the scheme insensitive to cavity strong leakage. Moreover, the fidelity is not affected by atomic spontaneous emission. (general)

  5. Raman, FTIR, thermal and optical properties of TeO2-Nb2O5-B2O3-V2O5 quaternary glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of quaternary glass systems with the composition 79TeO2-(20−xNb2O5-xB2O3-1V2O5 was prepared using the melt quench technique. Such studies as optical absorption, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, EPR and DSC were carried out on the glass system. The physical properties, such as density (ρ and molar volume (VM, were determined. The Urbach energy (ΔE, optical band gap (Eopt, optical basicity (Λ, refractive index (n and electron polarizability (α of the glasses were determined from optical absorption data. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters of VO2+ ions were calculated from the EPR data. With the gradual substitution of B2O3 at the expense of Nb2O5, the density and optical band gap of the glasses decreased, and the electronic polarizability increased. EPR spectra revealed that VO2+ occupies an octahedral site with tetrahedral compression. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters g|| and g⊥ increased as B2O3 content increased in the glass. The glass transition temperature (Tg also decreased as the B2O3 content in the glass increased.

  6. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algradee, M.A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O.M.; Alwany, A.E.B. [Ibb University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ibb (Yemen)

    2017-08-15

    The Nd{sup 3+}-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system. (orig.)

  7. Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2012-02-13

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.

  8. Optical properties studies of glass samples for prototyping a TORCH detector module

    CERN Multimedia

    Castillo García, L

    2014-01-01

    TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) ) is a proposed particle identification system to achieve positive π/K/p separation at a ≥3σ level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. Cherenkov photons are generated from charged particle tracks crossing a 1cm-thick quartz plate. They propagate by total internal reflection to the edge and are focused onto an array of micro-channel plate photon detectors. Their position and arrival time are recorded. This allows the reconstruction of the photon trajectory and the particle crossing time. Results on optical tests are presented.

  9. Quantum entanglement in electron optics generation, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This monograph forms an interdisciplinary study in atomic, molecular, and quantum information (QI) science. Here a reader will find that applications of the tools developed in QI provide new physical insights into electron optics as well as properties of atoms & molecules which, in turn, are useful in studying QI both at fundamental and applied levels. In particular, this book investigates entanglement properties of flying electronic qubits generated in some of the well known processes capable of taking place in an atom or a molecule following the absorption of a photon. Here, one can generate Coulombic or fine-structure entanglement of electronic qubits. The properties of these entanglements differ not only from each other, but also from those when spin of an inner-shell photoelectron is entangled with the polarization of the subsequent fluorescence. Spins of an outer-shell electron and of a residual photoion can have free or bound entanglement in a laboratory.

  10. Nonlinear atom optics and bright-gap-soliton generation in finite optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusotto, Iacopo; Embriaco, Davide; La Rocca, Giuseppe C.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the transmission dynamics of coherent matter wave pulses across finite optical lattices in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The shape and the intensity of the transmitted pulse are found to strongly depend on the parameters of the incident pulse, in particular its velocity and density: a clear physical picture of the main features observed in the numerical simulations is given in terms of the atomic band dispersion in the periodic potential of the optical lattice. Signatures of nonlinear effects due to the atom-atom interaction are discussed in detail, such as atom-optical limiting and atom-optical bistability. For positive scattering lengths, matter waves propagating close to the top of the valence band are shown to be subject to modulational instability. A scheme for the experimental generation of narrow bright gap solitons from a wide Bose-Einstein condensate is proposed: the modulational instability is seeded starting from the strongly modulated density profile of a standing matter wave and the solitonic nature of the generated pulses is checked from their shape and their collisional properties

  11. Effect of TiO2 on thermal, structural and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ca-La-B-O glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K.

    2010-01-01

    A series of calcium lanthanum metaborate glasses in the composition (wt%) of 23.88CaO-28.33La 2 O 3 -47.79B 2 O 3 modified with TiO 2 up to 20 wt% are prepared by a melt quenching technique to study the influence of TiO 2 on their thermal, structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies have demonstrated significant effects due to the presence of TiO 2 on the glass forming ability and crystallization situations. The glass with 15 wt% TiO 2 has achieved a eutectic composition and also exhibited a better glass forming ability among the glasses studied. The FT-IR spectra of these glasses show mainly vibration modes corresponding to stretching of BO 3 trigonal, BO 4 tetrahedral units and of B-O-B bending bonds. At higher concentrations of TiO 2 , development of vibration band around 400 cm -1 has indicated the formation of TiO 6 structural units in the glass network. The red shift of optical absorption edge (UV cutoff) shows a monotonous decrease in direct and indirect optical band gap energies (E opt ) with an increase of TiO 2 content in the glasses based on their absorption spectra. The optical transparency of these glasses is found to be varied from 64 to 87% within the wavelength range 450-1100 nm depending on the TiO 2 content. Besides these studies, linear refractive indices, the nonlinear optical properties of these glasses have also been evaluated.

  12. Optical study of gamma irradiated sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide MO (ZnO or CdO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nabhan

    Full Text Available Sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide, ZnO or CdO with composition 50 P2O5 – (50 − x Na2O – x MO (ZnO, or CdO where x = 0, 10, 20 (mol% were prepared by conventional melt method. UV/visible spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are measured before and after exposing to successive gamma irradiation doses (5–80 kGy. The optical absorption spectra results of the samples before irradiation reveal a strong UV absorption band at (∼230 nm which is related to unavoided iron impurities. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. From the optical absorption spectral data, the optical band gap is evaluated. The main structural groups and the influence of both divalent metal oxide and gamma irradiation effect on the structural vibrational groups are realized through IR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of γ-irradiated samples are characterized by the stability of the number and position for the main characteristic band of phosphate groups. To better understood the structural changes during γ-irradiation, a deconvolution of FTIR spectra in the range 650–1450 cm−1 is made. The FTIR deconvolution results found evidence that, the changes occurring after gamma irradiation have been related to irradiation induced structural defects and compositional changes. Keywords: Sodium metaphosphate glass, UV–visible spectra, IR spectra, Deconvolution, Optical band gap, Gamma ray

  13. Diffractive optical variable image devices generated by maskless interferometric lithography for optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, José M.

    2011-05-01

    In optical security (protection against forgery and counterfeit of products and documents) the problem is not exact reproduction but the production of something sufficiently similar to the original. Currently, Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVID), that create dynamic chromatic effects which may be easily recognized but are difficult to reproduce, are often used to protect important products and documents. Well known examples of DOVID for security are 3D or 2D/3D holograms in identity documents and credit cards. Others are composed of shapes with different types of microstructures yielding by diffraction to chromatic dynamic effects. A maskless interferometric lithography technique to generate DOVIDs for optical security is presented and compared to traditional techniques. The approach can be considered as a self-masking focused holography on planes tilted with respect to the reference optical axes of the system, and is based on the Scheimpflug and Hinge rules. No physical masks are needed to ensure optimum exposure of the photosensitive film. The system built to demonstrate the technique relies on the digital mirrors device MOEMS technology from Texas Instruments' Digital Light Processing. The technique is linear on the number of specified colors and does not depend either on the area of the device or the number of pixels, factors that drive the complexity of dot-matrix based systems. The results confirmed the technique innovation and capabilities in the creation of diffractive optical elements for security against counterfeiting and forgery.

  14. Thermal properties and optical transition probabilities of Tm3 + doped TeO2-WO3 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenk, S; Demirata, B; Oveçoglu, M L; Ozen, G

    2001-10-01

    Glasses with the composition of (1 - x)TeO2 + (x)WO3, where x = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.3 were prepared and, their thermal and absorption measurements were carried out. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves taken in the 23-600 degrees C temperature range with a heating rate of 10 degrees C/min reveal a change in the value of the glass transition temperature, Tg, while crystallization was not observed for the glasses containing a WO3 content of more than 15 mol%. All the glasses were found to be moisture-resistant. The absorption bands corresponding to the absorption of the 1G4, 3F2, 3F3 and 3F4, 3H5 and 3H4 levels from the 3H6 ground level of the Tm3+ ion were observed in the optical absorption spectra. Integrated absorption cross-sections of each band except that of 3H5 level was found to vary with the glass composition. Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out for the samples doped with 1.0 mol% Tm2O3. The omega2 parameter shows the strongest dependence on the host composition and it increases with the increasing WO3 amount. The value of omega4 increases rather slowly while the value of omega6 is practically independent of the composition. The strong dependence of the parameter omega2 indicates that this parameter is related to the structural change and the symmetry of the local environment of the Tm3+ ions in this glass.

