A Vowel Is a Vowel: Generalizing Newly Learned Phonotactic Constraints to New Contexts
Chambers, Kyle E.; Onishi, Kristine H.; Fisher, Cynthia
2010-01-01
Adults can learn novel phonotactic constraints from brief listening experience. We investigated the representations underlying phonotactic learning by testing generalization to syllables containing new vowels. Adults heard consonant-vowel-consonant study syllables in which particular consonants were artificially restricted to the onset or coda…
An onset is an onset: Evidence from abstraction of newly-learned phonotactic constraints.
Bernard, Amélie
2015-01-01
Phonotactic constraints are language-specific patterns in the sequencing of speech sounds. Are these constraints represented at the syllable level (ng cannot begin syllables in English) or at the word level (ng cannot begin words)? In a continuous recognition-memory task, participants more often falsely recognized novel test items that followed than violated the training constraints, whether training and test items matched in word structure (one or two syllables) or position of restricted consonants (word-edge or word-medial position). E.g., learning that ps are onsets and fs codas, participants generalized from pef (one syllable) to putvif (two syllables), and from putvif (word-edge positions) to bufpak (word-medial positions). These results suggest that newly-learned phonotactic constraints are represented at the syllable level. The syllable is a representational unit available and spontaneously used when learning speech-sound constraints. In the current experiments, an onset is an onset and a coda a coda, regardless of word structure or word position.
Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa
A word learning paradigm was used to teach children novel words that varied in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. The effects of frequency and density on speech production were examined when phonetic forms were non-referential (i.e., when no referent was attached) and when phonetic forms were referential (i.e., when a referent was attached through fast mapping). Two methods of analysis were included: (1) kinematic variability of speech movement patterning; and (2) measures of segmental accuracy. Results showed that phonotactic frequency influenced the stability of movement patterning whereas neighborhood density influenced phoneme accuracy. Motor learning was observed in both non-referential and referential novel words. Forms with low phonotactic probability and low neighborhood density showed a word learning effect when a referent was assigned during fast mapping. These results elaborate on and specify the nature of interactivity observed across lexical, phonological, and articulatory domains.
Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa
2016-01-01
A word learning paradigm was used to teach children novel words that varied in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. The effects of frequency and density on speech production were examined when phonetic forms were nonreferential (i.e., when no referent was attached) and when phonetic forms were referential (i.e., when a referent was…
Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa
2016-01-01
A word learning paradigm was used to teach children novel words that varied in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. The effects of frequency and density on speech production were examined when phonetic forms were nonreferential (i.e., when no referent was attached) and when phonetic forms were referential (i.e., when a referent was…
Warker, Jill A; Dell, Gary S
2015-11-01
Novel phonotactic constraints can be acquired by hearing or speaking syllables that follow a novel constraint. When learned from hearing syllables, these newly learned constraints generalize to syllables that were not experienced during training. However, generalization of phonotactic learning to novel syllables has never been persuasively demonstrated in production. The typical production experiment examines phonotactic learning through speech errors. After participants repeat syllable sequences embedded with a novel phonotactic constraint, such as /f/ appearing only in onset position, their speech errors come to adhere to the novel constraint. For example, when participants mistakenly move an /f/ to another syllable, it overwhelmingly moves to an onset rather than a coda position. We assessed whether constraints learned and measured in this manner generalize to unexperienced syllables and, at the same time, whether the slips tend to create previously experienced syllables (a syllable priming effect). We found evidence of generalization but not of syllable priming in participants' speech errors. The effect of phonotactic learning was as powerfully expressed during the production of unexperienced as experienced syllables. A connectionist model simulated the experimental results using a single learning mechanism and successfully reproduced the constraint learning, generalization, and lack of priming.
Perceptual Constraints in Phonotactic Learning
Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques
2010-01-01
Structural regularities in language have often been attributed to symbolic or statistical general purpose computations, whereas perceptual factors influencing such generalizations have received less interest. Here, we use phonotactic-like constraints as a case study to ask whether the structural properties of specific perceptual and memory…
Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J
2016-06-01
Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy.
Effects of Vocabulary and Phonotactic Probability on 2-Year-Olds' Nonword Repetition
Verhagen, Josje; de Bree, Elise; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul
2017-01-01
This study investigates the relationship between nonword repetition (NWR) and vocabulary in 2-year-olds. Questions addressed are whether (1) NWR and vocabulary are associated, (2) phonotactic probability affects NWR, and (3) there is an interaction effect between phonotactic probability and vocabulary on NWR performance. The general aim of the…
Lentz, T.O.; Kager, R.W.J.
2015-01-01
Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabil
The influence of phonotactics on oral reading in Russian
Ulicheva, Anastasia
2015-01-01
This PhD research investigates the role of phonotactics in oral reading from theoretical, empirical and computational perspectives, none of which has been undertaken to date. On the theoretical side, I begin laying the groundwork for the study of phonotactic influence in reading: I explain why phonotactics may be an important factor for oral reading, propose criteria for identification of phonotactic constraints in a language, and devise a method to study phonotactic effects in reading - via ...
Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis
Steele, Sara C.
2012-01-01
This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…
Lentz, Tomas O; Kager, René W J
2015-09-01
Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabilistic phonotactics is potentially blocked for L2 acquisition. The facilitatory effects of L2 probabilistic phonotactics and categorical filtering effects of L1 phonotactics were compared and contrasted in a series of cross-modal priming experiments. Dutch native listeners and L1 Spanish and Japanese learners of Dutch had to perform a lexical decision task on Dutch words that started with /sC/ clusters that were of different degrees of probabilistic wellformedness in Dutch but illegal in Spanish and Japanese. Versions of target words with Spanish illegality resolving epenthesis in the clusters primed the Spanish group, showing an L1 filter; a similar effect was not found for the Japanese group. In addition, words with wellformed /sC/ clusters were recognised faster, showing a positive effect on processing of probabilistic wellformedness. However, Spanish learners with higher proficiency were facilitated to a greater extent by wellformed but epenthesised clusters, showing that although probabilistic learning occurs in spite of the L1 filter, the acquired probabilistic knowledge is still affected by L1 categorical knowledge. Categorical phonotactic and probabilistic knowledge are of a different nature and interact in acquisition.
Phonotactic Probability Effects in Children Who Stutter
Anderson, Julie D.; Byrd, Courtney T.
2008-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of "phonotactic probability", which is the frequency of different sound segments and segment sequences, on the overall fluency with which words are produced by preschool children who stutter (CWS) as well as to determine whether it has an effect on the type of stuttered disfluency…
Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian
Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad
2016-01-01
The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…
The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers
MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara
2014-01-01
This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response to…
The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers
MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara
2014-01-01
This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response…
Limits on Learning Phonotactic Constraints from Recent Production Experience
Warker, Jill A.; Dell, Gary S.; Whalen, Christine A.; Gereg, Samantha
2008-01-01
Adults can learn new artificial phonotactic constraints by producing syllables that exhibit the constraints. The experiments presented here tested the limits of phonotactic learning in production using speech errors as an implicit measure of learning. Experiment 1 tested a constraint in which the placement of a consonant as an onset or coda…
Phonotactic Constraints Are Activated across Languages in Bilinguals
Freeman, Max R.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica
2016-01-01
During spoken language comprehension, auditory input activates a bilingual’s two languages in parallel based on phonological representations that are shared across languages. However, it is unclear whether bilinguals access phonotactic constraints from the non-target language during target language processing. For example, in Spanish, words with s+ consonant onsets cannot exist, and phonotactic constraints call for epenthesis (addition of a vowel, e.g., stable/estable). Native Spanish speakers may produce English words such as estudy (“study”) with epenthesis, suggesting that these bilinguals apply Spanish phonotactic constraints when speaking English. The present study is the first to examine whether bilinguals access Spanish phonotactic constraints during English comprehension. In an English cross-modal priming lexical decision task, Spanish–English bilinguals and English monolinguals heard English cognate and non-cognate primes containing s+ consonant onsets or controls without s+ onsets, followed by a lexical decision on visual targets with the /e/ phonotactic constraint or controls without /e/. Results revealed that bilinguals were faster to respond to /es/ non-word targets preceded by s+ cognate primes and /es/ and /e/ non-word targets preceded by s+ non-cognate primes, confirming that English primes containing s+ onsets activated Spanish phonotactic constraints. These findings are discussed within current accounts of parallel activation of two languages during bilingual spoken language comprehension, which may be expanded to include activation of phonotactic constraints from the irrelevant language. PMID:27242615
Learning novel phonotactics from exposure to continuous speech
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Frans Adriaans
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of phonotactics is commonly assumed to derive from the lexicon. However, computational studies have suggested that phonotactic constraints might arise before the lexicon is in place, in particular from co-occurrences in continuous speech. The current study presents two artificial language learning experiments aimed at testing whether phonotactic learning can take place in the absence of words. Dutch participants were presented with novel consonant constraints embedded in continuous artificial languages. Vowels occurred at random, which resulted in an absence of recurring word forms in the speech stream. In Experiment 1 participants with different training languages showed significantly different preferences on a set of novel test items. However, only one of the two languages resulted in preferences that were above chance-level performance. In Experiment 2 participants were exposed to a control language without novel statistical cues. Participants did not develop a preference for either phonotactic structure in the test items. An analysis of Dutch phonotactics indicated that the failure to induce novel phonotactics in one condition might have been due to interference from the native language. Our findings suggest that novel phonotactics can be learned from continuous speech, but participants have difficulty learning novel patterns that go against the native language.
The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.
Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru
2015-04-01
Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.
Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern.
Roemmich, Ryan T; Bastian, Amy J
2015-06-01
Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to "remember" how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state.
Phonotactic awareness deficit following left-hemisphere stroke
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Maryam Ghaleh
2015-04-01
Likert-type scale responses were z-transformed and coded accurate for positive z-values in condition 3 and negative z-values in condition 1 trials. Accuracy was analyzed using binomial mixed effects models and z-transformed scale responses were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. For both analyses, the fixed effects of stimulus, trial number, group (patient/control, education, age, response time, phonotactic regularity (1/3, and gender were examined along with all relevant interactions. Random effects for participant and stimuli as well as random slopes were also included. Model fitting was performed in a backward-stepwise iterative fashion, followed by forward fitting of maximal random effects structure. Models were evaluated by model fitness comparisons using Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion. Accuracy analysis revealed that healthy participants were significantly more accurate than patients [β = 0.47, p<0.001] in Englishness rating. Scale response analysis revealed a significant effect of phonotactic regularity [β = 1.65, p<0.0001] indicating that participants were sensitive to phonotactic regularity differences among non-words. However, the significant interaction of group and phonotactic regularity [β = -0.5, p= 0.02] further demonstrated that, compared to healthy adults, patients were less able to recognize the phonotactic regularity differences between non-words. Results suggest that left-hemisphere lesions cause impaired phonotactic processing and that the left hemisphere might be necessary for phonotactic awareness. These preliminary findings will be followed up by further analyses investigating the interactions between phonotactic processing and participants’ scores on other linguistic/cognitive tasks as well as lesion-symptom mapping.
Preattentive phonotactic processing as indexed by the mismatch negativity.
Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas
2010-10-01
Processing of an obligatory phonotactic restriction outside the focus of the participants' attention was investigated by means of ERPs using (reversed) experimental oddball blocks. Dorsal fricative assimilation (DFA) is a phonotactic constraint in German grammar that is violated in *[epsilonx] but not in [open ox], [epsilonintegral], and [open ointegral]. These stimulus sequences engage the auditory deviance detection mechanism as reflected by the MMN component of the ERP. In Experiment 1 (n = 16), stimuli were contrasted pairwise such that they shared the initial vowel but differed with regard to the fricative. Phonotactically ill-formed deviants elicited stronger MMN responses than well-formed deviants that differed acoustically in the same way from the standard stimulation but did not contain a phonotactic violation. In Experiment 2 (n = 16), stimuli were contrasted such that they differed with regard to the vowel but shared the fricative. MMN was elicited by the vowel change. An additional, later MMN response was observed for the phonotactically ill-formed syllable only. This MMN cannot be attributed to any phonetic or segmental difference between standard and deviant. These findings suggest that implicit phonotactic knowledge is activated and applied in preattentive speech processing.
Listeners learn phonotactic patterns conditioned on suprasegmental cues.
White, Katherine S; Chambers, Kyle E; Miller, Zachary; Jethava, Vibhuti
2017-12-01
Language learners are sensitive to phonotactic patterns from an early age, and can acquire both simple and 2nd-order positional restrictions contingent on segment identity (e.g., /f/ is an onset with /æ/but a coda with /ɪ/). The present study explored the learning of phonototactic patterns conditioned on a suprasegmental cue: lexical stress. Adults first heard non-words in which trochaic and iambic items had different consonant restrictions. In Experiment 1, participants trained with phonotactic patterns involving natural classes of consonants later falsely recognized novel items that were consistent with the training patterns (legal items), demonstrating that they had learned the stress-conditioned phonotactic patterns. However, this was only true for iambic items. In Experiment 2, participants completed a forced-choice test between novel legal and novel illegal items and were again successful only for the iambic items. Experiment 3 demonstrated learning for trochaic items when they were presented alone. Finally, in Experiment 4, in which the training phase was lengthened, participants successfully learned both sets of phonotactic patterns. These experiments provide evidence that learners consider more global phonological properties in the computation of phonotactic patterns, and that learners can acquire multiple sets of patterns simultaneously, even contradictory ones.
Phonotactic Probability in Amharic: A Psycholinguistic and Computational Investigation
Colavin, Rebecca Irene Victoria
2013-01-01
In this dissertation, the robustness of the relationship between the lexical frequency of phonotactic patterns and word-acceptability is examined for words of Amharic, an understudied Semitic language. The patterns under investigation span the whole verb root and include both under-represented and over-represented consonant distributions in the…
Effect of Phonotactic Constraints on Second Language Speech Processing.
Katayama, Tamami
2015-12-01
In this study, we examined whether phonotactic constraints of the first language affect speech processing by Japanese learners of English and whether their proficiency of the second language influences it. Native English speakers and second language speakers with a high level of language proficiency and those with a low level took part in a monitoring task. They were given two kinds of sound stimuli as target syllables (i.e., consonant-vowel and consonant-vowel-consonant) and were asked to detect them in lists of words that have stress on the first or second syllable (e.g., biscuit and beside). The results showed that both stress and phonotactics facilitated segmentation strategies by the three groups. The Japanese groups did not rely on either phonotactics or morae to segment the target syllables. They rather used stress to detect the target syllables in the English words, which is a different segmentation strategy from their first language. This study showed that phonotactic constraints did not interfere with second language processing by native Japanese speakers and provided evidence that second language speakers use the segmentation strategy that is used by native speakers of the target language.
Effect of Phonotactic Constraints on Second Language Speech Processing
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Tamami Katayama
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, we examined whether phonotactic constraints of the first language affect speech processing by Japanese learners of English and whether their proficiency of the second language influences it. Native English speakers and second language speakers with a high level of language proficiency and those with a low level took part in a monitoring task. They were given two kinds of sound stimuli as target syllables (i.e., consonant–vowel and consonant–vowel–consonant and were asked to detect them in lists of words that have stress on the first or second syllable (e.g., biscuit and beside. The results showed that both stress and phonotactics facilitated segmentation strategies by the three groups. The Japanese groups did not rely on either phonotactics or morae to segment the target syllables. They rather used stress to detect the target syllables in the English words, which is a different segmentation strategy from their first language. This study showed that phonotactic constraints did not interfere with second language processing by native Japanese speakers and provided evidence that second language speakers use the segmentation strategy that is used by native speakers of the target language.
Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.
Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob
2016-04-01
A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.
Segmentation cues in conversational speech: robust semantics and fragile phonotactics.
White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L; Wiget, Lukas
2012-01-01
Multiple cues influence listeners' segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker's articulatory effort - hyperarticulation vs. hypoarticulation (H&H) - may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners' interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs. read), using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylized landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues - semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics - was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech. Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favorable/unfavorable) and cue type (phonotactics/semantics). Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behavior. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically based cues in the segmentation of natural conversational speech.
First-language phonotactics in second-language listening
Weber, A.C.; Cutler, A.
2006-01-01
Highly proficient German users of English as a second language, and native speakers of American English, listened to nonsense sequences and responded whenever they detected an embedded English word. The responses of both groups were equivalently facilitated by preceding context that both by English and by German phonotactic constraints forced a boundary at word onset (e.g., lecture was easier to detect in moinlecture than in gorklecture, and wish in yarlwish than in plookwish. The American L1...
Segmentation cues in conversational speech: Robust semantics and fragile phonotactics
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Laurence eWhite
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Multiple cues influence listeners’ segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker’s articulatory effort – hyperarticulation vs hypoarticulation (H&H – may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners’ interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs read, using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylised landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues – semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics – was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech.Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favourable/unfavourable and cue type (phonotactics/semantics. Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behaviour. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically-based cues in the segmentation of natural
Phonotactic Probabilities at the Onset of Language Development: Speech Production and Word Position
Zamuner, Tania S.
2009-01-01
Purpose: To examine the role of phonotactic probabilities at the onset of language development, in a new language (Dutch), while controlling for word position. Method: Using a nonword imitation task, 64 Dutch-learning children (age 2;2-2;8 [years;months]) were tested on how they imitated segments in low- and high-phonotactic probability…
Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks
Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L
1998-01-01
Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported
Producing speech with a newly learned morphosyntax and vocabulary: an magnetoencephalography study.
Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Laine, Matti; Salmelin, Riitta
2014-08-01
Ten participants learned a miniature language (Anigram), which they later employed to verbally describe a pictured event. Using magnetoencephalography, the cortical dynamics of sentence production in Anigram was compared with that in the native tongue from the preparation phase up to the production of the final word. At the preparation phase, a cartoon image with two animals prompted the participants to plan either the corresponding simple sentence (e.g., "the bear hits the lion") or a grammar-free list of the two nouns ("the bear, the lion"). For the newly learned language, this stage induced stronger left angular and adjacent inferior parietal activations than for the native language, likely reflecting a higher load on lexical retrieval and STM storage. The preparation phase was followed by a cloze task where the participants were prompted to produce the last word of the sentence or word sequence. Production of the sentence-final word required retrieval of rule-based inflectional morphology and was accompanied by increased activation of the left middle superior temporal cortex that did not differ between the two languages. Activation of the right temporal cortex during the cloze task suggested that this area plays a role in integrating word meanings into the sentence frame. The present results indicate that, after just a few days of exposure, the newly learned language harnesses the neural resources for multiword production much the same way as the native tongue and that the left and right temporal cortices seem to have functionally different roles in this processing.
Samoan root phonotactics: Digging deeper into the data
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John Alderete
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This article gives a detailed quantitative account of Samoan root phonotactics. In particular, count data is given in eleven tables of segment frequencies (i.e., consonants, short and long vowels, diphthongs and frequencies of combinations of segments (i.e., syllable types, consonant-vowel combinations, V-V and C-C combinations across syllables. Systematic patterns of over- and under-representation of these structures in the lexicon are documented and related to prior research. Beyond the detailed frequency facts presented here, new empirical patterns documented include positional preferences for bilabials and non-labial sonorants, extensions of a known pattern of gradient vowel assimilation, and identification of a role for manner and segment order in consonant co-occurrence restrictions.
Steinberg, Johanna; Jacobsen, Thomas Konstantin; Jacobsen, Thomas
2016-01-01
Purpose: Effects of categorical phonotactic knowledge on pre-attentive speech processing were investigated by presenting illegal speech input that violated a phonotactic constraint in German called "g-deletion." The present study aimed to extend previous findings of automatic processing of phonotactic violations and to investigate the…
Segmenting speech without a lexicon The roles of phonotactics and speech source
Cartwright, T A; Cartwright, Timothy Andrew; Brent, Michael R.
1994-01-01
Infants face the difficult problem of segmenting continuous speech into words without the benefit of a fully developed lexicon. Several sources of information in speech might help infants solve this problem, including prosody, semantic correlations and phonotactics. Research to date has focused on determining to which of these sources infants might be sensitive, but little work has been done to determine the potential usefulness of each source. The computer simulations reported here are a first attempt to measure the usefulness of distributional and phonotactic information in segmenting phoneme sequences. The algorithms hypothesize different segmentations of the input into words and select the best hypothesis according to the Minimum Description Length principle. Our results indicate that while there is some useful information in both phoneme distributions and phonotactic rules, the combination of both sources is most useful.
#CCV- > KV-: CORPUS-BASED EVIDENCE OF HISTORICAL CHANGE IN ENGLISH PHONOTACTICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Schreier
2005-06-01
Full Text Available This paper examines modifications in the phonotactic system of English, as attested in changes that affected the tactic behaviour of individual consonants. This is exemplified by the loss of initial clusters in English (#CC- > #C-, which resulted in a merger of the cluster with a single consonant and effectively changed the syllable structure to CV-; this affected initial clusters such as */kn-1, */wl-1 or */hr-/. A corpus-based study traces these changes and dates them to various periods of the historical evolution of English. The findings suggest that multiple causations can be put forward to explain phonotactic change in English, including continuation of changes inherited from Germanic (and completed in Middle English, putative contact influence with Norman French, as well as local, independent innovation. Moreover, the trajectory of loss is traced also, which indicates that phonotactic change proceeds in similar fashion to other linguistic innovations (namely in an S-curve trajectory.
Davidson, Lisa
2011-01-01
Previous research indicates that multiple levels of linguistic information play a role in the perception and discrimination of non-native phonemes. This study examines the interaction of phonetic, phonemic and phonological factors in the discrimination of non-native phonotactic contrasts. Listeners of Catalan, English, and Russian are presented…
The acquisition of subset and superset phonotactic knowledge in a second language
M. Trapman; R. Kager
2009-01-01
Can second language (L2) learners acquire a grammar that allows a subset of the structures allowed by their native grammar? This question is addressed here with respect to acquisition of phonotactics. On the assumption that the L2 initial state equals the native grammar's final state, learnability t
Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers
MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara
2013-01-01
Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…
Implicit Processing of Phonotactic Cues: Evidence from Electrophysiological and Vascular Responses
Rossi, Sonja; Jurgenson, Ina B.; Hanulikova, Adriana; Telkemeyer, Silke; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth
2011-01-01
Spoken word recognition is achieved via competition between activated lexical candidates that match the incoming speech input. The competition is modulated by prelexical cues that are important for segmenting the auditory speech stream into linguistic units. One such prelexical cue that listeners rely on in spoken word recognition is phonotactics.…
Warker, Jill A.