  15. Effect of neutron irradiation on etching, optical and structural properties of microscopic glass slide used as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Kaur Sandhu, Amanpreet; Prasher, Sangeeta; Prakash Pandey, Om

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic glass slides are soda-lime glasses which are readily available and are easy to manufacture with low production cost. The application of these glasses as nuclear track detector will help us to make use of these glasses as solid-state nuclear track detector. The present paper describes the variation in the etching, optical and structural properties of the soda-lime microscopic glass slides due to neutron irradiation of different fluences. The color transformation and an increase in the optical absorption with neutron irradiation are observed. Both the bulk and track etch rates are found to increase with neutron fluence, thus showing a similar dependence on neutron fluence, but the sensitivity remains almost constant

  16. Au{sup 3+} ion implantation on FTO coated glasses: Effect on structural, electrical, optical and phonon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Bindu; Dey, Ranajit; Bajpai, P.K., E-mail: bajpai.pk1@gmail.com

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses at varying fluence. • Metal clustering near the surface and subsurface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. • Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the tetragonal distortion increases with increasing ion fluence. • Significant surface reconstruction takes place with ion beam fluence; The average roughness also decreases with increasing fluence. • The sheet resistivity increases with increasing fluence. • Raman analysis also corroborates the re-crystallization process inducing due to ion implantation. • Optical properties of the implanted surfaces changes significantly. - Abstract: Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses on structural, electrical optical and phonon behavior have been explored. It has been observed that metal clustering near the surface and sub-surface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the unit cell volume decreases with increase in fluence and the tetragonal distortion (c/a ratio) also decreases systematically in the implanted samples. The sheet resistivity of the films increases from 11 × 10{sup −5} ohm-cm (in pristine) to 7.5 × 10{sup −4} ohm-cm for highest ion beam fluence ≈10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The optical absorption decreases with increasing fluence whereas, the optical transmittance as well as reflectance increases with increasing fluence. The Raman spectra are observed at ∼530 cm{sup −1} and ∼1103 cm{sup −1} in pristine sample. The broad band at 530 cm{sup −1} shifts towards higher wave number in the irradiated samples. This may be correlated with increased disorder and strain relaxation in

  17. Generation of micro-sized conductive lines on glass fibre fabrics by inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balda Irurzun, Unai; Dutschk, Victoria; Calvimontes, Alfredo; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Micro-sized lines were inkjet printed on glass fibre fabrics using different droplet spacing. A conductive ink containing silver nanoparticles was used in this study. Glass fibre fabrics were differently pre-treated to avoid spontaneous spreading of the ink dispersion. The sample topography was

  18. Radioisotope generators for nuclear medicine based on Fajans adsorption on glass microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, G.J.; Symes, S.; Guimon, R.K.; Zinn, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Several radioisotope generator systems exist in which the carrier-free daughter product would precipitate if present in macro amounts at pH levels at which the parent is soluble. Included among these are the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 47 Ca/ 47 Sc pairs. This paper reveals that in these systems, chemical separation can be achieved by Fajans adsorption of the radiocolloidal daughter products onto surfaces such as activated glass microspheres at an appropriate pH. This is followed by washing to remove the parent solution and desorption of the daughter crop by acid washes. Investigation of the Ge/Ga and Sr/Y systems demonstrated that this solid-phase extraction method is erratic, but can give daughter yields as high at 89% with separation factors up to ∼ 10,000 form parent isotope. This method has the potential for producing daughter isotopes with a minimum of metal and organic impurities for labeling cells, receptor binding ligands, and antibodies for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic purposes

  19. Self-powdering and nonlinear optical domain structures in ferroelastic β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals formed in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Y.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Ferroelastic β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , (GMO), crystals are formed through the crystallization of 21.25Gd 2 O 3 -63.75MoO 3 -15B 2 O 3 glass (mol%), and two scientific curious phenomena are observed. (1) GMO crystals formed in the crystallization break into small pieces with a triangular prism or pyramid shape having a length of 50-500 μm spontaneously during the crystallizations in the inside of an electric furnace, not during the cooling in air after the crystallization. This phenomenon is called 'self-powdering phenomenon during crystallization' in this paper. (2) Each self-powdered GMO crystal grain shows a periodic domain structure with different refractive indices, and a spatially periodic second harmonic generation (SHG) depending on the domain structure is observed. It is proposed from polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra and the azimuthal dependence of second harmonic intensities that GMO crystals are oriented in each crystal grain and the orientation of (MoO 4 ) 2- tetrahedra in GMO crystals changes periodically due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic GMO crystals. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarized optical photograph at room temperature for a particle (piece) obtained by a heat treatment of the glass at 590 deg. C for 2 h in an electric furnace in air. This particle was obtained through the self-powdering behavior in the crystallization of glass. The periodic domain structure is observed. Ferroelastic β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 crystals are formed in the particle, and second harmonic generations are detected, depending on the domain structure.

  20. Optical properties of nanocrystalline potassium lithium niobate in the glass system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, M Niyaz; Varma, K B R

    2009-08-01

    Optically clear glasses of various compositions in the system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5) (2 glasses comprising potassium lithium niobate (K3Li2Nb5O15) microcrystallites on the surface and nanocrystallites within the glass were obtained by controlled heat-treatment of the as-quenched glasses just above the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The optical transmission spectra of these glasses and glass-crystal composites of various compositions were recorded in the 200-2500 nm wavelength range. Various optical parameters such as optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index were determined. Second order optical non-linearity was established in the heat-treated samples by employing the Maker-Fringe method.

  1. Toward green next-generation passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an increasingly important aspect of designing access networks, due to both increased concerns for global warming and increased network costs related to energy consumption. Comparing access, metro, and core, the access constitutes a substantial part of the per subscriber network energy consumption and is regarded as the bottleneck for increased network energy efficiency. One of the main opportunities for reducing network energy consumption lies in efficiency improvements of the customer premises equipment. Access networks in general are designed for low utilization while supporting high peak access rates. The combination of large contribution to overall network power consumption and low Utilization implies large potential for CPE power saving modes where functionality is powered off during periods of idleness. Next-generation passive optical network, which is considered one of the most promising optical access networks, has notably matured in the past few years and is envisioned to massively evolve in the near future. This trend will increase the power requirements of NG-PON and make it no longer coveted. This paper will first provide a comprehensive survey of the previously reported studies on tackling this problem. A novel solution framework is then introduced, which aims to explore the maximum design dimensions and achieve the best possible power saving while maintaining the QoS requirements for each type of service.

  2. Natural Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded zinc–tellurite glasses: Polarizability and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widanarto, W. [Physics Study Program, Jenderal Soedirman University, Jl. Dr. Soeparno 61, Purwokerto 53123 (Indonesia); Sahar, M.R., E-mail: rahimsahar@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Skudai 81310 (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K.; Arifin, R.; Rohani, M.S.; Hamzah, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Skudai 81310 (Malaysia); Jandra, M. [FTI, University Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Skudai 81310 (Malaysia)

    2013-02-15

    Modifying the optical behavior of zinc–tellurite glass by embedding magnetic nanoparticles has implication in nanophotonics. A series of zinc–tellurite glasses containing natural Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with composition (80 − x)TeO{sub 2}·xFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}·20ZnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) in mol% are synthesized by melt quenching method and their optical properties are investigated using FTIR and UV–vis–NIR spectroscopies. Lorentz–Lorenz relations are exploited to determine the refractive index, molar refraction and electronic polarizability. The sharp absorption peaks of FTIR spectra show a shift from 667 cm{sup −1} to 671 cm{sup −1} in the presence of nanoparticles that increase the non-bridging oxygen, confirmed by the intensity change of the TeO{sub 3} peak at 752 cm{sup −1}. A new peak around 461 cm{sup −1} is also observed which is attributed to the band characteristic of covalent Fe–O linkages. A decrease in the Urbach energy as much as 0.122 eV and the optical energy band gap with the increase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} concentration (0.5–1.0 mol%) is evidenced. Electronic polarizability of the glasses increases with increasing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles concentration up to 1 mol%. Interestingly, the polarizability tends to decrease with the further increase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} concentration at 2 mol%. The role of magnetic nanoparticles in influencing the structural and optical behavior are examined and understood. - Highlights: ► Incorporation of natural Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles into the zinc–tellurite glass. ► Influence of magnetic nanoparticles in modifying structure and optical properties. ► Enhancement of refraction index and change in electronic polarizability.

  3. Near-infrared optical properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguides prepared by double-energy proton implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Lv, Peng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-03-01

    We report on the preparation and properties of an optical planar waveguide structure operating at 1539 nm in the Yb3+-doped silicate glass. The waveguide was formed by using (470 + 500) keV proton implantation at fluences of (1.0 + 2.0) × 1016 ions/cm2. The waveguiding characteristics including the guided-mode spectrum and the near-field image were investigated by the m-line technique and the finite-difference beam propagation method. The energy distribution for implanted protons and the refractive index profile for the proton-implanted waveguide were simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter and the reflectivity calculation method. The proton-implanted Yb3+-doped silicate glass waveguide is a candidate for optoelectronic elements in the near-infrared region.

  4. High-capacity optical long data memory based on enhanced Young's modulus in nanoplasmonic hybrid glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiming; Xia, Zhilin; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Gu, Min

    2018-03-22

    Emerging as an inevitable outcome of the big data era, long data are the massive amount of data that captures changes in the real world over a long period of time. In this context, recording and reading the data of a few terabytes in a single storage device repeatedly with a century-long unchanged baseline is in high demand. Here, we demonstrate the concept of optical long data memory with nanoplasmonic hybrid glass composites. Through the sintering-free incorporation of nanorods into the earth abundant hybrid glass composite, Young's modulus is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude. This discovery, enabling reshaping control of plasmonic nanoparticles of multiple-length allows for continuous multi-level recording and reading with a capacity over 10 terabytes with no appreciable change of the baseline over 600 years, which opens new opportunities for long data memory that affects the past and future.

  5. Utilization of Cs137 to generate a radiation barrier for weapons grade plutonium immobilized in borosilicate glass canisters. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Armantrout, G.A.; Collins, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    One of the ways recommended by a recent National Academy of Sciences study to dispose of excess weapons-grade plutonium is to encapsulate the plutonium in a glass in combination with high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) to generate an intense radiation dose rate field. The objective is to render the plutonium as difficult to access as the plutonium contained in existing US commercial spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel until it can be disposed of in a permanent geological repository. A radiation dose rate from a sealed canister of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years after fabrication was assumed in this paper to be a radiation dose comparable to spent LWR fuel. This can be achieved by encapsulating the plutonium in a borosilicate glass with an adequate amount of a single fission product in the HLWS, namely radioactive Cs 137 . One hundred thousand curies of Cs 137 will generate a dose rate of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years when imbedded into canisters of the size proposed for the Savannah River Site's vitrified high-level wastes. The United States has a current inventory of 54 MCi of CS 137 that has been separated from defense HLWs and is in sealed capsules. This single curie inventory is sufficient to spike 50 metric tons of excess weapons-grade plutonium if plutonium can be loaded at 5.5 wt% in glass, or 540 canisters. Additional CS 137 inventories exist in the United States' HLWs from past reprocessing operations, should additional curies be required. Using only one fission product, CS 137 , rather than the multiple chemical elements and compounds in HLWs to generate a high radiation dose rate from a glass canister greatly simplifies the processing engineering retirement for encapsulating plutonium in a borosilicate glass

  6. Optical rogue waves generation in a nonlinear metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana Essama, Bedel Giscard; Atangana, Jacques; Biya-Motto, Frederick; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Cherkaoui Eddeqaqi, Noureddine; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the behavior of electromagnetic wave which propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. The optical pulse propagation is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearities, second- and third-order dispersion effects. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for positive index regime. The characterization of electromagnetic wave uses some pulse parameters obtained analytically and called collective coordinates such as amplitude, temporal position, width, chirp, frequency shift and phase. Six frequency ranges have been pointed out where a numerical evolution of collective coordinates and their stability are studied under a typical example to verify our analysis. It appears that a robust soliton due to a perfect compensation process between second-order dispersion and cubic-nonlinearity is presented at each frequency range for both negative and positive index regimes. Thereafter, the stability of the soliton pulse and physical conditions leading to optical rogue waves generation are discussed at each frequency range for both regimes, when third-order dispersion and quintic-nonlinearity come into play. We have demonstrated that collective coordinates give much useful information on external and internal behavior of rogue events. Firstly, we determine at what distance begins the internal excitation leading to rogue waves. Secondly, what kind of internal modification and how it modifies the system in order to build-up rogue events. These results lead to a best comprehension of the mechanism of rogue waves generation. So, it clearly appears that the rogue wave behavior strongly depends on nonlinearity strength of distortion, frequency and regime considered.

  7. Lanthanide-activated Na5Gd9F32 nanocrystals precipitated from a borosilicate glass: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization and optical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Daqin; Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yan; Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Zhenguo; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics were fabricated for the first time. • Such glass ceramics were achieved by phase-separation-controlled crystallization. • Elemental mapping evidenced the segregation of activators into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice. • Luminescent color could be tuned by controlling glass crystallization temperature. - Abstract: Lanthanide-activated cubic Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals were precipitated from a borosilicate glass with a specifically designed composition. The precursor glass is already phase-separated after melt-quenching, which is beneficial to the realization of the controllable glass crystallization for affording desirable size, morphology and activator partition. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the segregation of lanthanide ions into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice was in situ formed without the requirement of long-range ionic diffusion. Impressively, such fabricated glass ceramic co-doped with Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions exhibited intense upconversion luminescence, which was about 500 times higher than that of the precursor glass, and its luminescent color could be easily tuned from red to green by controlling glass crystallization temperature. It is anticipated that such phase-separation synthesis strategy with precise control over nanostructure of glass ceramics offer a great opportunity to design other highly transparent nanocomposites with a wide range of tunable optical properties

  8. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Jilani, Asim; Abutalib, M. M.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, M.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ(1), nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3), nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  9. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ{sup (1)}, nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  10. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  11. Structural, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral studies of Sm3+ ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Rama Krishna Reddy, K.; Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Srinivas Prasad, M. V. V. K.; Rao, A. S.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ ions doped Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique and characterized using the spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, optical absorption, emission and decay spectral measurements to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices. From absorption spectra, the bonding parameters, nephelauxetic ratios were determined to know the nature of bonding between Sm3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. From the measured oscillator strengths, the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters were evaluated and in turn used to estimate various radiative parameters for the fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ions in AEBT glasses. The PL spectra of Sm3+ ions exhibit three emission bands corresponding to the transitions 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 in the visible region for which the emission cross-sections and branching ratios were evaluated. The decay spectral profiles measured for 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition showed single exponential for lower concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration of doped rare earth ion in the as prepared glasses. Conversion of decay spectral profiles from single to non-exponential have been analyzed using Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism involved in the decay process. CIE Chromaticity coordinates were measured using emission spectral data to identify the exact region of emission from the as-prepared glasses. From the evaluated radiative parameters, emission cross-sections and quantum efficiencies, it was observed that AEBT glass with 1 mol% of Sm3+ ions is more suitable for designing optoelectronic devices.

  12. Hydrophobic and optical characteristics of graphene and graphene oxide films transferred onto functionalized silica particles deposited glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, H.; Khaled, M.; Laoui, T.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrophobic and optical transmittance characteristics of the functionalized silica particles on the glass surface prior and after transfer of graphene and graphene oxide films on the surface are examined. Nano-size silica particles are synthesized and functionalized via chemical grafting and deposited onto a glass surface. Graphene film, grown on copper substrate, was transferred onto the functionalized silica particles surface through direct fishing method. Graphene oxide layer was deposited onto the functionalized silica particles surface via spin coating technique. Morphological, hydrophobic, and optical characteristics of the functionalized silica particles deposited surface prior and after graphene and graphene oxide films transfer are examined using the analytical tools. It is found that the functionalized silica particles are agglomerated at the surface forming packed structures with few micro/nano size pores. This arrangement gives rise to water droplet contact angle and contact angle hysteresis in the order of 163° and 2°, respectively, and remains almost uniform over the entire surface. Transferring graphene and depositing graphene oxide films over the functionalized silica particles surface lowers the water droplet contact angle slightly (157-160°) and increases the contact angle hysteresis (4°). The addition of the graphene and graphene oxide films onto the surface of the deposited functionalized silica particles improves the optical transmittance.

  13. Crystallization Kinetics and Characterization of Nanostructure Mica Glass-Ceramics with Optical Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent glasses in a system of Li2O-MgO-SiO2-Al2O3-Fchemical constituents were prepared by melt quenching method. In the fabrication of nanocrystal glass-ceramics, controlled nucleation and subsequent crystal growth were necessary to avoid loss of transparency. It was therefore important to understand thermal properties and crystallization kinetics of the glass ceramics. The crystallization behavior of the prepared glass was investigated by DTA, XRD and SEM. By crystallization heat-treatment, various crystalline phases, microstructure and transmittance were obtained. The sellaite was first precipitated as the nuclei before the crystallization of mica and then mica nanocrystals were precipitated with average size of

  14. Preparation of high-purity Pr{sup 3+} doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaksina, E.V.; Shiryaev, V.S., E-mail: shiryaev@ihps.nnov.ru; Kotereva, T.V.; Velmuzhov, A.P.; Ketkova, L.A.; Snopatin, G.E.

    2016-09-15

    The multi-stage method for the synthesis of high-purity Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses doped with Pr{sup 3+} ions is developed. It is based on the chemical distillation purification of glass-forming melt and the chemical transport reactions for purification and vacuum loading of indium. The level of purity of glasses, synthesized by this method, is higher in comparison with the traditional direct melting method for glass synthesis. The high-purity Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–As–Se–In and Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glass samples are prepared; the optical, thermal and luminescent properties are investigated. The purest host glass samples, obtained by the multi-stage purification techniques, contain a low concentration of limiting impurities: hydrogen − ≤0.05 ppm (wt) and oxygen − ≤0.1 ppm (wt), that is, at present, the best result for multi-component chalcogenide glasses for mid-IR active fibers. The samples of Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–As–Se–In glass fibers have the minimum optical losses of 0.58 dB/m at the wavelength of 2.72 μm and exhibit an intense broadband luminescence in the spectral range of 3.5–5.5 μm, with a maximum shifted to longer wavelengths as compared with the bulk samples.

  15. Investigations on optical properties of Eu3+ ion doped magnesium telluroborate glasses for red laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, S.; Annapoorani, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2018-04-01

    Eu3+ doped Magnesium telluroborate glasses were prepared with the chemical composition (40-x)H3BO3+35 TeO2+15MgCO3+10MgF2+xEu2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in wt%) following the melt quenching technique and labeled as MTB0.1Eu, MTB0.5Eu, MTB1.0Eu and MTB2.0Eu respectively. The absorption spectra exhibit seven peaks in the visible and NIR region. Five emission peaks corresponding to the 5D0→7FJ (J=0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions were observed while exciting at 465 nm. The luminescence intensity ratio (R) and Ω2 parameter values were found to be higher for the MTB0.5Eu glass thus indicates the higher asymmetry around the Eu3+ ions site compared to other prepared glasses. The CIE color chromaticity coordinates of the present glasses are found to lie in the prominent red region in the chromaticity diagram. The stimulated emission cross-section value of the MTB0.5Eu glass was found to be higher pertaining to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition compared to the other prepared glasses and reported literature thus suggests its suitability for red laser applications.

  16. Bismuth modified physical, structural and optical properties of mid-IR transparent zinc boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, R.S.; Dhankhar, Sunil; Punia, R., E-mail: rajeshpoonia13@gmail.com; Nanda, Kirti; Kishore, N.