2013-01-01
Adults can rapidly learn artificial phonotactic constraints such as /"f"/ "occurs only at the beginning of syllables" by producing syllables that contain those constraints. This implicit learning is then reflected in their speech errors. However, second-order constraints in which the placement of a phoneme depends on another…
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.
2017-01-01
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C
2017-01-01
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.
Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Maekawa, Junko; Lee, Su-Yeon
2013-01-01
Purpose: Phonotactic probability or neighborhood density has predominately been defined through the use of gross distinctions (i.e., low vs. high). In the current studies, the authors examined the influence of finer changes in probability (Experiment 1) and density (Experiment 2) on word learning. Method: The authors examined the full range of…
van der Kleij, S.W.; Rispens, J.E.; Scheper, A.R.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on pseudoword learning in 17 Dutch-speaking typically developing children (mean age 7;2). They were familiarized with 16 one-syllable pseudowords varying in PP (high vs low) and ND (high
Kleij, S.W. van der; Rispens, J.E.; Scheper, A.R.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on pseudoword learning in 17 Dutch-speaking typically developing children (mean age 7; 2). They were familiarized with 16 one-syllable pseudowords varying in PP (high vs low) and ND
Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Maekawa, Junko; Lee, Su-Yeon
2013-01-01
Purpose: Phonotactic probability or neighborhood density has predominately been defined through the use of gross distinctions (i.e., low vs. high). In the current studies, the authors examined the influence of finer changes in probability (Experiment 1) and density (Experiment 2) on word learning. Method: The authors examined the full range of…
Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas
2010-07-01
In auditory speech processing, implicit linguistic knowledge is activated and applied on phonetic and segment-related phonological processing level even if the perceived sound sequence is outside the focus of attention. In this study, the effects of language-specific phonotactic restrictions on pre-attentive auditory speech processing were investigated, using the Mismatch Negativity component of the human event-related brain potential. In German grammar, the distribution of the velar and the palatal dorsal fricative is limited by an obligatory phonotactic constraint, Dorsal Fricative Assimilation, which demands that a vowel and a following dorsal fricative must have the same specifications for articulatory backness. For passive oddball stimulation, we used three phonotactically correct VC syllables and one incorrect VC syllable, composed of the vowels [epsilon] and [open o] and the fricatives [ç] and []. Stimuli were contrasted pairwise in experimental oddball blocks in a way that they differed in regard to their respective vowel but shared the fricative. Additionally to the usual Mismatch Negativity which is attributable to the change of the initial vowel and which was elicited by all deviants, we observed a second negative deflection in the deviant ERP elicited by the phonotactically ill-formed syllable only. This negativity cannot be attributed to any acoustical or phonemic difference between standard and deviant, it rather reflects the effect of a phonotactic evaluation process after both sounds of the syllable were identified. Our finding suggests that implicit phonotactic knowledge is activated and applied even outside the focus of the participants' attention.
Lexical and phonotactic effects on the perception of rate induced resyllabification
de Jong, Kenneth; Nagao, Kyoko; Lim, Byung-Jin; Okamura, Kyoko
2002-05-01
Stetson (1951) noted that, when repeated, singleton coda consonants (VC) appear to modulate into onset consonants (CV) as the rate of repetition increases. de Jong et al. (2001) found that naEe listeners robustly perceive such resyllabifications with labial consonants, and in a later study, that such perceptions broadly corresponded to changes in glottal timing. In the current study, stimuli included labial, coronal, and velar stops, creating mixtures of real words (such as ``eat''), and nonwords (such as ``ead''). A comparison of the perception of real and nonreal words reveals no robust effect of lexical status. In addition, vowels in the corpus were either tense or lax, so that the CV combination is phonotactically illegal in half of the corpus. The perception of resyllabification also does occur with these lax vowels, though only for voiced coronal and labial stops. Other stops did not exhibit resyllabification. Analyses of glottal and acoustic recordings are currently underway. [Work supported by NIDCD and NSF.
Probabilistic Phonotactics as a Cue for Recognizing Spoken Cantonese Words in Speech.
Yip, Michael C W
2017-02-01
Previous experimental psycholinguistic studies suggested that the probabilistic phonotactics information might likely to hint the locations of word boundaries in continuous speech and hence posed an interesting solution to the empirical question on how we recognize/segment individual spoken word in speech. We investigated this issue by using Cantonese language as a testing case in the present study. A word-spotting task was used in which listeners were instructed to spot any Cantonese word from a series of nonsense sound sequences. We found that it was easier for the native Cantonese listeners to spot the target word in the nonsense sound sequences with high transitional probability phoneme combinations than those with low transitional probability phoneme combinations. These results concluded that native Cantonese listeners did make use of the transitional probability information to recognize the spoken word in speech.
Warker, Jill A.
2013-01-01
Adults can rapidly learn artificial phonotactic constraints such as /f/ only occurs at the beginning of syllables by producing syllables that contain those constraints. This implicit learning is then reflected in their speech errors. However, second-order constraints in which the placement of a phoneme depends on another characteristic of the syllable (e.g., if the vowel is /æ/, /f/ occurs at the beginning of syllables and /s/ occurs at the end of syllables but if the vowel is /I/, the reverse is true) require a longer learning period. Two experiments question the transience of second-order learning and whether consolidation plays a role in learning phonological dependencies. Using speech errors as a measure of learning, Experiment 1 investigated the durability of learning, and Experiment 2 investigated the time-course of learning. Experiment 1 found that learning is still present in speech errors a week later. Experiment 2 looked at whether more time in the form of a consolidation period or more experience in the form of more trials was necessary for learning to be revealed in speech errors. Both consolidation and more trials led to learning; however, consolidation provided a more substantial benefit. PMID:22686839
MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…
MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…
Gray, Shelley; Pittman, Andrea; Weinhold, Juliet
2014-01-01
Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word-learning configuration by preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) and typical language development (TD). Method: One hundred thirty-one children participated: 48 with SLI, 44 with TD matched on age and gender, and 39…
Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne; Duinmeijer, Iris
2015-02-01
The effects of neighborhood density (ND) and lexical frequency on word recognition and the effects of phonotactic probability (PP) on nonword repetition (NWR) were examined to gain insight into processing at the lexical and sublexical levels in typically developing (TD) children and children with developmental language problems. Tasks measuring NWR and word recognition were administered to 5 groups of children: 2 groups of TD children (5 and 8 years old), children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with reading impairment (RI), and children with SLI+RI (all 7-8 years old). High ND had a negative effect on word recognition in the older TD children and in the children with RI only. There was no ND effect in the younger children or in the children with SLI, who all had lower receptive vocabulary scores than the age-matched TD children and the RI groups. For all groups, NWR items with low PP were more difficult to repeat than items with high PP. This effect was especially pronounced in children with RI. Both the stage of vocabulary development and the type of language impairment (SLI or RI) impact the way ND and PP affect word recognition and NWR.
Bronsert, Michael; Bingol, Hilary; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John
2003-03-01
L3, an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of female crickets (Acheta domesticus) exhibited two kinds of responses to models of the male's calling song (CS): a previously described, phasically encoded immediate response; a more tonically encoded prolonged response. The onset of the prolonged response required 3-8 sec of stimulation to reach its maximum spiking rate and 6-20 sec to decay once the calling song ceased. It did not encode the syllables of the chirp. The prolonged response was sharply selective for the 4-5 kHz carrier frequency of the male's calling songs and its threshold tuning matched the threshold tuning of phonotaxis, while the immediate response of the same neuron was broadly tuned to a wide range of carrier frequencies. The thresholds for the prolonged response covaried with the changing phonotactic thresholds of 2- and 5-day-old females. Treatment of females with juvenile hormone reduced the thresholds for both phonotaxis and the prolonged response by equivalent amounts. Of the 3 types of responses to CSs provided by the ascending L1 and L3 auditory interneurons, the threshold for L3's prolonged response, on average, best matched the same females phonotactic threshold. The prolonged response was stimulated by inputs from both ears while L3's immediate response was driven only from its axon-ipsilateral ear. The prolonged response was not selective for either the CS's syllable period or chirp rate.
Storkel, Holly L; Hoover, Jill R
2011-06-01
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children with normal vocabularies that varied in size. Ninety-eight children (age 2 ; 11-6 ; 0) were taught consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords orthogonally varying in the probability/density of the CV (i.e. body) and VC (i.e. rhyme). Learning was measured via picture naming. Children with the lowest expressive vocabulary scores showed no effect of either CV or VC probability/density, although floor effects could not be ruled out. In contrast, children with low or high expressive vocabulary scores demonstrated sensitivity to part-word probability/density with the nature of the effect varying by group. Children with the highest expressive vocabulary scores displayed yet a third pattern of part-word probability/density effects. Taken together, word learning by preschool children was influenced by part-word probability/density but the nature of this influence appeared to depend on the size of the lexicon.
Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E; Munson, Benjamin
2004-04-01
Adults' performance on a variety of tasks suggests that phonological processing of nonwords is grounded in generalizations about sublexical patterns over all known words. A small body of research suggests that children's phonological acquisition is similarly based on generalizations over the lexicon. To test this account, production accuracy and fluency were examined in nonword repetitions by 104 children and 22 adults. Stimuli were 22 pairs of nonwords, in which one nonword contained a low-frequency or unattested two-phoneme sequence and the other contained a high-frequency sequence. For a subset of these nonword pairs, segment durations were measured. The same sound was produced with a longer duration (less fluently) when it appeared in a low-frequency sequence, as compared to a high-frequency sequence. Low-frequency sequences were also repeated with lower accuracy than high-frequency sequences. Moreover, children with smaller vocabularies showed a larger influence of frequency on accuracy than children with larger vocabularies. Taken together, these results provide support for a model of phonological acquisition in which knowledge of sublexical units emerges from generalizations made over lexical items.
The Perception of Assimilation in Newly Learned Novel Words
Snoeren, Natalie D.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Di Betta, Anna Maria
2009-01-01
The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying perceptual compensation for assimilation in novel words. During training, participants learned canonical versions of novel spoken words (e.g., "decibot") presented in isolation. Following exposure to a second set of novel words the next day, participants carried out a phoneme…
Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants
Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry
2012-01-01
Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…
... Some general dentists work in government health services, research programs, higher education, corporations and even the military. ?xml:namespace> What kind of procedures do general dentists provide? ?xml:namespace> Many general dentists are ...
Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio
2014-01-01
Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.
Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio
2014-01-01
Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.
The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.
... unconscious and unable to feel pain during medical procedures. General anesthesia usually uses a combination of intravenous drugs ... 1998-2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.
Van Maldeghem, Hendrik
1998-01-01
Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...
Generalized derivations and general relativity
Heller, M; Pysiak, L; Sasin, W
2013-01-01
We construct differential geometry (connection, curvature, etc.) based on generalized derivations of an algebra A. Such a derivation, introduced by Bresar in 1991, is given by a linear mapping u: A -> A such that there exists a usual derivation d of A satisfying the generalized Leibniz rule u(a b) = u(a) b + a d(b) for all a,b in A. The generalized geometry "is tested" in the case of the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold. We then apply this machinery to study the generalized general relativity. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action and deduce from it Einstein's field equations. We show that for a special class of metrics containing, besides the usual metric components, only one non-zero term, the action reduces to O'Hanlon action that is a Brans-Dicke action with potential and with the parameter \\omega equal to zero. We also show that the generalized Einstein equations (with zero energy-stress tensor) are equivalent to those of the Kaluza-Klein theory satisfying a "modified cylinder condition" and hav...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monique Florenzano
2008-09-01
Full Text Available General equilibrium is a central concept of economic theory. Unlike partial equilibrium analysis which study the equilibrium of a particular market under the clause “ceteris paribus” that revenues and prices on the other markets stay approximately unaffected, the ambition of a general equilibrium model is to analyze the simultaneous equilibrium in all markets of a competitive economy. Definition of the abstract model, some of its basic results and insights are presented. The important issues of uniqueness and local uniqueness of equilibrium are sketched; they are the condition for a predictive power of the theory and its ability to allow for statics comparisons. Finally, we review the main extensions of the general equilibrium model. Besides the natural extensions to infinitely many commodities and to a continuum of agents, some examples show how economic theory can accommodate the main ideas in order to study some contexts which were not thought of by the initial model
Canuto, V
2015-01-01
This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.
Staff Association
2016-01-01
5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...
Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb
2011-01-01
In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…
Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.
2016-01-01
The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the
1949-01-01
In part I of this study a survey has veen given of what Dutch authors have written since 1870, when capital punishment was abolished, on subjects concerning the general preventive effect of punishment. This historical survey ends where, during the years 1940-1945, under the stress of the occupation
Vymetal, J
2003-01-01
Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.
Maldeghem, Hendrik
1998-01-01
This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge ometries, near...
Khriplovich, I. B
2005-01-01
This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...
Feiss, P
2001-04-30
General anaesthesia is a reversible loss of consciousness induced and maintained with a hypnotic drug given either by venous injection and infusion, or by inhalation. A potent opioid is usually associated to inhibit the transmission of pain and thus to lessen sympathetic and endocrine reactions to nociceptive stimuli. Myorelaxation is used to facilitate tracheal intubation and surgery. Whatever the anaesthetic protocol use, the patient and anaesthesia machine require close monitoring. In addition to vital signs, the depth of anaesthesia may be monitored using automated electroencephalographic analysis and myorelaxation should always be monitored using a nerve stimulator, but pain or analgesia evaluation is only based on clinical signs of sympathetic stimulation. Because anaesthesia-related death and morbidity have decreased considerably, future improvements in outcome should concern perioperative comfort, i.e. prevention of cognitive disturbances, nausea, vomiting and pain.
A Generalization of Generalized Fibonacci and Generalized Pell Numbers
Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.
2017-01-01
This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…
Kwaadsteniet, L. de; Kim, N.S.; Yopchick, J.E.
2013-01-01
Rationale, aims and objectives: New causal theories explaining the aetiology of psychiatric disorders continuously appear in the literature. How might such new information directly impact clinical practice, to the degree that clinicians are aware of it and accept it? We investigated whether expert c
Semantic Representation of Newly Learned L2 Words and Their Integration in the L2 Lexicon
Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Rogahn, Maria; Opitz, Andreas
2017-01-01
The present semantic priming study explores the integration of newly learnt L2 German words into the L2 semantic network of German advanced learners. It provides additional evidence in support of earlier findings reporting semantic inhibition effects for emergent representations. An inhibitory mechanism is proposed that temporarily decreases the…
Generalized periodic and generalized Boolean rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Howard E. Bell
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We prove that a generalized periodic, as well as a generalized Boolean, ring is either commutative or periodic. We also prove that a generalized Boolean ring with central idempotents must be nil or commutative. We further consider conditions which imply the commutativity of a generalized periodic, or a generalized Boolean, ring.
General(es) remisión de V. escuelas general(es).
2011-01-01
[ES] Definición del término General(es) remisión de V. escuelas general(es). en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word General(es) remisión de V. escuelas general(es). in the dictionary Dicter.
Construction of a Phonotactic Dialect Corpus using Semiautomatic Annotation
2007-01-01
phonological or phonetic feature is speaker specific or commonly found in that speaker’s dialect. Historically, the sociolinguistic study of dialect...more detail in Section 4. Identification of dialect-specific phonetic / phonological effects: This is, of course, the primary goal: detailed labeling of... phonetic / phonological transforms per dialect and the true dialect of the audio file being annotated, finds regions in which a phonetic / phonological
Phonotactic spoken language identification with limited training data
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Peche, M
2007-08-01
Full Text Available rates when no Japanese acoustic models are constructed. An increasing amount of Japanese training data is used to train the language classifier of an English-only (E), an English-French (EF), and an English-French-Portuguese PPR system. ple.... Experimental design 3.1. Corpora Because of their role as world languages that are widely spoken in Africa, our initial LID system was designed to distinguish between English, French and Portuguese. We therefore trained phone recognizers and language...
... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...
... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...
California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...
California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...
California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...
Generalized Probability Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Souto Martinez
2009-01-01
Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁夏畦; 罗佩珠
2004-01-01
In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.
Generalized holomorphic structures
Wang, Yicao
2014-12-01
We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.
How general is general information construct?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Predrag Zarevski
2005-04-01
Full Text Available There is a small number of constructs in the field of differential psychology that have raised so much debate between psychologists and professionals in related disciplines as is the case of general (verbal information construct. It seemed reasonable to test the validity of this construct measured with general information test in comparison with other measures of knowledge (cultural knowledge, vocabulary, knowledge of the most recent events, foreign language knowledge, and a standard verbal type g test. A sample of 376 candidates for state services was tested in a selection situation. Three analyses were conducted to determine the position of general information test in the space of other verbal competency measures. The first analysis questioned latent structure of the space of four tests having the same format and asking about the knowledge of international terms, general culture, knowledge of most recent events, and general information. The second analysis included the g-factor intelligence test so to see how the above described structure changes when this new test is introduced. The third analysis introduced an English language test. In all of the three component analyses only one eigenvalue was larger than 1 and it explained between 52 and 64% of variance. In all analyses general information test had the highest projection on the only significant latent dimension of these cognitive spaces. In other words, it can be concluded that the construct of general information is in the center of this hyperconus. That is why we consider measurement of general information knowledge, as well as the construct itself, to be an important question in psychological diagnostics. Thus, it is important to go further with the investigation of this construct because it does not seem that it is named general information by accident.
Introduction to general and generalized linear models
Madsen, Henrik
2010-01-01
IntroductionExamples of types of data Motivating examples A first view on the modelsThe Likelihood PrincipleIntroduction Point estimation theory The likelihood function The score function The information matrix Alternative parameterizations of the likelihood The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) Distribution of the ML estimator Generalized loss-function and deviance Quadratic approximation of the log-likelihood Likelihood ratio tests Successive testing in hypothesis chains Dealing with nuisance parameters General Linear ModelsIntroduction The multivariate normal distribution General linear mod
Serakos, Demetrios
2015-01-01
This book defines and develops the generalized adjoint of an input-output system. It is the result of a theoretical development and examination of the generalized adjoint concept and the conditions under which systems analysis using adjoints is valid. Results developed in this book are useful aids for the analysis and modeling of physical systems, including the development of guidance and control algorithms and in developing simulations. The generalized adjoint system is defined and is patterned similarly to adjoints of bounded linear transformations. Next the elementary properties of the generalized adjoint system are derived. For a space of input-output systems, a generalized adjoint map from this space of systems to the space of generalized adjoints is defined. Then properties of the generalized adjoint map are derived. Afterward the author demonstrates that the inverse of an input-output system may be represented in terms of the generalized adjoint. The use of generalized adjoints to determine bounds for ...
On generalized extending modules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Qing-yi
2007-01-01
A module M is called generalized extending if for any submodule N of M, there is a direct summand K of M such that N≤K and K/N is singular. Any extending module and any singular module are generalized extending. Any homomorphic image of a generalized extending module is generalized extending. Any direct sum of a singular (uniform) module and a semi-simple module is generalized extending. A ring R is a right Co-H-ring ifand only ifall right R modules are generalized extending modules.
Full Text Available ... are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... through the blood vessels. top of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you ...
... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...
Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...
Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results
Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel
1998-01-01
A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
Generalized Poisson sigma models
Batalin, I; Batalin, Igor; Marnelius, Robert
2001-01-01
A general master action in terms of superfields is given which generates generalized Poisson sigma models by means of a natural ghost number prescription. The simplest representation is the sigma model considered by Cattaneo and Felder. For Dirac brackets considerably more general models are generated.
Generalized Fourier transforms classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen
2002-01-01
The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...
Generalization Rough Set Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Di; ZHANG Jun-feng; HU Shou-song
2008-01-01
In order to avoid the discretization in the classical rough set theory, a generlization rough set theory is proposed.At first, the degree of general importance of an attribute and attribute subsets are presented.Then, depending on the degree of general importance of attribute, the space distance can be measured with weighted method.At last, a generalization rough set theory based on the general near neighborhood relation is proposed.The proposed theory partitions the universe into the tolerant modules, and forms lower approximation and upper approximation of the set under general near neighborhood relationship, which avoids the discretization in Pawlak's rough set theory.
Unsupervised Learning and Generalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan
1996-01-01
The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy ...... with supervised learning. The empirical and analytical estimates are compared for principal component analysis and for K-means clustering based density estimation...
General surgery career resource.
Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste
2013-11-01
General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Generalized Group Signature Scheme
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The concept of generalized group signature scheme will bepresent. Based on the generalized secret sharing scheme proposed by Lin and Ha rn, a non-interactive approach is designed for realizing such generalized group signature scheme. Using the new scheme, the authorized subsets of the group in w hich the group member can cooperate to produce the valid signature for any messa ge can be randomly specified
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
... continuing education. BECOME A FELLOW OR MASTER Continuing Education Access the latest CE opportunities, including live and on-demand webinars, specifically designed for the general dentist. BROWSE ...
Geoinformation Generalization by Aggregation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomislav Jogun
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Geoinformation generalization can be divided into model generalization and cartographic generalization. Model generalization is the supervised reduction of data in a model, while cartographic generalization is the reduction of the complexity of map content adapted to the map scale, and/or use by various generalization operators (procedures. The topic of this paper is the aggregation of geoinformation. Generally, aggregation is the joining of nearby, congenial objects, when the distance between them is smaller than the minimum sizes. Most researchers in geoinformation generalization have focused on line features. However, the appearance of web-maps with point features and choropleth maps has led to the development of concepts and algorithms for the generalization of point and polygonal features. This paper considers some previous theoretical premises and actual examples of aggregation for point, line and polygonal features. The algorithms for aggregation implemented in commercial and free GIS software were tested. In the conclusion, unresolved challenges that occur in dynamic cartographic visualizations and cases of unusual geometrical features are highlighted.