    2014-02-25

    %) in the spectral range (λ = 2.5–6.5 μm) which is of great technological importance. The percentage value of transmittance increases with increase in Bi concentration. The Hydrogenic excitonic model is applicable to the presently studied glasses and the optical band gap energies (E{sub g}) calculated from this model and Tauc’s plots for direct transitions are almost same. E{sub g} decreases with increase in bismuth content, however, the molar refractivity (R{sub m}) show the reverse trend. Metallization criterion for these materials shows that these glasses may be potential candidates for non linear applications.

  17. Radiation induced changes of optical, electrical and mechanical properties of glasses, dielectrics and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with investigating the influence of ionizing radiation on different materials. Concretely, the change of their physical characteristics such as, the electrical resistivity, the optical density, the thermoluminescence spectra, the microhardness etc. The investigated materials are: polyethylene, glasses containing U 3 O 8 , Na 2 O and K 2 O, polyvinyl alcohol containing Ni 2 SO 4 , CoCl 2 , CuSO 4 and Cu (CH 3 COO) 2 , polymer Pb 2 O 3 /composite, germanium sulphur alloy, synthetic and natural diamond, nickel chromium steel and silicon. Irradiation is carried out in neutron fields of 10 5 -10 14 neutron/cm 2 , gamma radiation in the dose range 10 2 -10 6 Gy. and swift heavy ions of energy 1 MeV/amu fluence range 10 8 -10 16 ion/cm 2 . The possibility of working out dosimetric devices (using the above mentioned materials) possessing accurate and well expressed metrical characteristics for detecting different sorts of radiation is investigated. The optimum conditions of using these dosimeters (under different thermodynamic conditions and absolute values of registered radiation) are determined. The process of defect formation and evolution in silicon single crystal and diamond irradiated with swift heavy ions is studied. The influence of high-energy heavy ions on the surface structure of nickel chromium steel is investigated. The formation of thermally stable conducting layers at the far depth of the boron projective range in silicon irradiated with swift boron ions is confirmed. Irradiation of nickel chromium steel with xenon ions lead to the change of the elemental composition of the irradiated surface. For the case of diamond semiconductor single crystal irradiated with high-energy xenon or krypton ions possessing energy 1 MeV/nucleon, the track formation is observed for the first time. The track formation criteria are established. A model characterizing the interaction of high-energy heavy ions with diamond is introduced. Such model is found

  18. Effect of MnO2 doped on physical, structure and optical properties of zinc silicate glasses from waste rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jabbar Abed Al-Nidawi

    Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was conducted to explore and synthesize silicate (SiO2 glass from waste rice husk ash (RHA. MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses with chemical formula [(ZnO55 + (WRHA45]100-X[MnO2]X, (where X = 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glass samples were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that by increasing the concentration of MnO2, the color of glass samples changed from colorless to brown and the density of glass increased. XRD results showed that a broad halo peak which centered on the low angle (2θ = 30° indicated the amorphous nature of the glass. FTIR results showed basic structural units of Si-O-Si in non-bridging oxygen, Si-O and Mn-O in the glass network. FESEM result showed a decreasing porosity with an increasing MnO2 content, which was attributed to the Mn ions resort to occupy interstitial sites inside the pores of glass. Besides, the absorption intensity of glass increased and the band gap value decreased with increasing the MnO2 percentage. In this synthesized glass system of MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses using RHA as a source of silica, the MnO2 affect most of the properties of the glass system under investigation. Keywords: Rice husk, Manganese dioxide, Glass, Zinc silicate, Sintering, Optical properties

  19. Fabrication of highly nonlinear germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots using atomization doping process and its optical nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Han, Won-Taek

    2011-01-31

    Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10(-16) m2/W.

  20. Crystallization kinetics, optical and dielectric properties of Li2OṡCdOṡBi2O3ṡSiO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Saroj; Sanghi, Sujata; Ahlawat, Neetu; Agarwal, Ashish

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization kinetics, optical absorption and electrical behavior of lithium cadmium silicate glasses with different amount of bismuth oxide were investigated using non-isothermal crystallization approach, UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. These glasses were synthesized by normal melt quenching technique. Variation in physical properties, viz. density, molar volume with Bi2O3:SiO2 ratio were related to the structural changes occurring in the glasses. The glass transition temperature (Tg), crystalline peak temperature (Tp) and melting temperature (Tm) of these glasses were determined using differential scanning calorimeter at various heating rates. The dependence of Tg and Tp on heating rate has been used for the determination of the activation energy of glass transition and crystallization. Thermal stability parameters have revealed high stability of the glass prepared with 40 mol% of Bi2O3 content. The crystallization kinetics for the glasses was studied by using the Kissinger and modified Ozawa equations. Appearance of a sharp cut-off and a wide and reasonable transmission in VIS-NIR region makes these glasses suitable for IR transmission window. The cut-off wavelength, optical band gap and Urbach's energy have been analyzed and discussed in terms of changes in the glass structure. By analyzing the impedance spectra, the ac and dc conductivities, activation energy for dc conduction (Edc) and for relaxation (EM″) were calculated. The results obtained from dc conductivity confirm the network forming role of Cd2+ ion in the glasses. The scaling of the conductivity spectra has been used to interpret the temperature dependence of the relaxation dynamics. The observed conductivity spectra follows power law with exponent 's' which decreases with temperature and satisfies the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The perfect overlying of normalized plots of electrical modulus on a single 'master curve' depicts temperature as well as

  1. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  3. Thermal, optical and structural properties of glasses within the TeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-ZnO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghribi, N. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Sciences des Matériaux et de l’Environnement Laboratory, Sfax University, Route de Soukra km 4, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Dutreilh-Colas, M.; Duclère, J.-R. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Hayakawa, T. [Field of Advanced Energy Conversion, Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Carreaud, J. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Karray, R.; Kabadou, A. [Sciences des Matériaux et de l’Environnement Laboratory, Sfax University, Route de Soukra km 4, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); and others

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This paper reports on original results on new tellurium oxide-based glasses which are actually very promising glasses in the field of nonlinear optics. • We present for the first time the determination of a new glassy system and the structure of the glasses has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy which is actually the most adapted method in laboratory to study the local structure of tellurite glasses, a detail linear and non-linear optical study is also presented. - Abstract: A glass-forming domain was evidenced and studied within the TeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-ZnO system. Density, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and onset crystallization temperature (T{sub 0}) were measured and interpreted as a function of the zinc oxide mole fraction for relevant glasses. It was concluded that the zinc oxide favors the thermal stability of glasses. On the other hand, the impact of TiO{sub 2} addition is even more pronounced on the enhancement of the thermal stability. The optical transmission was recorded for series of glasses in the UV-Visible-NIR range. Refractive index and optical band gap were extracted from these measurements and studied as a function of the ZnO content. Linear refractive indices and optical band gap were found to decrease and increase respectively, with increasing ZnO content. The third-order non-linear susceptibility Re (χ{sup 3}), measured for two series of glasses (TiO{sub 2} content was fixed either to 5 or 10 mol%), was found to progressively decrease when the ZnO concentration increases. The impact of ZnO modifier on the glass structure was discussed based on Raman spectroscopy data. We evidenced that TiO{sub 2} does not change drastically the glass network, whereas ZnO leads in a first step to the breaking of the Te-O-Te bridges, inducing network depolymerization. A further addition in ZnO leads to the formation of new Te-O-Zn and Zn-O-Zn linkages.

  4. New fluorophosphate glasses co-doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} as candidates for generating tunable visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, T.B. de, E-mail: thiago.branquinho-de-queiroz@uni-bayreuth.de [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Theoretical Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Botelho, M.B.S. [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gonçalves, T.S.; Dousti, M. Reza [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Camargo, A.S.S. de, E-mail: andreasc@ifsc.usp.br [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-10-25

    A series of optically active Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped fluorophosphate glasses with compositions (BaF{sub 2}){sub 0.25}(SrF{sub 2}){sub 0.25}(AlF{sub 3}){sub 0.10}[Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 0.20}(YF{sub 3}){sub 0.20-x}(EuF{sub 3} and/or TbF{sub 3}){sub x} (x = 0 to 0.04) was prepared and characterized by optical spectroscopy. While embedded in the oxyfluoride host, the cited rare earth (RE) ions exhibit improved spectroscopic properties such as longer excited state lifetimes than in oxide glasses and intense emissions in the red ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}, Eu{sup 3+}), green and blue ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}D{sub 3},{sup 5}G{sub 6} → {sup 7}F{sub 5},{sup 7}F{sub 4}, Tb{sup 3+}) spectral regions. Based on this fact, co-doped samples can be designed with appropriate concentrations of these two ions and generate tunable and white light upon excitation with suitable wavelengths, dispensing the need for a third blue emitting RE ion. Four co-doped samples with equal amounts of EuF{sub 3} and TbF{sub 3} and total concentration of 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol% were tested. Their CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated for various excitation wavelengths in the region from 350 to 360 nm allowing tuned emission from blue to red. The long lifetime values of the emitting levels in these co-doped samples (τ ≈ 3.1 ms for Eu{sup 3+5}D{sub 0}, and τ ≈ 4.0 ms for Tb{sup 3+5}D{sub 4}), associated with fairly high quantum yields (Q.Y. = 5–12%) of the samples indicate that these materials could be efficiently pumped by high power LEDs around 355 nm. - Highlights: • Fluorophosphate glasses doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and excellent optical properties. • Tunable visible emission and white emission in co-doped samples. • Rare earth bonding preference to fluoride rather than phosphate ions.

  5. Mixed-Alkali Effect in Li2O-Na2O-K2O-B2O3 Glasses: Infrared and Optical Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samee, M. A.; Edukondalu, A.; Ahmmad, Shaik Kareem; Taqiullah, Sair Md.; Rahman, Syed

    2013-08-01

    The mixed-alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the glass system (40 - x)Li2O- xNa2O-10K2O-50B2O3 (0 mol% ≤ x ≤ 40 mol%) through density, modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and optical absorption studies. From the absorption studies, the values of the optical band gap ( E opt) for direct transition and Urbach energy (Δ E) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and Δ E show nonlinear behavior with the compositional parameter. The density and glass-transition temperature of the present glasses also show nonlinear variation, supporting the existence of MAE. The infrared (IR) spectra of the glasses reveal the presence of three- and four-coordinated boron atoms. The specific vibrations of Li-O, Na-O, and K-O bonds were observed in the present IR study.

  6. Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y-J; Chun, B J; Kim, Y; Hyun, S; Kim, S-W

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the frequency comb of a fs laser as the frequency ruler to generate reference optical frequencies for multi-channel DWDM (dense wavelength-division-multiplexing) telecommunication. Our fiber-based scheme of single-mode extraction enables on-demand generation of optical frequencies within the telecommunication band with an absolute frequency uncertainty of 9.1×10 -13 . The linewidth of extracted optical modes is less than 1 Hz, and the instability is measured 2.3×10 -15 at 10 s averaging. This outstanding performance of optical frequency generation would lead to a drastic improvement of the spectral efficiency for the next-generation DWDM telecommunication

  7. Free Space Optics for Next Generation Cellular Backhaul

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2016-11-01

    The exponential increase in the number of mobile users, coupled with the strong demand for high-speed data services results in a significant growth in the required cellular backhaul capacity. Optimizing the cost efficiency while increasing the capacity is becoming a key challenge to the cellular backhaul. It refers to connections between base stations and mobile switching nodes over a variety of transport technologies such as copper, optical fibers, and radio links. These traditional transmission technologies are either expensive, or cannot provide high data rates. This work is focused on the opportunities of free-space-optical (FSO) technology in next generation cellular back- haul. FSO is a cost effective and wide bandwidth solution as compared with the traditional radio-frequency (RF) transmission. Moreover, due to its ease of deployment, license-free operation, high transmission security, and insensitivity to interference, FSO links are becoming an attractive solution for next generation cellular networks. However, the widespread deployment of FSO links is hampered by the atmospheric turbulence-induced fading, weather conditions, and pointing errors. Increasing the reliability of FSO systems, while still exploiting their high data rate communications, is a key requirement in the deployment of an FSO-based backhaul. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide different approaches to address these technical challenges. In this context, investigation of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols from an information-theoretic perspective is undertaken. Moreover, performance analysis of asymmetric RF/FSO dual-hop systems is studied. In such system models, multiple RF users can be multiplexed and sent over the FSO link. More specifically, the end-to-end performance metrics are presented in closed-form. This also has increased the interest to study the performance of dual-hop mixed FSO/RF systems, where the FSO link is used as a multicast channel that serves

  8. Optical properties of single doped Cr3+ and co-doped Cr3+-Nd3+ aluminum tantalum tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mendoza, U.R.; Speghini, A.; Jaque, D.; Zambelli, M.; Bettinelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The optical properties for single doped Cr 3+ and co-doped Cr 3+ -Nd 3+ aluminum tantalum tellurite glasses have been studied as a function of temperature. For the single doped glass, the existence of two bands in the emission spectra at low temperature indicates the presence of two different sites for the Cr 3+ ions, labelled as usual as low- and high-field sites. The broad band centred in the Near Infrared region, corresponds to low-field sites transition 4 T 2 → 4 A 2 , and the narrow band centred at approximately 715 nm to the high-field sites transition 2 E→ 4 A 2 . The emission intensity for both high- and low-field sites shows a strong decrease with increasing temperature, with the emission for the former sites vanishing at RT. In both cases the quenching observed with the increase of temperature can be ascribed to the presence of non-radiative relaxation mechanisms. Experimental observations for the co-doped glass show that both radiative and non-radiative energy transfer processes from Cr 3+ to Nd 3+ are present

  9. Evaluation of TeO2 content on the optical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M. O.; Gomes, J. F.; Hegeto, F. L.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Barboza, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the characterization of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite (CaBTeX) glasses with composition 10CaF2-(29.5 - 0.4x)CaO-(60 - 0.6x)B2O3-xTeO2-0.5Yb2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 31 and 54 mol%). The results of XRD confirm the amorphous character of all the samples. The density, molar volume, refractive index and electronic polarizability values show an increase with TeO2 content. Otherwise, the optical band gap energy shows a decrease with the increase of TeO2 content. The replacement of CaO and B2O3 by TeO2 changes the glass structure, which decreases the excited Yb3 +/cm3 and, consequently, the luminescence intensity. The temperature dependence of luminescence was studied for all the samples up to 420 K. The fluorescence lifetime does not change significantly due to TeO2 addition. In addition, absorption and emission cross section were calculated and present high values as compared to other tellurite and phosphate glasses.

  10. Structural and optical studies of Er3+-doped alkali/alkaline oxide containing zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifier applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Caldiño, U.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Falcony, C.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Halimah, M. K.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we report on the optical spectral properties of Er3+-doped zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses with an addition of 10 mol % alkali/alkaline modifier regarding the fabrication of new optical materials for optical amplifiers. A total of 10 glasses were prepared using melt-quenching technique with the compositions (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10Li2O - xEr2O3 and (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10MgO - xEr2O3 (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol %). We confirm the amorphous-like structure for all the prepared glasses using X-ray diffraction (XRD). To study the functional groups of the glass composition after the melt-quenching process, Raman spectroscopy was used, and various structural units such as triangular and tetrahedral-borates (BO3 and BO4) have been identified. All the samples were characterized using optical absorption for UV, visible and NIR regions. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the optical absorption spectra of two glasses LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 (doped with 2 mol % of Er3+). JO parameters for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 glasses follow the trend as Ω6>Ω2>Ω4. Using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, we obtained radiative probability A (S-1), branching ratios (β), radiative decay lifetimes τrad (μs) of emissions from excited Er+3 ions in LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 to all lower levels. Quantum efficiency (η) of 4I13/2 and 4S3/2 levels for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 with and without 4D7/2 level was calculated using the radiative decay lifetimes τrad. (μs) and measured lifetimes τexp. (μs). We measured the visible photoluminescence under 377 nm excitation for both LiEr and MgEr glass series within the region 390-580 nm. Three bands were observed in the visible region at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm, as a result of 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 2H11/2 → 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions, respectively. Decay lifetimes for emissions at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm were measured and they show

  11. Evaluation of a pyrex glass shield for the dose reduction in extremities to manipulate a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayra P, F.E.; Xiques C, A.; Torres B, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The production of Y-90 of high activity it specifies (free of payee) for their use in radioimmunotherapy uses the Strontium 90 as isotope source. Depending on the method employee for the separation of both isotopes several types of generators are described in different bibliographies. The column generator used in the facilities of the Center of Isotopes requires of a frequent manipulation causing significant dose in the skin of the extremities due to the exhibition to the radiation beta of high energy. The properties of the shieldings for this radiation type have been well studied Y they consist in several publications. To be in correspondence with requirements of radiological protection in the Cuban legislation, the column was covered with a tube of glass pyrex of 5 mm of thickness and it was monitored the exposure with an ionization chamber. At the own time, the shielding using the Monte Carlo method was evaluated. It was used the MCNP 4C code to simulate the absorption of the beta particles generated in the process of disintegration of the Sr-90 and Y-90 in the glass shielding. The column generator and the fluence of beta particles were modeled in different points inside the shielding to determine if the experimentally measured values correspond to electrons that were not absorbed or to the weak stopping radiation generated in the glass due to the deceleration of these particles. A cylinder of 4 mm of diameter simulates the source (it dilutes) and a tube of walls of 6 mm of thickness simulates the shielding more the wall of the column around the generator. This it was divided in cells of 1 mm of thickness and the energy deposited in them was evaluated. The results show that all the electrons generated in the source are absorbed in the shielding and the exposure rates decrease in more of 78 times using the 5 mm of pyrex glass. The doses in extremities to the operators of the generator don't surpass the 70 mSv by year that is the dose restriction imposed in the

  12. Preparation and optical characterization of PbCl(2)-Sb(2)O(3)-TeO(2) glasses doped with rare earth elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, Petr; Zavadil, Jiří; Pedlíková, Jitka; Poulain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 8 (2011), s. 1821-1826 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : glass * heavy metal oxides * optical properties * photoluminescence Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2011

  13. Mixed alkali effect in borate glasses - electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption studies in Cu sup 2 sup + doped xNa sub 2 O- (30 - x)K sub 2 O- 70B sub 2 O sub 3 glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Chakradhar, R P S; Rao, J L; Ramakrishna, J

    2003-01-01

    The mixed alkali borate glasses xNa sub 2 O-(30 - x)K sub 2 O-70B sub 2 O sub 3 (5 sup sup 2 B sub 2 sub g) and a weak band on the higher energy side at 22 115 cm sup - sup 1 corresponding to the transition ( sup 2 B sub 1 sub g -> sup 2 E sub g). With x > 5, the higher energy band disappears and the lower energy band shifts slightly to the lower energy side. By correlating the EPR and optical absorption data, the molecular orbital coefficients alpha sup 2 and beta sub 1 sup 2 are evaluated for the different glasses investigated. The values indicate that the in-plane sigma bonding is moderately covalent while the in-plane pi bonding is significantly ionic in nature; these exhibit a minimum with x = 15, showing the MAE. The theoretical values of optical basicity of the glasses have also been evaluated. From optical absorption edges, the optical bandgap energies have been calculated and are found to lie in the range 3.00-3.40 eV. The physical properties of the glasses studied have also been evaluated with respe...