Generalized Fibonacci zone plates
Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang
2015-01-01
We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.
On Generalized Bell Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto B. Corcino
2011-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the sequence of the generalized Bell polynomials Sn(x is convex under some restrictions of the parameters involved. A kind of recurrence relation for Sn(x is established, and some numbers related to the generalized Bell numbers and their properties are investigated.
Generalizing Experimental Findings
2015-06-01
new method using propensity score stratified sampling. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 7 114–135. 11 ...Generalizing Experimental Findings Judea Pearl University of California, Los Angeles Computer Science Department Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1596, USA...Selection Bias The classical problem of generalizing experimental findings from the trial sample to the population as a whole, also known as the problem
Assessment of General Education
Furman, Tanya
2013-01-01
The assessment of general education is often approached through broad surveys or standardized instruments that fail to capture the learning goals most faculty members desire for this portion of the curriculum. The challenge in remedying this situation lies, first, in defining general education in meaningful ways that can be both articulated and…
Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.
Thayer, Lee, Ed.
This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…
Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"
Smith, Julie M.
2011-01-01
This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…
Certificateless Generalized Signcryption
Ji, Huifang; Han, Wenbao; Zhao, Long
Generalized Signcryption is a fresh cryptographic primitive that not only can obtain encryption and signature in a single operation, but also provide encryption or signature model alone when needed. This paper proposed a formal definition of certificateless generalized signcryption(CLGSC), then provide the security model of CLGSC. A concrete CLGSC scheme is also given in this paper.
On generalized topological spaces
Piȩkosz, Artur
2009-01-01
In this paper a systematic study of the category GTS of generalized topological spaces (in the sense of H. Delfs and M. Knebusch) and their strictly continuous mappings begins. Some completeness and cocompleteness results are achieved. Generalized topological spaces help to reconstruct the important elements of the theory of locally definable and weakly definable spaces in the wide context of weakly topological structures.
Generalizing: The descriptive struggle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.
Generalized connectivity of graphs
Li, Xueliang
2016-01-01
Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.
Nishi, Sakine
2015-01-01
The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...
Gualtieri, Marco
2010-01-01
Generalized Kahler geometry is the natural analogue of Kahler geometry, in the context of generalized complex geometry. Just as we may require a complex structure to be compatible with a Riemannian metric in a way which gives rise to a symplectic form, we may require a generalized complex structure to be compatible with a metric so that it defines a second generalized complex structure. We explore the fundamental aspects of this geometry, including its equivalence with the bi-Hermitian geometry on the target of a 2-dimensional sigma model with (2,2) supersymmetry, as well as the relation to holomorphic Dirac geometry and the resulting derived deformation theory. We also explore the analogy between pre-quantum line bundles and gerbes in the context of generalized Kahler geometry.
General relativity and cosmology
Bucher, Martin
2015-01-01
This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.
Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adri Smaling
2003-03-01
Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.
Context-dependent generalization.
Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B
2013-01-01
The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.
Context-dependent Generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordan A Taylor
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.
Genesereth, Michael
2014-01-01
General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell
Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania
2007-05-01
In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.
Generalizing: The descriptive struggle
Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.
2006-01-01
The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110) They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without an...
Generalized interaction in multigravity
Duplij, Steven
2013-01-01
A general approach to description of multigravity models in D-dimensional space-time is presented. Different possibilities of generalization of the invariant volume are given. Then a most general form of the interaction potential is constructed, which for bigravity coincides with the Pauli-Fierz model. A thorough analysis of the model along the 3+1 expansion formalism is done. It is shown that the absence of ghosts the considered bigravity model is equivalent in the weak field limit to the massive gravity (the Pauli-Fierz model). Thus, on the concrete example it is shown, that the interaction between metrics leads to nonvanishing mass of graviton.
Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.
Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong
2015-08-20
We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huishi Li
2007-01-01
For ungraded quotients of an arbitrary Z-graded ring, we define the general PBW property, that covers the classical PBW property and the N-type PBW property studied via the N-Koszulity by several authors (see [2-4]). In view of the noncommutative Gr(o)bner basis theory, we conclude that every ungraded quotient of a path algebra (or a free algebra) has the general PBW property. We remark that an earlier result of Golod [5]concerning Gr(o)bner bases can be used to give a homological characterization of the general PBW property in terms of Shafarevich complex. Examples of applicatipn are given.
Allowable Generalized Quantum Gates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Gui-Lu; LIU Yang; WANG Chuan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we give the most general duality gates, or generalized quantum gates in duality quantum computers. Here we show by explicit construction that a n-bit duality quantum computer with d slits can be simulated perfectly with an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and one auxiliary qudit. Using this model, we give the most general form of duality gates which is of the form Σ(d-1)(i=0)piUi, and the Pi's are complex numbers with module less or equal to I and constrained by |Σipi|≤1.
Nagata, J-I
1985-01-01
This classic work has been fundamentally revised to take account of recent developments in general topology. The first three chapters remain unchanged except for numerous minor corrections and additional exercises, but chapters IV-VII and the new chapter VIII cover the rapid changes that have occurred since 1968 when the first edition appeared.The reader will find many new topics in chapters IV-VIII, e.g. theory of Wallmann-Shanin's compactification, realcompact space, various generalizations of paracompactness, generalized metric spaces, Dugundji type extension theory, linearly ordered topolo
Generalized estimating equations
Hardin, James W
2002-01-01
Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th
Webb, Ted
1976-01-01
Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)
... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...
Generalized Higher Gauge Theory
Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart
2015-01-01
We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.
General American: An Ambiguity
Van Riper, William R.
1973-01-01
Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)
Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...
Engineering general intelligence
Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil
2014-01-01
The work outlines a novel conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding Artificial General Intelligence and based on this framework outlines a practical roadmap for the development of AGI with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond.
Maiz, F
2012-01-01
A general quantization rule for bound states of the Schrodinger equation is presented. Like fundamental theory of integral, our idea is mainly based on dividing the potential into many pieces, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation, and deriving the general quantization rule. For both exactly and non-exactly solvable systems, the energy levels of all the bound states can be easily calculated from the general quantization rule. Using this new general quantization rule, we re-calculate the energy levels for the one-dimensional system, with an infinite square well, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the Morse Potential, with the symmetric and asymmetric Rosen-Morse potentials, with the first P\\"oschl-Teller potential, with the Coulomb Potential, with the V-shape Potential, and the ax^4 potential, and for the three dimensions systems, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the ordinary Coulomb potential, and for the hydrogen atom.
Generalizing the Lorentz transformations
Chappell, James M; Iannella, Nicolangelo; Hartnett, John G; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2016-01-01
In this paper we develop a framework allowing a natural extension of the Lorentz transformations. To begin, we show that by expanding conventional four-dimensional spacetime to eight-dimensions that a natural generalization is indeed obtained. We then find with these generalized coordinate transformations acting on Maxwell's equations that the electromagnetic field transformations are nevertheless unchanged. We find further, that if we assume the absence of magnetic monopoles, in accordance with Maxwell's theory, our generalized transformations are then restricted to be the conventional ones. While the conventional Lorentz transformations are indeed recovered from our framework, we nevertheless provide a new perspective into why the Lorentz transformations are constrained to be the conventional ones. Also, this generalized framework may assist in explaining several unresolved questions in electromagnetism as well as to be able to describe quasi magnetic monopoles found in spin-ice systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hakubi Center; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takahashi, Tomo [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Tokyo Univ. (JP). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Tokyo Univ., Chiba (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
2012-03-15
We study Higgs inflation in the context of generalized G-inflation, i.e., the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. The four variants of Higgs inflation proposed so far in the literature can be accommodated at one time in our framework. We also propose yet another class of Higgs inflation, the running Einstein inflation model, that can naturally arise from the generalized G-inflation framework. As a result, five Higgs inflation models in all should be discussed on an equal footing. Concise formulas for primordial fluctuations in these generalized Higgs inflation models are provided, which will be helpful to determine which model is favored from the future experiments and observations such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Planck satellite.
Staff Association
2014-01-01
STAFF ASSOCIATION Our next annual general meeting will take place on : Thursday 22 May 2014 at 11:00 AM Building 40-S2-D01 For further information visit our website : https://indico.cern.ch/event/313124/
Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...
Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to ... type of examination you will have. For some scans your doctor may instruct you not to eat ...
Superstability of Generalized Derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ansari-Piri Esmaeil
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .
Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...
Jackson, A. T.
1973-01-01
Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)
Full Text Available ... Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections). Occasionally, an ultrasound exam may be temporarily uncomfortable, ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × Image Gallery General ...
Expansores tisulares: Conceptos generales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madelein Centeno-Rodríguez
2000-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we present a review of general concepts regarding tissue expansion, history, operative technique, clinical applications, principal complications as well as advantages and disadvantages presented with the use of this alternative in reconstructive surgery.
Quantum Gauge General Relativity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Based on gauge principle, a new model on quantum gravity is proposed in the frame work of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The model has local gravitational gauge symmetry, and the field equation of the gravitational gauge field is just the famous Einstein's field equation. Because of this reason, this model is called quantum gauge general relativity, which is the consistent unification of quantum theory and general relativity. The model proposed in this paper is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity, which is one of the most important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity proposed in this paper. Another important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity is that it can explain both classical tests of gravity and quantum effects of gravitational interactions, such as gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments and gravitational shielding effects found in Podkletnov experiments.
Milestones of general relativity
Pullin, Jorge
2017-02-01
We present a summary for non-specialists of the special issue of the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity on ‘Milestones of general relativity’, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the theory.
Read, Andrew F.
2013-01-01
General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.
Engineering general intelligence
Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil
2014-01-01
The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.
Tuberculosis: General Information
TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...
A Generalized Jacobi Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vissing, S.; Krenk, S.
An algorithm is developed for the generalized eigenvalue problem (A - λB)φ = O where A and B are real symmetric matrices. The matrices A and B are diagonalized simultaneously by a series of generalized Jacobi transformations and all eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained. A criterion expressed...... in terms of the transformation parameters is used to omit transformations leading to very small changes. The algorithm is described in pseudo code for lower triangular matrices A and B and implemented in the programming Language C.......An algorithm is developed for the generalized eigenvalue problem (A - λB)φ = O where A and B are real symmetric matrices. The matrices A and B are diagonalized simultaneously by a series of generalized Jacobi transformations and all eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained. A criterion expressed...
Ray, J. R.
1982-01-01
Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.
Generalized Supersymetric Boundary State
1999-01-01
Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfy the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon
2011-01-01
Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...
1986-07-01
conjectured that the general factor problem can be solved in polynomial time when, in each Bi, all the gaps (if any) have length one. We prove this conjecture...exactly bi edges incident with node i, for each i. This problem is well-solved. A polynomial algorithm is known (Edmonds and Johnson (1970)) as well as a...powerful theorem to characterize the existence of solutions ( Tutte (1952)). The following generalization of the factor problem was studied by Lovtsz
-Metric Space: A Generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid Khojasteh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.
[Generalized periarthritis calcarea (generalized hydroxyapatite disease)].
Müller, W; Bahous, I
1979-09-01
The condition of generalized periarthritis calcarea (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) is characterised by multiple periarticular calcification which can be localised around practically any joint and also in proximity to the spine. This calcification consists of hydroxyapatite crystals which are responsible for the episodes of acute, subacute or chronic periarticular or articular inflammation so typical of the condition. Because of this one can classify periarthritis calcarea along with gout and chondrocalcinosis in the group of crystal deposition diseases. The actual cause of the calcification remains unknown but it is probable that, along with hereditary factors, disturbances in metabolism play an important role. The diagnosis of generalised periarthritis is made from the characteristic X-ray picture in conjunction with the clinical findings and, on occasion, the demonstration of hydroxyapatite crystals in the affected tissues. In the differential diagnosis gout, chondrocalcinosis, various inflammatory rheumatic conditions and septic arthritis must be excluded and various calcification processes, particularly interstitial calcinosis and lipocal cinogranulomatosis, must also be considered. Since the etiology of the calcification remains unknown to specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment with colchicine is mostly inadequate which is why one often has recourse to the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids.
Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Weiss, Carmen; Casile, Antonino; Waszak, Florian
2012-02-01
In the absence of visual information, our brain is able to recognize the actions of others by representing their sounds as a motor event. Previous studies have provided evidence for a somatotopic activation of the listener's motor cortex during perception of the sound of highly familiar motor acts. The present experiments studied (a) how the motor system is activated by action-related sounds that are newly acquired and (b) whether these sounds are represented with reference to extrinsic features related to action goals rather than with respect to lower-level intrinsic parameters related to the specific movements. TMS was used to measure the correspondence between auditory and motor codes in the listener's motor system. We compared the corticomotor excitability in response to the presentation of auditory stimuli void of previous motor meaning before and after a short training period in which these stimuli were associated with voluntary actions. Novel cross-modal representations became manifest very rapidly. By disentangling the representation of the muscle from that of the action's goal, we further showed that passive listening to newly learnt action-related sounds activated a precise motor representation that depended on the variable contexts to which the individual was exposed during testing. Our results suggest that the human brain embodies a higher-order audio-visuo-motor representation of perceived actions, which is muscle-independent and corresponds to the goals of the action.
Lectures on general relativity
Papapetrou, Achille
1974-01-01
This book is an elaboration of lecture notes for the graduate course on General Rela tivity given by the author at Boston University in the spring semester of 1972. It is an introduction to the subject only, as the time available for the course was limited. The author of an introduction to General Relativity is faced from the beginning with the difficult task of choosing which material to include. A general criterion as sisting in this choice is provided by the didactic character of the book: Those chapters have to be included in priority, which will be most useful to the reader in enabling him to understand the methods used in General Relativity, the results obtained so far and possibly the problems still to be solved. This criterion is not sufficient to ensure a unique choice. General Relativity has developed to such a degree, that it is impossible to include in an introductory textbook of a reasonable length even a very condensed treatment of all important problems which have been discussed unt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-31
The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.
Generalized uncertainty principles
Machluf, Ronny
2008-01-01
The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...
Generalized classifier neural network.
Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu
2013-03-01
In this work a new radial basis function based classification neural network named as generalized classifier neural network, is proposed. The proposed generalized classifier neural network has five layers, unlike other radial basis function based neural networks such as generalized regression neural network and probabilistic neural network. They are input, pattern, summation, normalization and output layers. In addition to topological difference, the proposed neural network has gradient descent based optimization of smoothing parameter approach and diverge effect term added calculation improvements. Diverge effect term is an improvement on summation layer calculation to supply additional separation ability and flexibility. Performance of generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of the probabilistic neural network, multilayer perceptron algorithm and radial basis function neural network on 9 different data sets and with that of generalized regression neural network on 3 different data sets include only two classes in MATLAB environment. Better classification performance up to %89 is observed. Improved classification performances proved the effectivity of the proposed neural network.
Blandford, Roger D.
2016-01-01
A hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful theory in the sese that it has passed many experimental and observational tests and finds widespread application to diverse set of cosmic phenomena. It remains an accurate research field as more tests are deployed, epitomized by the exciting prospect of detecting gravitational radiation directly. General realtivity is the essential foundation of modern cosmology and underlies our detailed description of the black holes and neutron stars that are ultimately responsible for the most powerful and dramatic cosmic sources. The interface with physics on both the largest and the smallest scales continues to be very fertile. In this talk I will attempt to highlight some key steps along the way to general relativity today.
Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus
Grabe, Michael
2010-01-01
For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...
Glückstad, Jesper
2009-01-01
Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...
Stable generalized complex structures
Cavalcanti, Gil R
2015-01-01
A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light...
Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平
2000-01-01
The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.
Generalized BPS magnetic monopoles
Casana, R; da Hora, E
2012-01-01
We show the existence of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) magnetic monopoles in a generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs model which is controlled by two positive functions. This effective model, in principle, would describe the dynamics of the nonabelian fields in a chromoelectric media. We check the consistency of our generalized construction by analyzing an explicit case ruled by a real parameter. We also use the well-known spherically symmetric Ansatz to attain the corresponding self-dual equations describing the topological solutions. The overall conclusion is that the new solutions behave around the canonical one, with smaller or greater characteristic length.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGarrie, Moritz
2012-07-15
We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.
Morrison, Greg
2010-01-01
We propose a simple real-valued generalization of the well known integer-valued Erdos number as a topological, non-metric measure of the `closeness' felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph. These real-valued Erdos numbers are asymmetric and are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical. We use this measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks, and show the utility of our measure to devise a ratings scheme based on the generalized Erdos number that we deploy on the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement in our ratings prediction over a baseline.
Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S
1965-01-01
Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the
Mechanics of Generalized Continua
Maugin, Gerard A
2010-01-01
In their 1909 publication "Theorie des corps deformables", Eugene and Francois Cosserat made a historic contribution to materials science by establishing the fundamental principles of the mechanics of generalized continua. The chapters collected in this volume showcase the many areas of continuum mechanics that grew out of the foundational work of the Cosserat brothers. The included contributions provide a detailed survey of the most recent theoretical developments in the field of generalized continuum mechanics. The diverse topics covered include: the properties of Cosserat media, m
Cébron, Guillaume; Dahlqvist, Antoine; Gabriel, Franck
2017-09-01
The master field is the large N limit of the Yang-Mills measure on the Euclidean plane. It can be viewed as a non-commutative process indexed by loops on the plane. We construct and study generalized master fields, called free planar Markovian holonomy fields which are versions of the master field where the law of a simple loop can be as more general as it is possible. We prove that those free planar Markovian holonomy fields can be seen as well as the large N limit of some Markovian holonomy fields on the plane with unitary structure group.
Morita, K
1989-01-01
Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.
Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules
Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino
1997-01-01
We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.
General Motors sidestream separator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tessier, R.J.
1981-01-01
On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena ANGHEL
2016-05-01
Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.
Galtsov, D V
1996-01-01
We consider dilaton--axion gravity interacting with $p\\;\\, U(1)$ vectors ($p=6$ corresponding to $N=4$ supergravity) in four--dimensional spacetime admitting a non--null Killing vector field. It is argued that this theory exibits features of a ``square'' of vacuum General Relativity. In the three--dimensional formulation it is equivalent to a gravity coupled $SO(2,2+p)/(SO(2)\\times SO(2+p))$. Kähler coordinates are introduced on the target manifold generalising Ernst potentials of General Relativity. The corresponding Kähler potential is found to be equal to the logarithm of the product of the four--dimensional metric component $g_{00}$ in the Einstein frame and the dilaton factor, independently on presence of vector fields. The complex axidilaton field, while it undergoes holomorphic/antiholomorphic transformations under general target space isometries. The ``square'' property is also manifest in the two--dimensional reduction of the theory as a matrix generalization of the Kramer--Neugebauer map.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2017-03-15
This software is code related to reading/writing/manipulating nuclear data in the Generalized Nuclear Data (GND) format, a new format for sharing nuclear data among institutions. In addition to the software and its documentation, notes and documentation from the WPEC Subgroup 43 will be included. WPEC Subgroup 43 is an international committee charged with creating the API for the GND format.
General forecasting correcting formula
Harin, Alexander
2009-01-01
A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan; Thorbjørnsen, Steen
In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as Υ transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID...
Superstability of Generalized Derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esmaeil Ansari-Piri
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.
Generalized Pickands constants
Debicki, K.G.
2001-01-01
Pickands constants play an important role in the exact asymptotic of extreme values for Gaussian stochastic processes. By the {it generalized Pickands constant ${cal H_{eta$ we mean the limit begin{eqnarray* {cal H_{eta= lim_{T to inftyfrac{ {cal H_{eta(T){T, end{eqnarray* where ${cal H_{eta(T)= Exp
Interrogation: General vs. Local.
Johnson, Jeannette
This paper proposes a set of hypotheses on the nature of interrogration as a possible language universal. Examples and phrase structure rules and diagrams are given. Examining Tamazight and English, genetically unrelated languages with almost no contact, the author distinguishes two types of interrogation: (1) general, querying acceptability to…
General forecasting correcting formula
2009-01-01
A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.
A generalized evidence distance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongming Mo; Xi Lu; Yong Deng
2016-01-01
How to efficiently measure the distance between two basic probability assignments (BPAs) is an open issue. In this paper, a new method to measure the distance between two BPAs is proposed, based on two existing measures of evidence distance. The new proposed method is comprehen-sive and generalized. Numerical examples are used to ilus-trate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound ... procedure requires little to no special preparation. Your doctor will instruct you on how to prepare, including ...
Generalized granuloma annulare
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khatri M
1995-01-01
Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.
Anisotropic generalized Procrustes analysis
Bennani Dosse, Mohammed; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.
2011-01-01
Generalized Procrustes analysis is a popular method for matching several configurations by translations, rotations/reflections and scaling constants. It aims at producing a group average from these Euclidean similarity transformations followed by bi-linear approximation of this group average for gra
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Malawi's only medical school and also hosts the Blantyre cam- pus for the ... 1993 when general civil disobedience in form of street demon- strations, riots and strikes ... However their own rights are limited by their responsibility to save life and ...
S. Koning (Sander)
2005-01-01
textabstractImpetigo is a common skin infection, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus that mainly occurs in children. Patients with impetigo usually consult their general practitioner, who also treats the vast majority of cases. Impetigo is considered highly infectious, and consequently childr
Generalized Quantization Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Zheng; CAO Zhuang-Qi; DENG Xiao-Xu; SHEN Qi-Shun
2005-01-01
@@ On the basis of analytical transfer matrix theory, we fine a generalized quantization condition. By introducing a new type of modified momentum, our quantization condition has the same form as the Bohr-Sommerfeld formula.Numerical and analytical comparisons show that the present method is exact.