  14. A Next-Generation Apparatus for Lithium Optical Lattice Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Aviv

    Quantum simulation is emerging as an ambitious and active subfield of atomic physics. This thesis describes progress towards the goal of simulating condensed matter systems, in particular the physics of the Fermi-Hubbard model, using ultracold Lithium atoms in an optical lattice. A major goal of the quantum simulation program is to observe phase transitions of the Hubbard model, into Neal antiferromagnetic phases and d-wave superfluid phases. Phase transitions are generally accompanied by a change in an underlying correlation in a physical system. Such correlations may be most amenable to probing by looking at fluctuations in the system. Experimental techniques for probing density and magnetization fluctuations in a variety of atomic Fermi systems are developed. The suppression of density fluctuations (or atom "shot noise") in an ideal degenerate Fermi gas is observed by absorption imaging of time-of-flight expanded clouds. In-trap measurements of density and magnetization fluctuations are not easy to probe with absorption imaging, due to their extremely high attenuation. A method to probe these fluctuations based on speckle patterns, caused by fluctuations in the index of refraction for a detuned illumination beam, is developed and applied first to weakly interacting and then to strongly interacting in-trap gases. Fluctuation probes such as these will be a crucial tool in future quantum simulation of condensed matter systems. The quantum simulation experiments that we want to perform require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. A distributed GUI-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, The Cicero Word Generator, is described. The system makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature allows this to be extended to other output

  15. Characterization of optical and microstructural properties of semitransparent TiO{sub 2}/Ti/glass interference decorative coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronski, L., E-mail: lukasz.skowronski@utp.edu.pl; Wachowiak, A.A.; Grabowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The interference color TiO{sub 2}/Ti/glass systems were produced using the GIMS. • The thicknesses of Ti films (12–73 nm) is associated with the transmittance of samples. • The thicknesses of TiO{sub 2} film determine the color of a sample from gold (11 nm) to blue (47 nm). • The samples with thicker titanium film exhibit more saturated colors. • The elaborated method can be used to produce architectural glazing. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the optical properties and the microstructure of semitransparent interference TiO{sub 2}/Ti/glass systems obtained by gas injection magnetron sputtering (GIMS). The samples are examined by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. The investigation is complemented by colorimetric measurements. Optical constants of titanium and titanium dioxide layers are determined and carefully studied. An influence of the deposition time on the thickness of metallic and dielectric films has been found. The thickness of Ti films ranges from 12 nm to 73 nm, while that of TiO{sub 2} films varies from 11 nm to 43 nm. This thickness directly determines the color of a sample from gold to blue, respectively.

  16. Characterization and enhanced nonlinear optical limiting response in carbon nanodots dispersed in solid-state hybrid organically modified silica gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zheng, Chan; Guo, Qiaohang; Huang, Dongdong; Wu, Xiukai; Chen, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Freely dispersed carbon nanodots (CNDs) were introduced into a 3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane modified silicate gel glass (i.e. an organically modified silica or ORMOSIL) by a highly efficient and simple sol-gel process, which could be easily extended to prepare functional molecules/nanoparticles solid state optoelectronic devices. Scanning electron microscope imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pore structure measurements, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface characteristics, structure, texture, and linear optical properties of the CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses. Images and UV/Vis spectra confirmed the successful dispersion of CNDs in the ORMOSIL gel glass. The surface characteristics and pore structure of the host SiO2 matrix were markedly changed through the introduction of the CNDs. The linear optical properties of the guest CNDs were also affected by the sol-gel procedure. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the CNDs were investigated by a nanosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm both in liquid and solid matrices. We found that the NLO response of the CNDs was considerably improved after their incorporation into the ORMOSIL gel glasses. Possible enhancement mechanisms were also explored. The nonlinear extinction coefficient gradually increased while the optical limiting (OL) threshold decreased as the CND doping level was increased. This result suggests that the NLO and OL properties of the composite gel glasses can be optimized by tuning the concentration of CNDs in the gel glass matrix. Our findings show that CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses are promising candidates for optical limiters to protect sensitive instruments and human eyes from damage caused by high power lasers.

  17. Effect of Abrasion-Induced Contact Damage on the Optical Properties and Strength of Float Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-07

    in glass. J Am Ceram Soc. 1969;52(6):338–339. 2. Mecholsky JJ Jr, Freiman SW, Rice RW. Effect of grinding on flaw geometry and fracture of glass. J...Am Ceram Soc. 1977;60(3–4):114–117. 3. Rice RW, Mecholsky JJ Jr. The nature of strength controlling machining flaws in ceramics. In: Hockey BJ, Rice...National Bureau of Standards; 1979. p. 351–378. 4. Rice RW, Mecholsky JJ Jr, Becher PF. The effect of grinding direction on flaw character and

  18. Optical temperature sensor based on the Nd{sup 3+} infrared thermalized emissions in a fluorotellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalla, E.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); León-Luis, S.F., E-mail: sleonlui@ull.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Monteseguro, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-Rodríguez, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Cáceres, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de la Laguna, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, 38200 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    The temperature dependence of the infrared luminescence of a fluorotellurite glass doped with 0.01 and 2.5 mol% of Nd{sup 3+} ions was studied in order to use it as a high temperature sensing probe. For this purpose, the emission intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}), ({sup 2}H{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}),{sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions were measured in a wide range of temperatures from 300 upto 650 K. The changes in the emission profiles were calibrated by means of the fluorescence intensity ratio technique. The calibrations showed a strong dependence on the Nd{sup 3+} ions concentration, having the low-doped concentrated sample the best response to changes of temperature. The maximum value obtained for the thermal sensibility is 17×10{sup −4} K{sup −1} at 640 K, being one of the highest values found in the literature for Nd{sup 3+} optical temperature sensors. Finally, the experimental calibrations were compared with the theoretical temperature luminescence response calculated from the Judd–Ofelt theory. - Highlights: • Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glasses were prepared. • The intensities of the ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2},{sup 4}F{sub 7/2}),({sup 2}H{sub 9/2},{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}), {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transitions. • The highest thermal sensitivity has been obtained for the glass with the lowest concentration of Nd{sup 3+} ions. • The Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluorotellurite glass fits the requirement for a good temperature sensor.

  19. Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Friedrich, P.; Gallieni, D.; Guldimann, B.; Martelli, F.; Negri, R.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Scaglione, F.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Terzi, L.; Tintori, M.; Vongehr, M.; Wille, E.; Winter, A.; Zambra, A.

    2010-07-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) consist of a large number of high quality segments delivering a spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec. A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory. We are investigating two approaches, the "Direct" and "Indirect" slumping technologies, being respectively based on the use of convex and concave moulds. In the first case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface, while in the second case it is the rear side of the foil which touches the master. Both approaches present pros and cons and aim of this study is also to make an assessment of both processes and to perform a trade-off between the two. The thin plates are made of D263glass produced by Schott. Each plate is 0.4 mm thick, with a reflecting area of 200 mm x 200 mm; the mould are made of Fused Silica. After the thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized to define their optical quality and microroughness. The adopted integration process foresees the bonding of the slumped foils to a rigid backplane by means of reinforcing ribs. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact to the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of a vacuum pump suction. In this way spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we present the preliminary results concerning achieved during the first part of the project.

  20. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2017-09-01

    Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value. The maximum lead sulfide recovery rate was approximately 93%, at the optimum sodium carbonate level, sodium sulfide level, temperature, and holding time of 25%, 8%, 1200°C, and 2h, respectively. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sol-gel optical thin films for an advanced megajoule-class Nd:glass laser ICF-driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Pegon, P.M.; Dijonneau, C.S.; Guerain, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established by manufacturers and users that optical coatings are generally prepared by the well known Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technology. In the authors' opinion sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the sol-gel thin film work carried out at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) and concerning the technology for high power lasers. The authors will briefly discuss the chemistry of the sol-gel process, the production of optical coatings and the related deposition techniques. Finally, the paper describes the preparation and performance of sol-gel optical coatings they have developed to fulfill the requirements of a future 2 MJ/500 TW (351 nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser so-called LMJ (Laser MegaJoules). This powerful laser is to be used for their national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, to demonstrate at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel. Moreover, the aim of this article is, hopefully, to provide a convincing argument that coatings and particularly optical coatings, are some of the useful products available from sol-gel technology, and that exciting developments in other areas are almost certain to emerge within the coming decade

  2. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M. J.; Costa, C. G.; Silva, M. F.; Gonçalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Ribeiro, A. Fernando; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The 45° saw dicing is fully characterized in this paper, which also includes an analysis of the roughness. The optimum process results in surfaces with a roughness of 19.76 nm (rms). The actual saw dicing process for a high-quality final surface results as a compromise between the dicing blade’s grit size (#1200) and the cutting speed (0.3 mm s-1). The proposed wafer-level fabrication allows rapid and low-cost processing, high compactness and the possibility of wafer-level alignment/assembly with other optical micro components for OCT integrated imaging.

  3. Optical properties of erbium doped antimony based glasses: Promising visible and infrared amplifiers materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamzaoui, M.; Soltani, M.; Baazouzi, M.; Tioua, B.; Ivanova, Z.G.; Lebullenger, R.; Poulain, M.; Zavadil, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 11 (2012), s. 2213-2221 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Glasses * Rare earths * Photoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on optical properties of Ce 3+ - doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.; Chen, B.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Mihóková, Eva; Nikl, Martin; Polato, P.; Zanella, G.; Zannoni, R.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2002), s. 231-234 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : glass scintillator * radiation hardness * colour centres Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2002

  5. Composition effects on optical properties of Tb.sup.3+./sup.-doped heavy germanate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Xia, F.; Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2005), s. 293-296 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : luminescence * transmission * germanate glass es * Tb-doped Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2005

  6. Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Total Number: PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of...3 1b 2 3 a b Fig. 14. Schematic of a DBR (a) and DFB (b) lasers in Yb doped PTR glass. 1a and 1b – dichroic beam splitters with HR at 1066 nm and HT

  7. Preparation and characterization of VB metal group glass for optical fiber communication devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, N.; Barbosa, L.C.; Garrido, F.M.S.; Alves, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work was prepared the glass of composition Nb 2 O 5 (25.04%) - PbO (23.91%) - P 2 O 5 (34.25%) - K 2 O (16.80%) using a RF induction furnace at temperature of 1400 C for two hours under ambient atmosphere. The obtained glass are annealed at 300 C. The samples (powder and thin plates) was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and by determination of the thermal coefficient of expansion (dilatometry). Results shown the formation of a very homogeneous glass with a thermal coefficient of expansion (α) of 22.7.10 -6 C -1 . The ir bands suggest the formation of a phosphate glass with a good transmission in the region of 2.0-2.9 microns (5000-3400 cm -1 ). The transmission spectrum shows that the material is transparent in the region of 400-1000 nm with a cut-off at near 350nm. (author) [pt

  8. Stream cipher based on pseudorandom number generation using optical affine transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toru; Togo, Hiroyuki; Tanida, Jun; Ichioka, Yoshiki

    2000-07-01

    We propose a new stream cipher technique for 2D image data which can be implemented by iterative optical transformation. The stream cipher uses a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate pseudo-random bit sequence. The proposed method for the PRNG is composed of iterative operation of 2D affine transformation achieved by optical components, and modulo-n addition of the transformed images. The method is expected to be executed efficiently by optical parallel processing. We verify performance of the proposed method in terms of security strength and clarify problems on optical implementation by the optical fractal synthesizer.

  9. Dynamic optical bistability in resonantly enhanced Raman generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikova, I.; Phillips, D.F.; Zibrov, A.S.; Andre, A.; Walsworth, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of novel dynamic behavior in resonantly enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in Rb vapor. In particular, we demonstrate a dynamic hysteresis of the Raman scattered optical field in response to changes of the drive laser field intensity and/or frequency. This effect may be described as a dynamic form of optical bistability resulting from the formation and decay of atomic coherence. We have applied this phenomenon to the realization of an all-optical switch

  10. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  11. Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedy, Lenin; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze and demonstrate that spectral efficiency of a conventional direct detection based optical OFDM system (DDO-OFDM) can be improved significantly using frequency interleaving of adjacent DDO-OFDM channels where OFDM signal band of one channel occupies the spectral gap of other channel and vice versa. We show that, at optimum operating condition, the proposed technique can effectively improve the spectral efficiency of the conventional DDO-OFDM system as much as 50%. We also show that such a frequency interleaved DDO-OFDM system, with a bit rate of 48 Gb/s within 25 GHz bandwidth, achieves sufficient power budget after transmission over 25 km single mode fiber to be used in next-generation time-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM-PON). Moreover, by applying 64- quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the system can be further scaled up to 96 Gb/s with a power budget sufficient for 1:16 split TDM-PON.

  12. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  13. Channel optical waveguides in various silicate glasses - optimalization of their parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salavcová, Linda; Ondráček, František; Špirková, J.; Míka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 1 (2007), S371-S373 ISSN 0957-4522. [ICOOPMA2006 - International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications /1./. Darwin, 15.07.2006-22.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : ion exchange * optical waveguides * optical measurement Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronic s, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  14. Wavelength-tunable laser based on nonlinear dispersive-wave generation in a tapered optical waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a wavelength tunable laser comprising a first laser source configured to emit a first optical pulse having a pump wavelength, the first optical pulse being emitted in a first longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the wavelength tunable laser comprises...... a waveguide extending in the first longitudinal direction, the waveguide having longitudinally varying phase matching conditions, the waveguide being configured to generate a second optical pulse with a centre wavelength upon receiving the first optical pulse, wherein the wavelength tunable laser...... is configured to tune the centre wavelength of the second optical pulse by varying at least one pulse property of the first optical pulse....

  15. Efficient enhancement of bismuth NIR luminescence by aluminum and its mechanism in bismuth doped germanate laser glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.P.; Tan, L.L.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    As a new member of laser glass family, bismuth-doped glasses have received rising interests due to the application of fiber amplifiers and laser sources in the new spectral range for the next-generation optical communication system. For practical application of the glasses, it must be considered ...

  16. Fabrication of Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) on film carriers for in-situ application and generation of surface acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, V; Stratoudaki, T; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2015-01-01

    Cheap optical transducers (CHOTs) are patterns on the surface of a component activated by lasers to generate and detect ultrasound. Excited optically, with minimal surface impact, and fully customizable, CHOTs provide a simple alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers, offering wireless, remote operation. Of particular interest is application of CHOTs for in-situ ultrasonic inspection of hard-to reach and complex-geometry components such as those of aero-engines. A suitable fabrication method has been developed to allow in-situ application of CHOTs onto large size and curved components, as well as those already in service, challenging for current laboratory-based micro-patterning methods. This work describes the fabrication of a transferable g-CHOT for generation of ultrasound. The g- CHOT has been made on an SU8 carrier film using a sacrificial polystyrene layer, allowing the transducer to be transferred from the substrate and subsequently delivered and applied to the surface of the sample in-situ. The functionality of the fabricated transducer is demonstrated by detection of the Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) generated by the g-CHOT transferred onto glass and aluminium samples

  17. Helico-conical beams for generating optical twisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Daria, Vincent Ricardo Mancao

    2010-01-01

    charge is increased, the area where destructive interference at the centre increases thereby enlarging the light ring. The propagation along the optical axis follows a conical ray of light where the concentration of high intensities is maintained at the outskirts of the conical beam where constructive...... with an apodized helical phase front at the outskirts and linearly scaled towards no phase singularity at the centre of the beam. At the focal volume, we show that our beam fonms an intensity distribution that can be accurately described as an "optical twister" as it propagates along the optical axis. Unlike LG...... beams, an optical twister can have minimal changes in radius but with a scalable DAM. Furthenmore, we characterize the DAM in tenms of its capacity to introduce spiral motion on particles trapped along its orbit. We also show that our "optical twister" maintains a high concentration of photons...

  18. Optical thermometry based on green upconversion emission in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhao, Shilong; Lei, Ruoshan; Huang, Lihui; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-02-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ codoped BaGdF5 glass ceramics have been prepared and used to develop a portable all-fiber temperature sensor based on fluorescence intensity ratio technique. XRD and TEM results affirm the generation of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the borosilicate glass. Eu3+ ions are used as spectral probe to investigate external environment around rare earth (RE) ions. Intense green upconversion emissions from Er3+ ions are detected in the BaGdF5 glass ceramics and their intensity are enhanced about three orders of magnitude after heat treatment, which is attributed to the enrichment of RE ions in the BaGdF5 phase. Based on green upconversion emission from Er3+ ions, the temperature sensing property of the portable all-fiber temperature sensor is studied. The maximum absolute sensitivity is 15.5 × 10-4 K-1 at 567 K and the relative sensitivity is 1.28% K-1 at 298 K, respectively.

  19. Oriented color centres being formed in anisotropic action of optical radiation on sodium-silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinova, N.A.; Glebov, L.B.; Dokuchaev, V.G.; Savel'ev, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of anisotropy of absorption of hole colour centres appearing in sodium-silicate glass due to anisotropic action of UV radiation. In case of such action in the field of long-wave edge of their fundamental absorption oriented hole colour centres occurs with maximum of absorption bands to 2.0, 2.8, 4.1 eV. Principal direction of hole colour centres orientation in this case coincides with orientation of ionized glass matrix centres. Orientation of such kind is connected with selective ionization of disorderedly oriented centres forming edge of fundamental absorption. Value of guided dichroism of colour centres absorption is determined by hole migration

  20. Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Xu, Jing; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of error-free 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing using the Kerr non-linearity of an only 5 cm long chalcogenide glass waveguide chip. Our approach exploits four-wave mixing by the instantaneous nonlinear response of chalcogenide. Excellent performance is achieved with onl...... 2 dB average power penalty and no indication of error-floor. Characterisation of the FWM efficiency for the chalcogenide waveguide is given and confirms the good performance of the device....

  1. Dynamics of the optically-induced properties of a small-polaronic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1979-01-01

    The relaxation and recombination of an electronic excitation created by the absorption of a super-band-gap photon is considered for a system in which excitons and charge carriers find it energetically favorable to self-trap. The notions of a barrier to self-trapping, a short-range repulsion between electrons and holes, and the electromodulation of the small-polaron absorption band play a central role in this discussion. The results are consistent with experiments on chalcogenide glasses

  2. Gain measurements at 182 /angstrom/ in C VI generated by a Nd/glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Skinner, C.H.; Umesh, G.; Suckewer, S.