Learning View Generalization Functions
Breuel, Thomas M
2007-01-01
Learning object models from views in 3D visual object recognition is usually formulated either as a function approximation problem of a function describing the view-manifold of an object, or as that of learning a class-conditional density. This paper describes an alternative framework for learning in visual object recognition, that of learning the view-generalization function. Using the view-generalization function, an observer can perform Bayes-optimal 3D object recognition given one or more 2D training views directly, without the need for a separate model acquisition step. The paper shows that view generalization functions can be computationally practical by restating two widely-used methods, the eigenspace and linear combination of views approaches, in a view generalization framework. The paper relates the approach to recent methods for object recognition based on non-uniform blurring. The paper presents results both on simulated 3D ``paperclip'' objects and real-world images from the COIL-100 database sho...
Generalized uncertainty relations
Herdegen, Andrzej; Ziobro, Piotr
2017-04-01
The standard uncertainty relations (UR) in quantum mechanics are typically used for unbounded operators (like the canonical pair). This implies the need for the control of the domain problems. On the other hand, the use of (possibly bounded) functions of basic observables usually leads to more complex and less readily interpretable relations. In addition, UR may turn trivial for certain states if the commutator of observables is not proportional to a positive operator. In this letter we consider a generalization of standard UR resulting from the use of two, instead of one, vector states. The possibility to link these states to each other in various ways adds additional flexibility to UR, which may compensate some of the above-mentioned drawbacks. We discuss applications of the general scheme, leading not only to technical improvements, but also to interesting new insight.
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea
2014-01-01
The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a "fiducial observer." We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations.
Generalized BPS magnetic monopoles
Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; da Hora, E.
2012-10-01
We show the existence of Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) magnetic monopoles in a generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs model which is controlled by two positive functions, g(ϕaϕa) and f(ϕaϕa). This effective model, in principle, would describe the dynamics of the nonabelian fields in a chromoelectric media. We check the consistency of our generalized construction by analyzing an explicit case ruled by a parameter β. We also use the well-known spherically symmetric Ansatz to attain the corresponding self-dual equations describing the topological solutions. The overall conclusion is that the new solutions behave around the canonical one, with smaller or greater characteristic length depending on the values of β.
Generalizing the Minkowski metric
Chappell, James M; Abbott, Derek
2015-01-01
The mathematical framework developed by Minkowski in 1909 successfully explained the new ideas about space and time, developed by Einstein in the special theory of relativity, directly from the geometrical properties of a four-dimensional spacetime continuum. However, while Einstein's theory was firmly based on two physical postulates, the mathematical structure of Minkowski was not so well founded and subsequently there have been many attempts to provide a more fundamental derivation. In this paper we aim to provide such a derivation based on the elementary geometrical properties of three-dimensional space modeled using the algebraic structure of Clifford multivectors. We find that Clifford multivectors produce a generalization of Minkowski's formulation thus placing the results of special relativity in a larger setting. This then leads to a generalization of several results including Noether's theorem.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the maximally symmetric space-time, we perform the Hessian and Hamiltonian analysis and show the presence of a second-class constraint that removes the would-be ghost associated with the temporal component of the vector field. Furthermore, we study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar per...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, and can even enable a Reverse Phase Contrast mode where intensity patterns are converted into a phase modulation....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shijian YUAN; Dazhi XIAO; Zhubin HE
2004-01-01
A generalized yield criterion is proposed based on the metal plastic deformation mechanics and the fundamental formula in theory of plasticity. Using the generalized yield criterion, the reason is explained that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion do not completely match with experimental data. It has been shown that the yield criteria of ductile metals depend not only on the quadratic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J2, but also on the cubic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J3 and the ratio of the yield stress in pure shear to the yield stress in uniaxial tension k/σs. The reason that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion are not in good agreement with the experimental data is that the effect of J3 and k/σs is neglected.
Generalized internal multiple imaging
Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain
2014-12-04
Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.
Generalizing unimodular gravity
Saez-Gomez, Diego
2016-01-01
The so-called unimodular version of General Relativity is revisited, which assumes the trace-free part of the equations instead of the usual Einstein equations, what leads naturally to a cosmological constant that may compensate the large value of quantum fluctuations. Here we extend such formalism to some extensions of General Relativity that have drawn a lot of attention over the last years, as $f(R)$ gravity (or its equivalent scalar-tensor picture) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The corresponding unimodular version of such theories is constructed. From the classical point of view, the unimodular versions of such extensions are completely equivalent to their originals, but an effective cosmological constant arises naturally, what may provide a richer description of the universe evolution. Moreover, conformal transformations within unimodular gravities lead to some corrections that may affect their solutions. Here we analyze the case of Starobisnky inflation and compared with the original one.
Tartaglia, Angelo
2015-01-01
This lecture will present a review of the past and present tests of the General Relativity theory. The essentials of the theory will be recalled and the measurable effects will be listed and analyzed. The main historical confirmations of General Relativity will be described. Then, the present situation will be reviewed presenting a number of examples. The opportunities given by astrophysical and astrometric observations will be shortly discussed. Coming to terrestrial experiments the attention will be specially focused on ringlasers and a dedicated experiment for the Gran Sasso Laboratories, named by the acronym GINGER, will be presented. Mention will also be made of alternatives to the use of light, such as particle beams and superfluid rings.
Smith, J D H; Zhang, C
2015-08-01
The recently developed macroscopic approach to demography describes the age distribution of mothers and the net maternity function for a given human population entirely in terms of five parameters. Tracking of these parameters provides a number of new tools for analyzing populations and predicting their future states. Within the macroscopic approach, the new concept of generalized Lotka stability is presented in this paper, as an extension of a strong version of classic Lotka stability. The two leading parameters of the macroscopic approach, the Malthusian parameter r and the perturbation s, are computed from population data and plotted in two-dimensional parameter space. Generalized Lotka stability is then defined in terms of the movement of the (r,s)-vector over time. It may be observed in a number of human populations at specific periods of their history.
Pension Fund
2005-01-01
All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)
2005-01-01
All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)
Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef
2016-12-01
The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.
General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang
2014-02-01
Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.
Generalized Lindley Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Zakerzadeh
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a three–parameter generalization of the Lindley distribution. This includes as special cases the exponential and gamma distributions. The distribution exhibits decreasing, increasing and bathtub hazard rate depending on its parameters. We study various properties of the new distribution and provide numerical examples to show the flexibility of the model. We also derive a bivariate version of the proposed distribution.
Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dujmovic, Jozo; Larsen, Henrik Legind
2007-01-01
The generalized conjunction/disjunction function (GCD) is a continuous logic function of two or more variables that integrates conjunctive and disjunctive properties in a single function. It is used as a mathematical model of simultaneity and replaceability of inputs. Special cases of this function......) or disjunction (orness). In this paper, we investigate and compare various versions of GCD and other mathematical models of simultaneity and replaceability that are applicable in the areas of system evaluation, and information retrieval....
Marchuk, Nikolay
2011-01-01
Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...
On generalized logarithmic electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruglov, S.I. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Mississauga, ON (Canada)
2015-02-01
The generalized logarithmic electrodynamics with two parameters β and γ is considered. The indexes of refraction of light in the external magnetic field are calculated. In the case β = γ we come to results obtained by Gaete and Helayel-Neto (Eur Phys J C 74:2816, 2014). The bound on the values of β, γ was obtained from the Birefringence Magnetique du Vide (BMV) experiment. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. (orig.)
Focal and generalized alopecia.
O'Dair, H A; Foster, A P
1995-07-01
Focal or generalized alopecia is defined as hair loss affecting the ventral, lateral, perineal, and dorsal aspects of the trunk of the cat, usually in a symmetric pattern. This may be attributable to failure of hair coat production, excess loss of hair due to self trauma, or excess shedding of whole hairs. Self trauma is the most common cause of hair loss and is associated particularly with flea allergy dermatitis. Other causes of hair loss are reviewed.
General Search Market Equilibrium
Albrecht, James W.; Axell, Bo
1982-01-01
In this paper we extend models of “search market equilibrium” to incorporate general equilibrium considerations. The model we treat is one with a single product market and a single labor market. Imperfectly informed individuals follow optimal strategies in searching for a suitably low price and high wage. For any distribution of price and wage offers across firms these optimal strategies generate product demand and labor supply schedules. Firms then choose prices and wages to maximize expecte...
Generalized fiber Fourier optics.
Cincotti, Gabriella
2011-06-15
A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.
Generalization of Hasimoto's transformation
Molitor, Mathieu
2012-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the famous Hasimoto's transformation by showing that the dynamics of a closed unidimensional vortex filament embedded in a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature gives rise under Hasimoto's transformation to the non-linear Schrodinger equation. We also give a natural interpretation of the function \\psi introduced by Hasimoto in terms of moving frames associated to a natural complex bundle over the filament.
On Generalized Inverse Transversals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rong Hua ZHANG; Shou Feng WANG
2008-01-01
Let S be a regular semigroup,S° an inverse subsemigroup of S.S° is called a generalized inverse transversal of S,if V(x) ∩N S°≠φ.In this paper,some properties of this kind of semigroups are discussed.In particular,a construction theorem is obtained which contains some recent results in the literature as its special cases.
GENERALIZED SIMPLE NONCOMMUTATIVE TORI
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The generalized noncommutative torus Tkp of rank n was defined in [4] by the crossed product noncommutative torus Ap of rank n. It is shown in this paper that Tkp is strongly Morita equivalent to Ap, and that Tkp Mp∞ is isomorphic to Ap Mk(C) Mp∞ if and only if the set of prime factors of k is a subset of the set of prime factors of p.
Bege, Antal
2010-01-01
Let $f$ be an arithmetical function. The matrix $[f(i,j)]_{n\\times n}$ given by the value of $f$ in greatest common divisor of $(i,j)$, $f\\big((i,j)\\big)$ as its $i,\\; j$ entry is called the greatest common divisor (GCD) matrix. We consider the generalization of this matrix where the elements are in the form $f\\big(i,(i,j)\\big)$.
Tachyons in General Relativity
Schwartz, Charles
2011-01-01
We consider the motion of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) in the framework of General Relativity. An important feature is the large contribution of low energy tachyons to the energy-momentum tensor. We also calculate the gravitational field produced by tachyons in particular geometric arrangements; and it appears that there could be self-cohering bundles of such matter. This leads us to suggest that such theoretical ideas might be relevant to major problems (dark matter and dark energy...
General introduction to glucosinolates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halkier, Barbara Ann
2016-01-01
will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....
Entrepreneurship within General Aviation
Ullmann, Brian M.
1995-01-01
Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.
Generalized quasiperiodic Rauzy tilings
Vidal, Julien; Mosseri, Rémy
2001-05-01
We present a geometrical description of new canonical d-dimensional codimension one quasiperiodic tilings based on generalized Fibonacci sequences. These tilings are made up of rhombi in 2d and rhombohedra in 3d as the usual Penrose and icosahedral tilings. Thanks to a natural indexing of the sites according to their local environment, we easily write down, for any approximant, the sites coordinates, the connectivity matrix and we compute the structure factor.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Turbulent General Magnetic Reconnection
Eyink, Gregory L
2014-01-01
Plasma flows with an MHD-like turbulent inertial range, such as the solar wind, require a generalization of General Magnetic Reconnection (GMR) theory. We introduce the slip-velocity source vector, which gives the rate of development of slip velocity per unit arc length of field line. The slip source vector is the ratio of the curl of the non ideal electric field in the Generalized Ohm's Law and the magnetic field strength. It diverges at magnetic nulls, unifying GMR with magnetic null-point reconnection. Only under restrictive assumptions is the slip velocity related to the gradient of the quasi potential (integral of parallel electric field along field lines). In a turbulent inertial range the curl becomes extremely large while the parallel component is tiny, so that line slippage occurs even while ideal MHD becomes accurate. The resolution of this paradox is that ideal MHD is valid for a turbulent inertial-range only in a weak sense which does not imply magnetic line freezing. The notion of weak solution i...
Generalized simplicial chiral models
Alimohammadi, M
2000-01-01
Using the auxiliary field representation of the simplicial chiral models on a (d-1)-dimensional simplex, we generalize the simplicial chiral models by replacing the term Tr$(AA^{\\d})$ in the Lagrangian of these models, by an arbitrary class function of $AA^{\\d}; V(AA^{\\d})$. This is the same method that has been used in defining the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) from ordinary YM_2. We call these models, the " generalized simplicial chiral models ". With the help of the results of one-link integral over a U(N) matrix, we compute the large-N saddle-point equations for eigenvalue density function $\\ro (z)$ in the weak ($\\b >\\b_c$) and strong ($\\b <\\b_c$) regions. In d=2, where the model somehow relates to gYM_2 theory, we solve the saddle-point equations and find $\\ro (z)$ in two region, and calculate the explicit value of critical point $\\b_c$ for $V(B)=TrB^n (B=AA^{\\d})$. For $V(B)=Tr B^2,Tr B^3$ and Tr$B^4$, we study the critical behaviour of the model at d=2, and by calculating t...
General Relativity and Gravitation
Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm
2015-07-01
Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavinia Heisenberg
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar–tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes–Langlois–Piazza–Vernizzi (GLPV theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Hu, Xiaosi
In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.
Generalized Supersymetric Boundary State
Hashimoto, K
2000-01-01
Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfy the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the superstring sigma model corresponds to a well-defined boundary state with no divergence. The coupling of a single closed superstring massless mode with multiple open string massless modes is encoded in the boundary state, and we confirm that derivative correction to the D-brane action in this sector vanishes up to the first non-trivial order O(alpha'(derivative)^2). Combining T-dualities, we incorpolate also general configurations of the scalar fields on the D-brane, and construct boundary states representing branes stuc...
General minisum circle location
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik
2009-01-01
In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...... is minimized, where the distance is measured by a norm k2. We present results for the general case. In the case that k1 and k2 are both block norms, we are able to identify a nite dominating set in R3 for the problem, which can be obtained as the intersection of cones....
Hyperuniformity and its generalizations.
Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy
Hyperuniformity and its generalizations
Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy
Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel
2003-12-01
Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Willert, Søren
2014-01-01
with different pre-merger backgrounds. Our findings suggest that analyzing dominant material discourse themes may throw light on the way work teams define and regulate their social practice, and, hence, that such analyses may be useful tools for studying the social dynamics of materiality and agency......Following George Herbert Mead, we contend that work-related organizational behavior requires continued negotiation of meaning – using linguistic, behavioral, and social tools. The meaning structures of the Generalized Other(s) of a particular employing organization provide the regulatory framework...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆汝钤; 张文妍
2002-01-01
This paper proposes the concept of generalized L systems, GL systems for short, which can describe asynchronized concurrent phenomena. We have proved that the GL systems are proper extensions of the traditional L systems. We have also defined a classification of GL systems and proved a sufficient and necessary condition for the equivalence of two subclasses of GL systems: two quivalent, iff k = j and there exists a common divisor g of all mr and a common divisor h of all ni such that i: mi/g = ni/h.
Mcgeorge, H D
2012-01-01
This book covers the general engineering knowledge required by candidates for the Department of Transport's Certificates of Competency in Marine Engineering, Class One and Class Two. The text is updated throughout in this third edition, and new chapters have been added on production of fresh water and on noise and vibration. Reference is also provided to up-to-date papers and official publications on specialized topics. These updates ensure that this little volume will continue to be a useful pre-examination and revision text. - Marine Engineers Review, January 1992
General vorticity conservation
Gümral, H
1998-01-01
The motion of an incompressible fluid in Lagrangian coordinates involves infinitely many symmetries generated by the left Lie algebra of group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of the three dimensional domain occupied by the fluid. Utilizing a 1+3-dimensional Hamiltonian setting an explicit realization of this symmetry algebra and the related Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws are constructed recursively. Their Lie algebraic structures are inherited from the same construction. The laws of general vorticity and helicity conservations are formulated globally in terms of invariant differential forms of the velocity field.
Itch Management: General Principles.
Misery, Laurent
2016-01-01
Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.
Mashhoon, B
2014-01-01
A brief account of the present status of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is presented. The main physical assumptions that underlie this theory are described. We clarify the physical meaning and significance of Weitzenb\\"ock's torsion, and emphasize its intimate relationship with the gravitational field, characterized by the Riemannian curvature of spacetime. In this theory, nonlocality can simulate dark matter; in fact, in the Newtonian regime, we recover the phenomenological Tohline-Kuhn approach to modified gravity. To account for the observational data regarding dark matter, nonlocality is associated with a characteristic length scale of order 1 kpc. The confrontation of nonlocal gravity with observation is briefly discussed.
Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. G(o)n(ǖ)l
2004-01-01
@@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.
Multiparticle Generalization of Teleportation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Chui-Ping; GUO Guang-Can
2000-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an unknown quantum state of many particles is proposed. The scheme operates es sentially by prearranging the sharing of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-correlated pair of particles every time. We show that after performing a series of Bell-state measurements and single-particle unitary transformations, the unknown state of many particles, which was destroyed at one place, can be reconstructed at another place. Our scheme is actually obtained by generalizing an earlier scheme of Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 (1993) 1895; 76 (1996) 722] known as quantum teleportation to the multiparticle case.
The Pico's formula Generalization
Sergiu Cataranciuc; Marina Holban
2007-01-01
The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied...
The generalized Fubini instanton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yurova, A.A. [Department of Higher Mathematics, Kaliningrad State Technical University, 236000, Soviet Avenue 1, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)], E-mail: yurov@freemail.ru; Yurov, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Russian State University of I. Kant, 236041, Aleksandra Nevskogo street 14, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)], E-mail: artyom_yurov@mail.ru
2008-06-02
We show that (1+2) nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with negative coupling admits an exact solution which appears to be the linear superposition of the plane wave and the nonsingular rational soliton. We show that the same approach allows to construct the solution of similar properties for the Euclidean {phi}{sup 4} model with broken symmetry. Interestingly, this regular solution will be of instanton type only in the D{<=}5 Euclidean space. Thus one can use the generalized Fubini instantons (in quantum cosmology for example) only for the case of the single infinite extra dimension.
Generalized Superfield Lagrangian Quantization
Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P Y
2002-01-01
We consider an extension of the gauge-fixing procedure in the framework of the Lagrangian superfield BRST and BRST-antiBRST quantization schemes for arbitrary gauge theories, taking into account the possible ambiguity in the choice of the superfield antibracket. We show that this ambiguity is fixed by the algebraic properties of the antibracket and the form of the BRST and antiBRST transformations, realized in terms of superspace translations. The Ward identities related to the generalized gauge-fixing procedure are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle
2008-12-01
Full Text Available MDE paradigm promises to release developers from writing code. The basis of this paradigm consists in working at such a level of abstraction that will make it easyer for analysts to detail the project to be undertaken. Using the model described by analysts, software tools will do the rest of the task, generating software that will comply with customer's defined requirements. The purpose of this study is to compare general purpose tools available right now that enable to put in practice the principles of this paradigm and aimed at generating a wide variety of applications composed by interactive multimedia and artificial intelligence components.
1975-01-01
At a special session on 21 March, presided over by P. Levaux, the Council of the European Organization for Nuclear Research appointed J . B. Adams and L . Van Hove as Directors General of the Organization for a period of five years beginning 1 January 1976. Dr. Adams will be responsible for the administration of CERN, for the operation of the equipment and services and for the construction of buildings and major equipment. Professor Van Hove will be responsible for the research activities of the Organization.
Generalized Quantum Current Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Liu
2001-01-01
Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.
On generalized Volterra systems
Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.
2015-01-01
We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.
Generalized estimating equations
Hardin, James W
2013-01-01
Generalized Estimating Equations, Second Edition updates the best-selling previous edition, which has been the standard text on the subject since it was published a decade ago. Combining theory and application, the text provides readers with a comprehensive discussion of GEE and related models. Numerous examples are employed throughout the text, along with the software code used to create, run, and evaluate the models being examined. Stata is used as the primary software for running and displaying modeling output; associated R code is also given to allow R users to replicat
The Pico's formula Generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiu Cataranciuc
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied in calculation for areas of plane figure is elaborated.
GENERALIZED NEKRASOV MATRICES AND APPLICATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mingxian Pang; Zhuxiang Li
2003-01-01
In this paper, the concept of generalized Nekrasov matrices is introduced, some properties of these matrices are discussed, obtained equivalent representation of generalized diagonally dominant matrices.
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-10-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
General Composite Higgs Models
Marzocca, David; Shu, Jing
2012-01-01
We construct a general class of pseudo-Goldstone composite Higgs models, within the minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ coset structure, that are not necessarily of moose-type. We characterize the main properties these models should have in order to give rise to a Higgs mass at around 125 GeV. We assume the existence of relatively light and weakly coupled spin 1 and 1/2 resonances. In absence of a symmetry principle, we introduce the Minimal Higgs Potential (MHP) hypothesis: the Higgs potential is assumed to be one-loop dominated by the SM fields and the above resonances, with a contribution that is made calculable by imposing suitable generalizations of the first and second Weinberg sum rules. We show that a 125 GeV Higgs requires light, often sub-TeV, fermion resonances. Their presence can also be important for the model to successfully pass the electroweak precision tests. Interestingly enough, the latter can be passed also by models with a heavy Higgs around 320 GeV. The composite Higgs models of the moose-type conside...
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-11-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
Staff Association
2011-01-01
Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...
Association du personnel
2010-01-01
Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...
Staff Association
2011-01-01
Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...
Staff Association
2010-01-01
Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...
Generalized etale cohomology theories
Jardine, John F
1997-01-01
A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra. This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...
Generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
Wang, Jian; Shim, Byonghyo
2011-01-01
As a greedy algorithm to recover sparse signals from compressed measurements, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm has received much attention in recent years. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the orthogonal matching pursuit (gOMP) for pursuing efficiency in reconstructing sparse signals. Our approach, henceforth referred to as generalized OMP (gOMP), is literally a generalization of the OMP in the sense that multiple indices are identified per iteration. Owing to the selection of multiple "correct" indices, the gOMP algorithm is finished with much smaller number of iterations compared to the OMP. We show that the gOMP can perfectly reconstruct any $K$-sparse signals ($K > 1$), provided that the sensing matrix satisfies the RIP with $\\delta_{NK} < \\frac{\\sqrt{N}}{\\sqrt{K} + 2 \\sqrt{N}}$. We also demonstrate by empirical simulations that the gOMP has excellent recovery performance comparable to $\\ell_1$-minimization technique with fast processing speed and competitive computational com...
[Congenital cataract: general review].
Roche, O; Beby, F; Orssaud, C; Dupont Monod, S; Dufier, J L
2006-04-01
Cataract is a loss of lens transparency because of a protein alteration. Etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but new mutations of different developmental genes involved are found in 25% of cases. Frequency of onset, particularly when different ocular development anomalies occur, is related to the lens induction phenomena on the eye's anterior segment structure during embryologic development. Genetic transmission is often found on the dominant autosomal mode. Diagnosis is based on a complete and detailed examination of the eye, often with general anaesthesia. This condition predisposes children to later, sometimes serious amblyopia. Different clinical aspects can be observed: from cataract with ocular and/or systemic anomalies to polymalformative syndrome, skeletal, dermatological, neurological, metabolic, and genetic or chromosomal diseases. A general systematic pediatric examination is necessary. Congenital cataract requires first and foremost early diagnosis and a search for all etiologies. Surgical treatment is adapted case by case but it has progressed with the quality of today's intraocular lenses even if systematic implantation continues to be debated. Life-long monitoring is absolutely necessary.
Generalized Agile Estimation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilpa Bahlerao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Agile cost estimation process always possesses research prospects due to lack of algorithmic approaches for estimating cost, size and duration. Existing algorithmic approach i.e. Constructive Agile Estimation Algorithm (CAEA is an iterative estimation method that incorporates various vital factors affecting the estimates of the project. This method has lots of advantages but at the same time has some limitations also. These limitations may due to some factors such as number of vital factors and uncertainty involved in agile projects etc. However, a generalized agile estimation may generate realistic estimates and eliminates the need of experts. In this paper, we have proposed iterative Generalized Estimation Method (GEM and presented algorithm based on it for agile with case studies. GEM based algorithm various project domain classes and vital factors with prioritization level. Further, it incorporates uncertainty factor to quantify the risk of project for estimating cost, size and duration. It also provides flexibility to project managers for deciding on number of vital factors, uncertainty level and project domains thereby maintaining the agility.
2001-01-01
All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.
Generalizing Minimal Supergravity
Li, Tianjun
2010-01-01
In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), the Standard Model (SM) gauge couplings need not be unified at the GUT scale due to the high-dimensional operators. Considering gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking, we study for the first time the generic gauge coupling relations at the GUT scale, and the general gaugino mass relations which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop. We define the index k for these relations, which can be calculated in GUTs and can be determined at the Large Hadron Collider and the future International Linear Collider. Thus, we give a concrete definition of the GUT scale in these theories, and suggest a new way to test general GUTs at future experiments. We also discuss five special scenarios with interesting possibilities. With our generic formulae, we present all the GUT-scale gauge coupling relations and all the gaugino mass relations in the SU(5) and SO(10) models, and calculate the corresponding indices k. Especially, the index k is 5/3 in the traditional SU(5...
Conditional generalized analytic Feynman integrals and a generalized integral equation
Seung Jun Chang; Soon Ja Kang; David Skoug
2000-01-01
We use a generalized Brownian motion process to define a generalized Feynman integral and a conditional generalized Feynman integral. We then establish the existence of these integrals for various functionals. Finally we use the conditional generalized Feynman integral to derive a Schrödinger integral equation.
Introduction to general relativity
Parthasarthy, R
2016-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.
Beyond Einstein's General Relativity
Lobo, Francisco S N
2014-01-01
Modern astrophysical and cosmological models are plagued with two severe theoretical difficulties, namely, the dark energy and the dark matter problems. Relative to the former, high-precision observational data have confirmed with startling evidence that the Universe is undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. This phase, one of the most important and challenging current problems in cosmology, represents a new imbalance in the governing gravitational equations. Several candidates, responsible for this expansion, have been proposed in the literature, in particular, dark energy models and modified gravity, amongst others. Outstanding questions are related to the nature of this so-called "dark energy" that is driving the acceleration of the universe, and whether it is due to the vacuum energy or a dynamical field. On the other hand, the late-time cosmic acceleration may be due to modifications of General Relativity, which introduce new degrees of freedom to the gravitational sector itself. We analyze some of...
Nanotechnologies a general introduction
CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A
2007-01-01
After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...
Generalized channeled polarimetry.
Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott
2014-05-01
Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values.
GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.
Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong
2013-01-01
We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t-like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.
Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang-Meng Liu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.
General human activity patterns
Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim
2016-01-01
We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.
Natural generalized mirage mediation
Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes
2016-01-01
In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft SUSY breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavoured by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. We suggest here a broader setup of generalized mirage mediation (GMM), where heretofore discrete parameters are allowed as continuous to better parametrize these other schemes. We find that natural SUSY spectra consistent with both the measured value of m(h). as well as LHC lower bounds on superpartner masses are then possible. We explicitly show that models generated from natural GMM may be beyond the reach of even high-luminosity LHC searches. In such a case...
Bojowald, Martin
2013-01-01
Deformed special relativity is embedded in deformed general relativity using the methods of canonical relativity and loop quantum gravity. Phase-space dependent deformations of symmetry algebras then appear, which in some regimes can be rewritten as non-linear Poincare algebras with momentum-dependent deformations of commutators between boosts and time translations. In contrast to deformed special relativity, the deformations are derived for generators with an unambiguous physical role, following from the relationship between canonical constraints of gravity with stress-energy components. The original deformation does not appear in momentum space and does not give rise to non-locality issues or problems with macroscopic objects. Contact with deformed special relativity may help to test loop quantum gravity or restrict its quantization ambiguities.
Generalized mid dermal elastolysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria João Cruz
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling.
Generalizing Giuga's conjecture
Grau, José María
2011-01-01
In 1950 G. Giuga studied the congruence $\\sum_{j=1}^{n-1} j^{n-1} \\equiv -1$ (mod $n$) and conjectured that it was only satisfied by prime numbers. In this work we generalize Giuga's ideas considering, for each $k \\in \\mathbb{N}$, the congruence $\\sum_{j=1}^{n-1} j^{k(n-1)} \\equiv -1$ (mod $n$). It particular, it is proved that a pair $(n,k)\\in \\mathbb{N}^2$ (with composite $n$) satisfies the congruence if and only if $n$ is a Giuga Number and $ \\lambda(n)/\\gcd(\\lambda(n),n-1)$ divides $k$. In passing, we establish some new characterizations of Giuga Numbers.
Neutron stars - General review
Cameron, A. G. W.; Canuto, V.
1974-01-01
A review is presented of those properties of neutron stars upon which there is general agreement and of those areas which currently remain in doubt. Developments in theoretical physics of neutron star interiors are summarized with particular attention devoted to hyperon interactions and the structure of interior layers. Determination of energy states and the composition of matter is described for successive layers, beginning with the surface and proceeding through the central region into the core. Problems encountered in determining the behavior of matter in the ultra-high density regime are discussed, and the effects of the magnetic field of a neutron star are evaluated along with the behavior of atomic structures in the field. The evolution of a neutron star is outlined with discussion centering on carbon detonation, cooling, vibrational damping, rotation, and pulsar glitches. The role of neutron stars in cosmic-ray propagation is considered.
Marchuk, Nikolay
2011-01-01
Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.
Awareness under general anesthesia.
Bischoff, Petra; Rundshagen, Ingrid
2011-01-01
Awareness while under general anesthesia, and the later recall of what happened during surgery, can be experienced by patients as horrific events that leave lasting mental trauma behind. Patients may have both auditory and tactile perception, potentially accompanied by feelings of helplessness, inability to move, pain, and panic ranging to an acute fear of death. For some patients, the experience of awareness under anesthesia has no sequelae; for others, however, it can lead to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, consisting of complex psychopathological phenomena such as anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, irritability, and depression possibly leading to suicidality. The literature on the subject was selectively reviewed. In the absence of risk factors awareness phenomena occur in one to two per 1000 operations under general anesthesia (0.1% to 0.2%) and are thus classed as an occasionally occurring critical event. In children, the risk of such phenomena occurring is 8 to 10 times higher. These phenomena are due to an inadequate depth of anesthesia with incomplete unconsciousness. They can be promoted by a number of risk factors that are either patient-related (ASA class III or above, medication abuse), surgery-related (Caesarean section, emergency procedures, surgery at night), or anesthesia-related (anesthesia without benzodiazepines, use of muscle relaxants). Strategies for avoiding awareness phenomena under anesthesia include the training of staff to know about the problem and, specifically, the use of benzodiazepines, the avoidance of muscle relaxants if possible, and shielding the patient from excessive noise. EEG monitoring is effective but provides no guarantee against awareness. If awareness under anesthesia occurs despite these measures, the patient must be given expert, interdisciplinary treatment as soon after the event as possible in order to minimize its potential sequelae.
Generalized conjugate gradient squared
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
1994-12-31
In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.
Generalized internal multiple imaging
Zuberi, M. A. H.
2014-08-05
Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.
General Randic matrix and general Randi'c energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ran Gu;
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Let $G$ be a simple graph with vertex set $V(G = {v_1, v_2,ldots , v_n}$ and $d_i$ the degree of its vertex $v_i$, $i = 1, 2, cdots, n$. Inspired by the Randi'c matrix and the general Randi'c index of a graph, we introduce the concept of general Randi'c matrix $textbf{R}_alpha$ of $G$, which is defined by $(textbf{R}_alpha_{i,j}=(d_id_j^alpha$ if $v_i$ and $v_j$ are adjacent, and zero otherwise. Similarly, the general Randi'{c} eigenvalues are the eigenvalues of the general Randi'{c} matrix, the greatest general Randi'{c} eigenvalue is the general Randi'{c} spectral radius of $G$, and the general Randi'{c} energy is the sum of the absolute values of the general Randi'{c} eigenvalues. In this paper, we prove some properties of the general Randi'c matrix and obtain lower and upper bounds for general Randi'{c} energy, also, we get some lower bounds for general Randi'{c} spectral radius of a connected graph. Moreover, we give a new sharp upper bound for the general Randi'{c} energy when $alpha=-1/2$.[2mm] noindent{bf Keywords:} general Randi'c matrix, general Randi'c energy, eigenvalues, spectral radius.
Generalized Reactive Manufacturing System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李蓓智
2001-01-01
Generalized reactive manufacturing system named GRMS is introduced. GRMS is a human-centered system based on Multi-agent. Its management and control organization is made up of three types of agents named device agent,task agent and shop-floor agent. GRMS adopts a top down and bottom- up competition and cooperation strategy based on the dynamic sifter and funnel To constrain the behavior of agents, a reward and penaity policy is introduced into the system and the closed-loop adjustment of GRMS is realized through such policy.Agents for the same task should be cooperated with each other and agents for different tasks should compete for survival in the dynamic changing environment. A distributed-hierarchical architecture with three levels of master-slave relationships among agents are proposed.Self-propelled process planning is also discussed. In order to evaluate GRMS, a time-driven simulation system-GRMOSS is developed to check the physical consistency of GRMS.
Adenotomy under general anesthesia.
Vokurka, J; Jakoubková, S; Vít, Z; Drahokoupilová, M
1989-01-01
Experience obtained from adenotomy (AT) under general anesthesia using Ketamin hydrochloride (Ketalar, Narkamon) in children are presented in this paper. The authors had used intramuscular premedication with Prothazin, Dolsin and Atropin at the first stage, then they shifted to oral administration of a combination of Diazepam, Theadryl and Atropin. Ketamin may be applied intravenously in the dosage of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight in most children. Where it is not possible, a triple dose into the muscle is used. A total of 2,266 AT were performed. About 70% of patients were calm during the operation, once a suspected aspiration was considered but it was not confirmed. The main contribution of the method is 100% amnesia of the surgery made. The procedure is a compromise between a requirement for minimal traumatization of the child's psyche by the intervention and the resources available, particularly the need of personnel at the majority of otorhinolaryngo-logical departments nowadays.
Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping
2016-01-01
"Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...
General purpose operator interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennion, S. I.
1979-07-01
The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington is developing a general-purpose operator interface for controlling set-point driven processes. The interface concept is being developed around graphics display devices with touch-sensitive screens for direct interaction with the displays. Additional devices such as trackballs and keyboards are incorporated for the operator's convenience, but are not necessary for operation. The hardware and software are modular; only those capabilities needed for a particular application need to be used. The software is written in FORTRAN IV with minimal use of operating system calls to increase portability. Several ASCII files generated by the user define displays and correlate the display variables with the process parameters. It is also necessary for the user to build an interface routine which translates the internal graphics commands into device-specific commands. The interface is suited for both continuous flow processes and unit operations. An especially useful feature for controlling unit operations is the ability to generate and execute complex command sequences from ASCII files. This feature relieves operators of many repetitive tasks. 2 figures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Mohammed Viquaruddin
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt regarding the general social/economical/ecological/political and more environments of world certainly with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary approach. It is discussed that the problems of fore further can besolved through facts/reasoning/science/environment/social sciences etc. As beinga student of political science even peace science a try that can come into existenceor can be practiced only through many dimensions. The philosophy is developedto resist with whatever means we have in hand and are willing to fight for a betterscenario which would be something out of our reach! But can achieve through apositive and plural system not certainly perfect but different in its approach.Achievement to the threats and problems to the liberal vision are pervasive and thesystem is in much greater problematic that is commonly supposed. Protecting/Preserving/ Commanding it in the coming century and beyond will be easier saidthan done! We do not foresee the renaissance of any type we should be sure aboutthat alternative World Multidimensional System (WMS could reasonably competewith the present multidimensional system on theoretical or practical grounds. It isnot enough that this system display substantial practical advantages and genuinetheoretical coherence. No one can deny that world get profit from present system.
Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruger, S.E.
1999-02-01
A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis
2014-01-01
This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
Pervushin, V
2001-01-01
The inflation-free solution of problems of the modern cosmology (horizon, cosmic initial data, Planck era, arrow of time, singularity,homogeneity, and so on) is considered in the conformal-invariant unified theory given in the space with geometry of similarity where we can measure only the conformal-invariant ratio of all quantities. Conformal General Relativity is defined as the $SU_c(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$-Standard Model where the dimensional parameter in the Higgs potential is replaced by a dilaton scalar field described by the negative Penrose-Chernikov-Tagirov action. Spontaneous SU(2) symmetry breaking is made on the level of the conformal-invariant angle of the dilaton-Higgs mixing, and it allows us to keep the structure of Einstein's theory with the equivalence principle. We show that the lowest order of the linearized equations of motion solves the problems mentioned above and describes the Cold Universe Scenario with the constant temperature T and z-history of all masses with respect to an obser...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Jansa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The general objective of the international MEDiterranean EXperiment (MEDEX was the better understanding and forecasting of cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean. This paper reviews the motivation and foundation of MEDEX, the gestation, history and organisation of the project, as well as the main products and scientific achievements obtained from it. MEDEX obtained the approval of WMO and can be considered as framed within other WMO actions, such as ALPEX, MCP and, to certain extent, THORPEX and HyMeX. Through two phases (2000–2005 and 2006–2010 MEDEX has produced a specific database, with information about cyclones and high impact weather events, several main reports and a specific field campaign (DTS-MEDEX-2009. The scientific achievements are significant in fields like climatology, dynamical understanding of the physical processes and social impact of cyclones, as well as on aspects related to the location of sensitive zones for individual cases, climatology of sensitivity zones and the improvement of the forecasts through innovative methods like mesoscale ensemble prediction systems.
[General review of rhinolithiases].
Kharoubi, S
2008-02-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and characteristics of rhinolithiasis, a rare and forgotten entity. Between 1990 and 2007, 20 cases of rhinolithiasis presented for consultation. The clinical course noted chronic nasal discharge associated with nasal obstruction. The protocol was the same for all patients: history of disease, meticulous endonasal endoscopy and plain radiography (+/-CT scan). Rhinolithiasis was found in adults (55%), females, patients living in rural areas (66%) with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. The diagnosis delay varied between six months and eight years. The examination showed the rhinolith in the form of a grey concretion, primarily unilateral and on the right-hand side in 60% of the patients. Only one bilateral case presented following destruction of the posterior nasal septum. The rhinolith measured between 5 and 50mm in diameter with only three associated foreign bodies (15%). The rhinolith was extracted through the natural pathways under local anesthesia in 60% of the cases. Complications were rare (epistaxis 10%) and favorable progression without recurrence was generally observed after a mean 16 months of follow-up (range, six months to 11 years). Chronic nasal discharge without a history of rhinologic disease requires an endonasal examination under good conditions after retraction. Rhinolithiasis is easily recognized, in particular on imaging studies. Treatment is simple and curative in the majority of cases.
Jansa, A.; Alpert, P.; Arbogast, P.; Buzzi, A.; Ivancan-Picek, B.; Kotroni, V.; Llasat, M. C.; Ramis, C.; Richard, E.; Romero, R.; Speranza, A.
2014-08-01
The general objective of the international MEDiterranean EXperiment (MEDEX) was the better understanding and forecasting of cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean. This paper reviews the motivation and foundation of MEDEX, the gestation, history and organisation of the project, as well as the main products and scientific achievements obtained from it. MEDEX obtained the approval of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and can be considered as framed within other WMO actions, such as the ALPine EXperiment (ALPEX), the Mediterranean Cyclones Study Project (MCP) and, to a certain extent, THe Observing System Research and Predictability EXperiment (THORPEX) and the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX). Through two phases (2000-2005 and 2006-2010), MEDEX has produced a specific database, with information about cyclones and severe or high impact weather events, several main reports and a specific data targeting system field campaign (DTS-MEDEX-2009). The scientific achievements are significant in fields like climatology, dynamical understanding of the physical processes and social impact of cyclones, as well as in aspects related to the location of sensitive zones for individual cases, the climatology of sensitivity zones and the improvement of the forecasts through innovative methods like mesoscale ensemble prediction systems.
Generalized emissivity inverse problem.
Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E
2002-04-01
Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.
Riegler, Max
2016-01-01
In this thesis I explore the generality of the holographic principle in 2+1 (bulk) dimensions by looking at the possibility of having holographic correspondences for non-AdS (higher-spin) spacetimes. The first part focuses on Lobachevsky spacetimes with $\\mathfrak{sl}(4,\\mathbb{R})$ as well as $\\mathcal{W}^{(2)}_N$ symmetries, the asymptotic symmetry algebras and their unitary representations. This results in a family of unitary $\\mathcal{W}^{(2)}_N$ models that can have both small and large central charge. The focus of the second part is a possible holographic correspondence in asymptotically flat spacetimes. This part covers limits from known AdS$_3$ results to flat space as well as a NO-GO result that forbids having flat space, higher-spins and unitarity at the same time. In addition this part shows how to consistently add (higher-spin) chemical potentials to flat space. As a non-trivial check of a holographic correspondence in flat space I provide a way to determine entanglement entropy (as well as therma...
Generalized differential semblance optimization
Zhang, S.
2013-06-10
This paper inverts space-lags in the suboffset-domain CIGs instead of time-lags for velocity estimate. As a reminder, the conventional DSO is an image-domain method for wave-equation tomography, where the essence of this method is to focus the image at zero suboffset and minimize the image at nonzero suboffset. At each iteration, the velocity model is updated by smearing the image on the nonzero sub- offset along wavepath. The space-lag is used as a penalty operator which annihilates the image energy at nonzero lags, where this space-lag is independent of the velocity model. This new method, denoted as generalized DSO, treats the space-lag as a function of velocity model. It is an extension of the conventional DSO except it updates the velocity model not only by smearing the image on the nonzero suboffset as in conventional DSO but also by smearing the nonzero suboffset along the wavepath. The former minimizes the image in the nonzero suboffset and the latter minimizes the nonzero suboffset of the image. Both methods aim to focus the image energy at zero suboffset. The mathematical derivation and numerical examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness in velocity inversion.
Natural generalized mirage mediation
Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes
2016-12-01
In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavored by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. We suggest here a broader setup of generalized mirage mediation (GMM), where heretofore discrete parameters are allowed as continuous to better parametrize these other schemes. We find that natural SUSY spectra consistent with both the measured value of mh as well as LHC lower bounds on superpartner masses are then possible. We explicitly show that models generated from natural GMM may be beyond the reach of even high-luminosity LHC searches. In such a case, the proposed International Linear e+e- Collider will be required for natural SUSY discovery via higgsino pair production reactions. We also outline prospects for detection of higgsino-like WIMPs from natural GMM.
On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S P Malgonde; G S Gaikawad
2001-11-01
The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. Algebraic properties of the convolution are explained and the existence and significance of an identity element are discussed.
Action Principle for the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity
Brown, J David
2010-01-01
An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. The Z4 formulation of general relativity also can be defined by an action principle, as discussed by Bona, Bona--Casas and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic and Z4 actions is presented in detail.
Generalization of stochastic visuomotor rotations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo L Fernandes
Full Text Available Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of neural representation. However, little is known about how uncertainty, resulting from variability in the environment, affects generalization curves. Here we extend standard movement generalization experiments to ask how uncertainty affects the generalization of visuomotor rotations. We find that although uncertainty affects how fast subjects learn, the perturbation generalizes independently of uncertainty.
Generalized gap functions and error bounds for generalized variational inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan-hong HU; Wen SONG
2009-01-01
We consider some classes of generalized gap functions for two kinds of gen-eralized variational inequality problems. We obtain error bounds for the underlying vari-ational inequalities using the generalized gap functions under the condition that the in-volved mapping F is g-strongly monotone with respect to the solution, but not necessarily continuous differentiable, even not locally Lipschitz.
[Manual therapy in general practice].
Березуцкий, Владимир И
2016-01-01
The article is devoted to manual therapy practice for diagnostics and treatment of vertebrogenic pain syndrome in general practice. Analytical roundup of sources proves medical advantage of implementation of manual therapy basic methods by general practice specialists.
Generalized gravity from modified DFT
Sakatani, Yuho; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-01-01
Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.
On the generalized lifting problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Bolondi
1993-05-01
Full Text Available We construct curves for which the generalized lifting property does not hold, with high degree. We discuss the behaviour of the Hilbert function of the general plane section of these curves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel
2004-02-29
The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device
Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halkier, Bente
2011-01-01
In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...... and processes in producing the three different ways of generalizing: ideal typologizing, category zooming, and positioning....
Genesis of general relativity - Discovery of general relativity
Weinstein, Galina
2012-01-01
The intermediate stage of the development of general relativity is inseparable of Marcel Grossmann's mathematical assistance. Einstein acknowledges Grossmann's help during 1912-1914 to the development of general relativity. In fact, as with special relativity so was it with General relativity, Einstein received assistance only from his old friends, Marcel Grossmann and Michele Besso. However, he continued to consider Besso as his eternal "sounding board"...
The use of generalized functions and distributions in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinbauer, R [Department of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Nordbergstrasse 15, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Vickers, J A [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2006-05-21
We review the extent to which one can use classical distribution theory in describing solutions of Einstein's equations. We show that there are a number of physically interesting cases which cannot be treated using distribution theory but require a more general concept. We describe a mathematical theory of nonlinear generalized functions based on Colombeau algebras and show how this may be applied in general relativity. We end by discussing the concept of singularity in general relativity and show that certain solutions with weak singularities may be regarded as distributional solutions of Einstein's equations. (topical review)
Conditioned Fear Acquisition and Generalization in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Blasco, María Jesús; Farré, Magí; Torrubia, Rafael
2015-09-01
Abnormal fear conditioning processes (including fear acquisition and conditioned fear-generalization) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Previous research has shown that individuals with panic disorder present enhanced conditioned fear-generalization in comparison to healthy controls. Enhanced conditioned fear-generalization could also characterize generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but research so far is inconclusive. An important confounding factor in previous research is comorbidity. The present study examined conditioned fear-acquisition and fear-generalization in 28 patients with GAD and 30 healthy controls using a recently developed fear acquisition and generalization paradigm assessing fear-potentiated startle and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. Analyses focused on GAD patients without comorbidity but included also patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. Patients and controls did not differ as regards fear acquisition. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups did not differ either in most indexes of conditioned fear-generalization. Moreover, dimensional measures of GAD symptoms were not correlated with conditioned fear-generalization indexes. Comorbidity did not have a significant impact on the results. Our data suggest that conditioned fear-generalization is not enhanced in GAD. Results are discussed with special attention to the possible effects of comorbidity on fear learning abnormalities.
Topics on nonlinear generalized functions
Colombeau, J F
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give the text of a recent introduction to nonlinear generalized functions exposed in my talk in the congress gf2011, which was asked by several participants. Three representative topics were presented: two recalls "Nonlinear generalized functions and their connections with distribution theory", "Examples of applications", and a recent development: "Locally convex topologies and compactness: a functional analysis of nonlinear generalized functions".
General form of quantum evolution
Chruscinski, Dariusz
2010-01-01
We propose a complete treatment of a local in time dynamics of open quantum systems. In this approach Markovian evolution turns out to be a special case of a general non-Markovian one. We provide a general representation of the local generator which generalizes well known Lindblad representation for the Markovian dynamics. It shows that the structure of non-Markovian generators is highly intricate and the problem of their classification is still open. Simple examples illustrate our approach.
The generalized Airy diffusion equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank M. Cholewinski
2003-08-01
Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.
Extended New Generalized Lindley Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. S. Shibu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an extended version of new generalized Lindley distribution (NGLD. We refer to this new generalization as the extended new generalized Lindley distribution (ENGLD. A comprehensive account of the mathematical properties of the new distribution including estimation is presented. A real life data set is considered here to illustrate the relevance of the new model and compared it with other forms of Lindley models using method of moment estimation and method of maximum likelihood estimation.
Introduction to the general relativity; Introduction a la relativite generale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radix, J.C.
1994-12-31
This work deals with the introduction of the general relativity including the introduction of the tensorial calculation, the Euclidean space in curvilinear coordinates, the Riemann space, the recalls and complements of the restricted relativity and the elements of the general relativity. (O.L.) 83 figs., 3 tabs.
Dynamics of generalized tachyon field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Rongjia [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Tsinghua University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Qi, Jingzhao [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China)
2012-08-15
We investigate the dynamics of generalized tachyon field in FRW spacetime. We obtain the autonomous dynamical system for the general case. Because the general autonomous dynamical system cannot be solved analytically, we discuss two cases in detail: {beta}=1 and {beta}=2. We find the critical points and study their stability. At these critical points, we also consider the stability of the generalized tachyon field, which is as important as the stability of critical points. The possible final states of the universe are discussed. (orig.)
Using "Informances" in General Music
Zaffini, Erin Dineen
2015-01-01
General music teachers might be faced with formal performance expectations placed on them by administrators. While performance expectations are common in performance-based ensembles, meeting these expectations can be cumbersome and daunting to those who serve in the realm of general music. Informances--informative presentations of student learning…
Hyperbolic Formulation of General Relativity
Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W; Abrahams, Andrew; Anderson, Arlen; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.
1998-01-01
Two geometrical well-posed hyperbolic formulations of general relativity are described. One admits any time-slicing which preserves a generalized harmonic condition. The other admits arbitrary time-slicings. Both systems have only the physical characteristic speeds of zero and the speed of light.
Using "Informances" in General Music
Zaffini, Erin Dineen
2015-01-01
General music teachers might be faced with formal performance expectations placed on them by administrators. While performance expectations are common in performance-based ensembles, meeting these expectations can be cumbersome and daunting to those who serve in the realm of general music. Informances--informative presentations of student learning…
100 Years of General Relativity
Ellis, George F R
2015-01-01
This is Chapter 1 in the book General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective, Edited by Abhay Ashtekar (Editor in Chief), Beverly Berger, James Isenberg, Malcolm MacCallum. Publisher: Cambridge University Press (June, 2015). It gives a survey of themes that have been developed during the 100 years of progress in general relativity theory.
Behavioural science in general practice.
Wood, D R
1979-10-01
Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine.
Personality, Intelligence and General Knowledge
Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
2006-01-01
Three studies, all on student populations, looked at the relationship between a recently psychometrised measure of General Knowledge [Irwing, P., Cammock, T., & Lynn, R. (2001). Some evidence for the existence of a general factor of semantic memory and its components. "Personality and Individual Differences," 30, 857-871], both long…
Generalized functionals of Brownian motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. U. Ahmed
1994-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some recent developments in the theory of generalized functionals of Brownian motion. First we give a brief summary of the Wiener-Ito multiple Integrals. We discuss some of their basic properties, and related functional analysis on Wiener measure space. then we discuss the generalized functionals constructed by Hida. The generalized functionals of Hida are based on L2-Sobolev spaces, thereby, admitting only Hs, s∈R valued kernels in the multiple stochastic integrals. These functionals are much more general than the classical Wiener-Ito class. The more recent development, due to the author, introduces a much more broad class of generalized functionals which are based on Lp-Sobolev spaces admitting kernels from the spaces p,s, s∈R. This allows analysis of a very broad class of nonlinear functionals of Brownian motion, which can not be handled by either the Wiener-Ito class or the Hida class. For s≤0, they represent generalized functionals on the Wiener measure space like Schwarz distributions on finite dimensional spaces. In this paper we also introduce some further generalizations, and construct a locally convex topological vector space of generalized functionals. We also present some discussion on the applications of these results.
Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization
Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.
2012-01-01
Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 8 Section 8 Aeronautics and... Section 8 General (a) The profit and loss accounts are designed to reflect, through natural groupings, the... activities, are set forth in section 7, Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts. (d) The prescribed system of...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and... Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... prescribed in this system of accounts for each air carrier group are set forth in Section 3, Chart of Balance...
Prescription in Dutch general practice.
Dijk, L. van
2006-01-01
The second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) has combined registration data on morbidity and prescription, making it possible to unravel diagnosis-specific prescription behaviour of general practitioners(GPs). Prescription rates for different disorders vary considerably, especially
Cosmological structures in generalized gravity
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
In a class of generalized gravity theories with general couplings between the scalar field and the scalar curvature in the Lagrangian, we describe the quantum generation and the classical evolution processes of both the scalar and tensor structures in a simple and unified manner.
Spontaneously induced general relativity with holographic interior and general exterior
Shen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong
2012-01-01
The general relativity (GR) might be viewed as a spontaneously induced theory from the scalar-tensor gravity, in which the would-have-been horizon connects the exterior solution of GR with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. Using a simple but robust analytic method, we give the nontrivial core metric for the general exterior. Then we show that all the nontrivial features of the core, including the locally holographic entropy packing, are not influenced by the general exterior. We also investigate whether other modified theories of gravity can permit the nontrivial core.
GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈正新
2014-01-01
Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.
Generalized functions, volume 2 spaces of fundamental and generalized functions
Gel′fand, I M
2016-01-01
The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. Volume 2
General relativity and mathematics; Relatividad General y Matematicas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mars, M.
2015-07-01
General relativity is more than a theory of gravity, since any physical process occupies space and lasts for a time, forcing to reconcile that physical theory that describes what the dynamic nature of space-time itself. (Author)
Generalized Cole–Hopf transformations for generalized Burgers equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Mayil Vaganan; E Emily Priya
2015-11-01
A detailed review of the invention of Cole–Hopf transformations for the Burgers equation and all the subsequent works which include generalizations of the Burgers equation and the corresponding developments in Cole–Hopf transformations are documented.
2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...
Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zucchini, Roberto E-mail: zucchinir@bo.infn.it
2005-03-01
Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a Batalin-Vilkovisky field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds. (author)
Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model
Zucchini, R
2005-01-01
Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin--Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds.
General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.
Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W
2016-07-01
Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.
The evolution of general intelligence.
Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P
2016-07-28
The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.
Categorical Generalization and Physical Structuralism
Lal, Raymond
2014-01-01
Category theory has become central to certain aspects of theoretical physics. Bain [Synthese, 190:1621--1635 (2013)] has recently argued that this has significance for ontic structural realism. We argue against this claim. In so doing, we uncover two pervasive forms of category-theoretic generalization. We call these `generalization by duality' and `generalization by categorifying physical processes'. We describe in detail how these arise, and explain their significance using detailed examples. We show that their significance is two-fold: the articulation of high-level physical concepts, and the generation of new models.
Generalization of Hopf Functional Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper generalizes the Hopf functional equation in order to apply it to a wider class of not necessarily incompressible fluid flows. We start by defining characteristic functionals of the velocity field, the density field and the temperature field of a compressible field. Using the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of energy we derive a functional equation governing the motion of an ideal gas flow and a van der Waals gas flow, and then give some general methods of deriving a functional equation governing the motion of any compressible fluid flow. These functional equations can be considered as the generalization of the Hopf functional equation.
Remarks on generalized Fedosov algebras
Dobrski, Michal
2014-01-01
The variant of Fedosov construction based on fairly general fiberwise product in the Weyl bundle is studied. Here, we analyze generalized star products of functions, of sections of endomorphisms bundle, and those generating deformed bimodule structure as introduced previously by Waldmann. Isomorphisms of generalized Fedosov algebras are considered and their relevance for deriving Seiberg-Witten map is described. The existence of the trace functional is established. For star products and for the trace functional explicit expressions, up to second power of deformation parameter, are given. As an example, we discuss the case of symmetric part of non-commutativity tensor.
A generalized advection dispersion equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abdon Atangana
2014-02-01
This paper examines a possible effect of uncertainties, variability or heterogeneity of any dynamic system when being included in its evolution rule; the notion is illustrated with the advection dispersion equation, which describes the groundwater pollution model. An uncertain derivative is defined; some properties of the operator are presented. The operator is used to generalize the advection dispersion equation. The generalized equation differs from the standard equation in four properties. The generalized equation is solved via the variational iteration technique. Some illustrative figures are presented.
Acute Paraplegia After General Anesthesia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholam Hossein Ghaedi
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Acute paraplegia is a rare but catastrophic complication of surgeries performed on aorta and corrective operations of vertebral column. Trauma to spinal cord after spinal anesthesia and ischemia of spinal cord also may lead to acute paraplegia. Acute paraplegia as a complication of general anesthesia in surgeries performed on sites other than aorta and vertebral column is very rare. Here we present a 56 year old woman with acute paraplegia due to spinal cord infarction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia probably caused by atherosclerosis of feeding spinal arteries and ischemia of spinal cord after reduction of blood flow possibly due to hypotension during general anesthesia.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MARK SHATTUCK
2016-10-01
In this paper, we consider a two-parameter polynomial generalization, denoted by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$, of the $r$-Lah numbers which reduces to these recently introduced numbers when $a = b = 1$. We present several identities for ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$ that generalize earlier identities given for the $r$-Lah and $r$-Stirling numbers. We also provide combinatorial proofs of some earlier identities involving the $r$-Lah numbers by defining appropriate sign-changing involutions. Generalizing these arguments yields orthogonality-type relations that are satisfied by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$.
Anisotropic Inflation with General Potentials
Shi, Jiaming; Qiu, Taotao
2015-01-01
Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.
Exact solution for generalized pairing
Pan, Feng; J.P. Draayer
1997-01-01
An infinite dimensional algebra, which is useful for deriving exact solutions of the generalized pairing problem, is introduced. A formalism for diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian is also proposed. The theory is illustrated with some numerical examples.
On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao
2006-01-01
A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.
The future of general medicine.
Firth, John
2014-08-01
It is a truth universally acknowledged that there is a problem with general medicine. Physicians have become increasingly specialised over the past 30 years or so, and specialist care has produced increasingly better outcomes for some patients. The patients left behind are looked after by general medicine, where demand is increasing, operational priority within hospitals is low, there is little professional kudos and recruitment is suffering. Three recent reports - Hospitals on the Edge?, the Future Hospital Commission report, and the Shape of Training report - have described the problems, but not articulated compelling solutions. Here, I discuss what is good about general medicine, what is bad and make suggestions for improvement. These involve getting specialities to take responsibility for care of appropriate admissions automatically and without delay, giving general physicians control over the service that they provide, and using well-chosen financial drivers to support movement in the right direction.
Generalized Wellposedness and Multivalued Contraction
PRABACKAR, Arockia; UTHAYAKUMAR, Ramasamy
2014-01-01
In this paper, we establish the fixed point theorem for multivalued contraction. Also we prove that the generalized well posedness of the fixed point problem and continuity of multivalued contraction.
General ideas on English reading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
祝文瑛
2015-01-01
This paper is talking about some general ideas on English reading in order to help teachers and learners foster some reading skills by seeing through its natures aiming at effective and productive English teaching and learning.
General Information about Colon Cancer
... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...
Categorical database generalization in GIS
Liu, Y.
2002-01-01
Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model, Delaunay triangulation
Generalized Heisenberg theory of turbulence
Uberoi, M. S.; Narain, J. P.
1974-01-01
Solutions of the generalized theory are obtained which are consistent with the previous work on energy transfer measurements. They also agree with the measurements of turbulent energy spectrum for wave numbers in the universal equilibrium range.
Work Ethics and General Morality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵玲玲
2016-01-01
"The Starving Sudan" is a photographic work awarded with South Africa Pulitzer Prize, which also arouses the warm discussion about work ethics and general morality. This paper aims to give comments from an objective perspective.
General correcting formula of forecasting?
2009-01-01
A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.
General Information about Pituitary Tumors
... Tumors Treatment Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pituitary Tumors Go to Health Professional ... by many other glands in the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...
General Information About Endometrial Cancer
... Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Endometrial Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the cervix , which leads to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in ...
General Information about Thyroid Cancer
... Screening Research Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thyroid Cancer Go to Health Professional ... usually cannot be felt through the skin. Enlarge Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid ...
General Information about Prostate Cancer
... Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional ... fluid that is part of the semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing ...
General Information about Penile Cancer
... Cancer Treatment Penile Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Penile Cancer Go to Health Professional ... covered with loose skin called the foreskin . Enlarge Anatomy of the penis. The parts of the penis ...
General Information about Vulvar Cancer
... Treatment Research Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vulvar Cancer Go to Health Professional ... area between the vulva and the anus ). Enlarge Anatomy of the vulva. The vulva includes the mons ...
General Information about Vaginal Cancer
... Treatment Research Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vaginal Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the vagina (also called the birth canal). Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in ...
General Information about Breast Cancer
... Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional ... are linked by thin tubes called ducts. Enlarge Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola ...
General Information about Pancreatic Cancer
... Treatment Research Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Cancer Go to Health Professional ... lies between the stomach and the spine . Enlarge Anatomy of the pancreas. The pancreas has three areas: ...
General Information about Urethral Cancer
... Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer Go to Health Professional ... In men, the urethra also carries semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...
General covariance in computational electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shyroki, Dzmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole;
2007-01-01
We advocate the generally covariant formulation of Maxwell equations as underpinning some recent advances in computational electrodynamics—in the dimensionality reduction for separable structures; in mesh truncation for finite-difference computations; and in adaptive coordinate mapping as opposed...
Generalized metric spaces and mappings
Lin, Shou
2016-01-01
The idea of mutual classification of spaces and mappings is one of the main research directions of point set topology. In a systematical way, this book discusses the basic theory of generalized metric spaces by using the mapping method, and summarizes the most important research achievements, particularly those from Chinese scholars, in the theory of spaces and mappings since the 1960s. This book has three chapters, two appendices and a list of more than 400 references. The chapters are "The origin of generalized metric spaces", "Mappings on metric spaces" and "Classes of generalized metric spaces". Graduates or senior undergraduates in mathematics major can use this book as their text to study the theory of generalized metric spaces. Researchers in this field can also use this book as a valuable reference.
General correcting formula of forecasting?
Harin, Alexander
2009-01-01
A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.
The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The patient who receives dental treatment under general anaesthesia is usually a child, one with special ... under various anaesthetic techniques and .... preoperatively in the presence of a parent or .... helpful in counteracting the stress caused.
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Generalized Entropy Concentration for Counts
Oikonomou, Kostas N
2016-01-01
We consider the phenomenon of entropy concentration under linear constraints in a discrete setting, using the "balls and bins" paradigm, but without the assumption that the number of balls allocated to the bins is known. Therefore instead of \\ frequency vectors and ordinary entropy, we have count vectors with unknown sum, and a certain generalized entropy. We show that if the constraints bound the allowable sums, this suffices for concentration to occur even in this setting. The concentration can be either in terms of deviation from the maximum generalized entropy value, or in terms of the norm of the difference from the maximum generalized entropy vector. Without any asymptotic considerations, we quantify the concentration in terms of various parameters, notably a tolerance on the constraints which ensures that they are always satisfied by an integral vector. Generalized entropy maximization is not only compatible with ordinary MaxEnt, but can also be considered an extension of it, as it allows us to address...
The future of general classification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mai, Jens Erik
2013-01-01
Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally. © 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved....
A note on generalized pentagons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan
2010-01-01
Thomassen introduced the notion of a generalized pentagon and proved that the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph with n vertices and minimum degree at least cn, c>13, is at most 2(3c-1)-(4c-1)(3c-1), the first bound independent of the order n. We present a short proof of the stronger upper...... bound (3c-1)-1, again based on generalized pentagons. © 2010 Elsevier B.V....
Kaluza's theory in generalized coordinates
García-Perciante, A L; García-Colin, L S; Garcia-Perciante, Ana Laura; Sandoval-Villalbazo, Alfredo
2001-01-01
Maxwell's equations can be obtained in generalized coordinates by considering the electromagnetic field as an external agent. The work here presented shows how to obtain the electrodynamics for a charged particle in generalized coordinates eliminating the concept of external force. Based on Kaluza's formalism, the one here presented extends the 5x5 metric into a 6x6 space-time giving enough room to include magnetic monopoles in a very natural way.
The elderly and general anesthesia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S
2010-01-01
Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....
Transform analysis of generalized functions
Misra, O P
1986-01-01
Transform Analysis of Generalized Functions concentrates on finite parts of integrals, generalized functions and distributions. It gives a unified treatment of the distributional setting with transform analysis, i.e. Fourier, Laplace, Stieltjes, Mellin, Hankel and Bessel Series.Included are accounts of applications of the theory of integral transforms in a distributional setting to the solution of problems arising in mathematical physics. Information on distributional solutions of differential, partial differential equations and integral equations is conveniently collected here.The volume will
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.
1995-03-01
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms.
Generally representative is generally representative: comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards.
Taylor, Nicola
2016-10-01
The aim of this paper is to provide comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards' criticism of the general population norms created for the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV. In her criticism, she states that the norms are not applicable for any groups in South Africa, based on the fact that the norms were not stratified according to quality of education. A discussion of some of the key issues that impact on the creation of general population norms in the South African context is provided. Demographic characteristics such as education level, quality of education, urban and rural demarcations, and home language are all considered. While the utility of within-group norms is not denied, the adoption of these without reference to the general population is not advised. To recommend that practitioners simply dispense with the general population norm without evidence that it creates misclassification or does not function effectively for the intended population lacks scientific merit at the current time. The need for clinical studies and further predictive validity research using the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV is crucial to demonstrate the continued utility of the test in the South African context. Additional reference groups will improve the amount of comparative information available for clinicians to be able to make better informed decisions for diagnosis, but the general population norms will be an important starting point in this process.
Perfil profesional del cirujano general: Professional profile General surgeon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Antonio Hernández Varea
2009-09-01
Full Text Available El perfil del egresado es un elemento clave para confección del currículo, y constituye el modelo de las características, conocimientos y habilidades que se aspira formar en el futuro cirujano. Dicho perfil debe responder a las necesidades sociales, permitir la planificación del proceso docente-educativo y concretar la relación universidad-sociedad. En el presente artículo se analizan, a partir de la situación actual, los antecedentes históricos del modelo de formación del especialista en cirugía general, la definición de cirugía general, los principales cambios internacionales en el modelo de formación de cirujanos y las funciones generales que se deben considerar en el perfil profesional del cirujano y su cumplimiento en el programa de cirugía.Graduate profile is a key element to make the curriculum, and it is a representation of the possible features, knowledges, and abilities in the future surgeon. Such profile must to account for social needs, to allow the planning of teaching-educational process, and to stay exactly the university-society relation. In present paper, from a current situation, are analyzed the historical backgrounds of training model of general surgery specialist, general surgery definition, the main international changes in the training model of surgeon, and its fulfillment in surgery program.
Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization
Hawthorne, Casey Wayne
Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive
THE ESSENCE OF GENERAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander A. Frolov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclosure essence, purpose and coherence of the system of general education through its subject content. Methods. The methods involve literature overview, theoretical research and observation. Combined application on the methodological level has provided a systematic approach to identifying the goals of general education and the structuring of its substantive content. Results. The development of students’ speculative powers should be the main task of general education whereby they can create individual model representation according to form but meaningfully adequate to the real life. The scheme of model representations development in the process of general education is proposed. Scientific novelty. The pedagogical model of development of educational process is proposed as the instrument of educational and social adaptation for students; the model represents a logical sequence of formation by students an adequate model of reality with increasing complexity. Practical significance. The proposed pedagogical model allows considering the process of general education mastery and development in absolute unity of its subject content, which should lead to the formation and development of competence in the field of adequate modeling of situations of reality.
Numerical Stability of Generalized Entropies
Steinbrecher, György
2016-01-01
In many applications, the probability density function is subject to experimental errors. In this work the continuos dependence of a class of generalized entropies on the experimental errors is studied. This class includes the C. Shannon, C. Tsallis, A. R\\'enyi and generalized R\\'enyi entropies. By using the connection between R\\'enyi or Tsallis entropies, and the "distance" in a family of metric functional spaces, family that includes the Lebesgue normed vector spaces, we introduce a further extensive generalizations of the R\\'enyi entropy. In this work we suppose that the experimental error is measured by some $L^{p}$ norm. In line with the methodology normally used for treating the so called "ill-posed problems", auxiliary stabilizing conditions are determined, such that small - in the sense of $L^{p}$ metric - experimental errors provoke small variations of the classical and generalized entropies. These stabilizing conditions are formulated in terms of $L^{p}$ metric in a class of generalized $L^{p}$ spac...
UN Secretary General visits CERN
2008-01-01
UN Secretary General praises CERN in recent visit. Ban Ki-moon, Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the United Nations Office in Geneva at the CMS site.On Sunday 31 August, Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary General, made an important visit to CERN. Arriving in the late afternoon, he was warmly greeted at Point 5 by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and the Sous-préfet of Gex, Olivier Laurens-Bernard. Accompanied by a UN delegation, Ban Ki-moon was also introduced to Jos Engelen, the Chief Scientific Officer, and Jim Virdee, the CMS spokesperson. He then took the opportunity to visit CMS and the machine tunnel. At the end of his short trip, Ban Ki-moon signed the Guest Book in the tradition of important dignitaries visiting CERN. Expressing his admiration for CERN’s spirit of collaboration, Ban Ki-moon said, "I am very honored to visit CERN, an invaluable scientific institution a...
Generalized Fractional Integral Operators on Generalized Local Morrey Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Guliyev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the continuity properties of the generalized fractional integral operator Iρ on the generalized local Morrey spaces LMp,φ{x0} and generalized Morrey spaces Mp,φ. We find conditions on the triple (φ1,φ2,ρ which ensure the Spanne-type boundedness of Iρ from one generalized local Morrey space LMp,φ1{x0} to another LMq,φ2{x0}, 1
ALGORITHMS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GENERAL LIMIT REPRESENTATIONS OF GENERALIZED INVERSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Predarg S.Stanimirovic
2001-01-01
In this paper we investigate three various algorithms for computation of generalized inverses which are contained in the limit expressions and These algorithms are extensions of the algorithms developed by various authors in [2], [3-4], [7-9], [16-18].
A Generalized Cubic Functional Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
P. K. SAHOO
2005-01-01
In this paper, we determine the general solution of the functional equation f1 (2x + y) +f2(2x - y) ＝ f3(x + y) + f4(x - y) + f5(x) without assuming any regularity condition on the unknown functions f1,f2,f3, f4,f5: R → R. The general solution of this equation is obtained by finding the general solution of the functional equations f(2x + y) + f(2x - y) = g(x + y) + g(x - y) + h(x) and f(2x + y) - f(2x - y) ＝ g(x + y) - g(x - y). The method used for solving these functional equations is elementary but exploits an important result due to Hosszu. The solution of this functional equation can also be determined in certain type of groups using two important results due to Székelyhidi.
CMAC with General Basis Functions.
Chun-Shin, Lin; Ching-Tsan, Chiang
1996-10-01
The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is often used in learning control. It can be viewed as a basis function network (BFN). The conventional CMAC uses local constant basis functions. A disadvantage is that its output is constant within each quantized state and the derivative information is not preserved. If the constant basis functions are replaced by non-constant differentiable basis functions, the derivative information will be able to be stored into the structure as well. In this paper, the generalized scheme that uses general basis functions is investigated. The conventional CMAC is a special case of the generalized technique. The mathematical foundation for the modified scheme is derived and the convergence of learning is proved. Simulations for the CMAC with Gaussian basis functions (GBFs) are performed to demonstrate the improvement of accuracy in modeling, and the capability in providing derivative information. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
Generalization of the Euler Angles
Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis
2002-01-01
It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.
A general approach to bosonization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Girish S Setulur; V Meera
2007-10-01
We summarize recent developments in the ﬁeld of higher dimensional bosonization made by Setlur and collaborators and propose a general formula for the ﬁeld operator in terms of currents and densities in one dimension using a new ingredient known as a `singular complex number'. Using this formalism, we compute the Green function of the homogeneous electron gas in one spatial dimension with short-range interaction leading to the Luttinger liquid and also with long-range interactions that lead to a Wigner crystal whose momentum distribution computed recently exhibits essential singularities. We generalize the formalism to ﬁnite temperature by combining with the author's hydrodynamic approach. The one-particle Green function of this system with essential singularities cannot be easily computed using the traditional approach to bosonization which involves the introduction of momentum cutoffs, hence the more general approach of the present formalism is proposed as a suitable alternative.
Pseudo-complex general relativity
Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter
2016-01-01
This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.
Testing general relativity on accelerators
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2015-01-01
Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyse experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable -- maximal energy of the scattered photons -- would experience a significant shift in the Earth's gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of res...
Phonotactics and its acquisition, representation, and use : an experimental-phonological study
Boll-Avetisyan, N.A.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823430
2012-01-01
One of the most challenging tasks for language-learning infants and second language (L2)-learning adults is to segment the continuous stream of speech that surrounds them, and, following this, to acquire a lexicon. Both speech segmentation and lexical acquisition are known to be facilitated by
Phonotactics and its acquisition, representation, and use : an experimental-phonological study
Boll-Avetisyan, N.A.T.
2012-01-01
One of the most challenging tasks for language-learning infants and second language (L2)-learning adults is to segment the continuous stream of speech that surrounds them, and, following this, to acquire a lexicon. Both speech segmentation and lexical acquisition are known to be facilitated by phono
General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation
IT Department
2016-01-01
On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network. This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.
Spinning fluids in general relativity
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M
2011-01-01
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m
A generalization of vortex lines
Fecko, Marian
2016-01-01
Helmholtz theorem states that, in ideal fluid, vortex lines move with the fluid. Another Helmholtz theorem adds that strength of a vortex tube is constant along the tube. The lines may be regarded as integral surfaces of an 1-dimensional integrable distribution (given by the vorticity 2-form). In general setting of theory of integral invariants, due to Poincare and Cartan, one can find $d$-dimensional integrable distribution whose integral surfaces show both properties of vortex lines: they move with (abstract) fluid and, for appropriate generalization of vortex tube, strength of the latter is constant along the tube.
Generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin Chunyu [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: l2891112@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw
2009-02-02
An obstruction to the implementation of spatially flat Painleve-Gullstrand (PG) slicings is demonstrated, and explicitly discussed for Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter spacetimes. Generalizations of PG slicings which are not spatially flat but which remain regular at the horizons are introduced. These metrics can be obtained from standard spherically symmetric metrics by physical Lorentz boosts. With these generalized PG metrics, problematic contributions to the imaginary part of the action in the Parikh-Wilczek derivation of Hawking radiation due to the obstruction can be avoided.
Remarks on generalized toric codes
Little, John B
2011-01-01
This note presents some new information on how the minimum distance of the generalized toric code corresponding to a fixed set of integer lattice points S in R^2 varies with the base field. The main results show that in some cases, over sufficiently large fields, the minimum distance of the code corresponding to a set S will be the same as that of the code corresponding to the convex hull of S. In an example, we will also discuss a [49,12,28] generalized toric code over GF(8), better than any previously known code according to M. Grassl's online tables, as of July 2011.
Multipole Expansion in Generalized Electrodynamics
Bonin, C A; Ortega, P H
2016-01-01
In this article we study some classical aspects of Podolsky Electrodynamics in the static regime. We develop the multipole expansion for the theory in both the electrostatic and the magnetostatic cases. We also address the problem of consistently truncating the infinite series associated with the several kinds of multipoles, yielding approximations for the static Podolskian electromagnetic field to any degree of precision required. Moreover, we apply the general theory of multipole expansion to some specific physical problems. In those problems we identify the first terms of the series with the monopole, dipole and quadrupole terms in the generalized theory. We also propose a situation in which Podolsky theory can be experimentally tested.
Generalized quasi-dilaton theory
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2013-01-01
Recently the first example of a unitary theory of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity allowing for stable self-accelerating de Sitter solutions was found, extending the quasidilaton theory. In this paper we further generalize this new action for the quasidilaton field by introducing general Lagrangian terms which are consistent with the quasidilaton symmetry while leading to second order equations of motion. We find that the structure of the theory, compared to the simplest stable example, does not change on introducing these new terms.
Fourth order deformed general relativity
Cuttell, Peter D
2014-01-01
Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realisation of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.
Uniform Acceleration in General Relativity
Friedman, Yaakov
2016-01-01
We extend de la Fuente and Romero's defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.
General relativity and gravitational waves
Weber, J
2004-01-01
An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta
General Instructions for Disposable Respirators
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2009-04-09
This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak. Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Date Released: 4/29/2009.
General Topology of the Universe
Pandya, Aalok
2002-01-01
General topology of the universe is descibed. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded.
On Generalized Derivations in Nearrings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Rais Khan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate some results of nearrings satisfying certain identities involving generalized derivations. Furthermore, we give some examples to demonstrate the restrictions imposed on the hypothesis of various results which are not superfluous.
A General Introduction to Microcomputers.
Muiznieks, Viktors
This basic introduction to microcomputers provides the neophyte with the terminology, definitions, and concepts that explain the microcomputer and computing technology in general. Mathematical operations with binary numbers, computer storage, controlling logic, and the concepts of stack and interrupt are explained. (RAO)
Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity
Lovatt, Ian
2009-01-01
Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…
Fetal onset of general movements
Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP
2008-01-01
Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi
General Laws and Centripetal Science
Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.
2014-01-01
The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be
New Zealand's first general anaesthetic.
Newson, A J
1975-08-01
The administration of New Zealand's first general anaesthetic took place at the Colonial Gaol, Wellington, on the morning of Monday, September 27th, 1847. The agent used was sulphuric ether which was administered by Mr. Marriot, the manufacturer of the Herapath-type inhaler used on this occasion. The operation, a dental extraction, was performed by the Colonial Surgeon, Dr. J. P. Fitzgerald.
The elderly and general anesthesia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S
2010-01-01
Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th...
Good Phonic Generalizations for Decoding
Gates, Louis
2007-01-01
An exhaustive analysis of 88,641 individual letters and letter combinations within 16,928 words drawn from the Zeno, et al. word list unveiled remarkable phonic transparency. The individual letter and letter combinations sorted into just six general categories: three basic categories of vowels (single vowels, vowel digraphs, and final…
Generalization: The Nature of Change.
Johnston, Judith R.
1988-01-01
Children's knowledge and control of a language pattern changes throughout the course of its acquisition. Language interventionists concerned about generalization may need to distinguish between activities that will promote rule learning and activities that will promote effortless rule utilization. (Author/DB)
Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…
Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity
Lovatt, Ian
2009-01-01
Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…
GENERALIZED LENTIGINOSIS: AN UNCOMMON PRESENTATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valluvan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A case of Generalized Lentiginosis is being documented for its rarity. A 27 years old congenitally deaf and mute, presented to our hospital with multiple asymmetrical brown-black to black colored macules involving all over the body sparing mucous membrane of oral cavity, palms and soles with melena. The patient was severely anemic on examination.
THE GENERALIZED POLARIZATION SCATTERING MATRIX
the Least Square Best Estimate of the Generalized Polarization matrix from a set of measurements is then developed. It is shown that the Faraday...matrix data. It is then shown that the Least Square Best Estimate of the orientation angle of a symmetric target is also determinable from Faraday rotation contaminated short pulse monostatic polarization matrix data.
Dynamics of generalized coherent states
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F
1995-01-01
We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.
Assessing the General Education Elephant
Eubanks, David A.
2008-01-01
Determining the success of a general education program can resemble the task of John Godfrey's six blind men in trying to acquaint themselves with an elephant. One man's approach is to feel the tusk and conclude that the elephant is a spear. Another approach leads to thinking that the broad side of the animal is a wall. The many ways of asking and…
[Tetanus prophylaxis in general practice
Boukes, F.S.; Wiersma, T.J.; Beaujean, D.; Burgmeijer, R.J.; Timen, A.
2004-01-01
In response to the report 'Immunisation against tetanus following injuries' from the Dutch Health Council, the Dutch College of General Practitioners, the National Coordinating Body for the Control of Infectious Diseases and The Netherlands Vaccine Institute have drawn up guidelines for tetanus
General Laws and Centripetal Science
Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.
2014-01-01
The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be cons
Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…
Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis
Hwang, Heungsun
2009-01-01
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…
General Recursion and Formal Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvio Valentini
2010-12-01
Full Text Available It is well known that general recursion cannot be expressed within Martin-Loef's type theory and various approaches have been proposed to overcome this problem still maintaining the termination of the computation of the typable terms. In this work we propose a new approach to this problem based on the use of inductively generated formal topologies.
Burnout contagion among general practitioners.
Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.
2001-01-01
This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and
Games With General Coalitional Structure
Selcuk, O.; Talman, A.J.J.
2013-01-01
Abstract: This paper introduces a new solution concept for cooperative games with general coalitional structure in which only certain sets of players, including the set of all players, are able to form feasible coalitions. The solution concept takes into account the marginal contribution of players.
Johannsen, Tim
2015-01-01
General relativity has been widely tested in weak gravitational fields but still stands largely untested in the strong-field regime. According to the no-hair theorem, black holes in general relativity depend only on their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all higher-order moments. The no-hair theorem and, hence, general relativity can be tested by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric affecting such higher-order moments. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime target for precision tests of general relativity with several experiments across the electromagnetic spectrum. First, near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of stars orbiting around Sgr A* with current and new instruments is expected to resolve their orbital precessions. Second, timing observations of radio pulsars near the Galactic center may detect characteristic residuals induced by the spin and quadrupole moment of Sgr A*. Third, th...
Generalized no-broadcasting theorem.
Barnum, Howard; Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew; Wilce, Alexander
2007-12-14
We prove a generalized version of the no-broadcasting theorem, applicable to essentially any nonclassical finite-dimensional probabilistic model satisfying a no-signaling criterion, including ones with "superquantum" correlations. A strengthened version of the quantum no-broadcasting theorem follows, and its proof is significantly simpler than existing proofs of the no-broadcasting theorem.
Generalization of Selection Test Validity.
Colbert, G. A.; Taylor, L. R.
1978-01-01
This is part three of a three-part series concerned with the empirical development of homogeneous families of insurance company jobs based on data from the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). This part involves validity generalizations within the job families which resulted from the previous research. (Editor/RK)
[Tetanus prophylaxis in general practice
Boukes, F.S.; Wiersma, T.J.; Beaujean, D.; Burgmeijer, R.J.; Timen, A.
2004-01-01
In response to the report 'Immunisation against tetanus following injuries' from the Dutch Health Council, the Dutch College of General Practitioners, the National Coordinating Body for the Control of Infectious Diseases and The Netherlands Vaccine Institute have drawn up guidelines for tetanus prop
Anisotropic Generalized Ghost Pilgrim Dark Energy Model in General Relativity
Santhi, M. Vijaya; Rao, V. U. M.; Aditya, Y.
2017-02-01
A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type- I Universe filled with matter and generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) has been studied in general theory of relativity. To obtain determinate solution of the field equations we have used scalar expansion proportional to the shear scalar which leads to a relation between the metric potentials. Some well-known cosmological parameters (equation of state (EoS) parameter ( ω Λ), deceleration parameter ( q) and squared speed of sound {vs2}) and planes (ω _{Λ }-dot {ω }_{Λ } and statefinder) are constructed for obtained model. The discussion and significance of these parameters is totally done through pilgrim dark energy parameter ( β) and cosmic time ( t).
Mining Frequent Generalized Itemsets and Generalized Association Rules Without Redundancy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Daniel Kunkle; Donghui Zhang; Gene Cooperman
2008-01-01
This paper presents some new algorithms to efficiently mine max frequent generalized itemsets (g-itemsets) and essential generalized association rules (g-rules). These are compact and general representations for all frequent patterns and all strong association rules in the generalized environment. Our results fill an important gap among algorithms for frequent patterns and association rules by combining two concepts. First, generalized itemsets employ a taxonomy of items, rather than a fiat list of items. This produces more natural frequent itemsets and associations such as (meat, milk) instead of (beef, milk), (chicken, milk), etc. Second, compact representations of frequent itemsets and strong rules, whose result size is exponentially smaller, can solve a standard dilemma in mining patterns: with small threshold values for support and confidence, the user is overwhelmed by the extraordinary number of identified patterns and associations; but with large threshold values, some interesting patterns and associations fail to be identified. Our algorithms can also expand those max frequent g-itemsets and essential g-rules into the much larger set of ordinary frequent g-itemsets and strong g-rules. While that expansion is not recommended in most practical cases, we do so in order to present a comparison with existing algorithms that only handle ordinary frequent g-itemsets. In this case, the new algorithm is shown to be thousands, and in some cases millions, of the time faster than previous algorithms. Further, the new algorithm succeeds in analyzing deeper taxonomies, with the depths of seven or more. Experimental results for previous algorithms limited themselves to taxonomies with depth at most three or four. In each of the two problems, a straightforward lattice-based approach is briefly discussed and then a classificationbased algorithm is developed. In particular, the two classification-based algorithms are MFGI_class for mining max frequent g-itemsets and EGR
The Influence of Word Characteristics on the Vocabulary of Children with Cochlear Implants
Han, Min Kyung; Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Jaehoon; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine
2015-01-01
The goal of this study was to explore the effects of phonotactic probability, word length, word frequency, and neighborhood density on the words known by children with cochlear implants (CIs) varying in vocabulary outcomes in a retrospective analysis of a subset of data from a longitudinal study of hearing loss. Generalized linear mixed modeling…
Generalized isospin, generalized mass groups, and generalized Gell-Mann--Okubo formalism
Beaudoin, N; Sandapen, R
2013-01-01
The current concepts of isospin and baryon mass groups are only well-adapted to deal with baryon multiplets involving both the u and d quarks, and some other quark k. In this paper, we generalize isospin and mass groups to accommodate baryon multiplets involving quarks of any flavor, and the Gell-Mann--Okubo (GMO) formalism is generalized accordingly. Generalized isospin proves to be a simple and valuable framework when working in non-udk baryon multiplets, and provides new quantum numbers that allows us to distinguish \\Lambda-like baryons from \\Sigma-like baryons in the non-udk multiplets. The generalized GMO formalism allows us to quantify the quality of flavor symmetries seen in baryon multiplets, and also allows us to predict the masses of all observable J^P = 1/2^+ and 3/2^+ baryons with an estimated accuracy on the order of 50 MeV in the worst cases, on mass scales that span anywhere from 1000 MeV to 15000 MeV.
Isotropic stars in general relativity
Mak, M K
2013-01-01
We present a general solution of the Einstein gravitational field equations for the static spherically symmetric gravitational interior spacetime of an isotropic fluid sphere. The solution is obtained by transforming the pressure isotropy condition, a second order ordinary differential equation, into a Riccati type first order differential equation, and using a general integrability condition for the Riccati equation. This allows us to obtain an exact non-singular solution of the interior field equations for a fluid sphere, expressed in the form of infinite power series. The physical features of the solution are studied in detail numerically by cutting the infinite series expansions, and restricting our numerical analysis by taking into account only $n=21$ terms in the power series representations of the relevant astrophysical parameters. In the present model all physical quantities (density, pressure, speed of sound etc.) are finite at the center of the sphere. The physical behavior of the solution essential...
Some general random Taylor series
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙道椿; 余家荣
1996-01-01
Kahane has studied the value distribution of Gauss-Taylor series where is a complex Gauss sequence and The value distribution of more general random Taylor series is considered, where {Xn} is a sequence of real or complex random variables of independent, symmetric and equally distributed with finite non-zero fourth moment (the classical Gauss, Steinhaus and Rademacher random variables are special cases of such variables). First a theorem on the growth of characteristic functions is proved by a method which is completely different from Kahane’s. Then it is applied to proving that the range of general random Taylor series is almost surely dense everywhere in the complex plane and that if the random variable is bounded and continuous, the random series surely has no finite Nevanlinna deficient value.
Generalizing Boolean Satisfiability II: Theory
Dixon, H E; Luks, E M; Parkes, A J; 10.1613/jair.1555
2011-01-01
This is the second of three planned papers describing ZAP, a satisfiability engine that substantially generalizes existing tools while retaining the performance characteristics of modern high performance solvers. The fundamental idea underlying ZAP is that many problems passed to such engines contain rich internal structure that is obscured by the Boolean representation used; our goal is to define a representation in which this structure is apparent and can easily be exploited to improve computational performance. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the ideas underlying ZAP, arguing that existing ideas in this area exploit a single, recurring structure in that multiple database axioms can be obtained by operating on a single axiom using a subgroup of the group of permutations on the literals in the problem. We argue that the group structure precisely captures the general structure at which earlier approaches hinted, and give numerous examples of its use. We go on to extend the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-...
Acoustic reflex and general anaesthesia.
Farkas, Z
1983-01-01
Infant and small children are not always able to cooperate in impedance measurements. For this reason it was decided, -in special cases, -to perform acoustic reflex examination under general anaesthesia. The first report on stapedius reflex and general anaesthesia was published by Mink et al. in 1981. Under the effect of Tiobutabarbital, Propanidid and Diazepam there is no reflex response. Acoustic reflex can be elicited with Ketamin-hydrochlorid and Alphaxalone-alphadolone acetate narcosis. The reflex threshold remains unchanged and the amplitude of muscle contraction is somewhat increased. The method was used: 1. to assess the type and degree of hearing loss in children with cleft palate and/or lip prior to surgery. 2. to exclude neuromuscular disorders with indication of pharyngoplasties. 3. to quantify hearing level in children--mostly multiply handicapped--with retarded speech development. The results of Behavioral Observation and Impedance Audiometry are discussed and evaluated.
Generalized eruptive histiocytosis mimicking leprosy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B C Sharath Kumar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Generalized eruptive histiocytosis (GEH is a rare cutaneous histiocytosis that mainly affects adults and presents with multiple symmetric papules on face, trunk, and proximal extremities. GEH is included in type IIa (histiocytes involving cells of dermal dendrocyte lineage of histiocytic disorders. Clinical and pathological correlations are required for differentiating GEH from other histiocytic disorders and from lepromatous leprosy which clinically mimic GEH and is prevalent in India. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with generalized asymptomatic papules and nodules and was treated for leprosy but was finally diagnosed to have GEH after clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical correlation. Furthermore, the newer lesions also showed features of progressive nodular histiocytosis.
Generalized eruptive histiocytosis mimicking leprosy.
Sharath Kumar, B C; Nandini, A S; Niveditha, S R; Gopal, M G
2011-01-01
Generalized eruptive histiocytosis (GEH) is a rare cutaneous histiocytosis that mainly affects adults and presents with multiple symmetric papules on face, trunk, and proximal extremities. GEH is included in type IIa (histiocytes involving cells of dermal dendrocyte lineage) of histiocytic disorders. Clinical and pathological correlations are required for differentiating GEH from other histiocytic disorders and from lepromatous leprosy which clinically mimic GEH and is prevalent in India. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with generalized asymptomatic papules and nodules and was treated for leprosy but was finally diagnosed to have GEH after clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical correlation. Furthermore, the newer lesions also showed features of progressive nodular histiocytosis.
General equilibrium without utility functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
2010-01-01
How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known not to re......How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...... and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; (2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; (3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; (4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity...
Solitons in generalized Galileon theories
Carrillo González, Mariana; Masoumi, Ali; Solomon, Adam R.; Trodden, Mark
2016-12-01
We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized Galileons, scalar-field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single Galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized Galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (anti-)de Sitter Galileons. For the case of Dirac-Born-Infeld and conformal Galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.
Solitons in generalized galileon theories
Carrillo-Gonzalez, Mariana; Solomon, Adam R; Trodden, Mark
2016-01-01
We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized galileons, scalar field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations, or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (A)dS galileons. For the case of DBI and conformal galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.
Generalized Expression for Polarization Density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm
2009-04-23
A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is system-atically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.
Generalized sine-Gordon solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, C dos [Centro de Fisica e Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rubiera-Garcia, D, E-mail: cssilva@fc.up.pt, E-mail: rubieradiego@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)
2011-10-21
In this paper, we construct analytical self-dual soliton solutions in (1+1) dimensions for two families of models which can be seen as generalizations of the sine-Gordon system but where the kinetic term is non-canonical. For that purpose we use a projection method applied to the sine-Gordon soliton. We focus our attention on the wall and lump-like soliton solutions of these k-field models. These solutions and their potentials reduce to those of the Klein-Gordon kink and the standard lump for the case of a canonical kinetic term. As we increase the nonlinearity on the kinetic term the corresponding potentials get modified and the nature of the soliton may change, in particular, undergoing a topology modification. The procedure constructed here is shown to be a sort of generalization of the deformation method for a specific class of k-field models. (paper)
More General Optimal Offset Assignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sven Mallach
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This manuscript presents exact approaches to the general offset assignment problem arising in the address code generation phase of compilers for application-specific processors. First, integer programming models for architecture-dependent and theoretically motivated special cases of the problem are established. Then, these models are extended to provide the first widely applicable formulations for the most general problem setting, supporting processors with several address registers and complex addressing capabilities. Existing heuristics are similarly extended and practical applicability of the proposed methods is demonstrated by experimental evaluation using an established and large benchmark set. The experiments allow us to study the impact of exploiting more complex memory addressing capabilities on the address computation costs of real-world programs. We also show how to integrate operand reordering techniques for commutative instructions into existing solution approaches.
Generalized SU(2) Proca Theory
Allys, Erwan; Rodriguez, Yeinzon
2016-01-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector galileon, we investigate the massive extension of a SU(2) gauge theory, i.e. the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building in a exhaustive way all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating three degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e. whose pure St\\"uckelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Stable clocks and general relativity
Will, C M
1995-01-01
We survey the role of stable clocks in general relativity. Clock comparisons have provided important tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, which underlies metric gravity. These include tests of the isotropy of clock comparisons (verification of local Lorentz invariance) and tests of the homogeneity of clock comparisons (verification of local position invariance). Comparisons of atomic clocks with gravitational clocks test the Strong Equivalence Principle by bounding cosmological variations in Newton's constant. Stable clocks also play a role in the search for gravitational radiation: comparision of atomic clocks with the binary pulsar's orbital clock has verified gravitational-wave damping, and phase-sensitive detection of waves from inspiralling compact binaries using laser interferometric gravitational observatories will facilitate extraction of useful source information from the data. Stable clocks together with general relativity have found important practical applications in navigational systems s...
Is general relativity `essentially understood' ?
Friedrich, H
2005-01-01
The content of Einstein's theory of gravitation is encoded in the properties of the solutions to his field equations. There has been obtained a wealth of information about these solutions in the ninety years the theory has been around. It led to the prediction and the observation of physical phenomena which confirm the important role of general relativity in physics. The understanding of the domain of highly dynamical, strong field configurations is, however, still quite limited. The gravitational wave experiments are likely to provide soon observational data on phenomena which are not accessible by other means. Further theoretical progress will require, however, new methods for the analysis and the numerical calculation of the solutions to Einstein's field equations on large scales and under general assumptions. We discuss some of the problems involved, describe the status of the field and recent results, and point out some open problems.
Generalized Lorenz-Mie theories
Gouesbet, Gérard
2017-01-01
This book explores generalized Lorenz–Mie theories when the illuminating beam is an electromagnetic arbitrary shaped beam relying on the method of separation of variables. The new edition includes an additional chapter covering the latest advances in both research and applications, which are highly relevant for readers. Although it particularly focuses on the homogeneous sphere, the book also considers other regular particles. It discusses in detail the methods available for evaluating beam shape coefficients describing the illuminating beam. In addition it features applications used in many fields such as optical particle sizing and, more generally, optical particle characterization, morphology-dependent resonances and the mechanical effects of light for optical trapping, optical tweezers and optical stretchers. Furthermore, it provides various computer programs relevant to the content.
Generalization of the Proca Action
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heisenberg, Lavinia, E-mail: Lavinia.Heisenberg@unige.ch [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2014-05-01
We consider the Lagrangian of a vector field with derivative self-interactions with a priori arbitrary coefficients. Starting with a flat space-time we show that for a special choice of the coefficients of the self-interactions the ghost-like pathologies disappear. This constitutes the Galileon-type generalization of the Proca action with only three propagating physical degrees of freedom. The longitudinal mode of the vector field is associated to the usual Galileon interactions for a specific choice of the overall functions. In difference to a scalar Galileon theory, the generalized Proca field has more free parameters. We then extend this analysis to a curved background. The resulting theory is the Horndeski Proca action with second order equations of motion on curved space-times.
Generalization of the Proca Action
Heisenberg, Lavinia
2014-01-01
We consider the Lagrangian of a vector field with derivative self-interactions with a priori arbitrary coefficients. Starting with a flat space-time we show that for a special choice of the coefficients of the self-interactions the ghost-like pathologies disappear. This constitutes the Galileon-type generalization of the Proca action with only three propagating physical degrees of freedom. The longitudinal mode of the vector field is associated to the usual Galileon interactions. In difference to a scalar Galileon theory, the generalized Proca field has more free parameters. We then extend this analysis to a curved background. The resulting theory is the Horndeski Proca action with second order equations of motion on curved space-times.
General Construction of Tubular Geometry
Mukhopadhyay, Partha
2016-01-01
We consider the problem of locally describing tubular geometry around a submanifold embedded in a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold in its general form. Given the geometry of ambient space in an arbitrary coordinate system and equations determining the submanifold in the same system, we compute the tubular expansion coefficients in terms of this {\\it a priori data}. This is done by using an indirect method that crucially applies the tubular expansion theorem for vielbein previously derived. With an explicit construction involving the relevant coordinate and non-coordinate frames we verify consistency of the whole method up to quadratic order in vielbein expansion. Furthermore, we perform certain (long and tedious) higher order computation which verifies the first non-trivial spin connection term in the expansion for the first time. Earlier a similar method was used to compute tubular geometry in loop space. We explain this work in the light of our general construction.
General relativity and relativistic astrophysics
Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2016-01-01
Einstein established the theory of general relativity and the corresponding field equation in 1915 and its vacuum solutions were obtained by Schwarzschild and Kerr for, respectively, static and rotating black holes, in 1916 and 1963, respectively. They are, however, still playing an indispensable role, even after 100 years of their original discovery, to explain high energy astrophysical phenomena. Application of the solutions of Einstein's equation to resolve astrophysical phenomena has formed an important branch, namely relativistic astrophysics. I devote this article to enlightening some of the current astrophysical problems based on general relativity. However, there seem to be some issues with regard to explaining certain astrophysical phenomena based on Einstein's theory alone. I show that Einstein's theory and its modified form, both are necessary to explain modern astrophysical processes, in particular, those related to compact objects.
Generalized Nanosatellite Avionics Testbed Lab
Frost, Chad R.; Sorgenfrei, Matthew C.; Nehrenz, Matt
2015-01-01
The Generalized Nanosatellite Avionics Testbed (G-NAT) lab at NASA Ames Research Center provides a flexible, easily accessible platform for developing hardware and software for advanced small spacecraft. A collaboration between the Mission Design Division and the Intelligent Systems Division, the objective of the lab is to provide testing data and general test protocols for advanced sensors, actuators, and processors for CubeSat-class spacecraft. By developing test schemes for advanced components outside of the standard mission lifecycle, the lab is able to help reduce the risk carried by advanced nanosatellite or CubeSat missions. Such missions are often allocated very little time for testing, and too often the test facilities must be custom-built for the needs of the mission at hand. The G-NAT lab helps to eliminate these problems by providing an existing suite of testbeds that combines easily accessible, commercial-offthe- shelf (COTS) processors with a collection of existing sensors and actuators.
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...... are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions...
Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theories
Gouesbet, Gérard
2011-01-01
The Lorenz-Mie theory, describing the interaction between a homogeneous sphere and an electromagnetic plane wave, is likely to be one of the most famous theories in light scattering. But, with the advent of lasers and their increasing development in various fields, it has become too old-fashioned to meet most of the modern requisites. The book deals with generalized Lorenz-Mie theories when the illuminating beam is an electromagnetic arbitrary shaped beam, relying on the method of separation of variables. A particular emphasis is stressed on the case of the homogeneous sphere but other regular particles are considered too. An extensive discussion of the methods available to the evaluation of beam shape coefficients describing the illuminating beam is provided, and several methods are discussed. Applications concern many fields such as optical particle sizing and, more generally, optical particle characterization, morphology-dependent resonances, or mechanical effects of light for optical trapping, optical twe...
Kernel Generalized Noise Clustering Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xiao-hong; ZHOU Jian-jiang
2007-01-01
To deal with the nonlinear separable problem, the generalized noise clustering (GNC) algorithm is extended to a kernel generalized noise clustering (KGNC) model. Different from the fuzzy c-means (FCM) model and the GNC model which are based on Euclidean distance, the presented model is based on kernel-induced distance by using kernel method. By kernel method the input data are nonlinearly and implicitly mapped into a high-dimensional feature space, where the nonlinear pattern appears linear and the GNC algorithm is performed. It is unnecessary to calculate in high-dimensional feature space because the kernel function can do itjust in input space. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by experiments on three data sets. It is concluded that the KGNC algorithm has better clustering accuracy than FCM and GNC in clustering data sets containing noisy data.
General benchmarks for quantum repeaters
Pirandola, Stefano
2015-01-01
Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.
Group supervision for general practitioners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galina Nielsen, Helena; Sofie Davidsen, Annette; Dalsted, Rikke;
2013-01-01
AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long...... considered important prerequisites for disclosing and discussing professional problems. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that participation in a supervision group can be beneficial for maintaining and developing GPs' skills in dealing with patients with mental health problems. Group supervision......-established supervision group was studied closely for six months by observing the group sessions, and by interviewing GPs and their supervisors, individually and collectively. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The GPs found...
Generalized SU(2) Proca theory
Allys, Erwan; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon
2016-10-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector Galileon, we investigate the massive extension of an SU(2) gauge theory, i.e., the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector Galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building, in an exhaustive way, all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating 3 degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e., whose pure Stückelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-Galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Quantum walks on general graphs
Kendon, V
2003-01-01
A scheme for a discrete time quantum walk on a general graph of N vertices with undirected edges is given, and compared with the continuous time quantum walk on a general graph introduced by Farhi and Gutmann [PRA 58 915 (1998)]. Both walks are contrasted with the examples of quantum walks in the literature treating graphs of fixed, small (< log N) degree. This illustrates the way in which extra information about the graph allows more efficient algorithms to be designed. To obtain a quantum speed up over classical for comparable resources it is necessary to code the position space of the quantum walk into a qubit register (or equivalent). The role of the oracle is also discussed and an efficient gate sequence is presented for implementing a discrete quantum walk given one copy of a quantum state encoding the adjacency matrix of the graph.
Generalizations of the Kunen Inconsistency
Hamkins, Joel David; Perlmutter, Norman Lewis
2011-01-01
We present several generalizations of the well-known Kunen inconsistency that there is no nontrivial elementary embedding from the set-theoretic universe V to itself. For example, there is no elementary embedding from the universe V to a set-forcing extension V[G], or conversely from V[G] to V, or more generally from one ground model of the universe to another, or between any two models that are eventually stationary correct, or from V to HOD, or conversely from HOD to V, or indeed from any definable class to V, among many other possibilities we consider, including generic embeddings, definable embeddings and results not requiring the axiom of choice. We have aimed in this article for a unified presentation that weaves together some previously known unpublished or folklore results, several due to Woodin and others, along with our new contributions.
The genesis of general relativity
Norton, John; Renn, Jürgen; Sauer, Tilman; Stachel, John
2007-01-01
This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity; one of the fundamental physical theories of the 20th century. It comprises key sources from Einstein and others who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development. Some of these sources are presented here in translation for the first time. Einstein’s famous Zurich notebook, which documents the pivotal steps toward general relativity, is reproduced here for the first time and transcribed in its entirety. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity. All in all, the facets of this work, based on more than a decade of research, combine to constitute one of the most in-depth studies of a scientific revolution ever written.
Quantum information and general relativity
Peres, A
2004-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as one-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.
General footage ISOLDE experimental hall
2016-01-01
Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.
General relativity 50 years old
1966-01-01
In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.
Annual Progress report - General Task
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wesnousky, S.G.
1993-09-30
This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.
General Relativity in Electrical Engineering
Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.
2006-01-01
In electrical engineering metamaterials have been developed that offer unprecedented control over electromagnetic fields. Here we show that general relativity lends the theoretical tools for designing devices made of such versatile materials. Given a desired device function, the theory describes the electromagnetic properties that turn this function into fact. We consider media that facilitate space-time transformations and include negative refraction. Our theory unifies the concepts operatin...
Ferrara, Sergio
2016-01-01
We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.
Generalized Superconductors and Holographic Optics
Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2013-01-01
We study generalized holographic s-wave superconductors in four dimensional R-charged black hole backgrounds, in the probe limit. We first establish the superconducting nature of the boundary theory, and then study its optical properties. Numerical analysis indicates that a negative index of refraction appears at low frequencies in the theory, for certain temperature ranges, for specific values of the charge parameter. The corresponding cut-off values for these are numerically established in several cases.
Nutrition intervention in general dentistry.
Sintes, J L
1990-12-01
This article presents a nutrition program in general dentistry following an oral health nutrition care process, and provides a guideline for identifying patients at risk of developing marginal malnutrition as a result of oral health procedures. The program highlights the importance of assessing nutritional status by segregating high-risk patients from low-risk patients. A case report demonstrates the therapeutic dietary management of a patient whose jaws were immobilized as a result of trauma.
Generalized Stieltjes transforms: basic aspects
Karp, Dmitry
2011-01-01
The paper surveys the basic properties of generalized Stieltjes functions including some new ones. We introduce the notion of exact Stieltjes order and give a criterion of exactness, simple sufficient conditions and some prototypical examples. The paper includes an appendix, where we define the left sided Riemann-Liouville and the right sided Kober-Erdelyi fractional integrals of measures supported on half axis and give inversion formulas for them.
Fermions as generalized Ising models
Wetterich, C.
2017-04-01
We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.
CPN Models in General Coordinates
Barnes, K J
2002-01-01
An analysis of CPN models is given in terms of general coordinates or arbitrary interpolating fields.Only closed expressions made from simple functions are involved.Special attention is given to CP2 and CP4. In the first of these the retrieval of stereographic coordinates reveals the hermitian form of the metric. A similar analysis for the latter case allows comparison with the Fubini-Study metric.
General anatomy of the esophagus.
Oezcelik, Arzu; DeMeester, Steven R
2011-05-01
This article reviews the embryology and general anatomy of the esophagus, including the topography and relationships of the esophagus to surrounding structures. The esophagus is the only internal organ that traverses 3 body cavities, and a complete understanding of the anatomy and anatomic relationships of the esophagus in each area is essential for surgeons who address esophageal disorders. Details regarding the normal histology and basic function of the esophagus are also provided. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy andMani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCLA,470 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Roest, Diederik [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2016-10-24
We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.
Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity
Thiemann, Thomas
2008-11-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.
Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Humeau-Heurtier
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.
[Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics].
Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina
2004-01-01
The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".
Ternary generalizations of Grassmann algebra
Abramov, V V
1996-01-01
We propose the ternary generalization of the classical anti-commutativity and study the algebras whose generators are ternary anti-commutative. The integral over an algebra with an arbitrary number of generators N is defined and the formula of a change of variables is proved. In analogy with the fermion integral we define an analogue of the Pfaffian for a cubic matrix by means of Gaussian type integral and calculate its explicit form in the case of N=3.
Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing
Shakir, Muhammad
2012-01-01
Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
GEOMETRIC TURBULENCE IN GENERAL RELATIVITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents the simulation results of the metric of elementary particles, atoms, stars and galaxies in the general theory of relativity and Yang-Mills theory. We have shown metrics and field equations describing the transition to turbulence. The problems of a unified field theory with the turbulent fluctuations of the metric are considered. A transition from the Einstein equations to the diffusion equation and the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics is shown. Ther are examples of metrics in which the field equations are reduced to a single equation, it changes type depending on the equation of state. These examples can be seen as a transition to the geometric turbulence. It is shown that the field equations in general relativity can be reduced to a hyperbolic, elliptic or parabolic type. The equation of parabolic type describing the perturbations of the gravitational field on the scale of stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which is a generalization of the theory of gravitation Newton-Poisson in case of Riemannian geometry, taking into account the curvature of space-time has been derived. It was found that the geometric turbulence leads to an exchange between regions of different scale. Under turbulent exchange material formed of two types of clusters, having positive and negative energy density that corresponds to the classical and quantum particle motion respectively. These results allow us to answer the question about the origin of the quantum theory
Generalized Forward-Backward Splitting
Raguet, Hugo; Peyré, Gabriel
2011-01-01
This paper introduces the generalized forward-backward splitting algorithm for minimizing convex functions of the form $F + \\sum_{i=1}^n G_i$, where $F$ has a Lipschitz-continuous gradient and the $G_i$'s are simple in the sense that their Moreau proximity operators are easy to compute. While the forward-backward algorithm cannot deal with more than $n = 1$ non-smooth function, our method generalizes it to the case of arbitrary $n$. Our method makes an explicit use of the regularity of $F$ in the forward step, and the proximity operators of the $G_i$'s are applied in parallel in the backward step. This allows the generalized forward backward to efficiently address an important class of convex problems. We prove its convergence in infinite dimension, and its robustness to errors on the computation of the proximity operators and of the gradient of $F$. Examples on inverse problems in imaging demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods in comparison to other splitting algorithms.
Ray optics of generalized lenses.
Chaplain, Gregory J; Macauley, Gavin; Bělín, Jakub; Tyc, Tomáš; Cowie, Euan N; Courtial, Johannes
2016-05-01
We study the ray optics of generalized lenses (glenses), which are ideal thin lenses generalized to have different object- and image-sided focal lengths, and the most general light-ray-direction-changing surfaces that stigmatically image any point in object space to a corresponding point in image space. Gabor superlenses [UK patent541,753 (1940); J. Opt. A1, 94 (1999)JOAOF81464-425810.1088/1464-4258/1/1/013] can be seen as pixelated realizations of glenses. Our analysis is centered on the nodal point. Whereas the nodal point of a thin lens always resides in the lens plane, that of a glens can reside anywhere on the optical axis. Utilizing the nodal point, we derive simple equations that describe the mapping between object and image space and the light-ray-direction change. We demonstrate our findings with the help of ray-tracing simulations. Glenses allow novel optical instruments to be realized, at least theoretically, and our results facilitate the design and analysis of such devices.