    1988-11-01

    We present recent gain measurements in C VI at 182 A for a soft x-ray amplifier produced by a line-focused glass laser(1.053 μm) on a solid carbon target. The maximum gain measured was 8 +- 1 cm/sup /minus/1/ in the recombining plasma column with additional radiation cooling by iron impurities. 10 refs., 3 figs

  3. Preparation and investigation of Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiryaev, V.S., E-mail: shiryaev@ihps.nnov.ru [G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 49 Tropinin Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Karaksina, E.V.; Kotereva, T.V.; Churbanov, M.F.; Velmuzhov, A.P.; Sukhanov, M.V.; Ketkova, L.A.; Zernova, N.S. [G.G. Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 49 Tropinin Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Plotnichenko, V.G.; Koltashev, V.V. [Fiber Optics Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Str., 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    For the first time, high purity Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses doped with Pr{sup 3+} ions are prepared. The host Ge–Sb–Se–In-I glass samples are fabricated using a combination of chemical and distillation methods of purification as well as a chemical transport reaction route. The glass structure, the content of gas-forming impurities and particles, as well as the optical, thermal and luminescent properties were investigated. The host and Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses are characterized by low optical losses in the mid-IR, low impurity content and high stability against crystallization. The content of hydrogen and oxygen impurities in the purest host glass samples, obtained using the multistep purification procedure, does not exceed 0.1 and 0.5 ppm(wt), respectively. The prepared Pr{sup 3+}-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses exhibit intense broadband luminescence in the 3.5–6 μm spectral range, with a lifetime of 6 ms at the wavelength of 4.7 μm.

  4. Optical and vibrational spectroscopy of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 modified lithium borate glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Pamarti; Prashanth, Sadhu Sai Pavan; Molli, Muralikrishna; Wicram, Jaschin Prem; Sai Muthukumar, V.

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics are excellent replacement for single crystalline materials which are expensive and difficult to fabricate. In this context, we have attempted to fabricate glass nanocomposites comprising of Lithium Borate glass matrix embedded with lead free ferroelectric Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT). Both of these functional materials are known to exhibit excellent ferroelectric behavior and are currently explored for various device applications. We have prepared these novel glass nanocomposite using melt-quenching techniquein various chemical composition involving different molar ratio. x(Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3)-(1-x)(Li2O.2B2O3) where (x=0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4). The as-quenched samples exhibited amorphous nature as revealed by X-ray Diffraction studies. With the increase in BCZT content we have observed significant alteration in optical bandgap and Urbach energy. The tailoring of optical properties by tuning the structure was probed by Raman vibrational spectroscopy which confirmed the dominant role played by BCZT as a network modifier in these borate glasses. Concomitantly, these glass nanocomposites were found to be excellent UV absorbers.

  5. Next Generation Flexible and Cognitive Heterogeneous Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkos, Ioannis; Angelou, Marianna; Barroso, Ramón J. Durán

    2012-01-01

    Optical networking is the cornerstone of the Future Internet as it provides the physical infrastructure of the core backbone networks. Recent developments have enabled much better quality of service/experience for the end users, enabled through the much higher capacities that can be supported...... the capabilities of the Future Internet. In this book chapter, we highlight the latest activities of the optical networking community and in particular what has been the focus of EU funded research. The concepts of flexible and cognitive optical networks are introduced and their key expected benefits...

  6. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  7. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Peled, A.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence in x-ray irradiated xSnO-(25-x)SrO-75B2O3 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, H.; Nakagawa, R.; Takei, Y.; Hirasawa, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Masai, H.; Kurobori, T.; Yanagida, T.; Fujimoto, Y.

    2015-06-01

    An intense optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was observed, for the first time, in x-ray irradiated xSnO-(25-x)SrO-75B2O3 glass. It was found that the peak wavelength of OSL emission spectrum and its stimulation spectrum is about 400 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The OSL intensity is depended on the SnO contents (x=0.05-1.5) and the most intense OSL was observed in 1.0 mol% SnO doped glass. It was found that the OSL intensity is increased with increasing x-ray absorbed dose. Fairly good fading characteristics were observed in the x-ray irradiated glass, showing that this glass is useful as a candidate for OSL sensor materials for ionizing radiation monitoring.

  9. Terahertz Generation in an Electrically Biased Optical Fiber: A Theoretical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montasir Qasymeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically investigate a novel approach for generating terahertz (THz radiation in a standard single-mode fiber. The optical fiber is mediated by an electrostatic field, which induces an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility via the Kerr effect. The THz generation is based on difference frequency generation (DFG. A dispersive fiber Bragg grating (FBG is utilized to phase match the two interacting optical carriers. A ring resonator is utilized to boost the optical intensities in the biased optical fiber. A mathematical model is developed which is supported by a numerical analysis and simulations. It is shown that a wide spectrum of a tunable THz radiation can be generated, providing a proper design of the FBG and the optical carriers.

  10. Thermal characteristics, Raman spectra, optical and structural properties of TiO2-Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nupur; Khanna, Atul; Gonzàlez, Fernando; Iordanova, Reni

    2017-05-01

    Tellurite and borotellurite glasses containing Bi2O3 and TiO2 were prepared and structure-property correlations were carried out by density measurements, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. Titanium tellurite glasses require high melt-cooling rates and were fabricated by splat quenching. On adding B2O3, the glass forming ability (GFA) enhances, and glasses could be synthesized at lower quenching rates. The density of glasses shows a direct correlation with molecular mass of the constituents. UV-visible studies were used to determine the optical band gap and refractive index. Raman studies found that the co-ordination number of tellurium ions with oxygen (NTe-O) decreases with the increase in B2O3 as well as Bi2O3 content while, TiO2 produce only a small decrease in NTe-O, which explains the lower GFA of titanium tellurite glasses that do not contain Bi2O3 and B2O3. DSC studies show that the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with B2O3 and TiO2 concentrations and that Tg correlates well with bond enthalpy of the metal oxides.

  11. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-03-30

    xLa 2 O 3 -(100 - x)Ga 2 O 3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16-2.41 Å 3 , indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La 2 O 3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm -1 , being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La 2 O 3 -Ga 2 O 3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range.

  12. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-03-01

    xLa2O3-(100 - x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16-2.41 Å3, indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm-1, being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range.

  13. Structural, thermal and optical properties of TeO2-ZnO-CdO-BaO glasses doped with VO(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, V; Upender, G; Chandra Mouli, V; Prasad, M

    2015-09-05

    The glasses with composition 64TeO2-15ZnO-(20-x)CdO-xBaO-1V2O5 (0⩽x⩽20 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the glasses. The optical absorption studies revealed that the cut-off wavelength (λα) decreases while optical band gap energy (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values increase with an increase of BaO content. Refractive index (n) evaluated from Eopt was found to decrease with an increase of BaO content. The physical parameters such as density (ρ), molar volume (Vm), oxygen packing density (OPD), optical basicity (Λ), molar refraction (Rm), and metallization criterion (M) evaluated and discussed. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies showed that the glass network consists of TeO4, TeO3+1/TeO3 and ZnO4 units as basic structural units. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of glass sample, onset crystallization temperature (To) and thermal stability ΔT were determined from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of vanadium glasses the spin Hamiltonian parameters and dipolar hyperfine coupling parameters of VO(2+) ions were calculated. It was found that V(4+) ions in these glasses exist as VO(2+) in octahedral coordination with a tetragonal distortion and have C4V symmetry with ground state dxy. Tetragonality (Δg∥/Δg⊥) of vanadium ion sites exhibited non-linear variation with BaO content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S., E-mail: rupesh_gedam@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy{sup 3+} doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K{sub gl}), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  15. Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we...... consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks....

  16. Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, F; Cardenas, A; Tafur, I

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks.

  17. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  18. Optical band gap and Raman spectra in AxB0.2-x(TeO2)0.8 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ožďanová, J.; Tichá, H.; Tichý, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2010), s. 1024-1029 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : telluride glasses * optical band gap * Raman scattering Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=2453&catid=50

  19. Fabrication and characterization of chromium-doped nanophase separated yttria-alumina-silica glass-based optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Debjit; Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Paul, Mukul C. [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopic Section, Material Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-08-15

    The basic material and optical properties of chromium-doped nanophase-separated yttria-alumina-silica (YAS) glass based optical preforms and fibers, fabricated through the modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping technique under suitable thermal annealing conditions are reported. The size of the phase-separated particles within the core of the annealed preform is around 20-30 nm which is significantly reduced to around 5.0 nm in the drawn fiber. The absorption spectra of fibers drawn from the annealed and non-annealed preform samples revealed the presence of Cr{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 6+} specie. Numerically, extinction of absorption drops ∝3-3.5 times for the annealed sample as a result of nano-phase restructuration during annealing process. Intense broadband emission (within 500-800 nm) in case of the annealed preform sample is observed as compared to the non-annealed one and is associated with the presence of Cr{sup 3+} ions in nanostructured environment inside the YAS core glass. The final fibers show broadband emission ranging from 900 to 1400 nm under pumping at 1064 nm which is attributed mainly to the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} ions. The fabricated fibers seem to be a potential candidate for the development of fiber laser sources for the visible and near-infra ranges and for effective Q-switching units for ∝1-1.1 μm all-fiber ytterbium lasers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism