New classes of nonlinear vector coherent states of generalized spin-orbit Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geloun, Joseph Ben; Norbert Hounkonnou, Mahouton
2009-01-01
This paper deals with an extension of our previous work (Ben Geloun and Hounkonnou 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F817) by considering an alternative construction of canonical and deformed vector coherent states (VCSs) of the Gazeau-Klauder type associated with generalized spin-orbit Hamiltonians. We define an annihilation operator which takes into account the finite-dimensional space of states induced by the k-photon transition processes of the two-level atom interacting with the single-mode radiation field. The class of nonlinear VCSs (NVCSs) corresponding to the action of the annihilation operator is deduced and expressed in terms of generalized displacement operators. Various NVCSs including their 'dual' counterparts are also discussed. Also, by using the Hilbert space structure, a new family of NVCSs parametrized by unit vectors of the S 3 sphere has been identified without making use of the annihilation operator.
Spin Relaxation and Manipulation in Spin-orbit Qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-02-01
We derive a generalized form of the Electric Dipole Spin Resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g-tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD). Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
Spin manipulation and relaxation in spin-orbit qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-03-01
We derive a generalized form of the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD), where coherent Rabi oscillations between the singlet and triplet states are induced by jittering the inter-dot distance at the resonance frequency. Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
Vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radic, J.; Sedrakyan, T. A.; Galitski, V.; Spielman, I. B.
2011-01-01
Realistic methods to create vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates are discussed. It is shown that, contrary to common intuition, rotation of the trap containing a spin-orbit condensate does not lead to an equilibrium state with static vortex structures but gives rise instead to nonequilibrium behavior described by an intrinsically time-dependent Hamiltonian. We propose here the following alternative methods to induce thermodynamically stable static vortex configurations: (i) to rotate both the lasers and the anisotropic trap and (ii) to impose a synthetic Abelian field on top of synthetic spin-orbit interactions. Effective Hamiltonians for spin-orbit condensates under such perturbations are derived for most currently known realistic laser schemes that induce synthetic spin-orbit couplings. The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved for several experimentally relevant regimes. The new interesting effects include spatial separation of left- and right-moving spin-orbit condensates, the appearance of unusual vortex arrangements, and parity effects in vortex nucleation where the topological excitations are predicted to appear in pairs. All these phenomena are shown to be highly nonuniversal and depend strongly on a specific laser scheme and system parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schäfer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
The current knowledge in the post-Newtonian (PN) dynamics and motion of non-spinning and spinning compact binaries will be presented based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian approach to general relativity. The presentation will cover the binary dynamics with non-spinning components up to the 4PN order and for spinning binaries up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in the spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings. Radiation reaction will be treated for both non-spinning and spinning binaries. Explicit analytic expressions for the motion will be given, innermost stable circular orbits will be discussed
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-03-19
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.
Mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe; Medina, Ernesto, E-mail: berche@lpm.u-nancy.f [Statistical Physics Group, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS No 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2010-09-15
A didactic description of charge and spin equilibrium currents on mesoscopic rings in the presence of spin-orbit interaction is presented. Emphasis is made on the non-trivial construction of the correct Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the symmetries of the ground-state properties. Spin currents are derived following an intuitive definition, and then a more thorough derivation is built upon the canonical Lagrangian formulation that emphasizes the SU(2) gauge structure of the transport problem of spin-1/2 fermions in spin-orbit active media. The quantization conditions that follow from the constraint of single-valued Pauli spinors are also discussed. The targeted students are those of a graduate condensed matter physics course.
Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong; Chen, Chun-Nan; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En
2012-01-01
We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion over k-vector at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.
Spin-orbit scattering in superconducting nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520 (United States); Nesterov, K.N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 (United States)
2017-06-15
We review interaction effects in chaotic metallic nanoparticles. Their single-particle Hamiltonian is described by the proper random-matrix ensemble while the dominant interaction terms are invariants under a change of the single-particle basis. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering, the nontrivial invariants consist of a pairing interaction, which leads to superconductivity in the bulk, and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. Spin-orbit scattering breaks spin-rotation invariance and when it is sufficiently strong, the only dominant nontrivial interaction is the pairing interaction. We discuss how the magnetic response of discrete energy levels of the nanoparticle (which can be measured in single-electron tunneling spectroscopy experiments) is affected by such pairing correlations and how it can provide a signature of pairing correlations. We also consider the spin susceptibility of the nanoparticle and discuss how spin-orbit scattering changes the signatures of pairing correlations in this observable. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
On integrable Hamiltonians for higher spin XXZ chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bytsko, Andrei G.
2003-01-01
Integrable Hamiltonians for higher spin periodic XXZ chains are constructed in terms of the spin generators; explicit examples for spins up to (3/2) are given. Relations between Hamiltonians for some U q (sl 2 )-symmetric and U(1)-symmetric universal r-matrices are studied; their properties are investigated. A certain modification of the higher spin periodic chain Hamiltonian is shown to be an integrable U q (sl 2 )-symmetric Hamiltonian for an open chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, B.M.; O'Connell, R.F.
1976-01-01
We generalize the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of our previous work on the gravitational two-body problem with spin by including the parametrized-post-Newtonian parameters γ and β. By this procedure we are able to obtain the precession of the orbit as well as the precession of the spin. Equations of motion corresponding to an arbitrary-spin supplementary condition are also given. Finally we show how the masses of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and its companion are related to the orbit and spin precessions. Combining this with a result derivable from the second-order Doppler effect and the gravitational red-shift, we obtain a relation constraining the values that γ and β can take
Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.
2010-01-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levi, Michele [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-12-01
The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date.
Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.
2008-11-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.
Spin-Orbit Coupling for Photons and Polaritons in Microstructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Sala
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Ripken, G.
1991-05-01
In the following report we begin to reformulate work by Derbenev on the behaviour of coupled quantized spin-orbit motion. To this end we present a classical symplectic treatment of linear and non-linear spin-orbit motion for storage rings using a fully coupled eight-dimensional formalism which generalizes earlier investigations of coupled synchro-betatron oscillations by introducing two additional canonical spin variables which behave, in a small-angle limit, like those already used in linearised spin theory. Thus in addition to the usual x-z-s couplings, both the spin to orbit and orbit to spin coupling are described canonically. Since the spin Hamiltonian can be expanded in a Taylor series in canonical variables, the formalism is convenient for use in 8-dimensional symplectic tracking calculations with the help, for example, of Lie algebra or differential algebra for the study of chaotic spin motion, for construction of spin normal forms and for the study of the effect of Stern-Gerlach forces. (orig.)
Persistent spin helices in 2D electron systems
Kozulin, A. S.; Malyshev, A. I.; Konakov, A. A.
2017-03-01
We present a theoretical investigation of persistent spin helices in two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling. For this purpose, we consider a single-particle effective mass Hamiltonian with a generalized linear-in- k spin-orbit coupling term corresponding to a quantum well grown in an arbitrary crystallographic direction, and derive the general condition for the formation of the persistent spin helix. This condition applied for the Hamiltonians describing quantum wells with different growth directions indicates the possibility of existence of the persistent spin helix in a wide class of 2D systems apart from the [001] model with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling strengths and the [110] Dresselhaus model.
Orbital and spin dynamics of intraband electrons in quantum rings driven by twisted light.
Quinteiro, G F; Tamborenea, P I; Berakdar, J
2011-12-19
We theoretically investigate the effect that twisted light has on the orbital and spin dynamics of electrons in quantum rings possessing sizable Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The system Hamiltonian for such a strongly inhomogeneous light field exhibits terms which induce both spin-conserving and spin-flip processes. We analyze the dynamics in terms of the perturbation introduced by a weak light field on the Rasha electronic states, and describe the effects that the orbital angular momentum as well as the inhomogeneous character of the beam have on the orbital and the spin dynamics.
Generalized Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling for cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Ruseckas, Julius; Dalibard, Jean
2010-01-01
We study the possibility for generating a new type of spin-orbit coupling for the center-of-mass motion of cold atoms, using laser beams that resonantly couple N atomic internal ground states to an extra state. After a general analysis of the scheme, we concentrate on the tetrapod setup (N=4) where the atomic state can be described by a three-component spinor, evolving under the action of a Rashba-Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling for a spin 1 particle. We illustrate a consequence of this coupling by studying the negative refraction of atoms at a potential step and show that the amplitude of the refracted beam is significantly increased in comparison to the known case of spin 1/2 Rashba-Dresselhaus coupling. Finally, we explore a possible implementation of this tetrapod setup, using stimulated Raman couplings between Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of alkali-metal atoms.
Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.
We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.
Competition of multiplet and spin-orbit splitting in open-shells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Qian; Koch, Erik [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
To study the trends in the spectra of open-shells across the periodic table, we perform density functional calculations for atoms and ions. We collect the Slater-Condon and spin-orbit parameters from the resulting self-consistent radial wave functions and potentials. To make these easily accessible, we provide a simple least squares fitting formula in the spirit of Slater's rules. Given these parameters we calculate the many-body spectra in LS-, intermediate-, and jj-coupling. To assess the relative importance of Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions, we estimate the width of the spectra by calculating the eigen-energy variance of the corresponding Hamiltonian using a simple formula that does not require diagonalizing a complicated many-body Hamiltonian.
Dynamics of High-Order Spin-Orbit Couplings about Linear Momenta in Compact Binary Systems*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Li; Wu Xin; Huang Guo-Qing; Mei Li-Jie
2017-01-01
This paper relates to the post-Newtonian Hamiltonian dynamics of spinning compact binaries, consisting of the Newtonian Kepler problem and the leading, next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading order spin-orbit couplings as linear functions of spins and momenta. When this Hamiltonian form is transformed to a Lagrangian form, besides the terms corresponding to the same order terms in the Hamiltonian, several additional terms, third post-Newtonian (3PN), 4PN, 5PN, 6PN and 7PN order spin-spin coupling terms, yield in the Lagrangian. That means that the Hamiltonian is nonequivalent to the Lagrangian at the same PN order but is exactly equivalent to the full Lagrangian without any truncations. The full Lagrangian without the spin-spin couplings truncated is integrable and regular. Whereas it is non-integrable and becomes possibly chaotic when any one of the spin-spin terms is dropped. These results are also supported numerically. (paper)
Magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems: Spin and orbital contributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I. [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2015-09-15
We present a technique to map an electronic model with local interactions (a generalized multi-orbital Hubbard model) onto an effective model of interacting classical spins, by requiring that the thermodynamic potentials associated to spin rotations in the two systems are equivalent up to second order in the rotation angles, when the electronic system is in a symmetry-broken phase. This allows to determine the parameters of relativistic and non-relativistic magnetic interactions in the effective spin model in terms of equilibrium Green’s functions of the electronic model. The Hamiltonian of the electronic system includes, in addition to the non-relativistic part, relativistic single-particle terms such as the Zeeman coupling to an external magnetic field, spin–orbit coupling, and arbitrary magnetic anisotropies; the orbital degrees of freedom of the electrons are explicitly taken into account. We determine the complete relativistic exchange tensors, accounting for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions, as well as additional non-diagonal symmetric terms (which may include dipole–dipole interaction). The expressions of all these magnetic interactions are determined in a unified framework, including previously disregarded features such as the vertices of two-particle Green’s functions and non-local self-energies. We do not assume any smallness in spin–orbit coupling, so our treatment is in this sense exact. Finally, we show how to distinguish and address separately the spin, orbital and spin–orbital contributions to magnetism, providing expressions that can be computed within a tight-binding Dynamical Mean Field Theory.
Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lueffe, Matthias Clemens
2012-02-10
-state system in which effects of (pseudo)spin-orbit coupling come to light is monolayer graphene. The graphene Hamiltonian entirely consists of pseudospin-orbit coupling, yielding the peculiar Dirac-cone band structure. In the second part of this thesis, we have calculated corrections to the electrical conductivity of graphene in the Boltzmann regime, which are due to pseudospin coherences. We have found that several generally well-established formalisms for the derivation of kinetic equations yield different results for this problem. We cannot resolve this discrepancy, but we make propose an alternative ansatz for the nonequilibrium Green function, which would resolve some contradictions. The calculated corrections could possibly explain a part of the experimentally observed residual conductivity in graphene.
Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions
Scazza, F.; Hofrichter, C.; Höfer, M.; de Groot, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Fölling, S.
2014-10-01
Spin-exchanging interactions govern the properties of strongly correlated electron systems such as many magnetic materials. When orbital degrees of freedom are present, spin exchange between different orbitals often dominates, leading to the Kondo effect, heavy fermion behaviour or magnetic ordering. Ultracold ytterbium or alkaline-earth ensembles have attracted much recent interest as model systems for these effects, with two (meta-) stable electronic configurations representing independent orbitals. We report the observation of spin-exchanging contact interactions in a two-orbital SU(N)-symmetric quantum gas realized with fermionic 173Yb. We find strong inter-orbital spin exchange by spectroscopic characterization of all interaction channels and demonstrate SU(N = 6) symmetry within our measurement precision. The spin-exchange process is also directly observed through the dynamic equilibration of spin imbalances between ensembles in separate orbitals. The realization of an SU(N)-symmetric two-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian opens the route to quantum simulations with extended symmetries and with orbital magnetic interactions, such as the Kondo lattice model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roemelt, Michael, E-mail: michael.roemelt@theochem.rub.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Max-Planck Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)
2015-07-28
Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levi, Michele [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2016-01-01
We implement the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects in the post-Newtonian scheme at the next-to-next-to-leading order level to derive the gravitational spin-orbit interaction potential at the third and a half post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. From the next-to-next-to-leading order interaction potential, which we obtain here in a Lagrangian form for the first time, we derive straightforwardly the corresponding Hamiltonian. The spin-orbit sector constitutes the most elaborate spin dependent sector at each order, and accordingly we encounter a proliferation of the relevant Feynman diagrams, and a significant increase of the computational complexity. We present in detail the evaluation of the interaction potential, going over all contributing Feynman diagrams. The computation is carried out in terms of the ''nonrelativistic gravitational'' fields, which are advantageous also in spin dependent sectors, together with the various gauge choices included in the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects, which also optimize the calculation. In addition, we automatize the effective field theory computations, and carry out the automated computations in parallel. Such automated effective field theory computations would be most useful to obtain higher order post-Newtonian corrections. We compare our Hamiltonian to the ADM Hamiltonian, and arrive at a complete agreement between the ADM and effective field theory results. Finally, we provide Hamiltonians in the center of mass frame, and complete gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to third and a half post-Newtonian order. The derivation presented here is essential to obtain further higher order post-Newtonian corrections, and to reach the accuracy level required for the successful detection of gravitational radiation.
Numerical Investigations of Post-Newtonian Hamiltonian Dynamics for Spinning Compact Binaries
Zhong, S. Y.
2012-03-01
Spinning compact binaries, consisting of neutron stars or black holes, not only have rich dynamic phenomena of resonance and chaos, but also are the most promising source for detecting gravitational waves. There should be a certain relation between the dynamics of the gravitational bodies and the gravitational waveforms. Based on the least-squares correction, several manifold correction schemes like the single-scaling method and the dual-scaling method are designed to suppress numerical errors from 6 integrals of motion in a conservative post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian of spinning compact binaries. Taking a fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm as a basic integrator, we wonder whether the PN contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits exert some influences on these correction schemes and the Nacozy's approach. It is found that they are almost the same in correcting the integrals for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order PN contributions are added to the pure orbital part, there are explicit differences of correction effectiveness among these methods. As an interesting case, the efficiency of correction is better for chaotic eccentric orbits than for quasicircular regular ones. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position dual-scaling scheme does always have the optimal performance. It costs a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist, and several time-saving techniques are used. The corrected numerical results are more accurate than the uncorrected ones, so that chaos from the numerical errors can be avoided. See Phys. Rev. D 81, 104037 (2010) for more details. Lubich et al. (Phys. Rev. D 81, 104025 (2010)) presented a noncanonically symplectic integrator for the PN Hamiltonian of a spinning compact binary. However, the Euler mixed integrator is problematic because of its bad numerical stability.We improved the work by constructing the second-order and the fourth-order fixed symplectic
Spin-orbit interaction driven dimerization in one dimensional frustrated magnets
Zhang, Shang-Shun; Batista, Cristian D.
Spin nematic ordering has been proposed to emerge near the saturation of field of a class of frustrated magnets. The experimental observation of this novel phase is challenging for the traditional experimental probes. Nematic spin ordering is expected to induce a local quadrupolar electric moment via the spin-orbit coupling. However, a finite spin-orbit interaction explicitly breaks the U(1) symmetry of global spin rotations down to Z2, which renders the traditional nematic order no longer well-defined. In this work we investigate the relevant effect of spin-orbit interaction on the 1D frustrated J1 -J2 model. The real and the imaginary parts of the nematic order parameter belong to different representations of the discrete symmetry group of the new Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling stabilizes the real component and simultaneously induces bond dimerization in most of the phase diagram. Such a bond dimerization can be observed with X-rays or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, an incommensurate bond-density wave (ICBDW) appears for smaller values of J2 / |J1 | . The experimental fingerprint of the ICBDW is a double-horn shape of the the NMR line. These conclusions can shed light on the experimental search of this novel phase.
Statistical properties of spectra in harmonically trapped spin-orbit coupled systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
V. Marchukov, O.; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.
2014-01-01
We compute single-particle energy spectra for a one-body Hamiltonian consisting of a two-dimensional deformed harmonic oscillator potential, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman term. To investigate the statistical properties of the obtained spectra as functions of deformation, spin......-orbit and Zeeman strengths we examine the distributions of the nearest neighbor spacings. We find that the shapes of these distributions depend strongly on the three potential parameters. We show that the obtained shapes in some cases can be well approximated with the standard Poisson, Brody and Wigner...... distributions. The Brody and Wigner distributions characterize irregular motion and help identify quantum chaotic systems. We present a special choices of deformation and spin-orbit strengths without the Zeeman term which provide a fair reproduction of the fourth-power repelling Wigner distribution. By adding...
SU (N ) spin-wave theory: Application to spin-orbital Mott insulators
Dong, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian-Xin
2018-05-01
We present the application of the SU (N ) spin-wave theory to spin-orbital Mott insulators whose ground states exhibit magnetic orders. When taking both spin and orbital degrees of freedom into account rather than projecting Hilbert space onto the Kramers doublet, which is the lowest spin-orbital locked energy levels, the SU (N ) spin-wave theory should take the place of the SU (2 ) one due to the inevitable spin-orbital multipole exchange interactions. To implement the application, we introduce an efficient general local mean-field method, which involves all local fluctuations, and develop the SU (N ) linear spin-wave theory. Our approach is tested firstly by calculating the multipolar spin-wave spectra of the SU (4 ) antiferromagnetic model. Then, we apply it to spin-orbital Mott insulators. It is revealed that the Hund's coupling would influence the effectiveness of the isospin-1 /2 picture when the spin-orbital coupling is not large enough. We further carry out the SU (N ) spin-wave calculations of two materials, α -RuCl3 and Sr2IrO4 , and find that the magnonic and spin-orbital excitations are consistent with experiments.
Second post-Newtonian Lagrangian dynamics of spinning compact binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Li; Wu, Xin [Nanchang University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang (China); Ma, DaZhu [Hubei University for Nationalities, School of Science, Enshi (China)
2016-09-15
The leading-order spin-orbit coupling is included in a post-Newtonian Lagrangian formulation of spinning compact binaries, which consists of the Newtonian term, first post-Newtonian (1PN) and 2PN non-spin terms and 2PN spin-spin coupling. This leads to a 3PN spin-spin coupling occurring in the derived Hamiltonian. The spin-spin couplings are mainly responsible for chaos in the Hamiltonians. However, the 3PN spin-spin Hamiltonian is small and has different signs, compared with the 2PN spin-spin Hamiltonian equivalent to the 2PN spin-spin Lagrangian. As a result, the probability of the occurrence of chaos in the Lagrangian formulation without the spin-orbit coupling is larger than that in the Lagrangian formulation with the spin-orbit coupling. Numerical evidences support this claim. (orig.)
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-06-19
In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
Influence of the spin-orbit coupling on nuclear superfluidity along the N=Z line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juillet, O.; Josse, S.
2000-01-01
We show that the spin-orbit potential of the nuclear mean field destroys isoscalar superfluid correlations in self-conjugate nuclei. Using group theory and boson mapping techniques on a Hamiltonian including single particle splittings and a SO ST (8) pairing interaction, we give analytical expression for the spin-orbit dependence of some N =Z properties such as the relative position of T = 0 and T = 1 states in odd-odd systems or double binding-energy differences of even-even nuclei. (authors)
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Manchon, Aurelien
2014-01-01
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui
2014-02-07
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Kurkcuoglu, Doga Murat; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá
2018-05-01
We propose the creation and investigation of a system of spin-one fermions in the presence of artificial spin-orbit coupling, via the interaction of three hyperfine states of fermionic atoms to Raman laser fields. We explore the emergence of spinor physics in the Hamiltonian described by the interaction between light and atoms, and analyze spectroscopic properties such as dispersion relation, Fermi surfaces, spectral functions, spin-dependent momentum distributions and density of states. Connections to spin-one bosons and SU(3) systems is made, as well relations to the Lifshitz transition and Pomeranchuk instability are presented.
Farberovich, Oleg V.; Mazalova, Victoria L.; Soldatov, Alexander V.
2015-11-01
We present here the quantum model of a Ni solid-state electron spin qubit on a silicon surface with the use of a density-functional scheme for the calculation of the exchange integrals in the non-collinear spin configurations in the generalized spin Hamiltonian (GSH) with the anisotropic exchange coupling parameters linking the nickel ions with a silicon substrate. In this model the interaction of a spin qubit with substrate is considered in GSH at the calculation of exchange integrals Jij of the nanosystem Ni7-Si in the one-electron approach taking into account chemical bonds of all Si-atoms of a substrate (environment) with atoms of the Ni7-cluster. The energy pattern was found from the effective GSH Hamiltonian acting in the restricted spin space of the Ni ions by the application of the irreducible tensor operators (ITO) technique. In this paper we offer the model of the quantum solid-state N-spin qubit based on the studying of the spin structure and the spin-dynamics simulations of the 3d-metal Ni clusters on the silicon surface. The solution of the problem of the entanglement between spin states in the N-spin systems is becoming more interesting when considering clusters or molecules with a spectral gap in their density of states. For quantifying the distribution of the entanglement between the individual spin eigenvalues (modes) in the spin structure of the N-spin system we use the density of entanglement (DOE). In this study we have developed and used the advanced high-precision numerical techniques to accurately assess the details of the decoherence process governing the dynamics of the N-spin qubits interacting with a silicon surface. We have studied the Rabi oscillations to evaluate the N-spin qubits system as a function of the time and the magnetic field. We have observed the stabilized Rabi oscillations and have stabilized the quantum dynamical qubit state and Rabi driving after a fixed time (0.327 μs). The comparison of the energy pattern with the
Diagonalization of Hamiltonian; Diagonalization of Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garrido, L M; Pascual, P
1960-07-01
We present a general method to diagonalized the Hamiltonian of particles of arbitrary spin. In particular we study the cases of spin 0,1/2, 1 and see that for spin 1/2 our transformation agrees with Foldy's and obtain the expression for different observables for particles of spin C and 1 in the new representation. (Author) 7 refs.
Theory and applications of generalized operator transforms for diagonalization of spin hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweiger, A.; Graf, F.; Rist, G.; Guenthard, Hs.H.
1976-01-01
A generalized transform formalism for vector operators is devised for diagonalization of a rather wide class of spin hamiltonians. The operator technique leads to equations for transformation matrices, for which analytical solutions are given. These allow analytical formulation of the transformed electron Zeeman term, the sum of the magnetic hyperfine and nuclear Zeeman term, the electric quadrupole term and the electronic and nuclear Zeeman coupling terms. The angular dependence of energy eigenvalues, frequencies and line strengths of ESR and ENDOR transitions to first order will be expressed as compact bilinear and quadratic forms of the columns of the matrix relating the molecular coordinate system to the laboratory system. Thereby the explicit calculation of rotation matrices may be completely avoided, though the latter formally express the operator transforms. The generalized operator transform is also carried out for the off-diagonal blocks originating from hyperfine interaction terms. This allows the second order energy terms to be expressed explicitly as compact hermitean forms of a simple structure, in particular the explicit structure of mixing terms between hyperfine interactions of different (sets of) nuclei is obtained. The relationship to the conventional Bleaney transform is discussed and the analogy to the generalized operator transform is worked out. (Auth.)
Spin-orbit torques from interfacial spin-orbit coupling for various interfaces
Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Sinova, Jairo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.
2017-09-01
We use a perturbative approach to study the effects of interfacial spin-orbit coupling in magnetic multilayers by treating the two-dimensional Rashba model in a fully three-dimensional description of electron transport near an interface. This formalism provides a compact analytic expression for current-induced spin-orbit torques in terms of unperturbed scattering coefficients, allowing computation of spin-orbit torques for various contexts, by simply substituting scattering coefficients into the formulas. It applies to calculations of spin-orbit torques for magnetic bilayers with bulk magnetism, those with interface magnetism, a normal-metal/ferromagnetic insulator junction, and a topological insulator/ferromagnet junction. It predicts a dampinglike component of spin-orbit torque that is distinct from any intrinsic contribution or those that arise from particular spin relaxation mechanisms. We discuss the effects of proximity-induced magnetism and insertion of an additional layer and provide formulas for in-plane current, which is induced by a perpendicular bias, anisotropic magnetoresistance, and spin memory loss in the same formalism.
Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, L; Pusztai, B G
2008-01-01
Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farberovich, Oleg V. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Beverly and Raymond Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Voronezh State University, Voronezh 394000 (Russian Federation); Mazalova, Victoria L., E-mail: mazalova@sfedu.ru [Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Soldatov, Alexander V. [Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
We present here the quantum model of a Ni solid-state electron spin qubit on a silicon surface with the use of a density-functional scheme for the calculation of the exchange integrals in the non-collinear spin configurations in the generalized spin Hamiltonian (GSH) with the anisotropic exchange coupling parameters linking the nickel ions with a silicon substrate. In this model the interaction of a spin qubit with substrate is considered in GSH at the calculation of exchange integrals J{sub ij} of the nanosystem Ni{sub 7}–Si in the one-electron approach taking into account chemical bonds of all Si-atoms of a substrate (environment) with atoms of the Ni{sub 7}-cluster. The energy pattern was found from the effective GSH Hamiltonian acting in the restricted spin space of the Ni ions by the application of the irreducible tensor operators (ITO) technique. In this paper we offer the model of the quantum solid-state N-spin qubit based on the studying of the spin structure and the spin-dynamics simulations of the 3d-metal Ni clusters on the silicon surface. The solution of the problem of the entanglement between spin states in the N-spin systems is becoming more interesting when considering clusters or molecules with a spectral gap in their density of states. For quantifying the distribution of the entanglement between the individual spin eigenvalues (modes) in the spin structure of the N-spin system we use the density of entanglement (DOE). In this study we have developed and used the advanced high-precision numerical techniques to accurately assess the details of the decoherence process governing the dynamics of the N-spin qubits interacting with a silicon surface. We have studied the Rabi oscillations to evaluate the N-spin qubits system as a function of the time and the magnetic field. We have observed the stabilized Rabi oscillations and have stabilized the quantum dynamical qubit state and Rabi driving after a fixed time (0.327 μs). The comparison of the energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farberovich, Oleg V.; Mazalova, Victoria L.; Soldatov, Alexander V.
2015-01-01
We present here the quantum model of a Ni solid-state electron spin qubit on a silicon surface with the use of a density-functional scheme for the calculation of the exchange integrals in the non-collinear spin configurations in the generalized spin Hamiltonian (GSH) with the anisotropic exchange coupling parameters linking the nickel ions with a silicon substrate. In this model the interaction of a spin qubit with substrate is considered in GSH at the calculation of exchange integrals J ij of the nanosystem Ni 7 –Si in the one-electron approach taking into account chemical bonds of all Si-atoms of a substrate (environment) with atoms of the Ni 7 -cluster. The energy pattern was found from the effective GSH Hamiltonian acting in the restricted spin space of the Ni ions by the application of the irreducible tensor operators (ITO) technique. In this paper we offer the model of the quantum solid-state N-spin qubit based on the studying of the spin structure and the spin-dynamics simulations of the 3d-metal Ni clusters on the silicon surface. The solution of the problem of the entanglement between spin states in the N-spin systems is becoming more interesting when considering clusters or molecules with a spectral gap in their density of states. For quantifying the distribution of the entanglement between the individual spin eigenvalues (modes) in the spin structure of the N-spin system we use the density of entanglement (DOE). In this study we have developed and used the advanced high-precision numerical techniques to accurately assess the details of the decoherence process governing the dynamics of the N-spin qubits interacting with a silicon surface. We have studied the Rabi oscillations to evaluate the N-spin qubits system as a function of the time and the magnetic field. We have observed the stabilized Rabi oscillations and have stabilized the quantum dynamical qubit state and Rabi driving after a fixed time (0.327 μs). The comparison of the energy pattern with
Bokhan, Denis; Trubnikov, Dmitrii N.; Perera, Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J.
2018-04-01
An explicitly-correlated method of calculation of excited states with spin-orbit couplings, has been formulated and implemented. Developed approach utilizes left and right eigenvectors of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model, which is based on the linearly approximated explicitly correlated coupled-cluster singles and doubles [CCSD(F12)] method. The spin-orbit interactions are introduced by using the spin-orbit mean field (SOMF) approximation of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Numerical tests for several atoms and molecules show good agreement between explicitly-correlated results and the corresponding values, calculated in complete basis set limit (CBS); the highly-accurate excitation energies can be obtained already at triple- ζ level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Wang, E-mail: mailfangwang@163.com; Yang, Da-Xiao; Chen, Heng-Jie; Tang, Hai-Yan
2013-11-15
The spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters (g factors g{sub //}, g{sub ⊥} and hyperfine structure constants A{sub //}, A{sub ⊥} ) of K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 6}: Mo{sup 5+} (4d{sup 1}) crystal are theoretically studied by the use of two microscopic spin-Hamiltonian (SH) methods, the high-order perturbation theory method (PTM) and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM) within the molecular orbital (MO) scheme. The contributions arising both from the crystal field and charge transfer excitations are taken into account. The investigations show that the charge transfer mechanism plays a decisive role in the understanding of the spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters for 4d{sup 1} ions in crystals with the strong coordinate covalence, especially for g{sub //}>g{sub ⊥} which cannot be explained in the frame work of traditional crystal field approximation (CFA). The local defect structure around Mo{sup 5+} impurity ion center is determined to be D{sub 4} {sub h} point group symmetry.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang; Gao, H.; Zâ rbo, Liviu P.; Vý borný , K.; Wang, Xuhui; Garate, Ion; Dogan, Fatih; Čejchan, A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang
2015-04-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Mokhtari, P.; Rezaei, G.; Zamani, A.
2017-06-01
In this paper, electronic structure of a two dimensional elliptic quantum dot under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are studied in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. This investigation is done computationally and to do this, at first, the effective Hamiltonian of the system by considering the spin-orbit coupling is demonstrated in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields and afterwards the Schrödinger equation is solved using the finite difference approach. Utilizing finite element method, eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system are calculated and the effect of the external fields, the size of the dot as well as the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction are studied. Our results indicate that, Spin-orbit interactions, external fields and the dot size have a great influence on the electronic structure of the system.
Introduction to thermodynamics of spin models in the Hamiltonian limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berche, Bertrand [Groupe M, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS No 7556, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, (France); Lopez, Alexander [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones CientIficas, Centro de Fisica, Carr. Panamericana, km 11, Altos de Pipe, Aptdo 21827, 1020-A Caracas, (Venezuela)
2006-01-01
A didactic description of the thermodynamic properties of classical spin systems is given in terms of their quantum counterpart in the Hamiltonian limit. Emphasis is on the construction of the relevant Hamiltonian and the calculation of thermal averages is explicitly done in the case of small systems described, in Hamiltonian field theory, by small matrices. The targeted students are those of a graduate statistical physics course.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung
2015-04-06
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurelien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-01-01
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Gate-dependent spin-orbit coupling in multielectron carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Thomas Sand; Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Paaske, Jens
2011-01-01
Understanding how the orbital motion of electrons is coupled to the spin degree of freedom in nanoscale systems is central for applications in spin-based electronics and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate such spin–orbit coupling in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot in the general multielectron...... graphene lattice. Our findings suggest that the spin–orbit coupling is a general property of carbon-nanotube quantum dots, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin–orbit effects and their applications....
Spin torque on the surface of graphene in the presence of spin orbit splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Chen
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We study theoretically the spin transfer torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to (deposited onto a graphene surface in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC. We show that the RSOC induces an effective magnetic field, which will result in the spin precession of conduction electrons. We derive correspondingly the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation, which describes the precessional motion of local magnetization under the influence of the spin orbit effect. Our theoretical estimate indicates that the spin orbit spin torque may have significant effect on the magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic layer coupled to the graphene surface.
Hydrodynamics of Normal Atomic Gases with Spin-orbit Coupling.
Hou, Yan-Hua; Yu, Zhenhua
2015-10-20
Successful realization of spin-orbit coupling in atomic gases by the NIST scheme opens the prospect of studying the effects of spin-orbit coupling on many-body physics in an unprecedentedly controllable way. Here we derive the linearized hydrodynamic equations for the normal atomic gases of the spin-orbit coupling by the NIST scheme with zero detuning. We show that the hydrodynamics of the system crucially depends on the momentum susceptibilities which can be modified by the spin-orbit coupling. We reveal the effects of the spin-orbit coupling on the sound velocities and the dipole mode frequency of the gases by applying our formalism to the ideal Fermi gas. We also discuss the generalization of our results to other situations.
Anisotropic optical absorption induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling in monolayer phosphorene
Li, Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, Qi; Bai, R.; Wen, Z. C.
2018-04-01
We obtain the effective Hamiltonian of the phosphorene including the effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the frame work of the low-energy theory. The spin-splitting energy bands show an anisotropy feature for the wave vectors along kx and ky directions, where kx orients to ΓX direction in the k space. We numerically study the optical absorption of the electrons for different wave vectors with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-flip transition from the valence band to the conduction band induced by the circular polarized light closes to zero with increasing the x-component wave vector when ky equals to zero, while it can be significantly increased to a large value when ky gets a small value. When the wave vector varies along the ky direction, the spin-flip transition can also increase to a large value, however, which shows an anisotropy feature for the optical absorption. Especially, the spin-conserved transitions keep unchanged and have similar varying trends for different wave vectors. This phenomenon provides a novel route for the manipulation of the spin-dependent property of the fermions in the monolayer phosphorene.
Spin-orbit coupling effects, interactions and superconducting transport in nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Andreas
2010-05-15
In the present thesis we study the electronic properties of several low dimensional nanoscale systems. In the first part, we focus on the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOI) and Coulomb interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as quantum wires. We derive low energy theories for both systems, using the bosonization technique and obtain analytic expressions for the correlation functions that allow us to compute basically all observables of interest. We first focus on CNTs and show that a four channel Luttinger liquid theory can still be applied when SOI effects are taken into account. Compared to previous formulations, the low-energy Hamiltonian is characterized by different Luttinger parameters and plasmon velocities. Notably, the charge and spin modes are coupled. Our theory allows us to compute an asymptotically exact expression for the spectral function of a metallic carbon nanotube. We find modifications to the previously predicted structure of the spectral function that can in principle be tested by photoemission spectroscopy experiments. We develop a very similar low energy description for an interacting quantum wire subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We derive a two component Luttinger liquid Hamiltonian in the presence of RSOC, taking into account all e-e interaction processes allowed by the conservation of total momentum. The effective low energy Hamiltonian includes an additional perturbation due to intraband backscattering processes with band flip. Within a one-loop RG scheme, this perturbation is marginally irrelevant. The fixed point model is then still a two channel Luttinger liquid, albeit with a non standard form due to SOI. Again, the charge and spin mode are coupled. Using our low energy theory, we address the problem of the RKKY interaction in an interacting Rashba wire. The coupling of spin and charge modes due to SO effects implies several modifications, e.g. the explicit dependence of the power-law decay exponent of
Spin-orbit coupling effects, interactions and superconducting transport in nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Andreas
2010-05-01
In the present thesis we study the electronic properties of several low dimensional nanoscale systems. In the first part, we focus on the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOI) and Coulomb interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as quantum wires. We derive low energy theories for both systems, using the bosonization technique and obtain analytic expressions for the correlation functions that allow us to compute basically all observables of interest. We first focus on CNTs and show that a four channel Luttinger liquid theory can still be applied when SOI effects are taken into account. Compared to previous formulations, the low-energy Hamiltonian is characterized by different Luttinger parameters and plasmon velocities. Notably, the charge and spin modes are coupled. Our theory allows us to compute an asymptotically exact expression for the spectral function of a metallic carbon nanotube. We find modifications to the previously predicted structure of the spectral function that can in principle be tested by photoemission spectroscopy experiments. We develop a very similar low energy description for an interacting quantum wire subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We derive a two component Luttinger liquid Hamiltonian in the presence of RSOC, taking into account all e-e interaction processes allowed by the conservation of total momentum. The effective low energy Hamiltonian includes an additional perturbation due to intraband backscattering processes with band flip. Within a one-loop RG scheme, this perturbation is marginally irrelevant. The fixed point model is then still a two channel Luttinger liquid, albeit with a non standard form due to SOI. Again, the charge and spin mode are coupled. Using our low energy theory, we address the problem of the RKKY interaction in an interacting Rashba wire. The coupling of spin and charge modes due to SO effects implies several modifications, e.g. the explicit dependence of the power-law decay exponent of
Current-induced Rashba spin orbit torque in silicene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ji, E-mail: muze7777@hdu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Peng, Yingzi [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhou, Jie [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The spin dynamics of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene is investigated. • The Rashba spin orbit torque is obtained and the well-known LLG equation is modified. • The explicit forms of spin orbit torques in Domain Wall and vortex is also obtained. - Abstract: We study theoretically the spin torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene in the presence of the intrinsic Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) effect. By using gauge field method, we find that under the applied current, the RSOC can induce an effective field which will result in the spin precession of conduction electron without applying any magnetic field. We also derive the spin torques due to the RSOC, which generalize the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The spin torques are related to the applied current, the carrier density and Rashba strength of the system.
Effective Floquet Hamiltonian for spin I = 1 in magic angle spinning ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
Floquet Hamiltonians; contact transformations in NMR; Spin-1 MAS NMR; effective Ham- iltonians. 1. Introduction. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an important technique to study structures, dyna- mics and electric charge distribution around nuclei in solids. It is also more difficult to perform and ana-.
Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten
2006-01-01
We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is bas...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Portugal, L.; Jesus, Anderson L. de
2015-01-01
We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Alexandre G. M., E-mail: agmschmidt@gmail.com; Portugal, L., E-mail: liciniolportugal@gmail.com; Jesus, Anderson L. de [Departamento de Física do polo universitário de Volta Redonda, Instituto de Ciências Exatas—Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Des. Ellis Hermydio Figueira, 783, Volta Redonda, RJ CEP 27215-350 (Brazil)
2015-01-15
We consider a particle with spin 1/2 with position-dependent mass moving in a plane. Considering separately Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, we write down the Hamiltonian for this problem and solve it for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our radial wavefunctions have two contributions: homogeneous ones which are written as Bessel functions of non-integer orders—that depend on angular momentum m—and particular solutions which are obtained after decoupling the non-homogeneous system. In this process, we find non-homogeneous Bessel equation, Laguerre, as well as biconfluent Heun equation. We also present the probability densities for m = 0, 1, 2 in an annular quantum well. Our results indicate that the background as well as the spin-orbit interaction naturally splits the spinor components.
Orbits and variational principles for conservative Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres del Castillo, G.F.
1989-01-01
It is shown that for any Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian is time-independent the equations that determine the orbits followed by the system, without making reference to time, have the form of Hamilton's equations in a phase space of dimension two units smaller than that of the original phase space. By considering the cases of classical mechanics and of geometrical optics, it is shown that this result amounts, respectively, to Maupertuis' least action principle and to Fermat's principle. (Author)
Existence and multiplicity results for homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Nien Chen
1997-03-01
Full Text Available Homoclinic orbits play an important role in the study of qualitative behavior of dynamical systems. Such kinds of orbits have been studied since the time of Poincare. In this paper, we discuss how to use variational methods to study the existence of homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems.
Theoretical treatment of the spin-orbit coupling in the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO
Langhoff, S. R.
1980-01-01
Off-diagonal spin-orbit matrix elements are calculated as a function of internuclear distance for the rare gas oxides NeO, ArO, KrO, and XeO using the full microscopic spin-orbit Hamiltonian, including all one- and two-electron integrals, and POL-CI wave functions comparable to those of Dunning and Hay (1977). A good agreement was found when comparing these results in detail with the calculations of Cohen, Wadt and Hay (1979) that utilize an effective one-electron one-center spin-orbit operator. For the rare gas oxide molecules, it is suggested that the numerical results are a more sensitive test of the wave functions (particularly to the extent of charge transfer) than the exact evaluation of all terms in the full spin-orbit operator.
Hamiltonian action of spinning particle with gravimagnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deriglazov, Alexei A; Ramírez, W Guzmán
2016-01-01
We develop Hamiltonian variational problem for spinning particle non-minimally interacting with gravity through the gravimagnetic moment κ. For κ = 0 our model yields Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon (MPTD) equations, the latter show unsatisfactory behavior of MPTD-particle in ultra-relativistic regime: its longitudinal acceleration increases with velocity. κ = 1 yields a modification of MPTD-equations with the reasonable behavior: in the homogeneous fields, both longitudinal acceleration and (covariant) precession of spin-tensor vanish as v→c. (paper)
Spin-orbit and spin-lattice coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Ziman, Timothy; Mori, Michiyasu
2014-01-01
We pursued theoretical research on the coupling of electron spins in the condensed matter to the lattice as mediated by the spin-orbit interaction with special focus on the spin and anomalous Hall effects. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helmich-Paris, Benjamin, E-mail: b.helmichparis@vu.nl; Visscher, Lucas, E-mail: l.visscher@vu.nl [Section of Theoretical Chemistry, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Repisky, Michal, E-mail: michal.repisky@uit.no [CTCC, Department of Chemistry, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromø (Norway)
2016-07-07
We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Visscher, Lucas; Repisky, Michal
2016-01-01
We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Xi; Chen Zeshun; Zhong Feng; Zhou Guanghui
2010-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin transport of a quantum wire (QW) with weak Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) nonadiabatically connected to two normal leads. Using scattering matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula within effective free-electron approximation, we have calculated spin-dependent conductances G ↑ and G ↓ , total conductance G and spin polarization P z for a hard-wall potential confined QW. It is demonstrated that, the SOCs induce the splitting of G ↑ and G ↓ and form spin polarization P z . Moreover, the conductances present quantized plateaus, the plateaus and P z show oscillation structures near the subband edges. Furthermore, with the increase of QW width a strong spin polarization (P z ∼1) gradually becomes weak, which can be used to realize a spin filter. When the two SOCs coexist, the total conductance presents an isotropy transport due to the Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians being fixed, and the alteration of two SOCs strength ratio changes the sign of spin polarization. This may provide a way of realizing the expression of unit information by tuning gate voltage.
Realistic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling for neutral atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D. L.; Spielman, I. B.; Juzeliunas, G.
2011-01-01
We describe a new class of atom-laser coupling schemes which lead to spin-orbit-coupled Hamiltonians for ultracold neutral atoms. By properly setting the optical phases, a pair of degenerate pseudospin (a linear combination of internal atomic) states emerge as the lowest-energy eigenstates in the spectrum and are thus immune to collisionally induced decay. These schemes use N cyclically coupled ground or metastable internal states. We focus on two situations: a three-level case and a four-level case, where the latter adds a controllable Dresselhaus contribution. We describe an implementation of the four-level scheme for 87 Rb and analyze its sensitivity to typical laboratory noise sources. Last, we argue that the Rashba Hamiltonian applies only in the large intensity limit since any laser coupling scheme will produce terms nonlinear in momentum that decline with intensity.
Effective stability around the Cassini state in the spin-orbit problem
Sansottera, Marco; Lhotka, Christoph; Lemaître, Anne
2014-05-01
We investigate the long-time stability in the neighborhood of the Cassini state in the conservative spin-orbit problem. Starting with an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the canonical Andoyer-Delaunay variables, we construct a high-order Birkhoff normal form and give an estimate of the effective stability time in the Nekhoroshev sense. By extensively using algebraic manipulations on a computer, we explicitly apply our method to the rotation of Titan. We obtain physical bounds of Titan's latitudinal and longitudinal librations, finding a stability time greatly exceeding the estimated age of the Universe. In addition, we study the dependence of the effective stability time on three relevant physical parameters: the orbital inclination, , the mean precession of the ascending node of Titan orbit, , and the polar moment of inertia,.
Hamiltonian Dynamics and Positive Energy in General Relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deser, S. [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States)
1969-07-15
A review is first given of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; the gravitational field is a self-interacting massless spin-two system within the framework of ordinary Lorentz covariant field theory. The recently solved problem of positive-definiteness of the field energy is then discussed. The latter, a conserved functional of the dynamical variables, is shown to have only one extremum, a local minimum, which is the vacuum state (flat space). This implies positive energy for the field, with the vacuum as ground-state. Similar results hold when minimally coupled matter is present. (author)
On the effects of the two-body non-fine-structure operators of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badnell, N.R.
1997-01-01
We have incorporated the two-body non-fine-structure operators of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, namely contact spin-spin, two-body Darwin and orbit-orbit, into the program AUTOSTRUCTURE. Illustrative results are presented, including some for reactions involving the process of autoionization. (author)
Hubert, Mickaël; Olsen, Jeppe; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo
2013-11-21
We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.
Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somaieh Ahmadi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.
Conductance of a quantum ring with spin-orbit interaction in the presence of an impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.
2006-01-01
The conductance of a quantum ring has been calculated on the basis of the tunneling Hamiltonian in the quasiballistic regime of the motion of electrons with allowance for the spin-orbit interaction. The effect of the scattering of electrons by a single short-range interacting impurity in the quantum ring on the tunneling electron current is analyzed. Two types of impurities, spinless and paramagnetic, are considered. The conductance symmetry is discussed for various electron-spin orientations with respect to change in the sign of the magnetic flux through the quantum ring
Variational and penalization methods for studying connecting orbits of Hamiltonian systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Nien Chen
2000-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of second order Hamiltonian systems that possess infinite or finite number of equilibria. Variational arguments will be used to study the existence of connecting orbits joining pairs of equilibria. Applying penalization methods, we obtain various patterns for multibump homoclinics and heteroclinics of Hamiltonian systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2008-01-01
In this Letter the approximately analytical bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Manning-Rosen potential for arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are carried out by taking a properly approximate expansion for the spin-orbit coupling term. In the case of exact spin symmetry, the associated two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac equation for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k are presented and the corresponding bound state energy equation is derived. We study briefly two special cases; the general s-wave problem and the equal scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potential
Generalized oscillator representations for Calogero Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyutin, I V; Voronov, B L
2013-01-01
This paper is a natural continuation of the previous paper (Gitman et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 425204), where oscillator representations for nonnegative Calogero Hamiltonians with coupling constant α ⩾ − 1/4 were constructed. In this paper, we present generalized oscillator representations for all Calogero Hamiltonians with α ⩾ − 1/4. These representations are generally highly nonunique, but there exists an optimum representation for each Hamiltonian. (comment)
Homoclinic Orbits for a Class of Nonperiodic Hamiltonian Systems with Some Twisted Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available By the Maslov index theory, we will study the existence and multiplicity of homoclinic orbits for a class of asymptotically linear nonperiodic Hamiltonian systems with some twisted conditions on the Hamiltonian functions.
Hamiltonian reduction of SU(2) Yang-Mills field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khvedelidze, A.M.; Pavel, H.-P.
1998-01-01
The unconstrained system equivalent to SU (2) Yang-Mills field theory is obtained in the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism using the method of Hamiltonian reduction. The reduced system is expressed in terms of fields with 'nonrelativistic' spin-0 and spin-2
Juliet sheela, K.; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.
2018-04-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated at X-band microwave frequency on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystal of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. The angular variation of the EPR spectra has shown two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the KSSA single crystal system. The spin Hamiltonian parameters g and A are determined which reveals that the site I and site II occupied in rhombic and axial local field symmetry around the impurity ion. Among the two paramagnetic impurity ions, sites one occupies at substituitional position in the place of monovalent cation (K+) in the crystal whereas the other enters in its lattice interstitially by the correlation of EPR and crystal structure data. From the calculated principle values gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz of both the sites, the admixture coefficients and molecular orbital coefficients were evaluated which gives the information of ground state wave function and types of bonding of impurity ions with the ligands.
New Hamiltonians for loop quantum cosmology with arbitrary spin representations
Ben Achour, Jibril; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Geiller, Marc
2017-04-01
In loop quantum cosmology, one has to make a choice of SU(2) irreducible representation in which to compute holonomies and regularize the curvature of the connection. The systematic choice made in the literature is to work in the fundamental representation, and very little is known about the physics associated with higher spin labels. This constitutes an ambiguity of which the understanding, we believe, is fundamental for connecting loop quantum cosmology to full theories of quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity, its spin foam formulation, or cosmological group field theory. We take a step in this direction by providing here a new closed formula for the Hamiltonian of flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models regularized in a representation of arbitrary spin. This expression is furthermore polynomial in the basic variables which correspond to well-defined operators in the quantum theory, takes into account the so-called inverse-volume corrections, and treats in a unified way two different regularization schemes for the curvature. After studying the effective classical dynamics corresponding to single and multiple-spin Hamiltonians, we study the behavior of the critical density when the number of representations is increased and the stability of the difference equations in the quantum theory.
Spin-orbit beams for optical chirality measurement
Samlan, C. T.; Suna, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2018-01-01
Accurate measurement of chirality is essential for the advancement of natural and pharmaceutical sciences. We report here a method to measure chirality using non-separable states of light with geometric phase-gradient in the circular polarization basis, which we refer to as spin-orbit beams. A modified polarization Sagnac interferometer is used to generate spin-orbit beams wherein the spin and orbital angular momentum of the input Gaussian beam are coupled. The out-of-phase interference between counter-propagating Gaussian beams with orthogonal spin states and lateral-shear or/and linear-phase difference between them results in spin-orbit beams with linear and azimuthal phase gradient. The spin-orbit beams interact efficiently with the chiral medium, inducing a measurable change in the center-of-mass of the beam, using the polarization rotation angle and hence the chirality of the medium are accurately calculated. Tunable dynamic range of measurement and flexibility to introduce large values of orbital angular momentum for the spin-orbit beam, to improve the measurement sensitivity, highlight the techniques' versatility.
Specific heat of parabolic quantum dot with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjeev Kumar, D., E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India - 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [DVR College of Engineering & Technology, Kashipur, Medak, India - 502285 (India)
2016-04-13
The heat capacity of a two electron quantum dot with parabolic confinement in magnetic field in the presence of electron-electron interaction, Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) has been studied. The electron-electron interaction has been treated by a model potential which makes the Hamiltonian to be soluble exactly. The RSOI has been treated by a unitary transformation and the terms up to second order in DSOI constants have been considered. The heat capacity is obtained by canonical averaging. So far no study has been reported in literature on the effect of DSOI on the heat capacity of quantum dot.
Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin-orbit coupled substances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leurs, B.W.A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D.I.; Zaanen, J.
2008-01-01
Motivated by the heavy ion collision experiments there is much activity in studying the hydrodynamical properties of non-Abelian (quark-gluon) plasmas. A major question is how to deal with color currents. Although not widely appreciated, quite similar issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of the transport of spins in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The key insight is that the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in condensed matter systems can be rewritten in a language of SU(2) covariant derivatives where the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields: the Pauli system can be viewed as Yang-Mills quantum-mechanics in a 'fixed frame', and it can be viewed as an 'analogous system' for non-Abelian transport in the same spirit as Volovik's identification of the He superfluids as analogies for quantum fields in curved space time. We take a similar perspective as Jackiw and coworkers in their recent study of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, twisting the interpretation into the 'fixed frame' context, to find out what this means for spin transport in condensed matter systems. We present an extension of Jackiw's scheme: non-Abelian hydrodynamical currents can be factored in a 'non-coherent' classical part, and a coherent part requiring macroscopic non-Abelian quantum entanglement. Hereby it becomes particularly manifest that non-Abelian fluid flow is a much richer affair than familiar hydrodynamics, and this permits us to classify the various spin transport phenomena in condensed matter physics in an unifying framework. The 'particle based hydrodynamics' of Jackiw et al. is recognized as the high temperature spin transport associated with semiconductor spintronics. In this context the absence of faithful hydrodynamics is well known, but in our formulation it is directly associated with the fact that the covariant conservation of non-Abelian currents turns into a disastrous non
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, Ya-Fei
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 321004 (China)
2015-01-07
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices.
Relativistic spin-orbit interactions of photons and electrons
Smirnova, D. A.; Travin, V. M.; Bliokh, K. Y.; Nori, F.
2018-04-01
Laboratory optics, typically dealing with monochromatic light beams in a single reference frame, exhibits numerous spin-orbit interaction phenomena due to the coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light. Similar phenomena appear for electrons and other spinning particles. Here we examine transformations of paraxial photon and relativistic-electron states carrying the spin and orbital angular momenta (AM) under the Lorentz boosts between different reference frames. We show that transverse boosts inevitably produce a rather nontrivial conversion from spin to orbital AM. The converted part is then separated between the intrinsic (vortex) and extrinsic (transverse shift or Hall effect) contributions. Although the spin, intrinsic-orbital, and extrinsic-orbital parts all point in different directions, such complex behavior is necessary for the proper Lorentz transformation of the total AM of the particle. Relativistic spin-orbit interactions can be important in scattering processes involving photons, electrons, and other relativistic spinning particles, as well as when studying light emitted by fast-moving bodies.
Generalized spins and yours applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnikoff, M.
1978-01-01
The correlation between the colinear SU(6) sub(W,STRONG) group, of classification, builded by Melosh in 1974 inside th Null-Plane formalism, and the static SU(6) group classical of classification of the Flat-Plane formalism which is a chiral SU(6) x SU(6) algebra sub-group of Feynman-Gell-Mann-Zweig, is analized. It is shown that is possible to define the 'static limit', in the weak sense, for the SU(6) sub(W,STRONG). Furthermore, rotational symmetries of the Hamiltonian H=α vector. p vector + mβ + ω(x) (1+β) + Ω(x)α vector. x vector are wanted. It is possible to define, in the Flat-Plane formalism a conserved spin but that dont't one relate with the canonical spin by no unitary transformations. The generalized operator of total angular momentum which is conserved, in the Null-Plane formalism in its 'non-orthogonal' version, is found. A generalized spin, conserved, obtained by a exact Melosh transformation appropriate for the case is also found [pt
Structure and magnetic ground states of spin-orbit coupled compound alpha-RuCl3
Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Stone, Matthew; Aczel, Adam; Li, Ling; Yiu, Yuen; Lumsden, Mark; Chakoumakos, Bryan; Tennant, Alan; Nagler, Stephen
2015-03-01
The layered material alpha-RuCl3 is composed of stacks of weakly coupled honeycomb lattices of octahedrally coordinated Ru3 + ions. The Ru ion ground state has 5 d electrons in the low spin state, with spin-orbit coupling very strong compared to other terms in the single ion Hamiltonian. The material is therefore an excellent candidate for investigating possible Heisenberg-Kitaev physics. In addition, this compound is very amenable to investigation by neutron scattering to explore the magnetic ground state and excitations in detail. In this talk, we discuss the synthesis of phase-pure alpha-RuCl3 and the characterization of the magnetization, susceptibility, and heat-capacity. We also report neutron diffraction on both powder and single crystal alpha-RuCl3, identifying the low temperature magnetic order observed in the material. The results, when compared to theoretical calculations, shed light on the relative importance of Kitaev and Heisenberg terms in the Hamiltonian. The research is supported by the DOE BES Scientific User Facility Division.
Spin transistor action from Onsager reciprocity and SU(2) gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adagideli, Inanc [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkey); Lutsker, Vitalij; Scheid, Matthias; Richter, Klaus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Jacquod, Philippe [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2012-07-01
We construct a local gauge transformation to show how, in confined systems, a generic, weak non-homogeneous SU(2) spin-orbit Hamiltonian reduces to two U(1) Hamiltonians for spinless fermions at opposite magnetic fields, to leading order in the spin-orbit strength. Using an Onsager relation, we further show how the resulting spin conductance vanishes in a two-terminal setup, and how it is turned on by either weakly breaking time-reversal symmetry or opening additional transport terminals. We numerically check our theory for mesoscopic cavities as well as Aharonov-Bohm rings.
Calculation of spin and orbital magnetizations in Fe slab systems at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garibay-Alonso, R [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Conjunto Universitario Camporredondo, Edificio ' D' , 25000 Saltillo (Mexico); Reyes-Reyes, M [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis PotosI, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Urrutia-Banuelos, EfraIn [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis PotosI (Mexico)
2010-02-10
The temperature dependence of spin and orbital local magnetizations is theoretically determined for the non-bulk atomic region of (001) and (110) Fe slab systems. A d band Hamiltonian, including spin-orbit coupling terms, was used to model the slabs, which were emulated by using Fe films of sufficient thickness to reach a bulk behavior at their most inner atomic layers. The temperature effects were considered within the static approximation and a simple mean field theory was used to integrate the local magnetic moment and charge thermal fluctuations. The results reflect a clear interplay between electronic itinerancy and the local atomic environment and they can be physically interpreted from the local small charge transfers occurring in the superficial region of the slabs. For recovering the experimental behavior on the results for the (001) slab system, the geometrical relaxations at its non-bulk atomic layers and a d band filling variation are required. A study on the magnetic anisotropy aspects in the superficial region of the slabs is additionally performed by analyzing the results for the orbital local magnetization calculated along two different magnetization directions in both slab systems.
Orbital selective spin-texture in a topological insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Bahadur, E-mail: bahadursingh24@gmail.com; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)
2015-05-15
Three-dimensional topological insulators support a metallic non-trivial surface state with unique spin texture, where spin and momentum are locked perpendicular to each other. In this work, we investigate the orbital selective spin-texture associated with the topological surface states in Sb2Te{sub 3}, using the first principles calculations. Sb2Te{sub 3} is a strong topological insulator with a p-p type bulk band inversion at the Γ-point and supports a single topological metallic surface state with upper (lower) Dirac-cone has left (right) handed spin-texture. Here, we show that the topological surface state has an additional locking between the spin and orbitals, leading to an orbital selective spin-texture. The out-of-plane orbitals (p{sub z} orbitals) have an isotropic orbital texture for both the Dirac cones with an associated left and right handed spin-texture for the upper and lower Dirac cones, respectively. In contrast, the in-planar orbital texture (p{sub x} and p{sub y} projections) is tangential for the upper Dirac-cone and is radial for the lower Dirac-cone surface state. The dominant in-planar orbital texture in both the Dirac cones lead to a right handed orbital-selective spin-texture.
Generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian: renormalization group approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cannas, S.A.; Tamarit, F.A.; Tsallis, C.
1991-01-01
We study a generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian which is closed within the framework of a Quantum Real Space Renormalization Group, which replaces the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice by a diamond-like lattice. The phase diagram of the generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian is analyzed for the half-filled band case in d = 2 and d = 3. Some evidence for superconductivity is presented. (author). 44 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs
Hamiltonian reduction and supersymmetric mechanics with Dirac monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen
2006-01-01
We apply the technique of Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics specified by the presence of a Dirac monopole. For this purpose we take the conventional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics on the four-dimensional conformally-flat spaces and perform its Hamiltonian reduction to three-dimensional system. We formulate the final system in the canonical coordinates, and present, in these terms, the explicit expressions of the Hamiltonian and supercharges. We show that, besides a magnetic monopole field, the resulting system is specified by the presence of a spin-orbit coupling term. A comparision with previous work is also carried out
Generalizing the classical fixed-centres problem in a non-Hamiltonian way
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albouy, A; Stuchi, T J
2004-01-01
The problem of two gravitational (or Coulombian) fixed centres is a classical integrable problem, stated and integrated by Euler in 1760. The integrability is due to the unexpected first integral G. We introduce some straightforward generalizations of the problem that still have the generalization of G as a first integral, but do not possess the energy integral. We present some numerical integrations showing the main features of their dynamics. In the domain of bounded orbits the behaviour of these a priori non-Hamiltonian systems is very similar to the behaviour of usual near-integrable systems
Investigations on the local structure and the spin-Hamiltonian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-07-13
Jul 13, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 22 c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1234-6. Investigations on the local structure and the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the tetragonal Cu. 2+ centre in ZnGeF6·6H2O crystal. LI CHAO-YING. ∗. , HUANG YING and ZHENG XUE MEI. School of Physics and Electronic ...
Spin-orbital quantum liquid on the honeycomb lattice
Corboz, Philippe
2013-03-01
The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. We present simulation results for this model on various two-dimensional lattices obtained with infinite projected-entangled pair states (iPEPS), an efficient variational tensor-network ansatz for two dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit. This approach can be seen as a two-dimensional generalization of matrix product states - the underlying ansatz of the density matrix renormalization group method. We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-Néel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. Our results are supported from flavor-wave theory and exact diagonalization. Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. This model provides a good starting point to understand the recently discovered spin-orbital liquid behavior of Ba3CuSb2O9. The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. We acknowledge the financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.
Pumped double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sherman Eugene
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We study driven by an external electric field quantum orbital and spin dynamics of electron in a one-dimensional double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling. Two types of external perturbation are considered: a periodic field at the Zeeman frequency and a single half-period pulse. Spin-orbit coupling leads to a nontrivial evolution in the spin and orbital channels and to a strongly spin- dependent probability density distribution. Both the interdot tunneling and the driven motion contribute into the spin evolution. These results can be important for the design of the spin manipulation schemes in semiconductor nanostructures. PACS numbers: 73.63.Kv,72.25.Dc,72.25.Pn
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien
2013-01-01
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang
2013-05-16
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Culcer, Dimitrie
2017-01-01
Topological materials have attracted considerable experimental and theoretical attention. They exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling both in the band structure (intrinsic) and in the impurity potentials (extrinsic), although the latter is often neglected. In this work, we discuss weak localization and antilocalization of massless Dirac fermions in topological insulators and massive Dirac fermions in Weyl semimetal thin films, taking into account both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit interactions. The physics is governed by the complex interplay of the chiral spin texture, quasiparticle mass, and scalar and spin-orbit scattering. We demonstrate that terms linear in the extrinsic spin-orbit scattering are generally present in the Bloch and momentum relaxation times in all topological materials, and the correction to the diffusion constant is linear in the strength of the extrinsic spin-orbit. In topological insulators, which have zero quasiparticle mass, the terms linear in the impurity spin-orbit coupling lead to an observable density dependence in the weak antilocalization correction. They produce substantial qualitative modifications to the magnetoconductivity, differing greatly from the conventional Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula traditionally used in experimental fits, which predicts a crossover from weak localization to antilocalization as a function of the extrinsic spin-orbit strength. In contrast, our analysis reveals that topological insulators always exhibit weak antilocalization. In Weyl semimetal thin films having intermediate to large values of the quasiparticle mass, we show that extrinsic spin-orbit scattering strongly affects the boundary of the weak localization to antilocalization transition. We produce a complete phase diagram for this transition as a function of the mass and spin-orbit scattering strength. Throughout the paper, we discuss implications for experimental work, and, at the end, we provide a brief comparison with transition metal
General technique to produce isochronous Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calogero, F; Leyvraz, F
2007-01-01
We introduce a new technique-characterized by an arbitrary positive constant Ω, with which we associate the period T = 2π/Ω-to 'Ω-modify' a Hamiltonian so that the new Hamiltonian thereby obtained is entirely isochronous, namely it yields motions all of which (except possibly for a lower dimensional set of singular motions) are periodic with the same fixed period T in all their degrees of freedom. This technique transforms real autonomous Hamiltonians into Ω-modified Hamiltonians which are also real and autonomous, and it is widely applicable, for instance, to the most general many-body problem characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ('acceleration equal force') provided it is translation invariant. The Ω-modified Hamiltonians are of course not translation invariant, but for Ω = 0 they reduce (up to marginal changes) to the unmodified Hamiltonians they were obtained from. Hence, when this technique is applied to translation-invariant Hamiltonians yielding, in their center-of-mass systems, chaotic motions with a natural time scale much smaller than T, the corresponding Ω-modified Hamiltonians shall display a chaotic behavior for quite some time before the isochronous character of the motions takes over. We moreover show that the quantized versions of these Ω-modified Hamiltonians feature equispaced spectra
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-01-01
ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives
Exact solution of the Schroedinger equation with the spin-boson Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardas, Bartlomiej
2011-01-01
We address the problem of obtaining the exact reduced dynamics of the spin-half (qubit) immersed within the bosonic bath (environment). An exact solution of the Schroedinger equation with the paradigmatic spin-boson Hamiltonian is obtained. We believe that this result is a major step ahead and may ultimately contribute to the complete resolution of the problem in question. We also construct the constant of motion for the spin-boson system. In contrast to the standard techniques available within the framework of the open quantum systems theory, our analysis is based on the theory of block operator matrices.
Microscopic Stern-Gerlach effect and spin-orbit pendulum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.
1996-01-01
The motion of a particle with spin in spherical harmonic oscillator potential with spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The attention is focused on the spatial motion of wave packets. The particular case of wave packets moving along the circular orbits for which the most transparent and pedagogical description is possible is considered. The splitting of the wave packets into two components moving differently along classical orbits reflects a strong analogy with the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The periodic transfer of average angular momentum between spin and orbital subspaces accompanying this time evolution is called the spin-orbit pendulum. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs
Quasiparticle semiconductor band structures including spin-orbit interactions.
Malone, Brad D; Cohen, Marvin L
2013-03-13
We present first-principles calculations of the quasiparticle band structure of the group IV materials Si and Ge and the group III-V compound semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, InP, InAs, InSb, GaP, GaAs and GaSb. Calculations are performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method and the 'one-shot' GW method, i.e. G(0)W(0). Quasiparticle band structures, augmented with the effects of spin-orbit, are obtained via a Wannier interpolation of the obtained quasiparticle energies and calculated spin-orbit matrix. Our calculations explicitly treat the shallow semicore states of In and Ga, which are known to be important in the description of the electronic properties, as valence states in the quasiparticle calculation. Our calculated quasiparticle energies, combining both the ab initio evaluation of the electron self-energy and the vector part of the pseudopotential representing the spin-orbit effects, are in generally very good agreement with experimental values. These calculations illustrate the predictive power of the methodology as applied to group IV and III-V semiconductors.
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-06-21
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead
2009-01-01
In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS 3 and BS 5 . Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, 1-bar Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present.
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-10-31
In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are
Spin-spin cross relaxation and spin-Hamiltonian spectroscopy by optical pumping of Pr/sup 3+/:LaF3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukac, M.; Otto, F.W.; Hahn, E.L.
1989-01-01
We report the observation of an anticrossing in solid-state laser spectroscopy produced by cross relaxation. Spin-spin cross relaxation between the /sup 141/Pr- and /sup 19/F-spin reservoirs in Pr/sup 3+/:LaF 3 and its influence on the /sup 141/Pr NMR spectrum is detected by means of optical pumping. The technique employed combines optical pumping and hole burning with either external magnetic field sweep or rf resonance saturation in order to produce slow transient changes in resonant laser transmission. At a certain value of the external Zeeman field, where the energy-level splittings of Pr and F spins match, a level repulsion and discontinuity of the Pr/sup 3+/ NMR lines is observed. This effect is interpreted as the ''anticrossing'' of the combined Pr-F spin-spin reservoir energy states. The Zeeman-quadrupole-Hamiltonian spectrum of the hyperfine optical ground states of Pr/sup 3+/:LaF 3 is mapped out over a wide range of Zeeman magnetic fields. A new scheme is proposed for dynamic polarization of nuclei by means of optical pumping, based on resonant cross relaxation between rare spins and spin reservoirs
Electronic structure of spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri
2016-04-15
Highlights: • We review the theoretical modeling of quantum spin systems. • We apply the Nth order muffin-tin orbital electronic structure method. • The method shows the importance of chemistry in the modeling. • CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 5} showed a 2-dimensional coupled spin dimer behavior. • Ti substituted Zn{sub 2}VO(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} showed spin gap behavior. - Abstract: Low-dimensional quantum spin systems, characterized by their unconventional magnetic properties, have attracted much attention. Synthesis of materials appropriate to various classes within these systems has made this field very attractive and a site of many activities. The experimental results like susceptibility data are fitted with the theoretical model to derive the underlying spin Hamiltonian. However, often such a fitting procedure which requires correct guess of the assumed spin Hamiltonian leads to ambiguity in deciding the representative model. In this review article, we will describe how electronic structure calculation within the framework of Nth order muffin-tin orbital (NMTO) based Wannier function technique can be utilized to identify the underlying spin model for a large number of such compounds. We will show examples from compounds belonging to vanadates and cuprates.
Vícha, Jan; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal
2018-05-10
The importance of relativistic effects on the NMR parameters in heavy-atom (HA) compounds, particularly the SO-HALA (Spin-Orbit Heavy Atom on the Light Atom) effect on NMR chemical shifts, has been known for about 40 years. Yet, a general correlation between the electronic structure and SO-HALA effect has been missing. By analyzing 1 H NMR chemical shifts of the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At), we discovered general electronic-structure principles and mechanisms that dictate the size and sign of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts. In brief, partially occupied HA valence shells induce relativistic shielding at the light atom (LA) nuclei, while empty HA valence shells induce relativistic deshielding. In particular, the LA nucleus is relativistically shielded in 5d 2 -5d 8 and 6p 4 HA hydrides and deshielded in 4f 0 , 5d 0 , 6s 0 , and 6p 0 HA hydrides. This general and intuitive concept explains periodic trends in the 1 H NMR chemical shifts along the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At) studied in this work. We present substantial evidence that the introduced principles have a general validity across the periodic table and can be extended to nonhydride LAs. The decades-old question of why compounds with occupied frontier π molecular orbitals (MOs) cause SO-HALA shielding at the LA nuclei, while the frontier σ MOs cause deshielding is answered. We further derive connection between the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts and Spin-Orbit-induced Electron Deformation Density (SO-EDD), a property that can be obtained easily from differential electron densities and can be represented graphically. SO-EDD provides an intuitive understanding of the SO-HALA effect in terms of the depletion/concentration of the electron density at LA nuclei caused by spin-orbit coupling due to HA in the presence of a magnetic field. Using an analogy between the SO-EDD concept and arguments from classic NMR theory, the complex question of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts becomes easily understandable for a wide
Spin conversion induced by spin-orbit interaction in positronium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, H; Nakayama, T; Hyodo, T
2009-01-01
The positronium spin conversion reaction induced by spin-orbit interaction is investigated. We obtain the reaction rates during positronium-Xe and positronium-Kr collisions by using the Zeeman mixing of positronium states. At thermal energies corresponding to room temperature, the reaction rate for spin conversion due to spin-orbit interaction is found to be almost twice that for the positronium pick-off reaction. We also study the energy dependence of the reaction rate. The mean energy of positronium is controlled by changing the gas temperature and using positronium in thermal equilibrium. We found that the reaction rate increases with the collision energy.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.
2013-01-01
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-12-19
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Diffeomorphism invariance in the Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiriushcheva, N.; Kuzmin, S.V.; Racknor, C.; Valluri, S.R.
2008-01-01
It is shown that when the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is considered without any non-covariant modifications or change of variables, its Hamiltonian formulation leads to results consistent with principles of General Relativity. The first-class constraints of such a Hamiltonian formulation, with the metric tensor taken as a canonical variable, allow one to derive the generator of gauge transformations, which directly leads to diffeomorphism invariance. The given Hamiltonian formulation preserves general covariance of the transformations derivable from it. This characteristic should be used as the crucial consistency requirement that must be met by any Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity
Magneto-Spin-Orbit Graphene: Interplay between Exchange and Spin-Orbit Couplings.
Rybkin, Artem G; Rybkina, Anna A; Otrokov, Mikhail M; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Klimovskikh, Ilya I; Petukhov, Anatoly E; Filianina, Maria V; Voroshnin, Vladimir Yu; Rusinov, Igor P; Ernst, Arthur; Arnau, Andrés; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Shikin, Alexander M
2018-03-14
A rich class of spintronics-relevant phenomena require implementation of robust magnetism and/or strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to graphene, but both properties are completely alien to it. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate that a quasi-freestanding character, strong exchange splitting and giant SOC are perfectly achievable in graphene at once. Using angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the Dirac state in the Au-intercalated graphene on Co(0001) experiences giant splitting (up to 0.2 eV) while being by no means distorted due to interaction with the substrate. Our calculations, based on the density functional theory, reveal the splitting to stem from the combined action of the Co thin film in-plane exchange field and Au-induced Rashba SOC. Scanning tunneling microscopy data suggest that the peculiar reconstruction of the Au/Co(0001) interface is responsible for the exchange field transfer to graphene. The realization of this "magneto-spin-orbit" version of graphene opens new frontiers for both applied and fundamental studies using its unusual electronic bandstructure.
Zihlmann, Simon; Cummings, Aron W.; Garcia, Jose H.; Kedves, Máté; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian; Makk, Péter
2018-02-01
Large spin-orbital proximity effects have been predicted in graphene interfaced with a transition-metal dichalcogenide layer. Whereas clear evidence for an enhanced spin-orbit coupling has been found at large carrier densities, the type of spin-orbit coupling and its relaxation mechanism remained unknown. We show an increased spin-orbit coupling close to the charge neutrality point in graphene, where topological states are expected to appear. Single-layer graphene encapsulated between the transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2 and h -BN is found to exhibit exceptional quality with mobilities as high as 1 ×105 cm2 V-1 s-1. At the same time clear weak antilocalization indicates strong spin-orbit coupling, and a large spin relaxation anisotropy due to the presence of a dominating symmetric spin-orbit coupling is found. Doping-dependent measurements show that the spin relaxation of the in-plane spins is largely dominated by a valley-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling and that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling plays a minor role in spin relaxation. The strong spin-valley coupling opens new possibilities in exploring spin and valley degree of freedom in graphene with the realization of new concepts in spin manipulation.
Effective one-band approach for the spin splittings in quantum wells
Alekseev, P. S.; Nestoklon, M. O.
2017-03-01
The spin-orbit interaction of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells grown from the III-V semiconductors consists of two parts with different symmetry: the Bychkov-Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. The last term is usually attributed to the bulk spin-orbit Hamiltonian which reflects the Td symmetry of the zincblende lattice. While it is known that the quantum well interfaces may also contribute to the Dresselhaus term, the exact structure and relative importance of the interface and bulk contributions are not well understood. To deal with this problem, we perform tight-binding calculations of the spin splittings of the electron levels in [100] GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We show that the obtained spin splittings can be adequately described within the one-band electron Hamiltonian containing, together with the bulk contribution, the two interface contributions to the Dresselhaus term. The magnitude of the interface contribution to the spin-orbit interaction for sufficiently narrow quantum wells is of the same order as the bulk contribution.
Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers
Haney, Paul
2015-03-01
Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.
Spin-flip and spin orbit interactions in heavy ion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bybell, D.P.
1983-01-01
The role of spin orbit forces in heavy ion reactions is not completely understood. Experimental data is scarce for these systems but the data that does exist indicates a stronger spin orbit force than predicted by the folding models. The spin-flip probability of non-spin zero projectiles is one technique used for these measurements and is often taken as a direct indicator of a spin orbit interaction. This work measures the projectile spin-flip probability for three inelastic reactions; 13 C + 24 Mg, E/sub cm/ = 22.7 MeV; 13 C + 12 C, E/sub cm/ = 17.3 MeV; and 6 Li + 12 C, E/sub cm/ = 15.2 MeV, all leading to the first J/sup π/ = 2 + state of the target. The technique of particle-γ angular correlations was used for measuring the final state density matrix elements, of which the absolute value M = 1 magnetic substate population is equivalent to the spin-flip probability. The method was explored in detail and found to be sensitive to spin-flip probabilities smaller than 1%. The technique was also found to be a good indicator of the reaction mechanism involved. Nonzero and occasionally large spin-flip probabilities were observed in all systems, much larger than the folding model predictions. Information was obtained on the non-spin-flip density matrix elements. In the 13 C + 24 Mg reaction, these were found to agree with calculations when the finite size of the particle detector is included
Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire.
Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P
2010-12-23
Motion of electrons can influence their spins through a fundamental effect called spin-orbit interaction. This interaction provides a way to control spins electrically and thus lies at the foundation of spintronics. Even at the level of single electrons, the spin-orbit interaction has proven promising for coherent spin rotations. Here we implement a spin-orbit quantum bit (qubit) in an indium arsenide nanowire, where the spin-orbit interaction is so strong that spin and motion can no longer be separated. In this regime, we realize fast qubit rotations and universal single-qubit control using only electric fields; the qubits are hosted in single-electron quantum dots that are individually addressable. We enhance coherence by dynamically decoupling the qubits from the environment. Nanowires offer various advantages for quantum computing: they can serve as one-dimensional templates for scalable qubit registers, and it is possible to vary the material even during wire growth. Such flexibility can be used to design wires with suppressed decoherence and to push semiconductor qubit fidelities towards error correction levels. Furthermore, electrical dots can be integrated with optical dots in p-n junction nanowires. The coherence times achieved here are sufficient for the conversion of an electronic qubit into a photon, which can serve as a flying qubit for long-distance quantum communication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreira, Iberio de P R [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calzado, Carmen J [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Prof. GarcIa Gonzalez s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Malrieu, Jean-Paul [IRSAMC, Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse-Cedex (France); Illas, Francesc [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2007-10-15
A general procedure is presented which permits the form of an extended spin Hamiltonian to be established for a given magnetic solid and the magnitude of its terms to be evaluated from spin polarized, Hartree-Fock or density functional calculations carried out for periodic models. The computational strategy makes use of a general mapping between the energy of pertinent broken-symmetry solutions and the diagonal terms of the spin Hamiltonian in a local representation. From this mapping it is possible to determine not only the amplitude of the well-known two-body magnetic coupling constants between near-neighbor sites, but also the amplitudes of four-body cyclic exchange terms. A scrutiny of the on-site spin densities provides additional information and control of the many broken-symmetry solutions which can be found. The procedure is applied to the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} square lattices and the SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ladder compound. It is shown that a proper description of the magnetic structure of these compounds requires that two- and four-body terms are explicitly included in the spin Hamiltonian. The implications for the interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.
Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starkov, Konstantin E.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.
Compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII and Bianchi IX Hamiltonian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: konst@citedi.mx [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)
2011-08-22
In this Letter we prove that all compact invariant sets of the Bianchi VIII Hamiltonian system are contained in the set described by several simple linear equalities and inequalities. Moreover, we describe invariant domains in which the phase flow of this system has no recurrence property and show that there are no periodic orbits and neither homoclinic, nor heteroclinic orbits contained in the zero level set of its Hamiltonian. Similar results are obtained for the Bianchi IX Hamiltonian system. -- Highlights: → Zero level set of Hamiltonian of Bianchi VIII/IX systems contains no periodic orbits. → Similar conditions for homoclinic/heteroclinic orbits are given. → General nonexistence conditions of compact invariant sets are got.
The nucleon-nucleon spin-orbit interaction in the Skyrme model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riska, D.O.; Dannbom, K.
1987-01-01
The spin-orbit and quadratic spin-orbit components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are derived in the Skyrme model at the classical level. These interaction components arise from the orbital and rotational motion of the soliton fields that form the nucleons. The isospin dependent part of the spin-orbit interaction is similar to the corresponding component obtained from boson exchange mechanisms at long distances although at short distances it is weaker. The isospin independent spin-orbit component is however different from the prediction of boson exchange mechanisms and has the opposite sign. The quadratic spin-orbit interaction is weak and has only an isospin dependent component
Proposed new test of spin effects in general relativity.
O'Connell, R F
2004-08-20
The recent discovery of a double-pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B provides an opportunity of unequivocally observing, for the first time, spin effects in general relativity. Existing efforts involve detection of the precession of the spinning body itself. However, for a close binary system, spin effects on the orbit may also be discernible. Not only do they add to the advance of the periastron (by an amount which is small compared to the conventional contribution) but they also give rise to a precession of the orbit about the spin direction. The measurement of such an effect would also give information on the moment of inertia of pulsars.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Rossmanith, R.
1985-03-01
We present a general formalism for correcting perturbations to the equilibrium sspin axis in electron storage rings due to the orbit errors so that depolarizing effects due to machine misalignments can be controlled. The method proposed is suitable for rings containing e.g. solenoids, skew quadrupoles and vertical bends and since it is based on a SLIM-like representation of the orbital and spin motion it can be conveniently realized as a straight forward extension to that program. (orig.)
Innermost stable circular orbit of spinning particle in charged spinning black hole background
Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Guo, Wen-Di; Sui, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2018-04-01
In this paper we investigate the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) (spin-aligned or anti-aligned orbit) for a classical spinning test particle with the pole-dipole approximation in the background of Kerr-Newman black hole in the equatorial plane. It is shown that the orbit of the spinning particle is related to the spin of the test particle. The motion of the spinning test particle will be superluminal if its spin is too large. We give an additional condition by considering the superluminal constraint for the ISCO in the black hole backgrounds. We obtain numerically the relations between the ISCO and the properties of the black holes and the test particle. It is found that the radius of the ISCO for a spinning test particle is smaller than that of a nonspinning test particle in the black hole backgrounds.
Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors
Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.
2017-09-01
The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.
On the physical applications of hyper-Hamiltonian dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaeta, Giuseppe; Rodriguez, Miguel A
2008-01-01
An extension of Hamiltonian dynamics, defined on hyper-Kahler manifolds ('hyper-Hamiltonian dynamics') and sharing many of the attractive features of standard Hamiltonian dynamics, was introduced in previous work. In this paper, we discuss applications of the theory to physically interesting cases, dealing with the dynamics of particles with spin 1/2 in a magnetic field, i.e. the Pauli and the Dirac equations. While the free Pauli equation corresponds to a hyper-Hamiltonian flow, it turns out that the hyper-Hamiltonian description of the Dirac equation, and of the full Pauli one, is in terms of two commuting hyper-Hamiltonian flows. In this framework one can use a factorization principle discussed here (which is a special case of a general phenomenon studied by Walcher) and provide an explicit description of the resulting flow. On the other hand, by applying the familiar Foldy-Wouthuysen and Cini-Tousheck transformations (and the one recently introduced by Mulligan) which separate-in suitable limits-the Dirac equation into two equations, each of these turn out to be described by a single hyper-Hamiltonian flow. Thus the hyper-Hamiltonian construction is able to describe the fundamental dynamics for particles with spin
The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). → Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. → SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). → The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. → This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans
2014-01-01
An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Müller, Thomas, E-mail: th.mueller@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plasser, Felix [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lischka, Hans [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)
2014-08-21
An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.
Proton spin tracking with symplectic integration of orbit motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
Symplectic integration had been adopted for orbital motion tracking in code SimTrack. SimTrack has been extensively used for dynamic aperture calculation with beam-beam interaction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Recently proton spin tracking has been implemented on top of symplectic orbital motion in this code. In this article, we will explain the implementation of spin motion based on Thomas-BMT equation, and the benchmarking with other spin tracking codes currently used for RHIC. Examples to calculate spin closed orbit and spin tunes are presented too.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
2016-11-03
21. "Many-body physics of spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases ," Invited talk at the March Meeting 2014 in Denver, Colorado (March, 2014) 22... properties of the fundamentally new class of coherent states of quantum matter that had been predicted by the PI and subsequently experimentally...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new
The Hamiltonian structure of general relativistic perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, D.; Houston Univ., TX; Marsden, J.; Walton, R.
1985-01-01
We show that the evolution equations for a perfect fluid coupled to general relativity in a general lapse and shift, are Hamiltonian relative to a certain Poisson structure. For the fluid variables, a Lie-Poisson structure associated to the dual of a semi-direct product Lie algebra is used, while the bracket for the gravitational variables has the usual canonical symplectic structure. The evolution is governed by a Hamiltonian which is equivalent to that obtained from a canonical analysis. The relationship of our Hamiltonian structure with other approaches in the literature, such as Clebsch potentials, Lagrangian to Eulerian transformations, and its use in clarifying linearization stability, are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Mei; Wen-Chen, Zheng; Hong-Gang, Liu
2013-01-01
The spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g i and hyperfine structure constants A i , were i=x, y and z) for Mo 5+ ion occupying the Ti(1) site with approximately rhombic symmetry in KTiOPO 4 crystal are calculated from the high-order perturbation formulas based on the two-mechanism model. In the model, not only the contribution due to the conventional crystal-field (CF) mechanism, but also those due to the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism are included. The six calculated spin-Hamiltonian parameters with four adjustable parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. The calculations show that for more accurate calculations of spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the high valence d n ions (e.g., Mo 5+ considered here) in crystals, the contribution from CT mechanism, which is ignored in the conventional crystal field theory, should be taken into account. The reasonable crystal field energy levels of Mo 5+ in KTiOPO 4 are also predicted from calculations
Quantum Hamiltonian reduction in superspace formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madsen, J.O.; Ragoucy, E.
1994-02-01
Recently the quantum Hamiltonian reduction was done in the case of general sl(2) embeddings into Lie algebras and superalgebras. The results are extended to the quantum Hamiltonian reduction of N=1 affine Lie superalgebras in the superspace formalism. It is shown that if we choose a gauge for the supersymmetry, and consider only certain equivalence classes of fields, then our quantum Hamiltonian reduction reduces to quantum Hamiltonian reduction of non-supersymmetric Lie superalgebras. The super energy-momentum tensor is constructed explicitly as well as all generators of spin 1 (and 1/2); thus all generators in the superconformal, quasi-superconformal and Z 2 *Z 2 superconformal algebras are constructed. (authors). 21 refs
Spin-Orbital Quantum Liquid on the Honeycomb Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Corboz
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The main characteristic of Mott insulators, as compared to band insulators, is to host low-energy spin fluctuations. In addition, Mott insulators often possess orbital degrees of freedom when crystal-field levels are partially filled. While in the majority of Mott insulators, spins and orbitals develop long-range order, the possibility for the ground state to be a quantum liquid opens new perspectives. In this paper, we provide clear evidence that the spin-orbital SU(4 symmetric Kugel-Khomskii model of Mott insulators on the honeycomb lattice is a quantum spin-orbital liquid. The absence of any form of symmetry breaking—lattice or SU(N—is supported by a combination of semiclassical and numerical approaches: flavor-wave theory, tensor network algorithm, and exact diagonalizations. In addition, all properties revealed by these methods are very accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave function based on the π-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the symmetric Kugel-Khomskii model on the honeycomb lattice is an algebraic quantum spin-orbital liquid. This model provides an interesting starting point to understanding the recently discovered spin-orbital-liquid behavior of Ba_{3}CuSb_{2}O_{9}. The present results also suggest the choice of optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultracold four-color fermionic atoms.
Dirac Hamiltonian and Reissner-Nordström metric: Coulomb interaction in curved space-time
Noble, J. H.; Jentschura, U. D.
2016-03-01
We investigate the spin-1 /2 relativistic quantum dynamics in the curved space-time generated by a central massive charged object (black hole). This necessitates a study of the coupling of a Dirac particle to the Reissner-Nordström space-time geometry and the simultaneous covariant coupling to the central electrostatic field. The relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian for the Reissner-Nordström geometry is derived. A Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation reveals the presence of gravitational and electrogravitational spin-orbit coupling terms which generalize the Fokker precession terms found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild Hamiltonian, and other electrogravitational correction terms to the potential proportional to αnG , where α is the fine-structure constant and G is the gravitational coupling constant. The particle-antiparticle symmetry found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild geometry (and for other geometries which do not include electromagnetic interactions) is shown to be explicitly broken due to the electrostatic coupling. The resulting spectrum of radially symmetric, electrostatically bound systems (with gravitational corrections) is evaluated for example cases.
Longitudinal and spin Hall conductance of a one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moca, Catalin Pascu; Marinescu, D C
2006-01-01
The longitudinal and spin Hall conductances of an electron gas with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, confined to a quasi-one-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm ring, are studied as functions of disorder and magnetic flux. The system is mapped onto a one-dimensional virtual lattice and is described, in a tight binding approximation, by a Hamiltonian that depends parametrically on the nearest neighbour hopping integral t, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling V R , the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling V D and an Anderson-like, on-site disorder energy strength W. Numerical results are obtained within a spin dependent Landauer-Buettiker formalism
Spin tune dependence on closed orbit in RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ptitsyn, V.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.
2010-01-01
Polarized proton beams are accelerated in RHIC to 250 GeV energy with the help of Siberian Snakes. The pair of Siberian Snakes in each RHIC ring holds the design spin tune at 1/2 to avoid polarization loss during acceleration. However, in the presence of closed orbit errors, the actual spin tune can be shifted away from the exact 1/2 value. It leads to a corresponding shift of locations of higher-order ('snake') resonances and limits the available betatron tune space. The largest closed orbit effect on the spin tune comes from the horizontal orbit angle between the two snakes. During RHIC Run in 2009 dedicated measurements with polarized proton beams were taken to verify the dependence of the spin tune on the local orbits at the Snakes. The experimental results are presented along with the comparison with analytical predictions.
Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory
Wang, Kang L.
Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.
Železný , J.; Gao, H.; Manchon, Aurelien; Freimuth, Frank; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Zemen, J.; Mašek, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2017-01-01
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Železný, J.
2017-01-10
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Equilibrium Solutions of the Logarithmic Hamiltonian Leapfrog for the N-body Problem
Minesaki, Yukitaka
2018-04-01
We prove that a second-order logarithmic Hamiltonian leapfrog for the classical general N-body problem (CGNBP) designed by Mikkola and Tanikawa and some higher-order logarithmic Hamiltonian methods based on symmetric multicompositions of the logarithmic algorithm exactly reproduce the orbits of elliptic relative equilibrium solutions in the original CGNBP. These methods are explicit symplectic methods. Before this proof, only some implicit discrete-time CGNBPs proposed by Minesaki had been analytically shown to trace the orbits of elliptic relative equilibrium solutions. The proof is therefore the first existence proof for explicit symplectic methods. Such logarithmic Hamiltonian methods with a variable time step can also precisely retain periodic orbits in the classical general three-body problem, which generic numerical methods with a constant time step cannot do.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avram, C.N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Gruia, A.S., E-mail: adigruia@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Barb, A.M. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)
2015-12-01
Calculations of the Cr{sup 3+} energy levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and vibrational spectra for the layered CrCl{sub 3} crystals are reported for the first time. The crystal field parameters and the energy level scheme were calculated in the framework of the Exchange Charge Model of crystal field. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters (zero-field splitting parameter D and g-factors) for Cr{sup 3+} ion in CrCl{sub 3} crystals were obtained using two independent techniques: i) semi-empirical crystal field theory and ii) density functional theory (DFT)-based model. In the first approach, the spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated from the perturbation theory method and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method. The infrared (IR) and Raman frequencies were calculated for both experimental and fully optimized geometry of the crystal structure, using CRYSTAL09 software. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the experimental available data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2016-01-01
In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in
2016-12-15
In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad Reza; Faizabadi, Edris
2008-01-01
The influence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on spin polarization by tunneling through a disordered semiconductor superlattice was investigated. The Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling causes the spin polarization of the electron due to transmission possibilities difference between spin up and spin down electrons. The electron tunneling through a zinc-blende semiconductor superlattice with InAs and GaAs layers and two variable distance In x Ga (1-x) As impurity layers was studied. One hundred percent spin polarization was obtained by optimizing the distance between two impurity layers and impurity percent in disordered layers in the presence of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. In addition, the electron transmission probability through the mentioned superlattice is too much near to one and an efficient spin filtering was recommended
Strong electron correlation in photoionization of spin-orbit doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Manson, S.T.; Msezane, A.M.; Radojevic, V.
2002-01-01
A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the 'leveraging' of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, it is demonstrated via a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange, that a recently observed unexplained structure in the Xe 3d 5/2 photoionization cross section [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2000)] is entirely due to this effect. Similar features are predicted for Cs 3d 5/2 and Ba 3d 5/2
Spin-polarizated transmissivity in an asymmetrical double barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teixeira, J D S; Frota, H O; Bittencourt, A C R
2014-01-01
The spin-polarized electron resonant tunnelling at zero magnetic field through a double barrier heterostructure like InAs/GaSb/InAs/GaSb/InAs has been calculated as a function of the electron energy. A model is proposed to study the combined effects of Dresselhaus and in-plane Rashba spin-orbit interactions on the spin-dependent tunnelling, taking into account the k 3 dependence of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian. For the directions ϕ=45 ∘ and 135 ∘ the spin mixing produces a 100% efficiency of polarization. Moreover, the effect of the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions are shown to be quite favorable for the fabrication of spin filters and spintronic devices. (paper)
A covariant formulation of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory on the light cone (fields with spin)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atakishiev, N.M.; Mir-Kasimov, R.M.; Nagiyev, Sh.M.
1978-01-01
A Hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory on the light cone, developed earlier, is extended to the case of particles with spin. The singularities accompanying each field theory in light-front variables are removed by the introduction of an infinite number of counterterms of a new type, which can be included into the interaction Hamiltonian. A three-dimensional diagram technique is formulated, which is applied to calculate the fermion self-energy in the lowest order of perturbation theory
Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle
Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.
2013-03-01
The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Der-you Kao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Without self-interaction corrections or the use of hybrid functionals, approximations to the density-functional theory (DFT often favor intermediate spin systems over high-spin systems. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed Fermi–Löwdin-orbital self-interaction corrected density functional formalism to a simple tetra-coordinated Fe(II-porphyrin molecule and show that the energetic orderings of the S = 1 and S = 2 spin states are changed qualitatively relative to the results of Generalized Gradient Approximation (developed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof, PBE-GGA and Local Density Approximation (developed by Perdew and Wang, PW92-LDA. Because the energetics, associated with changes in total spin, are small, we have also calculated the second-order spin–orbit energies and the zero-point vibrational energies to determine whether such corrections could be important in metal-substituted porphins. Our results find that the size of the spin–orbit and vibrational corrections to the energy orderings are small compared to the changes due to the self-interaction correction. Spin dependencies in the Infrared (IR/Raman spectra and the zero-field splittings are provided as a possible means for identifying the spin in porphyrins containing Fe(II.
Double perovskites with strong spin-orbit coupling
Cook, Ashley M.
We first present theoretical analysis of powder inelastic neutron scattering experiments in Ba2FeReO6 performed by our experimental collaborators. Ba2FeReO6, a member of the double perovskite family of materials, exhibits half-metallic behavior and high Curie temperatures Tc, making it of interest for spintronics applications. To interpret the experimental data, we develop a local moment model, which incorporates the interaction of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked magnetic moments on Re, and show that it captures the experimental observations. We then develop a tight-binding model of the double perovskite Ba 2FeReO6, a room temperature ferrimagnet with correlated and spin-orbit coupled Re t2g electrons moving in the background of Fe moments stabilized by Hund's coupling. We show that for such 3d/5d double perovskites, strong correlations on the 5d-element (Re) are essential in driving a half-metallic ground state. Incorporating both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Hubbard repulsion on Re leads to a band structure consistent with ab initio calculations. The uncovered interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit coupling lends partial support to our previous work, which used a local moment description to capture the spin wave dispersion found in neutron scattering measurements. We then adapt this tight-binding model to study {111}-grown bilayers of half-metallic double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO6. The combination of spin-orbit coupling, inter-orbital hybridization and symmetry-allowed trigonal distortion leads to a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological C= +/-1, +/-2 Chern bands, and a C = +/-2 quantum anomalous Hall insulator regime. We have also performed theoretical analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments to investigate the magnetic excitations in the weakly distorted face-centered-cubic (fcc) iridate double perovskites La2ZnIrO 6 and La2MgIrO6. Models with dominant Kitaev exchange seem to most naturally
Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics in a Trapped Fermi Gas with Effective Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Zhang Chuanwei; Galitski, Victor
2007-01-01
We consider a trapped atomic system in the presence of spatially varying laser fields. The laser-atom interaction generates a pseudospin degree of freedom (referred to simply as spin) and leads to an effective spin-orbit coupling for the fermions in the trap. Reflections of the fermions from the trap boundaries provide a physical mechanism for effective momentum relaxation and nontrivial spin dynamics due to the emergent spin-orbit coupling. We explicitly consider evolution of an initially spin-polarized Fermi gas in a two-dimensional harmonic trap and derive nonequilibrium behavior of the spin polarization. It shows periodic echoes with a frequency equal to the harmonic trapping frequency. Perturbations, such as an asymmetry of the trap, lead to the suppression of the spin echo amplitudes. We discuss a possible experimental setup to observe spin dynamics and provide numerical estimates of relevant parameters
The nuclear spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J.S.; Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
Analysis of the nucleon-nucleon scattering around 100 MeV has determined the spin-orbit coupling part of the two-body scattering matrix at that energy, and a reasonable extrapolation to lower energies is possible. This scattering amplitude has been used, in the spirit of Brueckner's nuclear model, to estimate the resultant single-body spin-orbit coupling for a single nucleon interacting with a large nucleus. This resultant potential has a radial dependence approximately proportional to r -1 d ρ /dr, and with a magnitude in good agreement with that required to explain the doublet splittings in nuclei and the polarization of nucleons scattered elastically off nuclei. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-01-01
for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic
Tunable spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices
Grusdt, Fabian; Li, Tracy; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene
2017-06-01
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is at the heart of many exotic band structures and can give rise to many-body states with topological order. Here we present a general scheme based on a combination of microwave driving and lattice shaking for the realization of two-dimensional SOC with ultracold atoms in systems with inversion symmetry. We show that the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC can be independently tuned in a spin-dependent square lattice. More generally, our method can be used to open gaps between different spin states without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that this allows for the realization of topological insulators with nontrivial spin textures closely related to the Kane-Mele model.
Next-order spin-orbit contributions to chaos in compact binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yuzhao; Wu Xin
2011-01-01
This paper is mainly devoted to numerically investigating the effects of the next-order spin-orbit interactions including the 2.5 post-Newtonian order term of the equations of motion and the second post-Newtonian order terms of the spin precession equations on chaos in the conservative Lagrangian dynamics of a spinning compact binary system. It is shown sufficiently through individual orbit simulations, the dependence of the invariant fast Lyapunov indicators on the variations of initial spin angles and the phase space scans for chaos, that the next-order spin-orbit contributions do play an important role in the amplification of chaos.
Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D. [Semaphore Scientific, Inc., St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States); Vogt, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota 56301 (United States)
2015-03-02
Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values.
Macroscopic spin-orbit coupling in non-uniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabat, N.; Edelman, H. S.; Song, D.; Vogt, T.
2015-01-01
Translational dynamics of aggregated magnetic nano-particles placed in a rotating external magnetic field is described. It is observed and explained that aggregates that spin within a radially decreasing field strength must execute an orbital motion of their center of mass in a sense that counters their spin rotation. This orbital motion is tightly coupled to the spin dynamics of the aggregates. An analytical model for the canonical variables describing the orbital motion is derived and shown to be in good agreement with the measured values
Topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states with their parent Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu Honghao; Zhang Guangming; Xiang Tao; Liu Zhengxin; Ng Taikai
2009-01-01
We present a general method to construct one-dimensional translationally invariant valence-bond solid states with a built-in Lie group G and derive their matrix product representations. The general strategies to find their parent Hamiltonians are provided so that the valence-bond solid states are their unique ground states. For quantum integer-spin-S chains, we discuss two topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states: one consists of two virtual SU(2) spin-J variables in each site and another is formed by using two SO(2S+1) spinors. Among them, a spin-1 fermionic valence-bond solid state, its parent Hamiltonian, and its properties are discussed in detail. Moreover, two types of valence-bond solid states with SO(5) symmetries are further generalized and their respective properties are analyzed as well.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-29
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, I. M.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Zelezný , J.; Thiaville, A.; Garello, K.; Gambardella, P.
2018-01-01
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2016-02-15
We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.
2010-01-01
The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.
Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te
Nontrivial ac spin response in the effective Luttinger model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Liangbin; Zhong Jiansong; Hu Kaige
2006-01-01
Based on the three-dimensional effective Luttinger Hamiltonian and the exact Heisenberg equations of motion and within a self-consistent semiclassical approximation, we present a theoretical investigation on the nontrivial ac spin responses due to the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of holes in p-doped bulk semiconductors. We show that the nontrivial ac spin responses induced by the combined action of an ac external electric field and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of holes may lead to the generation of a nonvanishing ac spin Hall current in a p-doped bulk semiconductor, which shares some similarities with the dissipationless dc spin Hall current conceived previously and also exhibits some interesting new features that was not found before
The classical limit of quantum theories: Particles in external metrics and with spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogreve, J.J.
1983-01-01
The intention of this work is to provide some further steps in this program, particullary the clarification of certain aspects of the classical limit of quantum theory. Here the classical limit is understood in the sense that we consider a family of quantum theories parametrized by (h/2π) > 0, and then take the limit (h/2π) -> 0. From a mathematical point of view we are thus in the area calles 'asymptotic perturbation theory'. In detail, we examine the canonical partition function Tr [esup(-x)] with x=tH((h/2π)) for Hamiltonians H ((h/2π)) involving the Laplace-Beltrami operator on manifolds, and show that after scaling it by (h/2π)sup(N) it converges to its corresponding classical counterpart. This is done in chapter I. In chapter II we prove the convergence to its classical limit of the partition function for Hamiltonians including spin degrees of freedom, i.e. Hamiltonians of Pauli type. In this case taking the classical limit includes also manipulation on the spin space in the sense that the weight of the representation of the spin operators has to tend to infinity simultanously as (h/2π) approaches zero. Under this procedure the spin space itself, that is the representation space of the spin operators, turn into certain coadjoint orbits of the respective Lie group. The main result of chapter III is a generalized Ehrenfest theorem; as (h/2π) -> 0 the quantum mechanical time evolution generated by Hamiltonians including external metrics and vector potentials becomes a solution of the corresponding classical canonical Hamiltonian equations. (orig./HSI) [de
Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong
2016-03-01
We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction and phonon-mediated spin dynamics in quantum dots
Vaughan, M. P.; Rorison, J. M.
2018-01-01
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction in a quantum dot are obtained. The resulting form does not neglect cubic terms and allows for a generalized structural inversion asymmetry. We also obtain analytical expressions for the coupling between states for the electron-phonon interaction and use these to derive spin-relaxation rates, which are found to be qualitatively similar to those derived elsewhere in the literature. We find that, due to the inclusion of cubic terms, the Dresselhaus contribution to the ground state spin relaxation disappears for spherical dots. A comparison with previous theory and existing experimental results shows good agreement thereby presenting a clear analytical formalism for future developments. Comparative calculations for potential materials are presented.
Non-isospectrality of the generalized Swanson Hamiltonian and harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Midya, Bikashkali; Dube, P P; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: bikash.midya@gmail.com, E-mail: ppdube1@gmail.com, E-mail: raj@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)
2011-02-11
The generalized Swanson Hamiltonian H{sub GS}=w(a-tilde a-tilde{sup {dagger}}+1/2)+{alpha}{alpha}-tilde{sup 2}+{beta}a-tilde{sup {dagger}}{sup 2} with a-tilde = A(x) d/dx + B(x) can be transformed into an equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian with the help of a similarity transformation. It is shown that the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian can be further transformed into the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian so long as [a-ilde,a-tilde{sup {dagger}}]=constant. However, the main objective of this communication is to show that though the commutator of a-tilde and a-tilde{sup {dagger}} is constant, the generalized Swanson Hamiltonian is not necessarily isospectral to the harmonic oscillator. The reason for this anomaly is discussed in the framework of position-dependent mass models by choosing A(x) as the inverse square root of the mass function. (fast track communication)
Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene
Rappoport, Tatiana
The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.
Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Kazzaz, Houshang Araghi
2017-10-01
We studied how the strain, induced exchange field and extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) enhance the electronic band structure (EBS) and electronic heat capacity (EHC) of ferromagnetic silicene in presence of external electric field (EF) by using the Kane-Mele Hamiltonian, Dirac cone approximation and the Green's function approach. Particular attention is paid to investigate the EHC of spin-up and spin-down bands at Dirac K and K‧ points. We have varied the EF, strain, exchange field and RSOC to tune the energy of inter-band transitions and consequently EHC, leading to very promising features for future applications. Evaluation of EF exhibits three phases: Topological insulator (TI), valley-spin polarized metal (VSPM) and band insulator (BI) at given aforementioned parameters. As a new finding, we have found a quantum anomalous Hall phase in BI regime at strong RSOCs. Interestingly, the effective mass of carriers changes with strain, resulting in EHC behaviors. Here, exchange field has the same behavior with EF. Finally, we have confirmed the reported and expected symmetry results for both Dirac points and spins with the study of valley-dependent EHC.
Spin-orbit coupling effects in indium antimonide quantum well structures
Dedigama, Aruna Ruwan
Indium antimonide (InSb) is a narrow band gap material which has the smallest electron effective mass (0.014m0) and the largest electron Lande g-facture (-51) of all the III-V semiconductors. Spin-orbit effects of III-V semiconductor heterostructures arise from two different inversion asymmetries namely bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA) and structural inversion asymmetry (SIA). BIA is due to the zinc-blende nature of this material which leads to the Dresselhaus spin splitting consisting of both linear and cubic in-plane wave vector terms. As its name implies SIA arises due to the asymmetry of the quantum well structure, this leads to the Rashba spin splitting term which is linear in wave vector. Although InSb has theoretically predicted large Dresselhaus (760 eVA3) and Rashba (523 eA 2) coefficients there has been relatively little experimental investigation of spin-orbit coefficients. Spin-orbit coefficients can be extracted from the beating patterns of Shubnikov--de Haas oscillations (SdH), for material like InSb it is hard to use this method due to the existence of large electron Lande g-facture. Therefore it is essential to use a low field magnetotransport technique such as weak antilocalization to extract spin-orbit parameters for InSb. The main focus of this thesis is to experimentally determine the spin-orbit parameters for both symmetrically and asymmetrically doped InSb/InxAl 1-xSb heterostructures. During this study attempts have been made to tune the Rashba spin-orbit coupling coefficient by using a back gate to change the carrier density of the samples. Dominant phase breaking mechanisms for InSb/InxAl1-xSb heterostructures have been identified by analyzing the temperature dependence of the phase breaking field from weak antilocalization measurements. Finally the strong spin-orbit effects on InSb/InxAl1-xSb heterostructures have been demonstrated with ballistic spin focusing devices.
Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Worasak Prarokijjak; Bumned Soodchomshom
2015-01-01
Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (}/2), where N={1, 2, 3, . . .}. It is said that for N>1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers.
Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prarokijjak Worasak; Soodchomshom Bumned
2015-01-01
Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (ħ/2), where N = {1, 2, 3,…}. It is said that for N > 1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers. (paper)
Wu, Yang; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-10-01
The efficient generation of pure spin currents and manipulation of the magnetization dynamics of magnetic structures is of central importance in the field of spintronics. The spin-orbit effect is one of the promising ways to generate spin currents, in which a charge current can be converted to a transverse spin current due to the spin-orbit interaction. We investigate the spin dynamics in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling materials such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide heterostructures. Angle dependent magnetoresistance measurements are employed to detect and understand the current-induced spin-orbit torques, and an effective field of 2.35 T is observed for a dc-current of 200 uA. In order to understand the interaction between light and spin currents, we use a femtosecond laser to excite an ultrafast transient spin current and subsequent terahertz (THz) emission in nonmagnet (NM)/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide heterostructures. The THz emission strongly relies on spin-orbit interaction, and is tailored by the magnitude and sign of the effective spin Hall angle of the NM. Our results can be utilized for ultrafast spintronic devices and tunable THz sources.
Yang, Shi-Peng; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Yong-Long
2017-04-01
A theoretical study has been carried out on the spin-dependent electron transport in a hybrid magnetic-electric barrier nanostructure with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic strip and a Schottky metal strip on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. The spin-orbit coupling-dependent transmission coefficient, conductance, and spin polarization are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation exactly with the help of the transfer-matrix method. We find that both the magnitude and sign of the electron spin polarization vary strongly with the spin-orbit coupling strength. Thus, the degree of electron spin polarization can be manipulated by properly adjusting the spin-orbit coupling strength, and such a nanosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics applications.
Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Symon, K.R.
1997-09-12
In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.
Spin-orbit induced electronic spin separation in semiconductor nanostructures.
Kohda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shuji; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Taiki; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-01-01
The demonstration of quantized spin splitting by Stern and Gerlach is one of the most important experiments in modern physics. Their discovery was the precursor of recent developments in spin-based technologies. Although electrical spin separation of charged particles is fundamental in spintronics, in non-uniform magnetic fields it has been difficult to separate the spin states of charged particles due to the Lorentz force, as well as to the insufficient and uncontrollable field gradients. Here we demonstrate electronic spin separation in a semiconductor nanostructure. To avoid the Lorentz force, which is inevitably induced when an external magnetic field is applied, we utilized the effective non-uniform magnetic field which originates from the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in an InGaAs-based heterostructure. Using a Stern-Gerlach-inspired mechanism, together with a quantum point contact, we obtained field gradients of 10(8) T m(-1) resulting in a highly polarized spin current.
Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deriglazov, Alexei A., E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey M., E-mail: pupasov.maksimov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2016-10-10
In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Berman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.
Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
Cheng, Yingchun
2013-06-01
The Rashba effect in quasi two-dimensional materials, such as noble metal surfaces and semiconductor heterostructures, has been investigated extensively, while interest in real two-dimensional systems has just emerged with the discovery of graphene. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te). In contrast to the non-polar systems with X = Y, in the polar systems with X ≠ Y the Rashba splitting at the Γ-point for the uppermost valence band is caused by the broken mirror symmetry. An enhancement of the splitting can be achieved by increasing the spin-orbit coupling and/or the potential gradient. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.
Long-time correlation for the chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu; Irie, Haruyuki.
1987-03-01
The time correlation function of velocity is found to decay with the power law for the orbit governed by a Hamiltonian, H = v 2 /2-M cos x - P cos[k(x - t)]. The renormalization group technique can predict the power of decay for the correlation function defined by the ensemble average. The power spectrum becomes the 1/f-type for a special case. (author)
High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration
Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M.
2016-07-01
In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations.
A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Guo-cheng; Zhang, Sheng
2011-01-01
In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.
A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Guo-cheng, E-mail: wuguocheng2002@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Numerical Simulation of Sichuan Province, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: zhshaeng@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2011-10-03
In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.
Magnetoconductance correction in zinc-blende semiconductor nanowires with spin-orbit coupling
Kammermeier, Michael; Wenk, Paul; Schliemann, John; Heedt, Sebastian; Gerster, Thomas; Schäpers, Thomas
2017-12-01
We study the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the magnetoconductivity in diffusive cylindrical semiconductor nanowires. Following up on our former study on tubular semiconductor nanowires, we focus in this paper on nanowire systems where no surface accumulation layer is formed but instead the electron wave function extends over the entire cross section. We take into account the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling resulting from a zinc-blende lattice and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is controlled by a lateral gate electrode. The spin relaxation rate due to Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is found to depend neither on the spin density component nor on the wire growth direction and is unaffected by the radial boundary. In contrast, the Rashba spin relaxation rate is strongly reduced for a wire radius that is smaller than the spin precession length. The derived model is fitted to the data of magnetoconductance measurements of a heavily doped back-gated InAs nanowire and transport parameters are extracted. At last, we compare our results to previous theoretical and experimental studies and discuss the occurring discrepancies.
Generalized spin-wave theory: Application to the bilinear-biquadratic model
Muniz, Rodrigo A.; Kato, Yasuyuki; Batista, Cristian D.
2014-08-01
We present a mathematical framework for the multi-boson approach that has been used several times for treating spin systems. We demonstrate that the multi-boson approach corresponds to a generalization of the traditional spin-wave theory from SU(2) to SU(N), where N is the number of states of the local degree of freedom. Low-energy excitations are waves of the local order parameter that fluctuates in the SU(N) space of unitary transformations of the local spin states, instead of the SU(2) space of local spin rotations. Since the generators of the SU(N) group can be represented as bilinear forms in N-flavored bosons, the low-energy modes of the generalized spin-wave theory (GSWT) are described with N-1 different bosons, which provide a more accurate description of low-energy excitations even for the usual ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. The generalization enables the treatment of quantum spin systems whose ground states exhibit multipolar ordering as well as the detection of instabilities of magnetically ordered states (dipolar ordering) towards higher multipolar orderings. We illustrate the advantages of the GSWT by applying it to a bilinear-biquadratic model of arbitrary spin S on hypercubic lattices, and then analyzing the spectrum of dipolar phases in order to find their instabilities. In contrast to the known results for S=1 when the biquadratic term in the Hamiltonian is negative, we find that there is no nematic phase between the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic orderings for S>1.
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng
2016-11-18
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Implanting Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling at Magnetoelectric Interfaces
2017-12-19
drawback is that including both spin and orbital is computationally more expensive than the conventional method and consume significantly longer time...superlattices in Fig. 6. Right: The remnant magnetization anisotropy between the in- plane and out-of- plane directions for the 1/1-SL, which is...canted antiferromagnet. The out-of- plane canting of the spin-orbit moments is significantly enhanced (Fig. 10) compared with the nonpolar structure
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský , Luká š; Kucková , Lenka; Malček, Michal; Koží šek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Arion, Vladimir B.
2014-01-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský, Lukáš
2014-06-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spin interferometry in anisotropic spin-orbit fields
Saarikoski, Henri; Reynoso, Andres A.; Baltanás, José Pablo; Frustaglia, Diego; Nitta, Junsaku
2018-03-01
Electron spins in a two-dimensional electron gas can be manipulated by spin-orbit (SO) fields originating from either Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions with independent isotropic characteristics. Together, though, they produce anisotropic SO fields with consequences on quantum transport through spin interference. Here we study the transport properties of modeled mesoscopic rings subject to Rashba and Dresselhaus [001] SO couplings in the presence of an additional in-plane Zeeman field acting as a probe. By means of one- and two-dimensional quantum transport simulations we show that this setting presents anisotropies in the quantum resistance as a function of the Zeeman field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic resistance can be tuned by the Rashba strength up to the point to invert its response to the Zeeman field. We also find that a topological transition in the field texture that is associated with a geometric phase switching is imprinted in the anisotropy pattern. We conclude that resistance anisotropy measurements can reveal signatures of SO textures and geometric phases in spin carriers.
Hugdal, Henning G.; Sudbø, Asle
2018-01-01
We study the superconducting order in a two-dimensional square lattice Hubbard model with weak repulsive interactions, subject to a Zeeman field and weak Rashba spin-orbit interactions. Diagonalizing the noninteracting Hamiltonian leads to two separate bands, and by deriving an effective low-energy interaction we find the mean field gap equations for the superconducting order parameter on the bands. Solving the gap equations just below the critical temperature, we find that superconductivity is caused by Kohn-Luttinger-type interaction, while the pairing symmetry of the bands is indirectly affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The dominating attractive momentum channel of the Kohn-Luttinger term depends on the filling fraction n of the system, and it is therefore possible to change the momentum dependence of the order parameter by tuning n . Moreover, n also determines which band has the highest critical temperature. Rotating the magnetic field changes the momentum dependence from states that for small momenta reduce to a chiral px±i py type state for out-of-plane fields, to a nodal p -wave-type state for purely in-plane fields.
Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei A. Deriglazov
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.
Okuma, Nobuyuki
2017-09-01
We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z -axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U (1 ) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q =-2 , while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q =+1 . A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q =+1 , is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.
Okuma, Nobuyuki
2017-09-08
We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z-axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U(1) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q=-2, while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q=+1. A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q=+1, is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.
Chen, Xi; Jiang, Ruan-Lei; Li, Jing; Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.
2018-01-01
We investigate fast transport and spin manipulation of tunable spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a moving harmonic trap. Motivated by the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity, we design inversely the time-dependent trap position and spin-orbit-coupling strength. By choosing appropriate boundary conditions we obtain fast transport and spin flip simultaneously. The nonadiabatic transport and relevant spin dynamics are illustrated with numerical examples and compared with the adiabatic transport with constant spin-orbit-coupling strength and velocity. Moreover, the influence of nonlinearity induced by interatomic interaction is discussed in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii approach, showing the robustness of the proposed protocols. With the state-of-the-art experiments, such an inverse engineering technique paves the way for coherent control of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps.
The Zeeman-split superconductivity with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Zhao, Jingxiang; Yan, Xu; Gu, Qiang
2017-10-01
The superconductivity with Rashba and Dressehlaus spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman effect is investigated. The energy gaps of quasi-particles are carefully calculated. It is shown that the coexistence of two spin-orbit coupling might suppress superconductivity. Moreover, the Zeeman effect favors spin-triplet Cooper pairs.
Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diniz, Ginetom S.; Ulloa, Sergio E.
2014-01-01
We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.
Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Ulloa, Sergio E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States)
2014-07-14
We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.
Hamiltonian formalism for perfect fluids in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demaret, J.; Moncrief, V.
1980-01-01
Schutz's Hamiltonian theory of a relativistic perfect fluid, based on the velocity-potential version of classical perfect fluid hydrodynamics as formulated by Seliger and Whitham, is used to derive, in the framework of the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) method, a general partially reduced Hamiltonian for relativistic systems filled with a perfect fluid. The time coordinate is chosen, as in Lund's treatment of collapsing balls of dust, as minus the only velocity potential different from zero in the case of an irrotational and isentropic fluid. A ''semi-Dirac'' method can be applied to quantize astrophysical and cosmological models in the framework of this partially reduced formalism. If one chooses Taub's adapted comoving coordinate system, it is possible to derive a fully reduced ADM Hamiltonian, which is equal to minus the total baryon number of the fluid, generalizing a result previously obtained by Moncrief in the more particular framework of Taub's variational principle, valid for self-gravitating barotropic relativistic perfect fluids. An unconstrained Hamiltonian density is then explicitly derived for a fluid obeying the equation of state p=(gamma-1)rho (1 < or = γ < or = 2), which can adequately describe the phases of very high density attained in a catastrophic collapse or during the early stages of the Universe. This Hamiltonian density, shown to be equivalent to Moncrief's in the particular case of an isentropic fluid, can be simplified for fluid-filled class-A diagonal Bianchi-type cosmological models and appears as a suitable starting point for the study of the canonical quantization of these models
Lee, Timothy J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
A new spin orbital basis is employed in the development of efficient open-shell coupled-cluster and perturbation theories that are based on a restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) reference function. The spin orbital basis differs from the standard one in the spin functions that are associated with the singly occupied spatial orbital. The occupied orbital (in the spin orbital basis) is assigned the delta(+) = 1/square root of 2(alpha+Beta) spin function while the unoccupied orbital is assigned the delta(-) = 1/square root of 2(alpha-Beta) spin function. The doubly occupied and unoccupied orbitals (in the reference function) are assigned the standard alpha and Beta spin functions. The coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions based on this set of "symmetric spin orbitals" exhibit much more symmetry than those based on the standard spin orbital basis. This, together with interacting space arguments, leads to a dramatic reduction in the computational cost for both coupled-cluster and perturbation theory. Additionally, perturbation theory based on "symmetric spin orbitals" obeys Brillouin's theorem provided that spin and spatial excitations are both considered. Other properties of the coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions and models will be discussed.
Quasi-superconformal algebras in two dimensions and hamiltonian reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romans, L.J.
1991-01-01
In the standard quantum hamiltonian reduction, constraining the SL(3, R) WZNW model leads to a model of Zamolodchikov's W 3 -symmetry. In recent work, Polyakov and Bershadsky have considered an alternative reduction which leads to a new algebra, W 3 2 , a nonlinear extension of the Virasoro algebra by a spin-1 current and two bosonic spin-3/2 currents. Motivated by this result, we display two new infinite series of nonlinear extended conformal algebras, containing 2N bosonic spin-3/2 currents and spin-1 Kac-Moody currents for either U(N) or Sp(2 N); the W 3 2 algebra appears as the N = 1 member of the U(N) series. We discuss the relationship between these algebras and the Knizhnik-Bershadsky superconformal algebras, and provide realisations in terms of free fields coupled to Kac-Moody currents. We propose a specific procedure for obtaining the algebras for general N through hamiltonian reduction. (orig.)
Spin-orbit effects in carbon-nanotube double quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weiss, S; Rashba, E I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand
2010-01-01
We study the energy spectrum of symmetric double quantum dots in narrow-gap carbon nanotubes with one and two electrostatically confined electrons in the presence of spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions. Compared to GaAs quantum dots, the spectrum exhibits a much richer structure because of the spin...... between the dots. For the two-electron regime, the detailed structure of the spin-orbit split energy spectrum is investigated as a function of detuning between the quantum dots in a 22-dimensional Hilbert space within the framework of a single-longitudinal-mode model. We find a competing effect......-orbit interaction that couples the electron's isospin to its real spin through two independent coupling constants. In a single dot, both constants combine to split the spectrum into two Kramers doublets while the antisymmetric constant solely controls the difference in the tunneling rates of the Kramers doublets...
Breakdown of Spin-Waves in Anisotropic Magnets: Spin Dynamics in α-RuCl3
Winter, Stephen; Riedl, Kira; Honecker, Andreas; Valenti, Roser
α -RuCl3 has recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing the hexagonal Kitaev model in a real material. Similar to the related iridates (e.g. Na2IrO3), complex magnetic interactions arise from a competition between various similar energy scales, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Hund's coupling, and crystal-field splitting. Due to this complexity, the correct spin Hamiltonians for such systems remain hotly debated. For α-RuCl3, a combination of ab-initio calculations, microscopic considerations, and analysis of the static magnetic response have suggested off-diagonal couplings (Γ ,Γ') and long-range interactions in addition to the expected Kitaev exchange. However, the effect of such additional terms on the dynamic response remains unclear. In this contribution, we discuss the recently measured inelastic neutron scattering response in the context of realistic proposals for the microscopic spin Hamiltonian. We conclude that the observed scattering continuum, which has been taken as a signature of Kitaev spin liquid physics, likely persists over a broad range of parameters.
Spin flip in single quantum ring with Rashba spin–orbit interation
Liu, Duan-Yang; Xia, Jian-Bai
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate spin transport in the elliptical ring and the circular ring with Rashba spin–orbit interaction. It is shown that when Rashba spin–orbit interaction is relatively weak, a single circular ring can not realize spin flip, however an elliptical ring may work as a spin-inverter at this time, and the influence of the defect of the geometry is not obvious. Howerver if a giant Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength has been obtained, a circular ring can work as a spin-inverter with a high stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504016).
Generalized internal long wave equations: construction, hamiltonian structure and conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, D.R.
1982-01-01
Some aspects of the theory of the internal long-wave equations (ILW) are considered. A general class of the ILW type equations is constructed by means of the Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method. Hamiltonian structure and infinite numbers of conservation laws are introduced. The considered equations are shown to be Hamiltonian in the so-called second Hamiltonian structu
Luengo-Kovac, M.; Moraes, F. C. D.; Ferreira, G. J.; Ribeiro, A. S. L.; Gusev, G. M.; Bakarov, A. K.; Sih, V.; Hernandez, F. G. G.
2017-06-01
Spin drag measurements were performed in a two-dimensional electron system set close to the crossed spin helix regime and coupled by strong intersubband scattering. In a sample with an uncommon combination of long spin lifetime and high charge mobility, the drift transport allows us to determine the spin-orbit field and the spin mobility anisotropies. We used a random walk model to describe the system dynamics and found excellent agreement for the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The proposed two-subband system displays a large tuning lever arm for the Rashba constant with gate voltage, which provides a new path towards a spin transistor. Furthermore, the data show large spin mobility controlled by the spin-orbit constants setting the field along the direction perpendicular to the drift velocity. This work directly reveals the resistance experienced in the transport of a spin-polarized packet as a function of the strength of anisotropic spin-orbit fields.
Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.
1991-01-01
The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...
Nuclear spin-orbit splitting from an intermediate Δ excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, K.; Terasawa, T.; Tohyama, M.
1980-01-01
The strength of the single particle spin-orbit potential is calculated from the two pion exchange box diagrams involving an intermediate Δ(1232) resonance excitation by taking account of the exclusion principle for the intermediate nucleon states. The effect of the rho meson is also considered. The predicted strength is found to account for a substantial part of the empirical spin-orbit splittings
Gali, Adam; Thiering, Gergő
Dopants in solids are promising candidates for implementations of quantum bits for quantum computing. In particular, the high-spin negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect (NV) in diamond has become a leading contender in solid-state quantum information processing. The initialization and readout of the spin is based on the spin-selective decay of the photo-excited electron to the ground state which is mediated by spin-orbit coupling between excited states states and phonons. Generally, the spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the optical spinpolarization and readout of NV quantum bit (qubit) and alike. Strong electron-phonon coupling in dynamic Jahn-Teller (DJT) systems can substantially influence the effective strength of spin-orbit coupling. Here we show by ab initio supercell density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is strongly damped by DJT effect in the triplet excited state that has a consequence on the rate of non-radiative decay. This theory is applied to the ground state of silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers in their negatively charged state that can also act like qubits. We show that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in SiV and GeV centers is in the 100 GHz region, in contrast to the NV center of 10 GHz region. Our results provide deep insight in the nature of SiV and GeV qubits in diamond. EU FP7 DIADEMS project (Contract No. 611143).
Review of an emerging research field 'spin-orbit torques'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurebayashi, Hidekazu
2015-01-01
This Review will provide a landscape of the recent development of one of spintronics sub-fields, so-called 'spin orbit torques'. This new class of spin torques, arising from the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solid states, has gained a great deal of academic interest from relevant scientists and technologists. (author)
Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque
Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter
2018-05-01
While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.
Quantum simulator for spin-orbital magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buehler, Adam
2016-01-01
In this dissertation we focus on many-body phenomena on a quantum level. In particular fermionic quantum gases in a temperature regime approaching absolute zero. Ultracold quantum gases have proven to be a versatile framework for Theorists and Experimentalists to probe many-body quantum mechanics. They also serve to quantum simulate solid state problems in a clean and controllable environment. The use of optical lattices include the advantage of tuning the required lattice structure nearly at will and lack the experimental shortcomings compared to the solid state, like the presence of lattice dislocations. The relevant lattice parameters can be easily tuned without changing the setup. In recent years many goals within theory and experiments of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices were achieved. This emphasizes the significance of ongoing research with ultracold quantum gases on optical lattices. We present two aspects of modern theory of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. On the one hand, we implement orbital physics in a setup of optical lattices and on the other, we find elusive Majorana fermions in a setup with ultracold fermionic gases. Both aspects are well-known in solid state systems, but did not make the step towards ultracold quantum gases so far. We propose and investigate setups to quantum simulate these challenges in the framework of optical lattices. The first part of this work concerns the implementation of orbital physics in optical lattices. The orbital structure of atoms reveals novel phenomena in solid state systems. This raises the interest in creating optical lattice systems exhibiting analog behavior, as dictated by the orbitals in the solid state. We derive the microscopic Hamiltonian for a p-orbital system and investigate it in detail. For this Hamiltonian we perform a mean-field treatment and discover novel phase transitions including a possible tricritical point. In the analysis of the strong coupling regime we find an
Quantum computing with acceptor spins in silicon.
Salfi, Joe; Tong, Mengyang; Rogge, Sven; Culcer, Dimitrie
2016-06-17
The states of a boron acceptor near a Si/SiO2 interface, which bind two low-energy Kramers pairs, have exceptional properties for encoding quantum information and, with the aid of strain, both heavy hole and light hole-based spin qubits can be designed. Whereas a light-hole spin qubit was introduced recently (arXiv:1508.04259), here we present analytical and numerical results proving that a heavy-hole spin qubit can be reliably initialised, rotated and entangled by electrical means alone. This is due to strong Rashba-like spin-orbit interaction terms enabled by the interface inversion asymmetry. Single qubit rotations rely on electric-dipole spin resonance (EDSR), which is strongly enhanced by interface-induced spin-orbit terms. Entanglement can be accomplished by Coulomb exchange, coupling to a resonator, or spin-orbit induced dipole-dipole interactions. By analysing the qubit sensitivity to charge noise, we demonstrate that interface-induced spin-orbit terms are responsible for sweet spots in the dephasing time [Formula: see text] as a function of the top gate electric field, which are close to maxima in the EDSR strength, where the EDSR gate has high fidelity. We show that both qubits can be described using the same starting Hamiltonian, and by comparing their properties we show that the complex interplay of bulk and interface-induced spin-orbit terms allows a high degree of electrical control and makes acceptors potential candidates for scalable quantum computation in Si.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocharian, Armen N. [Department of Physics, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Palandage, Kalum [Department of Physics, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States); Balatsky, Alexander V. [AlbaNova University Center Nordita, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-05-15
Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen N. Kocharian
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Nonlinear spin current generation in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems
Hamamoto, Keita; Ezawa, Motohiko; Kim, Kun Woo; Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-06-01
Spin current plays a central role in spintronics. In particular, finding more efficient ways to generate spin current has been an important issue and has been studied actively. For example, representative methods of spin-current generation include spin-polarized current injections from ferromagnetic metals, the spin Hall effect, and the spin battery. Here, we theoretically propose a mechanism of spin-current generation based on nonlinear phenomena. By using Boltzmann transport theory, we show that a simple application of the electric field E induces spin current proportional to E2 in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems. We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin current of the proposed mechanism is supported in the surface state of three-dimensional topological insulators and two-dimensional semiconductors with the Rashba and/or Dresselhaus interaction. In the latter case, the angular dependence of the nonlinear spin current can be manipulated by the direction of the electric field and by the ratio of the Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. We find that the magnitude of the spin current largely exceeds those in the previous methods for a reasonable magnitude of the electric field. Furthermore, we show that application of ac electric fields (e.g., terahertz light) leads to the rectifying effect of the spin current, where dc spin current is generated. These findings will pave a route to manipulate the spin current in noncentrosymmetric crystals.
Global Melnikov Theory in Hamiltonian Systems with General Time-Dependent Perturbations
Gidea, Marian; de la Llave, Rafael
2018-04-01
We consider a mechanical system consisting of n-penduli and a d-degree-of-freedom rotator. The phase space of the rotator defines a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold Λ _0 . We apply a time-dependent perturbation, which is not assumed to be either Hamiltonian, or periodic, or quasi-periodic, as we allow for rather general time dependence. The strength of the perturbation is given by a parameter ɛ \\in R . For all |ɛ | sufficiently small, the augmented flow—obtained by making the time into a new variable—has a normally hyperbolic locally invariant manifold \\tilde{Λ }_ɛ . For ɛ =0 , \\tilde{Λ }_0=Λ _0× R . We define a Melnikov-type vector, which gives the first-order expansion of the displacement of the stable and unstable manifolds of \\tilde{Λ }_0 under the perturbation. We provide an explicit formula for the Melnikov vector in terms of convergent improper integrals of the perturbation along homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed system. We show that if the perturbation satisfies some explicit non-degeneracy conditions, then the stable and unstable manifolds of \\tilde{Λ }_ɛ , W^s(\\tilde{Λ }_ɛ ) and W^u(\\tilde{Λ }_ɛ ) , respectively, intersect along a transverse homoclinic manifold, and, moreover, the splitting of W^s(\\tilde{Λ }_ɛ ) and W^u(\\tilde{Λ }_ɛ ) can be explicitly computed, up to the first order, in terms of the Melnikov-type vector. This implies that the excursions along some homoclinic trajectories yield a non-trivial increase of order O(ɛ ) in the action variables of the rotator, for all sufficiently small perturbations. The formulas that we obtain are independent of the unperturbed motions in Λ _0 , and give, at the same time, the effects on periodic, quasi-periodic, or general-type orbits. When the perturbation is Hamiltonian, we express the effects of the perturbation, up to the first order, in terms of a Melnikov potential. In addition, if the perturbation is periodic, we obtain that the non-degeneracy conditions on
Isoyama, Soichiro; Barack, Leor; Dolan, Sam R; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shah, Abhay G; Tanaka, Takahiro; Warburton, Niels
2014-10-17
For a self-gravitating particle of mass μ in orbit around a Kerr black hole of mass M ≫ μ, we compute the O(μ/M) shift in the frequency of the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit due to the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force acting on the particle. Our treatment is based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in terms of geodesic motion in a certain locally defined effective smooth spacetime. We recover the same result using the so-called first law of binary black-hole mechanics. We give numerical results for the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit frequency shift as a function of the black hole's spin amplitude, and compare with predictions based on the post-Newtonian approximation and the effective one-body model. Our results provide an accurate strong-field benchmark for spin effects in the general-relativistic two-body problem.
The Closed-Orbit Theory for General Rydberg Atoms in External Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carboni, R.
1997-01-01
The photoabsorption spectra of hydrogen Rydberg atoms, as well of model Rydberg atoms in pure magnetic or electric fields have been successfully calculated using the semiclassical closed-orbit theory. The theory relates the resonances of the spectra to closed classical orbits of the excited electron. The dynamics of multielectron atoms is more complicated than the hydrogenic one; additionally, when the atoms are in the presence of perpendicular magnetic and electric fields becomes more complex than when they are in pure fields, due to the fact that the Hamiltonian is non-separable in three degrees of freedom, instead of two non-separable degrees of freedom. In this work, I present an extension of the closed-orbit theory to three degrees of freedom, considering arbitrary quantum defects, i.e., general atoms. (Author) [es
General formalism of Hamiltonians for realizing a prescribed evolution of a qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, D.M.; Chen, J.-L.; Lai, C.H.; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.
2003-01-01
We investigate the inverse problem concerning the evolution of a qubit system, specifically we consider how one can establish the Hamiltonians that account for the evolution of a qubit along a prescribed path in the projected Hilbert space. For a given path, there are infinite Hamiltonians which can realize the same evolution. A general form of the Hamiltonians is constructed in which one may select the desired one for implementing a prescribed evolution. This scheme can be generalized to higher dimensional systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)
2014-09-08
Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.
2014-01-01
Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.
Self-adjoint Hamiltonians with a mass jump: General matching conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadella, M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.
2007-01-01
The simplest position-dependent mass Hamiltonian in one dimension, where the mass has the form of a step function with a jump discontinuity at one point, is considered. The most general matching conditions at the jumping point for the solutions of the Schroedinger equation that provide a self-adjoint Hamiltonian are characterized
DISCERNING EXOPLANET MIGRATION MODELS USING SPIN-ORBIT MEASUREMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morton, Timothy D.; Johnson, John Asher
2011-01-01
We investigate the current sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. We use the predictions of Kozai migration plus tidal friction and planet-planet scattering as our misalignment models, and we allow for a fraction of intrinsically aligned systems, explainable by disk migration. Bayesian model comparison demonstrates that the current sample of 32 spin-orbit measurements strongly favors a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. Our analysis indicates that between 34% and 76% of close-in planets (95% confidence) migrated via planet-planet scattering. Separately analyzing the subsample of 12 stars with T eff >6250 K-which Winn et al. predict to be the only type of stars to maintain their primordial misalignments-we find that the data favor a single-mode scattering model over Kozai with 85% confidence. We also assess the number of additional hot star spin-orbit measurements that will likely be necessary to provide a more confident model selection, finding that an additional 20-30 measurement has a >50% chance of resulting in a 95% confident model selection, if the current model selection is correct. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, our methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism.
Flying spin-qubit gates implemented through Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, S.J.; Yang, Z.Q.
2007-01-01
A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement flying spin-qubit gates based on two semiconductor wires with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), respectively. It is found that under the manipulation of the Dresselhaus/Rashba SOC, spin rotates around x/y axis in the three-dimensional spin space. By combining the two kinds of manipulations, i.e. connecting the two kinds of semiconductor wires in series, we obtain a universal set of losses flying single-qubit gates including Hadamard, phase, and π/8 gates. A ballistic switching effect of electronic flow is also found in the investigation. Our results may be useful in future spin or nanoscale electronics
Extraction of Spin-Orbit Interactions from Phase Shifts via Inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lun, D.R.; Buckman, S.J.
1997-01-01
An exact inversion procedure for obtaining the central and spin-orbit potential from phase shifts at fixed energy is described. The method, based on Sabatier interpolation formulas, reduces the nonlinear problem to linear-algebraic equations. We have tested the method with a Woods-Saxon potential with a strong spin-orbit component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Spin injection into Pt-polymers with large spin-orbit coupling
Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Siegel, Gene; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Vardeny, Z. Valy
2014-03-01
Organic spintronics has entered a new era of devices that integrate organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) in organic spin valve (OSV) geometry (dubbed bipolar organic spin valve, or spin-OLED), for actively manipulating the device electroluminescence via the spin alignment of two ferromagnetic electrodes (Science 337, 204-209, 2012; Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 042411, 2013). Organic semiconductors that contain heavy metal elements have been widely used as phosphorescent dopants in white-OLEDs. However such active materials are detrimental for OSV operation due to their large spin-orbit coupling (SOC) that may limit the spin diffusion length and thus spin-OLED based on organics with large SOC is a challenge. We report the successful fabrication of OSVs based on pi-conjugated polymers which contain intrachain Platinum atoms (dubbed Pt-polymers). Spin injection into the Pt-polymers is investigated by the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect as a function of bias voltage, temperature and polymer layer thickness. From the GMR bias voltage dependence we infer that the ``impendence mismatch'' between ferromagnetic electrodes and Pt-polymer may be suppressed due to the large SOC. Research sponsored by the NSF (Grant No. DMR-1104495) and NSF-MRSEC (DMR 1121252) at the University of Utah.
Universal relations for spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas near an s -wave resonance
Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Ning
2018-04-01
Synthetic spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases have been widely studied both experimentally and theoretically in the past decade. As shown in previous studies, this modification of single-body dispersion will in general couple different partial waves of the two-body scattering and thus distort the wave function of few-body bound states which determines the short-distance behavior of many-body wave function. In this work, we focus on the two-component Fermi gas with one-dimensional or three-dimensional spin-orbit coupling (SOC) near an s -wave resonance. Using the method of effective field theory and the operator product expansion, we derive universal relations for both systems, including the adiabatic theorem, viral theorem, and pressure relation, and obtain the momentum distribution matrix 〈ψa†(q ) ψb(q ) 〉 at large q (a ,b are spin indices). The momentum distribution matrix shows both spin-dependent and spatial anisotropic features. And the large momentum tail is modified at the subleading order thanks to the SOC. We also discuss the experimental implication of these results depending on the realization of the SOC.
The effect of spin-orbit coupling on magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic organic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jun-Qing; Ding Meng; Zhang Tian-You; Zhang Ning-Yu; Pang Yan-Tao; Ji Yan-Ju; Chen Ying; Wang Feng-Xiang; Fu Gang
2012-01-01
We investigated the effect of spin-orbit coupling on magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic organic semiconductors. A Lorentz-type magnetoresistance is obtained from spin-orbit coupling-dependent spin precession under the condition of a space-charge-limited current. The magnetoresistance depends on the initial spin orientation of the electron with respect to the hole in electron—hole pairs, and the increasing spin-orbit coupling slows down the change in magnetoresistance with magnetic field. The field dependence, the sign and the saturation value of the magnetoresistance are composite effects of recombination and dissociation rate constants of singlet and triplet electron—hole pairs. The simulated magnetoresistance shows good consistency with the experimental results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Topological phases in superconductor-noncollinear magnet interfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menke, H.; Schnyder, A.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Toews, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2016-07-01
Majorana fermions are predicted to emerge at interfaces between conventional s-wave superconductors and non-collinear magnets. In these heterostructures, the spin moments of the non-collinear magnet induce a low-energy band of Shiba bound states in the superconductor. Depending on the type of order of the magnet, the band structure of these bound states can be topologically nontrivial. Thus far, research has focused on systems where the influence of spin-orbit coupling can be neglected. Here, we explore the interplay between non-collinear (or non-coplanar) spin textures and Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. This situation is realized, for example, in heterostructures between helical magnets and heavy elemental superconductors, such as Pb. Using a unitary transformation in spin space, we show that the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling are equivalent to the effects of the non-collinear spin texture of the helical magnet. We explore the topological phase diagram as a function of spin-orbit coupling, spin texture, and chemical potential, and find many interesting topological phases, such as p{sub x}-, (p{sub x} + p{sub y})-, and (p{sub x} + i p{sub y})-wave states. Conditions for the formation and the nature of Majorana edge channels are examined. Furthermore, we study the topological edge currents of these phases.
Stability of orbits around a spinning body in a pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steklain, A.F.; Letelier, P.S.
2009-01-01
A pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem based on a potential proposed by Artemova et al. [I.A. Artemova, G. Bjoernsson, I.D. Novikov, Astrophys. J. 461 (1996) 565] is presented. This potential reproduces some of the general relativistic effects due to the spin angular momentum of the bodies, like the dragging of inertial frames. Poincare maps, Lyapunov exponents and fractal escape techniques are employed to study the stability of bounded and unbounded orbits for different spins of the central body
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-10-26
A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.
The BANANA Survey: Spin-Orbit Alignment in Binary Stars
Albrecht, Simon; Winn, J. N.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Torres, G.; Setiawan, J.
2012-04-01
Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Herculis system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on our ongoing survey to measure relative orientations of spin-axes in a number of eclipsing binary systems. These observations will hopefully lead to new insights into star and planet formation, as different formation scenarios predict different degrees of alignment and different dependencies on the system parameters. Measurements of spin-orbit angles in close binary systems will also create a basis for comparison for similar measurements involving close-in planets.
Homotopical Dynamics IV: Hopf invariants and hamiltonian flows
Cornea, Octavian
2001-01-01
In a non-compact context the first natural step in the search for periodic orbits of a hamiltonian flow is to detect bounded ones. In this paper we show that, in a non-compact setting, certain algebraic topological constraints imposed to a gradient flow of the hamiltonian function $f$ imply the existence of bounded orbits for the hamiltonian flow of $f$. Once the existence of bounded orbits is established, under favorable circumstances, application of the $C^{1}$-closing lemma leads to period...
Effect of deformation and orientation on spin orbit density dependent nuclear potential
Mittal, Rajni; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.
2017-11-01
Role of deformation and orientation is investigated on spin-orbit density dependent part VJ of nuclear potential (VN=VP+VJ) obtained within semi-classical Thomas Fermi approach of Skyrme energy density formalism. Calculations are performed for 24-54Si+30Si reactions, with spherical target 30Si and projectiles 24-54Si having prolate and oblate shapes. The quadrupole deformation β2 is varying within range of 0.023 ≤ β2 ≤0.531 for prolate and -0.242 ≤ β2 ≤ -0.592 for oblate projectiles. The spin-orbit dependent potential gets influenced significantly with inclusion of deformation and orientation effect. The spin-orbit barrier and position gets significantly influenced by both the sign and magnitude of β2-deformation. Si-nuclei with β220. The possible role of spin-orbit potential on barrier characteristics such as barrier height, barrier curvature and on the fusion pocket is also probed. In reference to prolate and oblate systems, the angular dependence of spin-orbit potential is further studied on fusion cross-sections.
Energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Malian, M.
2011-01-01
We have studied simultaneous effects of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and external electric and magnetic fields on the subbands energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots. It is shown that energy eigenvalues strongly depend on the combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields and spin-orbit interaction strength. The more the spin-orbit interaction strength increase, the more the energy eigenvalues increase. Also, we found that the electron g-factor sensitively differers from the bulk value due to the confinement effects. Furthermore, external fields and spin-orbit interaction have a great influence on this important quantity. -- Highlights: → Energy of spherical quantum dots depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields. → Spin-orbit interaction shifts the energy levels. → Electron g-factor differs from the bulk value in spherical quantum dots due to the confinement effects. → Electron g-factor strongly depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soderlind, P
2008-01-01
The electronic structure of plutonium is studied within the density-functional theory (DFT) model. Key features of the electronic structure are correctly modeled and bonding, total energy, and electron density of states are all consistent with measure data, although the prediction of magnetism is not consistent with many observations. Here we analyze the contributions to the electronic structure arising from spin polarization, orbital polarization, and spin-orbit interaction. These effects give rise to spin and orbital moments that are of nearly equal magnitude, but anti-parallel, suggesting a magnetic-moment cancellation with a zero total moment. Quantifying the spin versus orbital effects on the bonding, total energy, and electron spectra it becomes clear that the spin polarization is much less important than the orbital correlations. Consequently, a restricted DFT approach with a non-spin polarized electronic structure can produce reasonable equation-of-state and electron spectra for (delta)-Pu when the orbital effects are accounted for. Hence, we present two non-magnetic models. One in which the spin moment is canceled by the orbital moment and another in which the spin moment (and therefore the orbital moment) is restricted to zero
Spin Interference in Rectangle Loop Based on Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia-Ting, Ni; Bin, Chen; Xiao-Wan, Liang; Koga, T.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the amplitude and spin polarization of AAS oscillation changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI. The amplitude and spin polarization of AB oscillation changing with Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI are demonstrated as well. The ideal quasi-one-dimensional square loop does not exist in reality, therefore to match the experiment better we should consider the shape of the rectangle loop in theory
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C
2008-01-01
Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their...... systems, entailing new design principles for the realization of quantum bits (qubits) in nanotubes and providing a mechanism for all-electrical control of spins in nanotubes....
Zhu, Zhiyong
2011-10-14
Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.
Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2011-01-01
Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (magnetized CoFeB layers on beta-Ta. While complete magnetization reversal occurs at a threshold current density in the quasistatic case, pulses with short duration (≤10 ns) and larger amplitude (≃10 times the quasistatic threshold current) lead to only partial magnetization reversal and domain formation. The partial reversal is associated with the limited time for reversed domain expansion during the pulse. The second part of my thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then
Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal
2011-01-01
We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V 1 (r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, σ=ρθ (ρ is the electron concentration, θ is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.
Gauge field theory approach to spin transport in a 2D electron gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Berche
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the Pauli Hamiltonian including the spin-orbit interaction within an U(1×SU(2 gauge theory interpretation, where the gauge symmetry appears to be broken. This interpretation offers new insight into the problem of spin currents in the condensed matter environment, and can be extended to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We present a few outcomes of the present formulation: i it automatically leads to zero spin conductivity, in contrast to predictions of Gauge symmetric treatments, ii a topological quantization condition leading to voltage quantization follows, and iii spin interferometers can be conceived in which, starting from an arbitrary incoming unpolarized spinor, it is always possible to construct a perfect spin filtering condition.
Hamiltonian quantum simulation with bounded-strength controls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bookatz, Adam D; Wocjan, Pawel; Viola, Lorenza
2014-01-01
We propose dynamical control schemes for Hamiltonian simulation in many-body quantum systems that avoid instantaneous control operations and rely solely on realistic bounded-strength control Hamiltonians. Each simulation protocol consists of periodic repetitions of a basic control block, constructed as a modification of an ‘Eulerian decoupling cycle,’ that would otherwise implement a trivial (zero) target Hamiltonian. For an open quantum system coupled to an uncontrollable environment, our approach may be employed to engineer an effective evolution that simulates a target Hamiltonian on the system while suppressing unwanted decoherence to the leading order, thereby allowing for dynamically corrected simulation. We present illustrative applications to both closed- and open-system simulation settings, with emphasis on simulation of non-local (two-body) Hamiltonians using only local (one-body) controls. In particular, we provide simulation schemes applicable to Heisenberg-coupled spin chains exposed to general linear decoherence, and show how to simulate Kitaev's honeycomb lattice Hamiltonian starting from Ising-coupled qubits, as potentially relevant to the dynamical generation of a topologically protected quantum memory. Additional implications for quantum information processing are discussed. (papers)
Quantum Hamiltonian reduction and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadsky, M.
1991-01-01
It is proved that irreducible representation of the Virasoro algebra can be extracted from an irreducible representation space of the SL (2, R) current algebra by putting a constraint on the latter using the BRST formalism. Thus there is a SL(2, R) symmetry in the Virasoro algebra which is gauged and hidden. This construction of the Virasoro algebra is the quantum analog of the Hamiltonian reduction. The author then naturally leads to consider an SL(2, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model. This system is related to the quantum field theory of the coadjoint orbit of the Virasoro group. Based on this result he presents the canonical derivation of the SL(2, R) current algebra in Polyakov's theory of two dimensional gravity; it is manifestation of the SL(2, R) symmetry in the conformal field theory hidden by the quantum Hamiltonian reduction. He discusses the quantum Hamiltonian reduction of the SL(n, R) current algebra for the general type of constraints labeled by index 1 ≤ l ≤ (n - 1) and claim that it leads to the new extended conformal algebras W n l . For l = 1 he recovers the well known W n algebra introduced by A. Zamolodchikov. For SL(3, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model there are two different possibilities of constraining it. The first possibility gives the W 3 algebra, while the second leads to the new chiral algebra W 3 2 generated by the stress-energy tensor, two bosonic supercurrents with spins 3/2 and the U(1) current. He conjectures a Kac formula that describes the highly reducible representation for this algebra. He also makes some speculations concerning the structure of W gravity
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.
2017-12-08
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.
2017-01-01
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Wen, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Hu, Ai-Yuan; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Peng; Xia, Lei; Sun, Qing; Ji, An-Chun
2018-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of bright-bright solitons in one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling, via the variational approximation and the numerical simulation of Gross-Pitaevskii equations. For the uniform system without trapping potential, we obtain two population balanced stationary solitons. By performing the linear stability analysis, we find a Goldstone eigenmode and an oscillation eigenmode around these stationary solitons. Moreover, we derive a general dynamical solution to describe the center-of-mass motion and spin evolution of the solitons under the action of spin-orbit coupling. The effects of a harmonic trap have also been discussed.
Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit
Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai
2016-01-01
A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.
The role of spin-orbit potential in nuclear prolate-shape dominance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahara, Satoshi, E-mail: staka@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Kyorin University, School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Onishi, Naoki [University of Tokyo (Japan); University of Yamanashi (Japan); Shimizu, Yoshifumi R. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tajima, Naoki [Department of Applied Physics, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)
2011-08-26
It is confirmed, in terms of the Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method, that the spin-orbit potential plays a decisive role in the predominance of prolate deformation, which has been a long standing problem in nuclear physics. It is originated from the combined effects of the spin-orbit coupling and the diffused surface of the potential, in agreement with the previous work based on a more schematic Nilsson-Strutinsky method. The degree of prolate-shape dominance exhibits an oscillatory behavior with respect to the strength of spin-orbit potential and, the prolate-shape dominance is realized at the proper strength of the spin-orbit potential together with the standard surface diffuseness; this oscillatory behavior disappears in case of small diffuseness corresponding to ellipsoidal cavity. The calculated energy differences between oblate and prolate minima in this Letter are consistent with those of our extensive self-consistent calculations of the Hartree-Fock + BCS method with the Skyrme interaction.
The role of spin-orbit potential in nuclear prolate-shape dominance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Tajima, Naoki
2011-01-01
It is confirmed, in terms of the Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method, that the spin-orbit potential plays a decisive role in the predominance of prolate deformation, which has been a long standing problem in nuclear physics. It is originated from the combined effects of the spin-orbit coupling and the diffused surface of the potential, in agreement with the previous work based on a more schematic Nilsson-Strutinsky method. The degree of prolate-shape dominance exhibits an oscillatory behavior with respect to the strength of spin-orbit potential and, the prolate-shape dominance is realized at the proper strength of the spin-orbit potential together with the standard surface diffuseness; this oscillatory behavior disappears in case of small diffuseness corresponding to ellipsoidal cavity. The calculated energy differences between oblate and prolate minima in this Letter are consistent with those of our extensive self-consistent calculations of the Hartree-Fock + BCS method with the Skyrme interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-04-25
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; Loubens, G. de; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.
2016-01-01
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek; Faber, Rasmus; Lacerda, Evanildo G; Sauer, Stephan P A
2016-02-05
Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for nonrelativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall's acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts are combined with nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations using the very large polarization-consistent basis sets aug-pcSseg-4 for He, Ne and Ar, aug-pcSseg-3 for Kr, and the AQZP basis set for Xe. For the dimers also, zero-point vibrational (ZPV) corrections are obtained at the CCSD(T) level with the same basis sets were added. Best estimates of the dimer chemical shifts are generated from these nuclear magnetic shieldings and the relative importance of electron correlation, ZPV, and relativistic corrections for the shieldings and chemical shifts is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien
2014-01-01
We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern
Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin
2010-01-01
This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov
Existence of 121 limit cycles in a perturbed planar polynomial Hamiltonian vector field of degree 11
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Yu, P.
2006-01-01
In this article, a systematic procedure has been explored to studying general Z q -equivariant planar polynomial Hamiltonian vector fields for the maximal number of closed orbits and the maximal number of limit cycles after perturbation. Following the procedure by taking special consideration of Z 12 -equivariant vector fields of degree 11, the maximal of 99 closed orbits are obtained under a well-defined coefficient group. Consequently, perturbation parameter control in limit cycle computation leads to the existence of 121 limit cycles in the perturbed Hamiltonian vector field, which gives rise to the lower bound of Hilbert number of 11th-order systems as H(11) ≥ 11 2 . Two conjectures are proposed regarding the maximal number of closed orbits for equivariant polynomial Hamiltonian vector fields and the maximal number of limit cycles bifurcated from the well defined Hamiltonian vector fields after perturbation
Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong
2008-09-15
We demonstrate that single photons from a rotating q-plate exhibit an entanglement in three degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum, and the rotational Doppler shift (RDS) due to the nonconservation of total spin and orbital angular momenta. We find that the rotational Doppler shift deltaomega = Omega((delta)s + deltal) , where s, l and Omega are quantum numbers of spin, orbital angular momentum, and rotating velocity of the q-plate, respectively. Of interest is that the rotational Doppler shift directly reflects the rotational symmetry of q-plates and can be also expressed as deltaomega = (Omega)n , where n = 2(q-1) denotes the fold number of rotational symmetry. Besides, based on this single-photon spin-orbit-RDS entanglement, we propose an experimental scheme to sort photons of different frequency shifts according to individual orbital angular momentum.
On the difference between proton and neutron spin-orbit splittings in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, V.I.; Erokhina, K.I.; Mach, H.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Fogelberg, B.
2002-01-01
The latest experimental data on nuclei at 132 Sn permit us for the first time to determine the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbits in this neutron-rich doubly magic region and compare the case to that of 208 Pb. Using the new results, which are now consistent for the two neutron-rich doubly magic regions, a theoretical analysis defines the isotopic dependence of the mean-field spin-orbit potential and leads to a simple explicit expression for the difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons. The isotopic dependence is explained in the framework of different theoretical approaches. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niţa, Marian; Ostahie, Bogdan; Marinescu, D C; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2012-01-01
When subjected to a linearly polarized terahertz pulse, a mesoscopic ring endowed with spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of the Rashba-Dresselhaus type exhibits non-uniform azimuthal charge and spin distributions. Both types of SOI couplings are considered linear in the electron momentum. Our results are obtained within a formalism based on the equation of motion satisfied by the density operator which is solved numerically for different values of the angle φ, the angle determining the polarization direction of the laser pulse. Solutions thus obtained are later employed in determining the time-dependent charge and spin currents, whose values are calculated in the stationary limit. Both these currents exhibit an oscillatory behavior complicated in the case of the spin current by a beating pattern. We explain this occurrence on account of the two spin-orbit interactions which force the electron spin to oscillate between the two spin quantization axes corresponding to Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. The oscillation frequencies are explained using the single particle spectrum.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang
2016-01-11
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goepfert, A.
1994-01-01
This thesis develops a new model, and related numerical methods, to describe classical time-dependent many-body systems interacting through central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces. The model is based on two-particle interactions. The two-body forces consist of attractive and repulsive parts. In this model the investigated multi-particle systems are self-bound. Also the total potential of the whole ensemble is derived from the two-particle potential and is not imposed 'from outside'. Each particle has the three degrees of freedom of its centre-of-mass motion and the spin degree of freedom. The model allows for the particles to be either charged or uncharged. Furthermore, each particle has an angular momentum, an intrinsic spin, and a magnetic dipole moment. Through the electromagnetic forces between these charges and moments there arise dynamical couplings between them. The internal interactions between the charges and moments are well described by electromagnetic coupling mechanisms. In fact, compared to conventional classical molecular dynamics calculations in van der Waals clusters, which have no spin degrees of freedom, or for Heisenberg spin Systems, which have no orbital degrees of freedom, the model presented here contains both types of degrees of freedom with a highly non-trivial coupling. The model allows to study the fundamental effects resulting from the dynamical coupling of the spin and the orbital-motion sub-systems. In particular, the dynamics of the particle mass points show a behaviour basically different from the one of particles in a potential with only central forces. Furthermore, a special type of quenching procedure was invented, which tends to drive the multi-particle Systems into states with highly periodic, non-ergodic behaviour. Application of the model to cluster simulations has provided evidence that the model can also be used to investigate items like solid-to-liquid phase transitions (melting), isomerism and specific heat
Role of Orbital Dynamics in Spin Relaxation and Weak Antilocalization in Quantum Dots
Zaitsev, Oleg; Frustaglia, Diego; Richter, Klaus
2005-01-01
We develop a semiclassical theory for spin-dependent quantum transport to describe weak (anti)localization in quantum dots with spin-orbit coupling. This allows us to distinguish different types of spin relaxation in systems with chaotic, regular, and diffusive orbital classical dynamics. We find, in particular, that for typical Rashba spin-orbit coupling strengths, integrable ballistic systems can exhibit weak localization, while corresponding chaotic systems show weak antilocalization. We further calculate the magnetoconductance and analyze how the weak antilocalization is suppressed with decreasing quantum dot size and increasing additional in-plane magnetic field.
Effective Hamiltonian for 2-dimensional arbitrary spin Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sznajd, J.; Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)
1983-08-01
The method of the reduction of the generalized arbitrary-spin 2-dimensional Ising model to spin-half Ising model is presented. The method is demonstrated in detail by calculating the effective interaction constants to the third order in cumulant expansion for the triangular spin-1 Ising model (the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model). (author)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2017-09-01
In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.
Intronati, Guido A; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A
2012-01-06
We identify the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling as the source of the dominant spin-relaxation mechanism in the impurity band of a wide class of n-doped zinc blende semiconductors. The Dresselhaus hopping terms are derived and incorporated into a tight-binding model of impurity sites, and they are shown to unexpectedly dominate the spin relaxation, leading to spin-relaxation times in good agreement with experimental values. This conclusion is drawn from two complementary approaches: an analytical diffusive-evolution calculation and a numerical finite-size scaling study of the spin-relaxation time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishtopenko, S. S.
2015-01-01
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)
2015-02-15
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.
Exact solution of the generalized time-dependent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruver, J.L.; Aliaga, J.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Proto, A.N.
1993-04-01
A time-dependent generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is studied using the maximum entropy formalism. The approach, related to a semi-Lie algebra, allows to find three different sets of physical relevant operators which describe the dynamics of the system for any temporal dependence. It is shown how the initial conditions of the operators are determined via the maximum entropy principle density operator, where the inclusion of the temperature turns the description of the problem into a thermodynamical one. The generalized time-independent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is exactly solved as a particular example. (author). 14 refs
Spin-lattice relaxation of individual solid-state spins
Norambuena, A.; Muñoz, E.; Dinani, H. T.; Jarmola, A.; Maletinsky, P.; Budker, D.; Maze, J. R.
2018-03-01
Understanding the effect of vibrations on the relaxation process of individual spins is crucial for implementing nanosystems for quantum information and quantum metrology applications. In this work, we present a theoretical microscopic model to describe the spin-lattice relaxation of individual electronic spins associated to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, although our results can be extended to other spin-boson systems. Starting from a general spin-lattice interaction Hamiltonian, we provide a detailed description and solution of the quantum master equation of an electronic spin-one system coupled to a phononic bath in thermal equilibrium. Special attention is given to the dynamics of one-phonon processes below 1 K where our results agree with recent experimental findings and analytically describe the temperature and magnetic-field scaling. At higher temperatures, linear and second-order terms in the interaction Hamiltonian are considered and the temperature scaling is discussed for acoustic and quasilocalized phonons when appropriate. Our results, in addition to confirming a T5 temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate at higher temperatures, in agreement with experimental observations, provide a theoretical background for modeling the spin-lattice relaxation at a wide range of temperatures where different temperature scalings might be expected.
Role of spin-orbit coupling in the Kugel-Khomskii model on the honeycomb lattice
Koga, Akihisa; Nakauchi, Shiryu; Nasu, Joji
2018-03-01
We study the effective spin-orbital model for honeycomb-layered transition metal compounds, applying the second-order perturbation theory to the three-orbital Hubbard model with the anisotropic hoppings. This model is reduced to the Kitaev model in the strong spin-orbit coupling limit. Combining the cluster mean-field approximations with the exact diagonalization, we treat the Kugel-Khomskii type superexchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling on an equal footing to discuss ground-state properties. We find that a zigzag ordered state is realized in the model within nearest-neighbor interactions. We clarify how the ordered state competes with the nonmagnetic state, which is adiabatically connected to the quantum spin liquid state realized in a strong spin-orbit coupling limit. Thermodynamic properties are also addressed. The present paper should provide another route to account for the Kitaev-based magnetic properties in candidate materials.
Spin-orbital superexchange physics emerging from interacting oxygen molecules in KO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solovyev, I V
2008-01-01
We propose that the spin-orbital-lattice coupled phenomena, widely known for the transition-metal oxides, can be realized in molecular solids, comprising of orbitally degenerate magnetic O 2 - ions. KO 2 is one such system. Using the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we set-up an effective spin-orbital superexchange model for the low-energy molecular bands and argue that many anomalous properties of KO 2 indeed replicate the status of its orbital system in different temperature regimes
Ground State of Bosons in Bose-Fermi Mixture with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Sakamoto, Ryohei; Ono, Yosuke; Hatsuda, Rei; Shiina, Kenta; Arahata, Emiko; Mori, Hiroyuki
2017-07-01
We study an effect of spin-1/2 fermions on the ground state of a Bose system with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. By using mean-field and tight-binding approximations, we show the ground state phase diagram of the Bose system in the spin-orbit coupled Bose-Fermi mixture and find that the characteristic phase domain, where a spin current of fermions may be induced, can exist even in the presence of a significantly large number of fermions.
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-05-17
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.
Condensation of bosons with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baym, Gordon; Ozawa, Tomoki
2014-01-01
Cold atomic Bose-Einstein systems in the presence of simulated Rashba- Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling exhibit novel physical features. With pure in-plane Rashba coupling the system is predicted in Bogoliubov-Hartree-Fock to have a stable Bose condensate below a critical temperature, even though the effective density of states is two-dimensional. In addition the system has a normal state at all temperatures. We review here the new physics when the system has such spin-orbit coupling, and discuss the nature of the finite temperature condensation phase transition from the normal to condensed phases.
Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yokoyama Tomohiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d
Symmetry of Hamiltonian and conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yi
2011-01-01
This paper focuses on a new symmetry of Hamiltonian and its conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and the criterion of the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the system are given. A conserved quantity directly derived from the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the generalized classical mechanical system is given. Since a Hamilton system is a special case of the generalized classical mechanics, the results above are equally applicable to the Hamilton system. The results of the paper are the generalization of a theorem known for the existing nonsingular equivalent Lagrangian. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua
2013-11-07
The block correlated second-order perturbation theory with a generalized valence bond (GVB) reference (GVB-BCPT2) is proposed. In this approach, each geminal in the GVB reference is considered as a "multi-orbital" block (a subset of spin orbitals), and each occupied or virtual spin orbital is also taken as a single block. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is set to be the summation of the individual Hamiltonians of all blocks (with explicit two-electron operators within each geminal) so that the GVB reference function and all excited configuration functions are its eigenfunctions. The GVB-BCPT2 energy can be directly obtained without iteration, just like the second order Mo̸ller-Plesset perturbation method (MP2), both of which are size consistent. We have applied this GVB-BCPT2 method to investigate the equilibrium distances and spectroscopic constants of 7 diatomic molecules, conformational energy differences of 8 small molecules, and bond-breaking potential energy profiles in 3 systems. GVB-BCPT2 is demonstrated to have noticeably better performance than MP2 for systems with significant multi-reference character, and provide reasonably accurate results for some systems with large active spaces, which are beyond the capability of all CASSCF-based methods.
Monte Carlo determination of the spin-dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campostrini, M.; Moriarty, K.J.M.; Rebbi, C.
1987-05-01
Calculation of the bound states of heavy quark systems by a Hamiltonian formulation based on an expansion of the interaction into inverse powers of the quark mass is discussed. The potentials for the spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling between quark and antiquark, which are responsible for the fine and hyperfine splittings in heavy quark spectroscopy, are expressed as expectation values of Wilson loop factors with suitable insertions of chromomagnetic or chromoelectric fields. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the expectation values and, from them, the spin-dependent potentials. The Monte Carlo calculation is reported to show a long-range, non-perturbative component in the interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a spin transistor design based on spin-orbital interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas, with magnetic barriers induced by a patterned ferromagnetic gate. The proposed device overcomes certain shortcomings of previous spin transistor designs such as long device length and degradation of conductance modulation for multi-channel transport. The robustness of our device for multi-channel transport is unique in spin transistor designs based on spin-orbit coupling. The device is more practical in fabrication and experimental respects compared to previously conceived single-mode spin transistors
Bell-like inequality for the spin-orbit separability of a laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, C. V. S.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Khoury, A. Z.; Huguenin, J. A. O.
2010-01-01
In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the nonseparability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and nonseparable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160401 (2007). As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for nonseparable modes. The inequality is discussed in both the classical and quantum domains.
Exact results relating spin-orbit interactions in two-dimensional strongly correlated systems
Kucska, Nóra; Gulácsi, Zsolt
2018-06-01
A 2D square, two-bands, strongly correlated and non-integrable system is analysed exactly in the presence of many-body spin-orbit interactions via the method of Positive Semidefinite Operators. The deduced exact ground states in the high concentration limit are strongly entangled, and given by the spin-orbit coupling are ferromagnetic and present an enhanced carrier mobility, which substantially differs for different spin projections. The described state emerges in a restricted parameter space region, which however is clearly accessible experimentally. The exact solutions are provided via the solution of a matching system of equations containing 74 coupled, non-linear and complex algebraic equations. In our knowledge, other exact results for 2D interacting systems with spin-orbit interactions are not present in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-15
By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot system
Akbari, M.; Rezaei, G.; Khordad, R.
2017-01-01
We study the impact of the spin-orbit coupling due to both structure and crystal inversion asymmetry and external magnetic field on the level structure in a two-dimensional quantum pseudo-dot. It is demonstrated that, both the spin-orbit interactions and magnetic field strength have a great influence on energy eigenvalues of the system. Also, we found that an increase in magnetic field enhances the spin-orbit coupling strength. This phenomena leads to increase the energy eigenvalues and energy splitting due to the spin-orbit coupling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatara, Gen, E-mail: gen.tatara@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Nakabayashi, Noriyuki [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 Japan (Japan)
2014-05-07
Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.
Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle
2016-01-01
A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.
Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2016-09-15
A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.
Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Junfang; Zhang Chunmin; Yue Ruihong; Li Runling
2005-01-01
The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the general boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K ± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brik, M.G.; Avram, C.N.; Avram, N.M.
2006-01-01
The effective spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters (zero-field splitting D and g factors g - parallel and g - perpendicular ) for Cr 3+ ions in LiSr(Al,Ga)F 6 crystals are calculated from the complete high-order perturbation formulae for a d 3 ion. Parameters of trigonal crystal field acting on the Cr 3+ ion are calculated. The magnitude of trigonal distortion of the [CrF 6 ] 3- clusters is related to the experimental measurements of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters in the considered systems. Since in both crystals g parallel perpendicular , [CrF 6 ] 3- clusters undergo an axial compression along the C 3 axis. Experimental values of the hyperfine structure constants A parallel and A perpendicular are used to evaluate the core polarization constant κ for Cr 3+ ion in both crystals
Effective Hamiltonians, two level systems, and generalized Maxwell-Bloch equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sczaniecki, L.
1981-02-01
A new method is proposed involving a canonical transformation leading to the non-secular part of time-independent perturbation calculus. The method is used to derive expressions for effective Shen-Walls Hamiltonians which, taken in the two-level approximation and on the inclusion of non-Hamiltonian terms into the dynamics of the system, lead to generalized Maxwell-Bloch equations. The rotating wave approximation is written anew within the framework of our formalism. (author)
Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers
MacNeill, D.; Stiehl, G. M.; Guimaraes, M. H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.; Park, J.; Ralph, D. C.
2017-03-01
Recent discoveries regarding current-induced spin-orbit torques produced by heavy-metal/ferromagnet and topological-insulator/ferromagnet bilayers provide the potential for dramatically improved efficiency in the manipulation of magnetic devices. However, in experiments performed to date, spin-orbit torques have an important limitation--the component of torque that can compensate magnetic damping is required by symmetry to lie within the device plane. This means that spin-orbit torques can drive the most current-efficient type of magnetic reversal (antidamping switching) only for magnetic devices with in-plane anisotropy, not the devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are needed for high-density applications. Here we show experimentally that this state of affairs is not fundamental, but rather one can change the allowed symmetries of spin-orbit torques in spin-source/ferromagnet bilayer devices by using a spin-source material with low crystalline symmetry. We use WTe2, a transition-metal dichalcogenide whose surface crystal structure has only one mirror plane and no two-fold rotational invariance. Consistent with these symmetries, we generate an out-of-plane antidamping torque when current is applied along a low-symmetry axis of WTe2/Permalloy bilayers, but not when current is applied along a high-symmetry axis. Controlling spin-orbit torques by crystal symmetries in multilayer samples provides a new strategy for optimizing future magnetic technologies.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan; Wu, Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuelei; Manchon, Aurelien; Xiao, John Q.; Zhang, Xixiang
2017-01-01
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan
2017-03-07
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Reversible spin texture in ferroelectric Hf O2
Tao, L. L.; Paudel, Tula R.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2017-06-01
Spin-orbit coupling effects occurring in noncentrosymmetric materials are known to be responsible for nontrivial spin configurations and a number of emergent physical phenomena. Ferroelectric materials may be especially interesting in this regard due to reversible spontaneous polarization making possible a nonvolatile electrical control of the spin degrees of freedom. Here, we explore a technologically relevant oxide material, Hf O2 , which has been shown to exhibit robust ferroelectricity in a noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic phase. Using theoretical modelling based on density-functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic structure of the ferroelectric Hf O2 and demonstrate the appearance of chiral spin textures driven by spin-orbit coupling. We analyze these spin configurations in terms of the Rashba and Dresselhaus effects within the k .p Hamiltonian model and find that the Rashba-type spin texture dominates around the valence-band maximum, while the Dresselhaus-type spin texture prevails around the conduction band minimum. The latter is characterized by a very large Dresselhaus constant λD= 0.578 eV Å, which allows using this material as a tunnel barrier to produce tunneling anomalous and spin Hall effects that are reversible by ferroelectric polarization.
Direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in gallium arsenide quantum dots
Shang, Ru-Nan; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2018-02-01
Besides the spin Kondo effect, other degrees of freedom can give rise to the pseudospin Kondo effect. We report a direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in a series-coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) double quantum dot device where orbital degrees act as pseudospin. Electron occupation in both dots induces a pseudospin Kondo effect. In a region of one net spin impurity, complete spectra with three resonance peaks are observed. Furthermore, we observe a pseudo-Zeeman effect and demonstrate its electrical controllability for the artificial pseudospin in this orbital spin Kondo process via gate voltage control. The fourfold degeneracy point is realized at a specific value supplemented by spin degeneracy, indicating a transition from the SU(2) to the SU(4) Kondo effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradeep, R. Gladwin; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2009-01-01
In this paper we point out the existence of a remarkable nonlocal transformation between the damped harmonic oscillator and a modified Emden-type nonlinear oscillator equation with linear forcing, xe+αxx+βx 3 +γx=0, which preserves the form of the time independent integral, conservative Hamiltonian, and the equation of motion. Generalizing this transformation we prove the existence of nonstandard conservative Hamiltonian structure for a general class of damped nonlinear oscillators including Lienard-type systems. Further, using the above Hamiltonian structure for a specific example, namely, the generalized modified Emden equation xe+αx q x+βx 2q+1 =0, where α, β, and q are arbitrary parameters, the general solution is obtained through appropriate canonical transformations. We also present the conservative Hamiltonian structure of the damped Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator equation. The associated Lagrangian description for all the above systems is also briefly discussed.
Phase-space curvature in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic systems
Armaitis, J.; Ruseckas, J.; Anisimovas, E.
2017-04-01
We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. These equations explicitly contain position-space, momentum-space, and phase-space Berry curvature terms. Subsequently, we perform the semiclassical approximation and obtain the semiclassical equations of motion. Taking the low-Berry-curvature limit results in equations that can be directly compared to previous results for the motion of wave packets. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical regime, the effective mass of the equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled system can be viewed as a direct effect of the phase-space Berry curvature.
Spin-resolved entanglement spectroscopy of critical spin chains and Luttinger liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laflorencie, Nicolas; Rachel, Stephan
2014-01-01
Quantum critical chains are well-described and understood by virtue of conformal field theory. Still, the meaning of the real space entanglement spectrum—the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix—of such systems remains elusive in general, even when there is an additional quantum number available such as the spin or particle number. In this paper, we explore in detail the properties and structure of the reduced density matrix of critical XXZ spin- (1/2) chains. We investigate the quantum/thermal correspondence between the reduced density matrix of a T = 0 pure quantum state and the thermal density matrix of an effective entanglement Hamiltonian. Using large scale DMRG and QMC simulations, we investigate the conformal structure of the spectra, the entanglement Hamiltonian, and temperature. We then introduce the notion of spin-resolved entanglement entropies, which display interesting scaling features. (paper)
Microscopic description of orbital-selective spin ordering in BaMn2As2
Craco, L.; Carara, S. S.
2018-05-01
Using generalized gradient approximation+dynamical mean-field theory, we provide a microscopic description of orbital-selective spin ordering in the tetragonal manganese pnictide BaMn2As2 . We demonstrate the coexistence of local moments and small band-gap electronic states in the parent compound. We also explore the role played by electron/hole doping, showing that the Mott insulating state is rather robust to small removal of electron charge carriers similar to cuprate oxide superconductors. Good qualitative accord between theory and angle-resolved photoemission as well as electrical transport provides support to our view of orbital-selective spin ordering in BaMn2As2 . Our proposal is expected to be an important step to understanding the emergent correlated electronic structure of materials with persisting ordered localized moments coexisting with Coulomb reconstructed nonmagnetic electronic states.
Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He
2016-08-01
The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Bacontaining copper dopants.
Generalized spin Sutherland systems revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Fehér
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We present generalizations of the spin Sutherland systems obtained earlier by Blom and Langmann and by Polychronakos in two different ways: from SU(n Yang–Mills theory on the cylinder and by constraining geodesic motion on the N-fold direct product of SU(n with itself, for any N>1. Our systems are in correspondence with the Dynkin diagram automorphisms of arbitrary connected and simply connected compact simple Lie groups. We give a finite-dimensional as well as an infinite-dimensional derivation and shed light on the mechanism whereby they lead to the same classical integrable systems. The infinite-dimensional approach, based on twisted current algebras (alias Yang–Mills with twisted boundary conditions, was inspired by the derivation of the spinless Sutherland model due to Gorsky and Nekrasov. The finite-dimensional method relies on Hamiltonian reduction under twisted conjugations of N-fold direct product groups, linking the quantum mechanics of the reduced systems to representation theory similarly as was explored previously in the N=1 case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: kstarkov@ipn.mx
2015-07-03
In this paper we study invariant domains with unbounded dynamics for one cosmological Hamiltonian system which is formed by the conformally coupled field; this system was introduced by Maciejewski et al. (2007). We find a few groups of conditions imposed on parameters of this system for which all trajectories are unbounded in both of time directions. Further, we present a few groups of other conditions imposed on system parameters under which we localize the invariant domain with unbounded dynamics; this domain is defined with help of bounds for values of the Hamiltonian level surface parameter. We describe one group of conditions when our system possesses two periodic orbits found explicitly. In some of rest cases we get localization bounds for compact invariant sets. - Highlights: • Equations for periodic orbits are got for many level sets. • Domains with unbounded dynamics are localized. • Localizations for compact invariant sets are obtained.
Geometrical contributions to the exchange constants: Free electrons with spin-orbit interaction
Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy
2017-05-01
Using thermal quantum field theory, we derive an expression for the exchange constant that resembles Fukuyama's formula for orbital magnetic susceptibility (OMS). Guided by this formal analogy between the exchange constant and OMS, we identify a contribution to the exchange constant that arises from the geometrical properties of the band structure in mixed phase space. We compute the exchange constants for free electrons and show that the geometrical contribution is generally important. Our formalism allows us to study the exchange constants in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. Thereby, we find sizable differences between the exchange constants of helical and cycloidal spin spirals. Furthermore, we discuss how to calculate the exchange constants based on a gauge-field approach in the case of the Rashba model with an additional exchange splitting, and we show that the exchange constants obtained from this gauge-field approach are in perfect agreement with those obtained from the quantum field theoretical method.
An inversion-relaxation approach for sampling stationary points of spin model Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, Ciaran; Mehta, Dhagash; Wales, David J.
2014-01-01
Sampling the stationary points of a complicated potential energy landscape is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a sampling method based on relaxation from stationary points of the highest index of the Hessian matrix. We illustrate how this approach can find all the stationary points for potentials or Hamiltonians bounded from above, which includes a large class of important spin models, and we show that it is far more efficient than previous methods. For potentials unbounded from above, the relaxation part of the method is still efficient in finding minima and transition states, which are usually the primary focus of attention for atomistic systems
Spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levi, Michele [Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris VI, CNRS-UMR 7095,Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris,98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute),Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2015-09-30
We introduce a formulation for spinning gravitating objects in the effective field theory in the post-Newtonian scheme in the context of the binary inspiral problem. We aim at an effective action, where all field modes below the orbital scale are integrated out. We spell out the relevant degrees of freedom, in particular the rotational ones, and the associated symmetries. Building on these symmetries, we introduce the minimal coupling part of the point particle action in terms of gauge rotational variables, and construct the spin-induced nonminimal couplings, where we obtain the leading order couplings to all orders in spin. We specify the gauge for the rotational variables, where the unphysical degrees of freedom are eliminated already from the Feynman rules, and all the orbital field modes are integrated out. The equations of motion of the spin can be directly obtained via a proper variation of the action, and Hamiltonians may be straightforwardly derived. We implement this effective field theory for spin to derive all spin dependent potentials up to next-to-leading order to quadratic level in spin, namely up to the third post-Newtonian order for rapidly rotating compact objects. In particular, the proper next-to-leading order spin-squared potential and Hamiltonian for generic compact objects are also derived. For the implementations we use the nonrelativistic gravitational field decomposition, which is found here to eliminate higher-loop Feynman diagrams also in spin dependent sectors, and facilitates derivations. This formulation for spin is thus ideal for treatment of higher order spin dependent sectors.
Zamani, A.; Setareh, F.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.
2017-10-01
A wide variety of semiconductor nanostructures have been fabricated experimentally and both theoretical and experimental investigations of their features imply the great role they have in new generation technological devices. However, mathematical modeling provide a powerful means due to definitive goal of predicting the features and understanding of such structures behavior under different circumstances. Therefore, effective Hamiltonian for an electron in a quantum ring with axial symmetry in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) is derived. Here we report our study of the electronic structure and electron g-factor in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings under the influence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. This investigation shows that, when Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings are simultaneously present, the degeneracy is removed and energy levels split into two branches. Furthermore, with enhancing the applied magnetic field, separation of former degenerate levels increases and also avoided crossings (anti-crossing) in the energy spectra is detected. It is also discussed how the energy levels of the system can be adjusted with variation of temperature as well as the magnetic field and geometrical sizes.
Measure synchronization in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2015-11-01
We present measure synchronization (MS) in a bosonic Josephson junction with spin-orbit coupling. The two atomic hyperfine states are coupled by a Raman dressing scheme, and they are regarded as two orientations of a pseudo-spin-1 /2 system. A feature specific to a spin-orbit-coupled (SOC) bosonic Josephson junction is that the transition from non-MS to MS dynamics can be modulated by Raman laser intensity, even in the absence of interspin atomic interaction. A phase diagram of non-MS and MS dynamics as functions of Raman laser intensity and Josephson tunneling amplitude is presented. Taking into account interspin atomic interactions, the system exhibits MS breaking dynamics resulting from the competition between intraspin and interspin atomic interactions. When interspin atomic interactions dominate in the competition, the system always exhibits MS dynamics. For interspin interaction weaker than intraspin interaction, a window for non-MS dynamics is present. Since SOC Bose-Einstein condensates provide a powerful platform for studies on physical problems in various fields, the study of MS dynamics is valuable in researching the collective coherent dynamical behavior in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction.
Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.
2018-05-01
We study a local antisymmetric spin-orbit (ASO) coupling effect on a triangular-triple-quantum-dot (TTQD) system as a theoretical proposal for a new application of the Kondo physics to nanoscale devices. The electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect is strongly correlated with the spin configurations and molecular orbital degrees of freedom in the TTQD. In particular, an abrupt sign reversal of the emergent electric polarization is associated with a quantum critical point in a magnetic field, which can also be controlled by the ASO coupling that changes the mixing weight of different orbital components in the TTQD ground state.
Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
Hofmann, A.; Maisi, V. F.; Krähenmann, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2017-10-01
The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.
Anisotropy and Suppression of Spin-Orbit Interaction in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot.
Hofmann, A; Maisi, V F; Krähenmann, T; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Ensslin, K; Ihn, T
2017-10-27
The spin-flip tunneling rates are measured in GaAs-based double quantum dots by time-resolved charge detection. Such processes occur in the Pauli spin blockade regime with two electrons occupying the double quantum dot. Ways are presented for tuning the spin-flip tunneling rate, which on the one hand gives access to measuring the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients. On the other hand, they make it possible to turn on and off the effect of spin-orbit interaction with a high on/off ratio. The tuning is accomplished by choosing the alignment of the tunneling direction with respect to the crystallographic axes, as well as by choosing the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the spin-orbit magnetic field. Spin lifetimes of 10 s are achieved at a tunneling rate close to 1 kHz.
The role of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in valley-dependent transport of Dirac fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanirok, Kobra; Mohammadpour, Hakimeh
2017-01-01
At this work, spin- and valley-dependent electron transport through graphene and silicene layers are studied in the presence of Rashba spin- orbit coupling. We find that the transport properties of the related ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic structure depend on the relevant parameters. A fully valley- and spin- polarized current is obtained. As another result, Rashba spin-orbit interaction plays important role in controlling the transmission characteristics.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can O.; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) represent one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices. The orthogonal torque-magnetization geometry, the strong damping, and the large domain wall velocities inherent to materials with strong spin-orbit coupling make SOTs especially appealing for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. So far, however, the timescale and evolution of the magnetization during the switching process have ...
Barrabés, E.; Mondelo, J. M.; Ollé, M.
2013-10-01
This paper is devoted to the numerical computation and continuation of families of heteroclinic connections between hyperbolic periodic orbits (POs) of a Hamiltonian system. We describe a method that requires the numerical continuation of a nonlinear system that involves the initial conditions of the two POs, the linear approximations of the corresponding manifolds and a point in a given Poincaré section where the unstable and stable manifolds match. The method is applied to compute families of heteroclinic orbits between planar Lyapunov POs around the collinear equilibrium points of the restricted three-body problem in different scenarios. In one of them, for the Sun-Jupiter mass parameter, we provide energy ranges for which the transition between different resonances is possible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Chunxu; Yang, Yanling
2016-01-01
Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Chunxu, E-mail: chunxu_bai@semi.ac.cn [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Yanling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China)
2016-08-26
Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.
Magnonic charge pumping via spin-orbit coupling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciccarelli, C.; Hals, K.M.D.; Irvine, A.; Novák, Vít; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Kurebayashi, H.; Brataas, A.; Ferguson, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), 50-54 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin-orbit torque * GaMnAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Siegert
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The interplay of exchange correlations and spin–orbit interaction (SOI on the many-body spectrum of a copper phtalocyanine (CuPc molecule and their signatures in transport are investigated. We first derive a minimal model Hamiltonian in a basis of frontier orbitals that is able to reproduce experimentally observed singlet–triplet splittings. In a second step SOI effects are included perturbatively. Major consequences of the SOI are the splitting of former degenerate levels and a magnetic anisotropy, which can be captured by an effective low-energy spin Hamiltonian. We show that scanning tunneling microscopy-based magnetoconductance measurements can yield clear signatures of both these SOI-induced effects.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-05-07
In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.
Spin-orbit excitations and electronic structure of the putative Kitaev magnet α -RuCl3
Sandilands, Luke J.; Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Plumb, K. W.; Kim, Young-June; Kee, Hae-Young; Burch, Kenneth S.
2016-02-01
Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling have been proposed to host unconventional magnetic states, including the Kitaev quantum spin liquid. The 4 d system α -RuCl3 has recently come into view as a candidate Kitaev system, with evidence for unusual spin excitations in magnetic scattering experiments. We apply a combination of optical spectroscopy and Raman scattering to study the electronic structure of this material. Our measurements reveal a series of orbital excitations involving localized total angular momentum states of the Ru ion, implying that strong spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions coexist in this material. Analysis of these features allows us to estimate the spin-orbit coupling strength, as well as other parameters describing the local electronic structure, revealing a well-defined hierarchy of energy scales within the Ru d states. By comparing our experimental results with density functional theory calculations, we also clarify the overall features of the optical response. Our results demonstrate that α -RuCl3 is an ideal material system to study spin-orbit coupled magnetism on the honeycomb lattice.
Depolarization of the electron spin in storage rings by nonlinear spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kewisch, J.
1985-10-01
Electrons and positrons which circulate in the storage ring are polarized at the emission of synchrotron radiation by the so called Sokolov-Ternov effect. This polarization is on the one hand of large interest for the study of the weak interaction, on the other hand it can be used for the accurate measurement of the beam energy and by this of the mass of elementary particles. The transverse and longitudinal particle vibrations simultaneously excited by the synchrotron radiation however can effect that this polarization is destroyed. This effect is called spin-orbit coupling. For the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling the computer program SITROS was written. This program is a tracking program: The motion of some sample particles and their spin vectors are calculated for some thousand circulations. From this the mean depolarization and by extrapolation the degree of polarization of the equilibrium state is determined. Contrarily to the known program SLIM which is based on perturbational calculations in SITROS the nonlinear forces in the storage ring can be regarded. By this the calculation of depolarizing higher order resonances is made possible. In this thesis the equations of motion for the orbital and spin motion of the electrons are derived which form the base for the program SITROS. The functions of the program and the approximations necessary for the saving of calculational time are explained. The comparison of the SITROS results with the measurement results obtained at the PETRA storage ring shows that the SITROS program is a useful means for the planning and calculation of storage rings with polarized electron beams. (orig.) [de
Field-free deterministic ultrafast creation of magnetic skyrmions by spin-orbit torques
Büttner, Felix; Lemesh, Ivan; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Geilhufe, Jan; Caretta, Lucas; Engel, Dieter; Krüger, Benjamin; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2017-11-01
Magnetic skyrmions are stabilized by a combination of external magnetic fields, stray field energies, higher-order exchange interactions and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The last favours homochiral skyrmions, whose motion is driven by spin-orbit torques and is deterministic, which makes systems with a large DMI relevant for applications. Asymmetric multilayers of non-magnetic heavy metals with strong spin-orbit interactions and transition-metal ferromagnetic layers provide a large and tunable DMI. Also, the non-magnetic heavy metal layer can inject a vertical spin current with transverse spin polarization into the ferromagnetic layer via the spin Hall effect. This leads to torques that can be used to switch the magnetization completely in out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic elements, but the switching is deterministic only in the presence of a symmetry-breaking in-plane field. Although spin-orbit torques led to domain nucleation in continuous films and to stochastic nucleation of skyrmions in magnetic tracks, no practical means to create individual skyrmions controllably in an integrated device design at a selected position has been reported yet. Here we demonstrate that sub-nanosecond spin-orbit torque pulses can generate single skyrmions at custom-defined positions in a magnetic racetrack deterministically using the same current path as used for the shifting operation. The effect of the DMI implies that no external in-plane magnetic fields are needed for this aim. This implementation exploits a defect, such as a constriction in the magnetic track, that can serve as a skyrmion generator. The concept is applicable to any track geometry, including three-dimensional designs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, L.; Faizabadi, E.
2014-01-01
The effect of magnetic contacts on spin-dependent electron transport and spin-accumulation in a quantum ring, which is threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. The quantum ring is made up of four quantum dots, where two of them possess magnetic structure and other ones are subjected to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic quantum dots, referred to as magnetic quantum contacts, are connected to two external leads. Two different configurations of magnetic moments of the quantum contacts are considered; the parallel and the anti-parallel ones. When the magnetic moments are parallel, the degeneracy between the transmission coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons is lifted and the system can be adjusted to operate as a spin-filter. In addition, the accumulation of spin-up and spin-down electrons in non-magnetic quantum dots are different in the case of parallel magnetic moments. When the intra-dot Coulomb interaction is taken into account, we find that the electron interactions participate in separation between the accumulations of electrons with different spin directions in non-magnetic quantum dots. Furthermore, the spin-accumulation in non-magnetic quantum dots can be tuned in the both parallel and anti-parallel magnetic moments by adjusting the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetic flux. Thus, the quantum ring with magnetic quantum contacts could be utilized to create tunable local magnetic moments which can be used in designing optimized nanodevices.
Murani, A.; Chepelianskii, A.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.
2017-10-01
In order to point out experimentally accessible signatures of spin-orbit interaction, we investigate numerically the Andreev spectrum of a multichannel mesoscopic quantum wire (N) with high spin-orbit interaction coupled to superconducting electrodes (S), contrasting topological and nontopological behaviors. In the nontopological case (square lattice with Rashba interactions), we find that the Kramers degeneracy of Andreev levels is lifted by a phase difference between the S reservoirs except at multiples of π , when the normal quantum wires can host several conduction channels. The level crossings at these points invariant by time-reversal symmetry are not lifted by disorder. Whereas the dc Josephson current is insensitive to these level crossings, the high-frequency admittance (susceptibility) at finite temperature reveals these level crossings and the lifting of their degeneracy at π by a small Zeeman field. We have also investigated the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic spin-orbit interaction in the range of parameters where it is a two-dimensional topological insulator with one-dimensional helical edges protected against disorder. Nontopological superconducting contacts can induce topological superconductivity in this system characterized by zero-energy level crossing of Andreev levels. Both Josephson current and finite-frequency admittance carry then very specific signatures at low temperature of this disorder-protected Andreev level crossing at π and zero energy.
The spin-orbit interaction in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
The analysis previously made of the average nuclear potential has been extended to consideration of the spin-orbit interactions. It has not been possible to find a satisfactory two-body interaction consistent with all the data; that suggested by the phase-shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is just within the region of possible forms. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I
2009-01-01
Spin- and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a basic experimental tool for unveiling spin polarization of electron eigenstates in crystals. We prove, by using spin-orbit coupled graphene as a model, that photoconversion of a quasiparticle inside a crystal into a photoelectron can...... be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....
R-matrix-valued Lax pairs and long-range spin chains
Sechin, I.; Zotov, A.
2018-06-01
In this paper we discuss R-matrix-valued Lax pairs for slN Calogero-Moser model and their relation to integrable quantum long-range spin chains of the Haldane-Shastry-Inozemtsev type. First, we construct the R-matrix-valued Lax pairs for the third flow of the classical Calogero-Moser model. Then we notice that the scalar parts (in the auxiliary space) of the M-matrices corresponding to the second and third flows have form of special spin exchange operators. The freezing trick restricts them to quantum Hamiltonians of long-range spin chains. We show that for a special choice of the R-matrix these Hamiltonians reproduce those for the Inozemtsev chain. In the general case related to the Baxter's elliptic R-matrix we obtain a natural anisotropic extension of the Inozemtsev chain. Commutativity of the Hamiltonians is verified numerically. Trigonometric limits lead to the Haldane-Shastry chains and their anisotropic generalizations.
Redesign of the DFT/MRCI Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyskov, Igor; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M., E-mail: Christel.Marian@hhu.de [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)
2016-01-21
The combined density functional theory and multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) method of Grimme and Waletzke [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5645 (1999)] is a well-established semi-empirical quantum chemical method for efficiently computing excited-state properties of organic molecules. As it turns out, the method fails to treat bi-chromophores owing to the strong dependence of the parameters on the excitation class. In this work, we present an alternative form of correcting the matrix elements of a MRCI Hamiltonian which is built from a Kohn-Sham set of orbitals. It is based on the idea of constructing individual energy shifts for each of the state functions of a configuration. The new parameterization is spin-invariant and incorporates less empirism compared to the original formulation. By utilizing damping techniques together with an algorithm of selecting important configurations for treating static electron correlation, the high computational efficiency has been preserved. The robustness of the original and redesigned Hamiltonians has been tested on experimentally known vertical excitation energies of organic molecules yielding similar statistics for the two parameterizations. Besides that, our new formulation is free from artificially low-lying doubly excited states, producing qualitatively correct and consistent results for excimers. The way of modifying matrix elements of the MRCI Hamiltonian presented here shall be considered as default choice when investigating photophysical processes of bi-chromophoric systems such as singlet fission or triplet-triplet upconversion.
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.; Majidi, R.
2016-02-01
The influence of the electron coupling with non-polarized optical phonons on magnetoelectric effects of a two-dimensional electron gas system has been investigated in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Numerical calculations have been performed in the non-equilibrium regime. In the previous studies in this field, it has been shown that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot generate non-equilibrium spin current and the spin current vanishes identically in the absence of other relaxation mechanisms such as lattice vibrations. However, in the current study, based on a semiclassical approach, it was demonstrated that in the presence of electron-phonon coupling, the spin current and other magnetoelectric quantities have been modulated by the strength of the spin-orbit interactions.
Effect of spin-orbit scattering on transport properties of low-dimensional dilute alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heers, Swantje
2011-09-21
The scope of this thesis is to gain insight, by means of ab initio-calculations, into the physics of momentum and spin relaxation phenomena induced by electron scattering at impurities and defects in the noble metals copper, silver and gold. The main results are subdivided in three parts. In the first part, momentum- and spinrelaxation times due to scattering at 3d, 4sp, 4d, 5sp, 5d and 6sp impurities in copper and gold fcc bulk are investigated. The inversion symmetry of the crystals leads to a two-fold degeneracy of all states on the Fermi surface, and therefore spin relaxation is dominated by the Elliott-Yafet mechanism as well as the spin-orbit coupling of the impurity. For impurities in gold, we calculate much shorter spin-relaxation times than in copper because of the stronger spin-orbit coupling of the gold host. Furthermore, we have found important qualitative differences between the relaxation times obtained for the d- and the sp- impurities. As scattering at d-impurities is resonant, the electrons spend much more time at the impurity sites than in the case of the sp-impurities; therefore, they are much longer exhibited to the spin-orbit coupling of the impurity. This results in considerably shorter spin-relaxation times, even if the momentum scattering rates are in the same order of magnitude. Finally, the investigation of interference of scattering processes at impurity dimers reveals that relevant differences to the independent-impurity approximation appear only for strong d-scatterer, placed at nearest neighboring sites. In the second part we investigate the reduction of spin-conserving surface-state lifetimes induced by adatom- and impurity-scattering on the (111) surfaces of copper, silver and gold films with different thicknesses. We have found strong qualitative differences in the lifetimes when comparing the results for adatoms to those of impurities in the first and second layer. The trends for the latter ones are similar to those calculated in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Jianduo; Li Jianwen
2010-01-01
We theoretically investigate the electron transport properties in a non-magnetic heterostructure with both Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions. The detailed-numerical results show that (1) the large spin polarization can be achieved due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings induced splitting of the resonant level, although the magnetic field is zero in such a structure, (2) the Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a greater role on the spin polarization than the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction does, and (3) the transmission probability and the spin polarization both periodically change with the increase of the well width.
Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi
2018-05-01
We investigate a two-orbital Hubbard model on a honeycomb structure, with a special focus on the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC) induced by symmetry breaking in the electronic degrees of freedom. By investigating the ground-state phase diagram by the mean-field approximation in addition to the analysis in the strong correlation limit, we obtain a variety of symmetry-broken phases that induce different types of effective ASOCs by breaking of spatial inversion symmetry. We find several unusual properties emergent from the ASOCs, such as a linear magnetoelectric effect in a spin-orbital ordered phase at 1/4 filling and a spin splitting in the band structure in charge ordered phases at 1/4 and 1/2 fillings. We also show that a staggered potential on the honeycomb structure leads to another type of ASOC, which gives rise to a valley splitting in the band structure at 1/2 filling. We discuss the experimental relevance of our results to candidate materials including transition metal dichalcogenides and trichalcogenides.
Li, Rui
2018-02-01
The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wave vector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The x component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wave vector, while the z component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wave vector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.
Secular Orbit and Spin Variations of Asteroid (16) Psyche
Bills, B. G.; Park, R. S.; Scott, B.
2016-12-01
The obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, of asteroid (16) Psyche is currently 95 degrees. We are interested in knowing how much that angular separation varies, on time scales of 104 to 106 years. To answer that question, we have done several related analyses. On short time scales, the orbital element variations of Psyche are dominated by perturbations from Jupiter. Jupiter's dominance has two basic causes: first is the large mass and relatively close position of Jupiter, and second is a 19:8 mean motion resonance. Jupiter completes 8 orbits in 94.9009 years, while Psyche takes 94.9107 years to complete 19 orbits. As a result of this, all of the orbital elements of Psyche exhibit significant periodic variations, with a 94.9 year period dominating. There are also significant variations at the synodic period, which is 8.628 years, or 1/11 of the resonant period. Over a 1000 year time span, centered on the present, the eccentricity varies from 0.133 to 0.140, and the inclination varies from 2.961 to 3.229 degrees. On longer time scales, the orbital elements of Psyche vary considerably more than that, due to secular perturbations from the planets. The secular variations are modeled as the response of interacting mass rings, rather than point masses. Again, Jupiter is the main perturbing influence on Psyche. The eccentricity and inclination both oscillate, with dominant periods of 18.667 kyr. The range of values seen over a million year time span, is 0.057 to 0.147 for eccentricity, and 0.384 to 4.777 degrees for inclination. Using a recent shape model, and assumption of uniform density, to constrain relevant moments of inertia, we estimate the spin pole precession rate parameter to be 8.53 arcsec/year. The current spin pole is at ecliptic {lon, lat} = { 32, -7} deg, whereas the orbit pole is at {lon, lat} = {60.47, 86.91} deg. The current obliquity is thus 94.3 degree. Using nominal values of the input parameters, the recovered spin pole
[OsF6]x−: Molecular Models for Spin-Orbit Entangled Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Woodruff, Daniel N.; Singh, Saurabh Kumar
2017-01-01
Heavy 5d elements, like osmium, feature strong spin-orbit interactions which are at the origin of exotic physical behaviors. Revealing the full potential of, for example, novel osmium oxide materials (“osmates”) is however contingent upon a detailed understanding of the local single-ion propertie...... state was elucidated; mirroring the osmium electronic structure in osmates. The realization of such molecular model systems provides a unique chemical playground to engineer materials exhibiting spin-orbit entangled phenomena....
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y.; Chou, Yi; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Yen, David Chien-Chang
2017-01-01
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657−415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ∼1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Ng, C.-Y.; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Yen, David Chien-Chang
2017-07-01
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657-415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ˜1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chou, Yi [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lupin Chun-Che [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Yen, David Chien-Chang, E-mail: cphu@hku.hk [Department of Mathematics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)
2017-07-20
We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657−415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ∼1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.
Cho, Soonha; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jo, Younghun; Park, Byong-Guk
2015-01-01
The phenomena based on spin-orbit interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide structures have been investigated extensively due to their applicability to the manipulation of the magnetization direction via the in-plane current. This implies the existence of an inverse effect, in which the conductivity in such structures should depend on the magnetization orientation. In this work, we report a systematic study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of W/CoFeB/MgO structures and its correlation with the current-induced torque to the magnetization. We observe that the MR is independent of the angle between the magnetization and current direction but is determined by the relative magnetization orientation with respect to the spin direction accumulated by the spin Hall effect, for which the symmetry is identical to that of so-called the spin Hall magnetoresistance. The MR of ~1% in W/CoFeB/MgO samples is considerably larger than those in other structures of Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt/Co/AlOx, which indicates a larger spin Hall angle of W. Moreover, the similar W thickness dependence of the MR and the current-induced magnetization switching efficiency demonstrates that MR in a non-magnet/ferromagnet structure can be utilized to understand other closely correlated spin-orbit coupling effects such as the inverse spin Hall effect or the spin-orbit spin transfer torques. PMID:26423608
An approach for obtaining integrable Hamiltonians from Poisson-commuting polynomial families
Leyvraz, F.
2017-07-01
We discuss a general approach permitting the identification of a broad class of sets of Poisson-commuting Hamiltonians, which are integrable in the sense of Liouville. It is shown that all such Hamiltonians can be solved explicitly by a separation of variables ansatz. The method leads in particular to a proof that the so-called "goldfish" Hamiltonian is maximally superintegrable and leads to an elementary identification of a full set of integrals of motion. The Hamiltonians in involution with the "goldfish" Hamiltonian are also explicitly integrated. New integrable Hamiltonians are identified, among which some have the property of being isochronous, that is, all their orbits have the same period. Finally, a peculiar structure is identified in the Poisson brackets between the elementary symmetric functions and the set of Hamiltonians commuting with the "goldfish" Hamiltonian: these can be expressed as products between elementary symmetric functions and Hamiltonians. The structure displays an invariance property with respect to one element and has both a symmetry and a closure property. The meaning of this structure is not altogether clear to the author, but it turns out to be a powerful tool.
Spin Chern number and topological phase transition on the Lieb lattice with spin–orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Rui; Zhou, Bin
2017-01-01
We propose that quantum anomalous Hall effect may occur in the Lieb lattice, when Rashba spin–orbit coupling, spin-independent and spin-dependent staggered potentials are introduced into the lattice. It is found that spin Chern numbers of two degenerate flat bands change from 0 to ±2 due to Rashba spin–orbit coupling effect. The inclusion of Rashba spin–orbit coupling and two kinds of staggered potentials opens a gap between the two flat bands. The topological property of the gap is determined by the amplitudes of Rashba spin–orbit coupling and staggered potentials, and thus the topological phase transition from quantum anomalous Hall effect to normal insulator can occur. Finally, the topological phase transition from quantum spin Hall state to normal insulator is discussed when Rashba spin–orbit coupling and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling coexist in the Lieb lattice. - Highlights: • Spin Chern numbers of the bulk states on the Lieb lattice are calculated. • RSOC plays an important role on the topological phase transition on the Lieb lattice. • Quantum anomalous Hall effect can occur due to RSOC and staggered potentials. • Topological phase transition can occur when ISOC and RSOC coexist.
Generalized massive gravity in arbitrary dimensions and its Hamiltonian formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Chao; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2013-01-01
We extend the four-dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity model to a general scalar massive-tensor theory in arbitrary dimensions, coupling a dRGT massive graviton to multiple scalars and allowing for generic kinetic and mass matrix mixing between the massive graviton and the scalars, and derive its Hamiltonian formulation and associated constraint system. When passing to the Hamiltonian formulation, two different sectors arise: a general sector and a special sector. Although obtained via different ways, there are two second class constraints in either of the two sectors, eliminating the BD ghost. However, for the special sector, there are still ghost instabilities except for the case of two dimensions. In particular, for the special sector with one scalar, there is a ''second BD ghost''
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurian, P., E-mail: pkurian@gmx.com [National Human Genome Center, Howard University, College of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Verzegnassi, C. [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Physics, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Association for Medicine and Complexity (AMeC), Trieste (Italy)
2016-01-28
We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.
2016-01-01
We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)
2016-01-28
We present a detailed theoretical study on zero-frequency Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas (2DHG) with k-cubic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. The presence of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings strongly modifies the Drude weight in comparison to the electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings. For large hole density and strong k-cubic spin-orbit couplings, the density dependence of Drude weight deviates from the linear behavior. We establish a relation between optical conductivity and the Berry connection. Unlike two-dimensional electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings, we explicitly show that the optical conductivity does not vanish even for equal strength of the two spin-orbit couplings. We attribute this fact to the non-zero Berry phase for equal strength of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings. The least photon energy needed to set in the optical transition in hole gas is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electron gas. Types of two van Hove singularities appear in the optical spectrum are also discussed.
SU(2) x U(1) unified theory for charge, orbit and spin currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Peiqing; Li Youquan; Zhang Fuchun
2006-01-01
Spin and charge currents in systems with Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are formulated in a unified version of four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory, with U(1) being the Maxwell field and SU(2) being the Yang-Mills field. While the bare spin current is non-conserved, it is compensated by a contribution from the SU(2) gauge field, which gives rise to a spin torque in the spin transport, consistent with the semi-classical theory of Culcer et al. Orbit current is shown to be non-conserved in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Similar to the Maxwell field inducing forces on charge and charge current, we derive forces acting on spin and spin current induced by the Yang-Mills fields such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields and the sheer strain field. The spin density and spin current may be considered as a source generating Yang-Mills field in certain condensed matter systems
Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2018-03-01
The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.
Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel
2018-05-01
Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.
Spin and orbital magnetisation densities determined by Compton scattering of photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Cooper, M.J.; Lovesey, S.W.; Uppsala Univ.
1990-03-01
Compton scattering of a circularly polarized photon beam is shown to provide direct information on orbital and spin magnetisation densities. Experiments are reported which demonstrate the feasibility of the method by correctly predicting the ratio of spin and orbital magnetisation components in iron and cobalt. A partially polarised beam of 45 keV photons from the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source produces charge-magnetic interference scattering which is measured by a field-difference method. Theory shows that the interference cross section contains the Compton profile of polarised electrons modulated by a structure factor which is a weighted sum of spin and orbital magnetisations. In particular, the scattering geometry for which the structure factor vanishes yields a unique value for the ratio of the magnetisation densities. Compton scattering, being an incoherent process, provides data on total unit cell magnetisations which can be directly compared with bulk data. In this respect, Compton scattering complements magnetic neutron and photon Bragg diffraction. (author)
Dirac-fermions in graphene d-wave superconducting heterojunction with the spin orbit interaction
Wang, Juntao; Wang, Andong; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Deng; Yang, Yanling
2017-09-01
In this study, based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we theoretically investigate the interaction effect between the anisotropic d-wave pairing symmetry and the spin orbit interaction (the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction (DSOI)) in a graphene superconducting heterojunction. We find that the spin orbit interaction (SOI) plays a critical role on the tunneling conductance in the pristine case, but minimally affecting the tunneling conductance in the heavily doped case. As for the zero bias state, in contrast to the keep intact feature in the heavily doped case, it exhibits a distinct dependence on the RSOI and the DSOI in the pristine case. In particular, the damage of the zero bias state with a slight DSOI results in the disappearance of the zero bias conductance peak. Moreover, the tunneling conductances also show a qualitative difference with respect to the RSOI when both the RSOI and the DSOI are finite. These remarkable results suggest that the SOI and the anisotropic superconducting gap can be regarded as a key tool for diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection.
Spin correlations and spin-wave excitations in Dirac-Weyl semimetals
Araki, Yasufumi; Nomura, Kentaro
We study correlations among magnetic dopants in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Effective field theory for localized magnetic moments is derived by integrating out the itinerant electron degrees of freedom. We find that spin correlation in the spatial direction parallel to local magnetization is more rigid than that in the perpendicular direction, reflecting spin-momentum locking nature of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Such an anisotropy becomes stronger for Fermi level close to the Dirac points, due to Van Vleck paramagnetism triggered by spin-orbit coupling. One can expect topologically nontrivial spin textures under this anisotropy, such as a hedgehog around a single point, or a radial vortex around an axis, as well as a uniform ferromagnetic order. We further investigate the characteristics of spin waves in the ferromagnetic state. Spin-wave dispersion also shows a spatial anisotropy, which is less dispersed in the direction transverse to the magnetization than that in the longitudinal direction. The spin-wave dispersion anisotropy can be traced back to the rigidity and flexibility of spin correlations discussed above. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grants No.15H05854, No.26107505, and No.26400308) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.
Spin dependent disorder in a junction device with spin orbit couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh
2016-01-01
Using the multi-probe Landauer-BUttiker formula and Green's function approach, we calculate the longitudinal conductance (LC) and spin Hall conductance (SHC) numerically in a two-dimensional junction system with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling (SOC) and spin dependent disorder (SDD) in presence of both random onsite and hopping disorder strengths. It has been found that when the strengths of the RSOC and DSOC are same, the SHC vanishes. Further in presence of random onsite or hopping disorder, the SHC is still zero when the strengths of the two types of SOC, that is Rashba and Dressselhaus are the same. This indicates that the cancellation of SHC is robust even in the presence of random disorder. Only with the inclusion of SDD (onsite or hopping), a non-zero SHC is found and it increases as the strength of SDD increases. The physical implication of the existence of a non-zero SHC has been explored in this work. Finally, we have compared the effect of onsite SDD and hopping SDD on both longitudinal and spin Hall conductances. (paper)
Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: hints for a general theory.
Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco
2008-10-01
We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Wen; Guo Yong
2005-01-01
We investigate the influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interactions on tunnelling through two-dimensional magnetic quantum systems. It is showed that not only Rashba spin-orbit coupling but also Dresselhaus one can affect spin tunnelling properties greatly in such a quantum system. The transmission possibility, the spin polarization and the conductance are obviously oscillated with both coupling strengths. High spin polarization, conductance and magnetic conductance of the structure can be obtained by modulating either Rashba or Dresselhaus coupling strength
Effects of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings on itinerant ferromagnetism
Liu, Mengnan; Xu, Liping; Wan, Yong; Yan, Xu
2018-02-01
Based on Stoner model for itinerant ferromagnet, effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on ferromagnetism were investigated at zero temperature. It was found that SOC will enhance the critical ferromagnetic exchange interaction for spontaneous magnetization, and then suppress ferromagnetism. In case of the coexistence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs, the mixture of the two spin-orbit couplings showed stronger suppressed effect on ferromagnetism than only one kind of SOC alone. When the two SOCs mixed with equal magnitude, ferromagnetism in itinerant ferromagnet was suppressed to minimum.
The generalized Mayer theorem in the approximating hamiltonian method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakulev, A.P.; Bogoliubov, N.N. Jr.; Kurbatov, A.M.
1982-07-01
With the help of the generalized Mayer theorem we obtain the improved inequality for free energies of model and approximating systems, where only ''connected parts'' over the approximating hamiltonian are taken into account. For the concrete system we discuss the problem of convergency of appropriate series of ''connected parts''. (author)
Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect
Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo
2018-05-01
We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.
A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution
Basu, B.; Roy, B.
2009-01-01
The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.
Block correlated second order perturbation theory with a generalized valence bond reference function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua
2013-01-01
The block correlated second-order perturbation theory with a generalized valence bond (GVB) reference (GVB-BCPT2) is proposed. In this approach, each geminal in the GVB reference is considered as a “multi-orbital” block (a subset of spin orbitals), and each occupied or virtual spin orbital is also taken as a single block. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is set to be the summation of the individual Hamiltonians of all blocks (with explicit two-electron operators within each geminal) so that the GVB reference function and all excited configuration functions are its eigenfunctions. The GVB-BCPT2 energy can be directly obtained without iteration, just like the second order Møller–Plesset perturbation method (MP2), both of which are size consistent. We have applied this GVB-BCPT2 method to investigate the equilibrium distances and spectroscopic constants of 7 diatomic molecules, conformational energy differences of 8 small molecules, and bond-breaking potential energy profiles in 3 systems. GVB-BCPT2 is demonstrated to have noticeably better performance than MP2 for systems with significant multi-reference character, and provide reasonably accurate results for some systems with large active spaces, which are beyond the capability of all CASSCF-based methods
Generalized Momentum Control of the Spin-Stabilized Magnetospheric Multiscale Formation
Queen, Steven Z.; Shah, Neerav; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; Blackman, Kathie
2015-01-01
The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four identically instrumented, spin-stabilized observatories elliptically orbiting the Earth in a tetrahedron formation. The on-board attitude control system adjusts the angular momentum of the system using a generalized thruster-actuated control system that simultaneously manages precession, nutation and spin. Originally developed using Lyapunov control-theory with rate-feedback, a published algorithm has been augmented to provide a balanced attitude/rate response using a single weighting parameter. This approach overcomes an orientation sign-ambiguity in the existing formulation, and also allows for a smoothly tuned-response applicable to both a compact/agile spacecraft, as well as one with large articulating appendages.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Chengzhi; Xue Rui; Nie, Y.-H.; Liang, J.-Q.
2009-01-01
Using the transfer matrix method, we investigate the electron transmission over multiple-well semiconductor superlattices with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the potential-well regions. The superlattice structure enhances the effect of spin polarization in the transmission spectrum. The minibands of multiple-well superlattices for electrons with different spin can be completely separated at the low incident energy, leading to the 100% spin polarization in a broad energy windows, which may be an effective scheme for realizing spin filtering. Moreover, for the transmission over n-quantum-well, it is observed that the resonance peaks in the minibands split into n-folds or (n-1)-folds depending on the well-width and barrier-thickness, which is different from the case of tunneling through n-barrier structure
Spin-orbit interaction effects in zincblende semiconductors: Ab initio pseudopotential calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Ming-Fu; Surh, M.P.; Louie, S.G.
1988-06-01
Ab initio band structure calculations have been performed for the spin-orbit interaction effects at the top of the valence bands for GaAs and InSb. Relativistic, norm-conserving pseudopotentials are used with no correction made for the gaps from the local density approximation. The spin-orbit splitting at Γ and linear terms in the /rvec char/k dependence of the splitting are found to be in excellent agreement with existing experiments and previous theoretical results. The effective mass and the cubic splitting terms are also examined. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Global symplectic structure-preserving integrators for spinning compact binaries
Zhong, Shuang-Ying; Wu, Xin; Liu, San-Qiu; Deng, Xin-Fa
2010-12-01
This paper deals mainly with the application of the second-order symplectic implicit midpoint rule and its symmetric compositions to a post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation with canonical spin variables in relativistic compact binaries. The midpoint rule, as a basic algorithm, is directly used to integrate the completely canonical Hamiltonian system. On the other hand, there are symmetric composite methods based on a splitting of the Hamiltonian into two parts: the Newtonian part associated with a Kepler motion, and a perturbation part involving the orbital post-Newtonian and spin contributions, where the Kepler flow has an analytic solution and the perturbation can be calculated by the midpoint rule. An example is the second-order mixed leapfrog symplectic integrator with one stage integration of the perturbation flow and two semistage computations of the Kepler flow at every integration step. Also, higher-order composite methods such as the Forest-Ruth fourth-order symplectic integrator and its optimized algorithm are applicable. Various numerical tests including simulations of chaotic orbits show that the mixed leapfrog integrator is always superior to the midpoint rule in energy accuracy, while both of them are almost equivalent in computational efficiency. Particularly, the optimized fourth-order algorithm compared with the mixed leapfrog scheme provides good precision and needs no expensive additional computational time. As a result, it is worth performing a more detailed and careful examination of the dynamical structure of chaos and order in the parameter windows and phase space of the binary system.
Ganapathy, Vinay; Ramachandran, Ramesh
2017-10-01
The response of a quadrupolar nucleus (nuclear spin with I > 1/2) to an oscillating radio-frequency pulse/field is delicately dependent on the ratio of the quadrupolar coupling constant to the amplitude of the pulse in addition to its duration and oscillating frequency. Consequently, analytic description of the excitation process in the density operator formalism has remained less transparent within existing theoretical frameworks. As an alternative, the utility of the "concept of effective Floquet Hamiltonians" is explored in the present study to explicate the nuances of the excitation process in multilevel systems. Employing spin I = 3/2 as a case study, a unified theoretical framework for describing the excitation of multiple-quantum transitions in static isotropic and anisotropic solids is proposed within the framework of perturbation theory. The challenges resulting from the anisotropic nature of the quadrupolar interactions are addressed within the effective Hamiltonian framework. The possible role of the various interaction frames on the convergence of the perturbation corrections is discussed along with a proposal for a "hybrid method" for describing the excitation process in anisotropic solids. Employing suitable model systems, the validity of the proposed hybrid method is substantiated through a rigorous comparison between simulations emerging from exact numerical and analytic methods.
Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z
2016-08-01
Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.
Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan
2016-03-21
The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.
An electrically reconfigurable logic gate intrinsically enabled by spin-orbit materials.
Kazemi, Mohammad
2017-11-10
The spin degree of freedom in magnetic devices has been discussed widely for computing, since it could significantly reduce energy dissipation, might enable beyond Von Neumann computing, and could have applications in quantum computing. For spin-based computing to become widespread, however, energy efficient logic gates comprising as few devices as possible are required. Considerable recent progress has been reported in this area. However, proposals for spin-based logic either require ancillary charge-based devices and circuits in each individual gate or adopt principals underlying charge-based computing by employing ancillary spin-based devices, which largely negates possible advantages. Here, we show that spin-orbit materials possess an intrinsic basis for the execution of logic operations. We present a spin-orbit logic gate that performs a universal logic operation utilizing the minimum possible number of devices, that is, the essential devices required for representing the logic operands. Also, whereas the previous proposals for spin-based logic require extra devices in each individual gate to provide reconfigurability, the proposed gate is 'electrically' reconfigurable at run-time simply by setting the amplitude of the clock pulse applied to the gate. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically with experimentally benchmarked models, that the gate performs logic operations and simultaneously stores the result, realizing the 'stateful' spin-based logic scalable to ultralow energy dissipation.
Probing the spin-orbit Mott state in Sr3Ir2O7 by electron doping
Hogan, Thomas C.
Iridium-based members of the Ruddlesden-Popper family of oxide compounds are characterized by a unique combination of energetically comparable effects: crystal-field splitting, spin-orbit coupling, and electron-electron interactions are all present, and the combine to produce a Jeff = 1/2 ground state. In the bilayer member of this series, Sr3Ir2O7, this state manifests as electrically insulating, with unpaired Ir4+ spins aligned along the long axis of the unit cell to produce a G-type antiferromagnet with an ordered moment of 0.36 uB. In this work, this Mott state is destabilized by electron doping via La3+ substitution on the Sr-site to produce (Sr1-x Lax)3Ir2O7. The introduction of carriers initially causes nano-scale phase-separated regions to develop before driving a global insulator-to-metal transition at x=0.04. Coinciding with this transition is the disappearance of evidence of magnetic order in the system in either bulk magnetization or magnetic scattering experiments. The doping also enhances a structural order parameter observed in the parent compound at forbidden reciprocal lattice vectors. A more complete structural solution is proposed to account for this previously unresolved distortion, and also offers an explanation as to the anomalous net ferromagnetism seen prior in bulk measurements. Finally, spin dynamics are probed via a resonant x-ray technique to reveal evidence of spin-dimer-like behavior dominated by inter-plane interactions. This result supports a bond-operator treatment of the interaction Hamiltonian, and also explains the doping dependence of high temperature magnetic susceptibility.
Scattering resonances in a low-dimensional Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupled quantum gas
Wang, Su-Ju; Blume, D.
2017-04-01
Confinement-induced resonances allow for the tuning of the effective one-dimensional coupling constant. When the scattering state associated with the ground transverse mode is brought into resonance with the bound state attached to the energetically excited transverse modes, the atoms interact through an infinitely strong repulsion. This provides a route to realize the Tonks-Girardeau gas. On the other hand, the realization of synthetic gauge fields in cold atomic systems has attracted a lot of attention. For instance, bound-state formation is found to be significantly modified in the presence of spin-orbit coupling in three dimensions. This motivates us to study ultracold collisions between two Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupled atoms in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry. We develop a multi-channel scattering formalism that accounts for the external transverse confinement and the spin-orbit coupling terms. The interplay between these two single-particle terms is shown to give rise to new scattering resonances. In particular, it is analyzed what happens when the scattering energy crosses the various scattering thresholds that arise from the single-particle confinement and the spin-orbit coupling. Support by the NSF is gratefully acknowledged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnutek, P; Rudowicz, C; Yang, Z Y
2009-01-01
The local structure and the spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters, including the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameters D and (a+2F/3), and the Zeeman g factors g || and g perpendicular , are theoretically investigated for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 crystal. The microscopic SH (MSH) parameters are modeled within the framework of the crystal field (CF) theory employing the CF analysis (CFA) package, which also incorporates the MSH modules. Our approach takes into account the spin-orbit interaction as well as the spin-spin and spin-other-orbit interactions omitted in previous studies. The superposition model (SPM) calculations are carried out to provide input CF parameters for the CFA/MSH package. The combined SPM-CFA/MSH approach is used to consider various structural models for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- defect center in KTaO 3 . This modeling reveals that the off-center displacement of the Fe 3+ ions, Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ), combined with an inward relaxation of the nearest oxygen ligands, Δ 2 (O 2- ), and the existence of the interstitial oxygen O I 2- give rise to a strong tetragonal crystal field. This finding may explain the large ZFS experimentally observed for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 . Matching the theoretical MSH predictions with the available structural data as well as electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and optical spectroscopy data enables predicting reasonable ranges of values of Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ) and Δ 2 (O 2- ) as well as the possible location of O I 2- ligands around Fe 3+ ions in KTaO 3 . The defect structure model obtained using the SPM-CFA/MSH approach reproduces very well the ranges of the experimental SH parameters D, g || and g perpendicular and importantly yields not only the correct magnitude of D but also the sign, unlike previous studies. More reliable predictions may be achieved when experimental data on (a+2F/3) and/or crystal field energy levels become available. Comparison of our results with those arising from alternative models existing
Isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, V.I.
2007-01-01
The analysis has been made of experimental data on level spectra, single-nucleon transfer reactions near closed shells, and data on polarization effects in charge-exchange (p, n) reactions between isoanalogous states of nuclei with even A. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbitals. This conclusion is confirmed in the frame work of different theoretical approaches [ru
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Arrayás
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We calculate analytically the spin-orbital decomposition of the angular momentum using completely nonparaxial fields that have a certain degree of linkage of electric and magnetic lines. The split of the angular momentum into spin-orbital components is worked out for non-null knotted electromagnetic fields. The relation between magnetic and electric helicities and spin-orbital decomposition of the angular momentum is considered. We demonstrate that even if the total angular momentum and the values of the spin and orbital momentum are the same, the behavior of the local angular momentum density is rather different. By taking cases with constant and non-constant electric and magnetic helicities, we show that the total angular momentum density presents different characteristics during time evolution.
A spin-orbital-entangled quantum liquid on a honeycomb lattice
Kitagawa, K.; Takayama, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kato, A.; Takano, R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Bette, S.; Dinnebier, R.; Jackeli, G.; Takagi, H.
2018-02-01
The honeycomb lattice is one of the simplest lattice structures. Electrons and spins on this simple lattice, however, often form exotic phases with non-trivial excitations. Massless Dirac fermions can emerge out of itinerant electrons, as demonstrated experimentally in graphene, and a topological quantum spin liquid with exotic quasiparticles can be realized in spin-1/2 magnets, as proposed theoretically in the Kitaev model. The quantum spin liquid is a long-sought exotic state of matter, in which interacting spins remain quantum-disordered without spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Kitaev model describes one example of a quantum spin liquid, and can be solved exactly by introducing two types of Majorana fermion. Realizing a Kitaev model in the laboratory, however, remains a challenge in materials science. Mott insulators with a honeycomb lattice of spin-orbital-entangled pseudospin-1/2 moments have been proposed, including the 5d-electron systems α-Na2IrO3 (ref. 5) and α-Li2IrO3 (ref. 6) and the 4d-electron system α-RuCl3 (ref. 7). However, these candidates were found to magnetically order rather than form a liquid at sufficiently low temperatures, owing to non-Kitaev interactions. Here we report a quantum-liquid state of pseudospin-1/2 moments in the 5d-electron honeycomb compound H3LiIr2O6. This iridate does not display magnetic ordering down to 0.05 kelvin, despite an interaction energy of about 100 kelvin. We observe signatures of low-energy fermionic excitations that originate from a small number of spin defects in the nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation and the specific heat. We therefore conclude that H3LiIr2O6 is a quantum spin liquid. This result opens the door to finding exotic quasiparticles in a strongly spin-orbit-coupled 5d-electron transition-metal oxide.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can Onur; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-10-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques are one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices, and hold promise for fast switching applications in non-volatile memory and logic units. Here, we report the direct observation of spin-orbit-torque-driven magnetization dynamics in Pt/Co/AlOx dots during current pulse injection. Time-resolved X-ray images with 25 nm spatial and 100 ps temporal resolution reveal that switching is achieved within the duration of a subnanosecond current pulse by the fast nucleation of an inverted domain at the edge of the dot and propagation of a tilted domain wall across the dot. The nucleation point is deterministic and alternates between the four dot quadrants depending on the sign of the magnetization, current and external field. Our measurements reveal how the magnetic symmetry is broken by the concerted action of the damping-like and field-like spin-orbit torques and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and show that reproducible switching events can be obtained for over 1012 reversal cycles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalfaoğlu, Emel [Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey); Karabulut, Bünyamin, E-mail: bbulut@omu.edu.tr [Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey)
2016-09-15
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of VO{sup 2+} ions in NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O single crystal have been studied. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated. The angular variation of the EPR spectra shows two different VO{sup 2+} complexes. These are located in different chemical environment and each environment contains four magnetically inequivalent VO{sup 2+} sites. The crystal field around VO{sup 2+} ion is approximately axially symmetric since a strong V=O bond distorts the crystal lattice. Spin Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated from the EPR data and the nature of bonding in the complex was discussed together.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Huatong
2007-01-01
Some exact identities connecting one- and two-particle Green's functions in the presence of spin-orbit coupling have been derived. These identities are similar to the Ward identity in usual quantum transport theory of electrons. A satisfying approximate calculation of the spin transport in spin-orbit coupling system should also preserve these identities, just as the Ward identities should be remained in the usual electronic transport theory
Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis
2018-02-01
The orbital relaxation attendant on ionization is particularly important for the core electron ionization potential (core IP) of molecules. The Unitary Group Adapted State Universal Coupled Cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory, recently formulated and implemented by Sen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074104 (2012)], is very effective in capturing orbital relaxation accompanying ionization or excitation of both the core and the valence electrons [S. Sen et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 2625 (2013); A. Shee et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 2573 (2013)] while preserving the spin-symmetry of the target states and using the neutral closed-shell spatial orbitals of the ground state. Our Ansatz invokes a normal-ordered exponential representation of spin-free cluster-operators. The orbital relaxation induced by a specific set of cluster operators in our Ansatz is good enough to eliminate the need for different sets of orbitals for the ground and the core-ionized states. We call the single configuration state function (CSF) limit of this theory the Unitary Group Adapted Open-Shell Coupled Cluster (UGA-OSCC) theory. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively explore the efficacy of our Ansatz to describe orbital relaxation, using both theoretical analysis and numerical performance. Whenever warranted, we also make appropriate comparisons with other coupled-cluster theories. A physically motivated truncation of the chains of spin-free T-operators is also made possible by the normal-ordering, and the operational resemblance to single reference coupled-cluster theory allows easy implementation. Our test case is the prediction of the 1s core IP of molecules containing a single light- to medium-heavy nucleus and thus, in addition to demonstrating the orbital relaxation, we have addressed the scalar relativistic effects on the accuracy of the IPs by using a hierarchy of spin-free Hamiltonians in conjunction with our theory. Additionally, the contribution of the spin-free component of the two
Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis
2018-02-07
The orbital relaxation attendant on ionization is particularly important for the core electron ionization potential (core IP) of molecules. The Unitary Group Adapted State Universal Coupled Cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory, recently formulated and implemented by Sen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074104 (2012)], is very effective in capturing orbital relaxation accompanying ionization or excitation of both the core and the valence electrons [S. Sen et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 2625 (2013); A. Shee et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 2573 (2013)] while preserving the spin-symmetry of the target states and using the neutral closed-shell spatial orbitals of the ground state. Our Ansatz invokes a normal-ordered exponential representation of spin-free cluster-operators. The orbital relaxation induced by a specific set of cluster operators in our Ansatz is good enough to eliminate the need for different sets of orbitals for the ground and the core-ionized states. We call the single configuration state function (CSF) limit of this theory the Unitary Group Adapted Open-Shell Coupled Cluster (UGA-OSCC) theory. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively explore the efficacy of our Ansatz to describe orbital relaxation, using both theoretical analysis and numerical performance. Whenever warranted, we also make appropriate comparisons with other coupled-cluster theories. A physically motivated truncation of the chains of spin-free T-operators is also made possible by the normal-ordering, and the operational resemblance to single reference coupled-cluster theory allows easy implementation. Our test case is the prediction of the 1s core IP of molecules containing a single light- to medium-heavy nucleus and thus, in addition to demonstrating the orbital relaxation, we have addressed the scalar relativistic effects on the accuracy of the IPs by using a hierarchy of spin-free Hamiltonians in conjunction with our theory. Additionally, the contribution of the spin-free component of the two
Periodic orbits and non-integrability of Henon-Heiles systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llibre, Jaume; Jimenez-Lara, Lidia
2011-01-01
We apply the averaging theory of second order to study the periodic orbits for a generalized Henon-Heiles system with two parameters, which contains the classical Henon-Heiles system. Two main results are shown. The first result provides sufficient conditions on the two parameters of these generalized systems, which guarantee that at any positive energy level, the Hamiltonian system has periodic orbits. These periodic orbits form in the whole phase space a continuous family of periodic orbits parameterized by the energy. The second result shows that for the non-integrable Henon-Heiles systems in the sense of Liouville-Arnol'd, which have the periodic orbits analytically found with averaging theory, cannot exist any second first integral of class C 1 . In particular, for any second first integral of class C 1 , we prove that the classical Henon-Heiles system and many generalizations of it are not integrable in the sense of Liouville-Arnol'd. Moreover, the tools we use for studying the periodic orbits and the non-Liouville-Arnol'd integrability can be applied to Hamiltonian systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom.
Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors
Schott, Sam
2017-05-11
The control of spins and spin to charge conversion in organics requires understanding the molecular spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and a means to tune its strength. However, quantifying SOC strengths indirectly through spin relaxation effects has proven difficult due to competing relaxation mechanisms. Here we present a systematic study of the g-tensor shift in molecular semiconductors and link it directly to the SOC strength in a series of high-mobility molecular semiconductors with strong potential for future devices. The results demonstrate a rich variability of the molecular g-shifts with the effective SOC, depending on subtle aspects of molecular composition and structure. We correlate the above g-shifts to spin-lattice relaxation times over four orders of magnitude, from 200 to 0.15 μs, for isolated molecules in solution and relate our findings for isolated molecules in solution to the spin relaxation mechanisms that are likely to be relevant in solid state systems.
Spin–orbit induced electronic spin separation in semiconductor nanostructures
Kohda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shuji; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Taiki; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-01-01
The demonstration of quantized spin splitting by Stern and Gerlach is one of the most important experiments in modern physics. Their discovery was the precursor of recent developments in spin-based technologies. Although electrical spin separation of charged particles is fundamental in spintronics, in non-uniform magnetic fields it has been difficult to separate the spin states of charged particles due to the Lorentz force, as well as to the insufficient and uncontrollable field gradients. Here we demonstrate electronic spin separation in a semiconductor nanostructure. To avoid the Lorentz force, which is inevitably induced when an external magnetic field is applied, we utilized the effective non-uniform magnetic field which originates from the Rashba spin–orbit interaction in an InGaAs-based heterostructure. Using a Stern–Gerlach-inspired mechanism, together with a quantum point contact, we obtained field gradients of 108 T m−1 resulting in a highly polarized spin current. PMID:23011136
Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors
Schott, Sam; McNellis, Erik R.; Nielsen, Christian B.; Chen, Hung-Yang; Watanabe, Shun; Tanaka, Hisaaki; McCulloch, Iain; Takimiya, Kazuo; Sinova, Jairo; Sirringhaus, Henning
2017-01-01
The control of spins and spin to charge conversion in organics requires understanding the molecular spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and a means to tune its strength. However, quantifying SOC strengths indirectly through spin relaxation effects has proven difficult due to competing relaxation mechanisms. Here we present a systematic study of the g-tensor shift in molecular semiconductors and link it directly to the SOC strength in a series of high-mobility molecular semiconductors with strong potential for future devices. The results demonstrate a rich variability of the molecular g-shifts with the effective SOC, depending on subtle aspects of molecular composition and structure. We correlate the above g-shifts to spin-lattice relaxation times over four orders of magnitude, from 200 to 0.15 μs, for isolated molecules in solution and relate our findings for isolated molecules in solution to the spin relaxation mechanisms that are likely to be relevant in solid state systems.
Room-Temperature Spin-Orbit Torque Switching Induced by a Topological Insulator
Han, Jiahao; Richardella, A.; Siddiqui, Saima A.; Finley, Joseph; Samarth, N.; Liu, Luqiao
2017-08-01
The strongly spin-momentum coupled electronic states in topological insulators (TI) have been extensively pursued to realize efficient magnetic switching. However, previous studies show a large discrepancy of the charge-spin conversion efficiency. Moreover, current-induced magnetic switching with TI can only be observed at cryogenic temperatures. We report spin-orbit torque switching in a TI-ferrimagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature. The obtained effective spin Hall angle of TI is substantially larger than the previously studied heavy metals. Our results demonstrate robust charge-spin conversion in TI and provide a direct avenue towards applicable TI-based spintronic devices.
The su(2 vertical bar 3) dynamic spin chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beisert, Niklas
2004-01-01
The complete one-loop, planar dilatation operator of the N=4 superconformal gauge theory was recently derived and shown to be integrable. Here, we present further compelling evidence for a generalisation of this integrable structure to higher orders of the coupling constant. For that we consider the su(2 vertical bar 3) subsector and investigate the restrictions imposed on the spin chain Hamiltonian by the symmetry algebra. This allows us to uniquely fix the energy shifts up to the three-loop level and thus prove the correctness of a conjecture in hep-th/0303060. A novel aspect of this spin chain model is that the higher-loop Hamiltonian, as for N=4 SYM in general, does not preserve the number of spin sites. Yet this dynamic spin chain appears to be integrable
Spin conversion induced by the spin-orbit interaction in positronium collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Haruo; Nakayama, Takashi; Hyodo, Toshio
2009-01-01
We show the existence of a new reaction mechanism of positronium - ortho-Ps - para-Ps conversion reaction induced by the spin-orbit interaction. This interaction was previously believed to be negligibly small. Recently, however, Mitroy has suggested that this interaction could be observed in Ps-Xe collision. In the present work, we have succeeded in observing this effect and obtaining the reaction rate by using the Zeeman mixing of positronium.
Universal Borromean Binding in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Ultracold Fermi Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoling Cui
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Borromean rings and Borromean binding, a class of intriguing phenomena as three objects are linked (bound together while any two of them are unlinked (unbound, widely exist in nature and have been found in systems of biology, chemistry, and physics. Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of such a binding in physical systems typically relies on the microscopic details of pairwise interaction potentials at short range and is, therefore, nonuniversal. Here, we report a new type of Borromean binding in ultracold Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is universal against short-range interaction details, with its binding energy only dependent on the s-wave scattering length and the spin-orbit-coupling strength. We show that the occurrence of this universal Borromean binding is facilitated by the symmetry of the single-particle dispersion under spin-orbit coupling and is, therefore, symmetry selective rather than interaction selective. The state is robust over a wide range of mass ratios between composing fermions, which are accessible by Li-Li, K-K, and K-Li mixtures in cold-atom experiments. Our results reveal the importance of single- particle spectral symmetry in few-body physics and shed light on the emergence of new quantum phases in a many-body system with exotic few-body correlations.
N=28 shell closure : shape coexistence and spin-orbit contribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Frederic
1999-01-01
One of the fundamental questions, which emerge from the study of nuclei far from stability, concerns the persistence of the magic character of certain configurations of protons and neutrons. From previous measurements around the N=28 magic number, it appears that this shell closure is especially weakening. In this context, a mass measurement experiment by a time of flight method around N=28 (Z 43 S in the same experiment and its interpretation by a shell model calculation confirm the analysis of the masses and constitutes the first evidence of shape coexistence around N=28. At the same time, an estimation of the evolution of the contribution of the spin-orbit coupling far from stability, partially responsible of the magic numbers sequence, showed that, although non-negligible, it is not sufficient to explain the vanishing of the shell closure. Through this study, it appeared extremely difficult to separate the contribution of the deformation from the one of the spin-orbit coupling in spectroscopic experiments. A feasibility study has thus been undertaken concerning a polarised proton and deuteron target to measure directly the evolution of the spin-orbit potential as a function of the isospin through elastic scattering experiments. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Mikoczi, Balazs
2009-01-01
We give here a new third post-Newtonian (3PN) spin-spin contribution (in the PN parameter ε) to the accumulated orbital phase of a compact binary, arising from the spin-orbit precessional motion of the spins. In the equal mass case, this contribution vanishes, but Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sources of merging supermassive binary black holes have typically a mass ratio of 1:10. For such nonequal masses, this 3PN correction is periodic in time, with a period approximately ε -1 times larger than the period of gravitational waves. We derive a renormalized and simpler expression of the spin-spin coefficient at 2PN, as an average over the time scale of this period of the combined 2PN and 3PN contribution. We also find that for LISA sources the quadrupole-monopole contribution to the phase dominates over the spin-spin contribution, while the self-spin contribution is negligible even for the dominant spin. Finally, we define a renormalized total spin coefficient σ to be employed in the search for gravitational waves emitted by LISA sources.
Divide and conquer method for proving gaps of frustration free Hamiltonians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kastoryano, Michael J.; Lucia, Angelo
2018-01-01
Providing system-size independent lower bounds on the spectral gap of local Hamiltonian is in general a hard problem. For the case of finite-range, frustration free Hamiltonians on a spin lattice of arbitrary dimension, we show that a property of the ground state space is sufficient to obtain...... such a bound. We furthermore show that such a condition is necessary and equivalent to a constant spectral gap. Thanks to this equivalence, we can prove that for gapless models in any dimension, the spectral gap on regions of diameter $n$ is at most $o\\left(\\frac{\\log(n)^{2+\\epsilon}}{n}\\right)$ for any...... positive $\\epsilon$....
Von Neumann entropy in a Rashba-Dresselhaus nanodot; dynamical electronic spin-orbit entanglement
Safaiee, Rosa; Golshan, Mohammad Mehdi
2017-06-01
The main purpose of the present article is to report the characteristics of von Neumann entropy, thereby, the electronic hybrid entanglement, in the heterojunction of two semiconductors, with due attention to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. To this end, we cast the von Neumann entropy in terms of spin polarization and compute its time evolution; with a vast span of applications. It is assumed that gate potentials are applied to the heterojunction, providing a two dimensional parabolic confining potential (forming an isotropic nanodot at the junction), as well as means of controlling the spin-orbit couplings. The spin degeneracy is also removed, even at electronic zero momentum, by the presence of an external magnetic field which, in turn, leads to the appearance of Landau states. We then proceed by computing the time evolution of the corresponding von Neumann entropy from a separable (spin-polarized) initial state. The von Neumann entropy, as we show, indicates that electronic hybrid entanglement does occur between spin and two-dimensional Landau levels. Our results also show that von Neumann entropy, as well as the degree of spin-orbit entanglement, periodically collapses and revives. The characteristics of such behavior; period, amplitude, etc., are shown to be determined from the controllable external agents. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the phenomenon of collapse-revivals' in the behavior of von Neumann entropy, equivalently, electronic hybrid entanglement, is accompanied by plateaus (of great importance in quantum computation schemes) whose durations are, again, controlled by the external elements. Along these lines, we also make a comparison between effects of the two spin-orbit couplings on the entanglement (von Neumann entropy) characteristics. The finer details of the electronic hybrid entanglement, which may be easily verified through spin polarization measurements, are also accreted and discussed. The novel results of the present
Impact of spin-orbit density dependent potential in heavy ion reactions forming Se nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajni; Sharma, Ishita; Sharma, Manoj K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Jain, Deepika [Mata Gujri College, Department of Physics, Fatehgarh Sahib (India)
2017-10-15
The Skyrme energy density formalism is employed to explore the effect of spin-orbit interaction potential by considering a two nucleon transfer process via various entrance channels such as {sup 23}Na + {sup 49}V, {sup 25}Mg + {sup 47}Ti, {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc, {sup 29}Si + {sup 43}Ca and {sup 31}P + {sup 41}K, all forming the same compound system {sup 72}Se*, using both spherical as well as quadrupole deformed (β{sub 2}) nuclei. For spherical nuclei, the spin-orbit density part V{sub J} of nuclear potential remains unaffected with the transfer of two nucleons from the target to the projectile, however, show notable variation in magnitude after inclusion of deformation effects. Likewise, deformations play an important role in the spin-orbit density independent part V{sub P}, as the fusion pocket start appears, which otherwise diminish for the spherical nuclei. Further, the effect of an increase in the N/Z ratio of Se is explored on V{sub J} as well as V{sub P} and results are compared with transfer channels. In addition to this, the role of double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}) with relative contribution of the isoscalar and isovector parts of spin-orbit strength is explored in view of SkI2, SkI3 and SkI4 Skyrme forces. Beside this, the decay path of {sup 72}Se* nucleus formed in {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is investigated within the framework of dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), where the nuclear proximity potential is obtained by both Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF) and proximity pocket formula. The fusion hindrance in the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is also addressed via the barrier lowering parameter ΔV{sub B}. Finally, the contribution of spin-orbit density dependent interaction potential is estimated for the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction using single (W{sub 0} or W{sub 0}{sup '}) and double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}). (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)
2013-05-28
A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S are obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row
Non-Hamiltonian generalizations of the dispersionless 2DTL hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, L V
2010-01-01
We consider two-component integrable generalizations of the dispersionless two-dimensional Toda lattice (2DTL) hierarchy connected with non-Hamiltonian vector fields, similar to the Manakov-Santini hierarchy generalizing the dKP hierarchy. They form a one-parametric family connected by hodograph-type transformations. Generating equations and Lax-Sato equations are introduced, and a dressing scheme based on the vector nonlinear Riemann problem is formulated. The simplest two-component generalization of the dispersionless 2DTL equation is derived, and its differential reduction analogous to the Dunajski interpolating system is presented. A symmetric two-component generalization of the dispersionless elliptic 2DTL equation is also constructed.
Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Das
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The strongly correlated insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4} is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca_{2}RuO_{4}. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band-Mott scenario and explore in detail the nature of its exotic excitations. Guided by theoretical modeling, we interpret the low-energy excitations as a result of composite spin-orbital excitations. Their nature unveils the intricate interplay of crystal-field splitting and spin-orbit coupling in the band-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund’s coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4}.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Quantum Magnetism in the 3D-Honeycomb Iridates
Kimchi, Itamar
In this doctoral dissertation, we consider the significance of spin-orbit coupling for the phases of matter which arise for strongly correlated electrons. We explore emergent behavior in quantum many-body systems, including symmetry-breaking orders, quantum spin liquids, and unconventional superconductivity. Our study is cemented by a particular class of Mott-insulating materials, centered around a family of two- and three-dimensional iridium oxides, whose honeycomb-like lattice structure admits peculiar magnetic interactions, the so-called Kitaev exchange. By analyzing recent experiments on these compounds, we show that this unconventional exchange is the key ingredient in describing their magnetism, and then use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to investigate the implications for the phase diagram as well as the physics of the proximate three-dimensional quantum spin liquid phases. These long-ranged-entangled fractionalized phases should exhibit special features, including finite-temperature stability as well as unconventional high-Tc superconductivity upon charge-doping, which should aid future experimental searches for spin liquid physics. Our study explores the nature of frustration and fractionalization which can arise in quantum systems in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling.
Spin-orbit interaction in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well
Beukman, Arjan J. A.; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Skolasinski, Rafal; Wimmer, Michael; Qu, Fanming; de Vries, David T.; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Yi, Wei; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Sokolich, Marko; Manfra, Michael J.; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit interaction is investigated in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well. Using an electric field, the quantum well can be tuned between a single-carrier regime with exclusively electrons as carriers and a two-carrier regime where electrons and holes coexist. The spin-orbit interaction in both regimes manifests itself as a beating in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In the single-carrier regime the linear Dresselhaus strength is characterized by β =28.5 meV Å and the Rashba coefficient α is tuned from 75 to 53 meV Å by changing the electric field. In the two-carrier regime a quenching of the spin splitting is observed and attributed to a crossing of spin bands.
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Valizadeh, Mohammad M.; Satpathy, S.
2018-03-01
Chiral order in magnetic structures is currently an area of considerable interest and leads to skyrmion structures and domain walls with certain chirality. The chiral structure originates from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction caused by broken inversion symmetry and the spin-orbit interaction. In addition to the Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions, there may also exist substantial spin polarization in magnetic thin films. Here, we study the exchange interaction between two localized magnetic moments in the spin-polarized electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction present. Analytical expressions are found in certain limits in addition to what is known in the literature. The stability of the Bloch and Néel domain walls in magnetic thin films is discussed in light of our results.
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-11-29
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maiti, Santanu K.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chakrabarti, Arunava
2012-01-01
We establish an exact analytical treatment for the determination of the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in a single sample by measuring persistent spin current. A hidden symmetry is exploited in the Hamiltonian to show that the spin current vanishes when the strength of the Dresselhaus interaction becomes equal to the strength of the Rashba term. The results are sustained even in the presence of disorder and thus an experiment in this regard will be challenging. -- Highlights: ► An exact analytical treatment is given for the measurement of spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample. ► Persistent spin current is calculated. ► Our present analysis gives us confidence to propose an experiment in this line.
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark
2012-01-01
as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup......We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve...
Mixing of t2 g-eg orbitals in 4 d and 5 d transition metal oxides
Stamokostas, Georgios L.; Fiete, Gregory A.
2018-02-01
Using exact diagonalization, we study the spin-orbit coupling and interaction-induced mixing between t2 g and egd -orbital states in a cubic crystalline environment, as commonly occurs in transition metal oxides. We make a direct comparison with the widely used t2 g-only or eg-only models, depending on electronic filling. We consider all electron fillings of the d shell and compute the total magnetic moment, the spin, the occupancy of each orbital, and the effective spin-orbit coupling strength (renormalized through interaction effects) in terms of the bare interaction parameters, spin-orbit coupling, and crystal-field splitting, focusing on the parameter ranges relevant to 4 d and 5 d transition metal oxides. In various limits, we provide perturbative results consistent with our numerical calculations. We find that the t2 g-eg mixing can be large, with up to 20% occupation of orbitals that are nominally "empty," which has experimental implications for the interpretation of the branching ratio in experiments, and can impact the effective local moment Hamiltonian used to study magnetic phases and magnetic excitations in transition metal oxides. Our results can aid the theoretical interpretation of experiments on these materials, which often fall in a regime of intermediate coupling with respect to electron-electron interactions.
New Integrable Couplings of Generalized Kaup-Newell Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Tiecheng; Zhang Gailian; Fan Engui
2011-01-01
A new isospectral problem is firstly presented, then we derive integrable system of soliton hierarchy. Also we obtain new integrable couplings of the generalized Kaup-Newell soliton equations hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structures by using Tu scheme and the quadratic-form identity. The method can be generalized to other soliton hierarchy. (general)
Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Naeimi, A. S.
2018-01-01
The spin-resolved electron transport through a triangular network of quantum nanorings is studied in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. This study illustrates that, by tuning Rashba constant, magnetic flux and incoming electron energy, the triangular network of quantum rings can act as a perfect logical spin-filtering with high efficiency. By changing in the energy of incoming electron, at a proper value of the Rashba constant and magnetic flux, a reverse in the direction of spin can take place in the triangular network of quantum nanorings. Furthermore, the triangular network of quantum nanorings can be designed as a device and shows several simultaneous spintronic properties such as spin-splitter and spin-inverter. This spin-splitting is dependent on the energy of the incoming electron. Additionally, different polarizations can be achieved in the two outgoing leads from an originally incoming spin state that simulates a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.
Fermionic Hubbard model with Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling
Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming
2017-06-01
In this work, we investigate the possible dramatic effects of Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the fermionic Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. In the strong coupling limit, it leads to the rotated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model which is a new class of quantum spin model. For a special equivalent class, we identify a new spin-orbital entangled commensurate ground (Y-y) state subject to strong quantum fluctuations at T = 0. We evaluate the quantum fluctuations by the spin wave expansion up to order 1/{S}2. In some SOC parameter regimes, the Y-y state supports a massive relativistic incommensurate magnon (C-IC) with its two gap minima positions continuously tuned by the SOC parameters. The C-IC magnons dominate all the low temperature thermodynamic quantities and also lead to the separation of the peak positions between the longitudinal and the transverse spin structure factors. In the weak coupling limit, any weak repulsive interaction also leads to a weak Y-y state. There is only a crossover from the weak to the strong coupling. High temperature expansions of the specific heats in both weak and strong coupling are presented. The dramatic roles to be played by these C-IC magnons at generic SOC parameters or under various external probes are hinted at. Experimental applications to both layered noncentrosymmetric materials and cold atoms are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.
2013-01-01
Influence of electrons interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons on magnetoelectric and spin-related transport effects are investigated. The considered system is a two-dimensional electron gas system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit couplings. The works which have previously been performed in this field, have revealed that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot be responsible for spin current in the non-equilibrium regime. In the current Letter, a semiclassical method was employed using the Boltzmann approach and it was shown that the spin current of the system, in general, does not go all the way to zero when the electron–phonon coupling is taken into account. It was also shown that spin accumulation of the system could be influenced by electron–phonon coupling.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xi; ZHOU Guang-Hui
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors.Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential.Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density jTs,xi and jTs,yi(I = x, y, z).We lind that the elements jTs,xx and jTs,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element jTs,yz has the same amount level jTs,xx and jTs,yy.We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire.The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.
Spin injection and filtering in halfmetal/semiconductor (CrAs/GaAs) heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stickler, B. A.; Ertler, C.; Pötz, W.; Chioncel, L.; Arrigoni, E.
2013-01-01
Theoretical investigations of spin-dependent transport in GaAS/CrAs/GaAs halfmetal-semiconductor heterostructures indicate that this system is a candidate for an efficient room temperature spin injector and filter. The spin dependent electronic structure of zincblende CrAs and the band offset between GaAs and CrAs are determined by ab-initio calculations within the method of linear muffin tin orbitals (LMTO). This band structure is mapped onto an effective sp 3 d 5 s* nearest neighbor tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian and the steady-state transport characteristic is calculated within a non-equilibrium Green’s function approach. Even at room temperature we find current spin polarizations up to 97%
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salahuddin, Sayeef [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2015-12-21
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek; Salahuddin, Sayeef
2015-01-01
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10 6 successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging
Symmetries and conservation laws for generalized Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cantrijn, F.; Sarlet, W.
1981-01-01
A class of dynamical systems which locally correspond to a general first-order system of Euler-Lagrange equations is studied on a contact manifold. These systems, called self-adjoint, can be regarded as generalizations of (time-dependent) Hamiltonian systems. It is shown that each one-parameter family of symmetries of the underlying contact form defines a parameter-dependent constant of the motion and vice versa. Next, an extension of the classical concept of canonical transformations is introduced. One-parameter families of canonical transformations are studied and shown to be generated as solutions of a self-adjoint system. Some of the results are illustrated on the Emden equation. (author)
Cruz, Elmer; López-Bastidas, Catalina; Maytorena, Jesús A.
2018-03-01
We investigate the effect of the oft-neglected cubic terms of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on the longitudinal current response of a two-dimensional electron gas with both Rashba and linear Dresselhaus interactions. For a quantum well grown in the [001] direction, the changes caused by these nonlinear-in-momentum terms on the absorption spectrum become more notable under SU(2) symmetry conditions, when the Rashba and linear Dresselhaus coupling strengths are tuned to be equal. The longitudinal optical response no longer vanishes then and shows a strong dependence on the direction of the externally applied electric field, giving a signature of the relative size of several spin-orbit contributions. This anisotropic response arises from the nonisotropic splitting of the spin states induced by the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. However, the presence of cubic terms introduces characteristic spectral features and can modify the overall shape of the spectra for some values of the relative sizes of the spin-orbit parameters. We compare this behavior to the case of a sample with [110] crystal orientation which, under conditions of spin-preserving symmetry, has a collinear spin-orbit vector field that leads to vanishing conductivity, even in the presence of cubic terms. In addition to the control through the driven frequency or electrical gating, such a directional aspect of the current response suggests new ways of manipulation and supports the use of interband optics as a sensitive probe of spin-orbit mechanisms in semiconductor spintronics.
Gate tunable spin transport in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
Tan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao
2016-10-01
Recently, it attracts much attention to study spin-resolved transport properties in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). One remarkable finding is that Klein tunneling in single layer graphene (SLG) with RSOC (SLG + R for short below) behaves as in bi-layer graphene (BLG). Based on the effective Dirac theory, we reconsider this tunneling problem and derive the analytical solution for the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that Klein tunneling in SLG + R and BLG exhibits completely different behaviors. More importantly, we find two new transmission selection rules in SLG + R, i.e., the single band to single band (S → S) and the single band to multiple bands (S → M) transmission regimes, which strongly depend on the relative height among Fermi level, RSOC, and potential barrier. Interestingly, in the S → S transmission regime, only normally incident electrons have capacity to pass through the barrier, while in the S → M transmission regime the angle-dependent tunneling becomes very prominent. Using the transmission coefficients, we also derive spin-resolved conductance analytically, and conductance oscillation with the increasing barrier height and zero conductance gap are found in SLG + R. The present study offers new insights and opportunities for developing graphene-based spin devices.
Spin-Orbit Torque and Spin Pumping in YIG/Pt with Interfacial Insertion Layers (Postprint)
2018-05-03
modified by spin-orbit torque6,7 in thin- film YIG due to absorption of pure spin current,8–12 which is gen- erated from an electric current in the adjacent... films were grown on Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition as reported in Ref. 3. The YIG films were transferred through an ambient... introduction into the deposition chamber, maintained at 250 C at 50 mTorr O2 for 30 min to remove water and organics on the surface. The metal overlayers
Hamilton-Jacobi theorems for regular reducible Hamiltonian systems on a cotangent bundle
Wang, Hong
2017-09-01
In this paper, some of formulations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations for Hamiltonian system and regular reduced Hamiltonian systems are given. At first, an important lemma is proved, and it is a modification for the corresponding result of Abraham and Marsden (1978), such that we can prove two types of geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theorem for a Hamiltonian system on the cotangent bundle of a configuration manifold, by using the symplectic form and dynamical vector field. Then these results are generalized to the regular reducible Hamiltonian system with symmetry and momentum map, by using the reduced symplectic form and the reduced dynamical vector field. The Hamilton-Jacobi theorems are proved and two types of Hamilton-Jacobi equations, for the regular point reduced Hamiltonian system and the regular orbit reduced Hamiltonian system, are obtained. As an application of the theoretical results, the regular point reducible Hamiltonian system on a Lie group is considered, and two types of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the regular point reduced system are given. In particular, the Type I and Type II of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the regular point reduced rigid body and heavy top systems are shown, respectively.
Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong
2018-04-01
Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.
Gou, Xing-wang; Li, Ai-jun; Tian, Hao-chang; Wang, Chang-qing; Lu, Hong-shi
2018-06-01
As the major part of space life supporting systems, artificial gravity requires further study before it becomes mature. Spinning tether system is a good alternative solution to provide artificial gravity for the whole spacecraft other than additional devices, and its longer tether length could significantly reduce spinning velocity and thus enhance comfortability. An approximated overload-based feedback method is proposed to provide estimated spinning velocity signals for controller, so that gravity level could be accurately controlled without complicated GPS modules. System behavior in high eccentricity transfer orbits is also studied to give a complete knowledge of the spinning stabilities. The application range of the proposed method is studied in various orbit cases and spinning velocities, indicating that it is accurate and reliable for most of the mission phases especially for the final constant gravity level phase. In order to provide stable gravity level for transfer orbit missions, a sliding mode controller based on estimated angular signals is designed for closed-loop control. Numerical results indicate that the combination of overload-based feedback and sliding mode controller could satisfy most of the long-term artificial gravity missions. It is capable of forming flexible gravity environment in relatively good accuracy even in the lowest possible orbital radiuses and high eccentricity orbits of crewed space missions. The proposed scheme provides an effective tether solution for the artificial gravity construction in interstellar travel.
Superconductivity in three-dimensional spin-orbit coupled semimetals
Savary, Lucile; Ruhman, Jonathan; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Fu, Liang; Lee, Patrick A.
2017-12-01
Motivated by the experimental detection of superconductivity in the low-carrier density half-Heusler compound YPtBi, we study the pairing instabilities of three-dimensional strongly spin-orbit coupled semimetals with a quadratic band touching point. In these semimetals the electronic structure at the Fermi energy is described by spin j =3/2 quasiparticles, which are fundamentally different from those in ordinary metals with spin j =1/2 . For both local and nonlocal pairing channels in j =3/2 materials we develop a general approach to analyzing pairing instabilities, thereby providing the computational tools needed to investigate the physics of these systems beyond phenomenological considerations. Furthermore, applying our method to a generic density-density interaction, we establish that: (i) The pairing strengths in the different symmetry channels uniquely encode the j =3/2 nature of the Fermi surface band structure—a manifestation of the fundamental difference with ordinary metals. (ii) The leading odd-parity pairing instabilities are different for electron doping and hole doping. Finally, we argue that polar phonons, i.e., Coulomb interactions mediated by the long-ranged electric polarization of the optical phonon modes, provide a coupling strength large enough to account for a Kelvin-range transition temperature in the s -wave channel, and are likely to play an important role in the overall attraction in non-s -wave channels. Moreover, the explicit calculation of the coupling strengths allows us to conclude that the two largest non-s -wave contributions occur in nonlocal channels, in contrast with what has been commonly assumed.
Spin-orbit excitations and electronic structure of the putative Kitaev magnet $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$
Sandilands, Luke J.; Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Plumb, Kemp W.; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Young-June; Burch, Kenneth S.
2015-01-01
Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling have been proposed to host unconventional magnetic states, including the Kitaev quantum spin liquid. The 4$d$ system $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has recently come into view as a candidate Kitaev system, with evidence for unusual spin excitations in magnetic scattering experiments. We apply a combination of optical spectroscopy and Raman scattering to study the electronic structure of this material. Our measurements reveal a series of orbital excitations i...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Jianfei, E-mail: zoujianfei@hhu.edu.cn; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei
2017-04-04
We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency. - Highlights: • The optical spin current could be enhanced by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. • The optical spin current could be modulated by the degree of polarization of light. • The maximum of the spin current injection rate is obtained.
Huang, Biao; Kim, Yong Baek; Lu, Yuan-Ming
2017-02-01
Na4Ir3O8 provides a material platform to study three-dimensional quantum spin liquids in the geometrically frustrated hyperkagome lattice of Ir4 + ions. In this work, we consider quantum spin liquids on a hyperkagome lattice for generic spin models, focusing on the effects of anisotropic spin interactions. In particular, we classify possible Z2 and U (1 ) spin liquid states, following the projective symmetry group analysis in the slave-fermion representation. There are only three distinct Z2 spin liquids, together with 2 different U (1 ) spin liquids. The nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the hyperkagome lattice plays a vital role in simplifying the classification, forbidding "π -flux" or "staggered-flux" phases in contrast to symmorphic space groups. We further prove that both U (1 ) states and one Z2 state among all 3 are symmetry-protected gapless spin liquids, robust against any symmetry-preserving perturbations. Motivated by the "spin-freezing" behavior recently observed in Na4Ir3O8 at low temperatures, we further investigate the nearest-neighbor spin model with the dominant Heisenberg interaction subject to all possible anisotropic perturbations from spin-orbit couplings. We find that a U (1 ) spin liquid ground state with spinon Fermi surfaces is energetically favored over Z2 states. Among all spin-orbit coupling terms, we show that only the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can induce spin anisotropy in the ground state when perturbing from the isotropic Heisenberg limit. Our work paves the way for a systematic study of quantum spin liquids in various materials with a hyperkagome crystal structure.
On the paramagnetism of spin in the classical limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogreve, H.
1985-12-01
We consider particles with spin 1/2 in external electromagnetic fields. Although in many quantum mechanical situations they show a paramagnetic behaviour, within non-relativistic quantum theory a universal paramagnetic influence of spin fails to be true in general. Here we investigate the paramagnetism of spin in the framework of a classical theory. Applying previous results for the classical limit slash-h→O we obtain a classical expression corresponding to the quantum partition function of Hamiltonians with spin variables. For this classical partition function simple estimates lead to a paramagnetic inequality which demonstrates that indeed in the classical limit the spin shows a general paramagnetic behaviour. (author)
Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca2RuO4 Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Das, L.; Forte, F.; Fittipaldi, R.
2018-01-01
The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scatt......-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund's coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca2RuO4.......The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x......-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca2RuO4. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV) and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV) excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Xi; Zhou Guanghui
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors. Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential. Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density j s,xi T and j s,yi T (i = x, y, z). We find that the elements j T s,xx and j T s,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element j T s,yz has the same amount level as j s,xx T and j s,yy T . We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire. The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.
Relativistic U(3) symmetry and pseudo-U(3) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginocchio, Joseph N.
2010-01-01
The Dirac Hamiltonian with relativistic scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials has been solved analytically in two limits. One is the spin limit for which spin is an invariant symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian and the other is the pseudo-spin limit for which pseudo-spin is an invariant symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian. The spin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential plus a constant, and the pseudospin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the vector potential plus a constant. Like the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator, each of these limits has a higher symmetry. For example, for the spherically symmetric oscillator, these limits have a U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry respectively. We shall discuss the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of these two limits and derive the relativistic generators for the U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We also argue, that, if an anti-nucleon can be bound in a nucleus, the spectrum will have approximate spin and U(3) symmetry.
Laghaei, M.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2018-03-01
Quantum transport properties and spin polarization in hexagonal graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges and different sizes were investigated in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The nanostructure was considered as a channel to which two semi-infinite armchair graphene nanoribbons were coupled as input and output leads. Spin transmission and spin polarization in x, y, and z directions were calculated through applying Landauer-Buttiker formalism with tight binding model and the Green's function to the system. In these quantum structures it is shown that changing the size of system, induce and control the spin polarized currents. In short, these graphene systems are typical candidates for electrical spintronic devices as spin filtering.
Classical emergence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction of light at the nanoscale
Vázquez-Lozano, J. Enrique; Martínez, Alejandro
2018-03-01
Traditionally, in macroscopic geometrical optics intrinsic polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light can be treated independently. However, at the subwavelength scale these properties appear to be coupled together, giving rise to the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of light. In this work we address theoretically the classical emergence of the optical SOI at the nanoscale. By means of a full-vector analysis involving spherical vector waves we show that the spin-orbit factorizability condition, accounting for the mutual influence between the amplitude (spin) and phase (orbit), is fulfilled only in the far-field limit. On the other side, in the near-field region, an additional relative phase introduces an extra term that hinders the factorization and reveals an intricate dynamical behavior according to the SOI regime. As a result, we find a suitable theoretical framework able to capture analytically the main features of intrinsic SOI of light. Besides allowing for a better understanding into the mechanism leading to its classical emergence at the nanoscale, our approach may be useful to design experimental setups that enhance the response of SOI-based effects.
Two-dimensional spin-orbit Dirac point in monolayer HfGeTe
Guan, Shan; Liu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shan-Shan; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.
2017-10-01
Dirac points in two-dimensional (2D) materials have been a fascinating subject of research, with graphene as the most prominent example. However, the Dirac points in existing 2D materials, including graphene, are vulnerable against spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, based on first-principles calculations and theoretical analysis, we propose a new family of stable 2D materials, the HfGeTe-family monolayers, which host so-called spin-orbit Dirac points (SDPs) close to the Fermi level. These Dirac points are special in that they are formed only under significant SOC, hence they are intrinsically robust against SOC. We show that the existence of a pair of SDPs are dictated by the nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the system, which are very robust under various types of lattice strains. The energy, the dispersion, and the valley occupation around the Dirac points can be effectively tuned by strain. We construct a low-energy effective model to characterize the Dirac fermions around the SDPs. Furthermore, we find that the material is simultaneously a 2D Z2 topological metal, which possesses nontrivial Z2 invariant in the bulk and spin-helical edge states on the boundary. From the calculated exfoliation energies and mechanical properties, we show that these materials can be readily obtained in experiment from the existing bulk materials. Our result reveals HfGeTe-family monolayers as a promising platform for exploring spin-orbit Dirac fermions and topological phases in two-dimensions.
Fermi Surface of Sr_{2}RuO_{4}: Spin-Orbit and Anisotropic Coulomb Interaction Effects.
Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Pavarini, Eva
2016-03-11
The topology of the Fermi surface of Sr_{2}RuO_{4} is well described by local-density approximation calculations with spin-orbit interaction, but the relative size of its different sheets is not. By accounting for many-body effects via dynamical mean-field theory, we show that the standard isotropic Coulomb interaction alone worsens or does not correct this discrepancy. In order to reproduce experiments, it is essential to account for the Coulomb anisotropy. The latter is small but has strong effects; it competes with the Coulomb-enhanced spin-orbit coupling and the isotropic Coulomb term in determining the Fermi surface shape. Its effects are likely sizable in other correlated multiorbital systems. In addition, we find that the low-energy self-energy matrix-responsible for the reshaping of the Fermi surface-sizably differs from the static Hartree-Fock limit. Finally, we find a strong spin-orbital entanglement; this supports the view that the conventional description of Cooper pairs via factorized spin and orbital part might not apply to Sr_{2}RuO_{4}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sen Zhou
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Analogs of the high-T_{c} cuprates have been long sought after in transition metal oxides. Because of the strong spin-orbit coupling, the 5d perovskite iridates Sr_{2}IrO_{4} exhibit a low-energy electronic structure remarkably similar to the cuprates. Whether a superconducting state exists as in the cuprates requires understanding the correlated spin-orbit entangled electronic states. Recent experiments discovered hidden order in the parent and electron-doped iridates, some with striking analogies to the cuprates, including Fermi surface pockets, Fermi arcs, and pseudogap. Here, we study the correlation and disorder effects in a five-orbital model derived from the band theory. We find that the experimental observations are consistent with a d-wave spin-orbit density wave order that breaks the symmetry of a joint twofold spin-orbital rotation followed by a lattice translation. There is a Berry phase and a plaquette spin flux due to spin procession as electrons hop between Ir atoms, akin to the intersite spin-orbit coupling in quantum spin Hall insulators. The associated staggered circulating J_{eff}=1/2 spin current can be probed by advanced techniques of spin-current detection in spintronics. This electronic order can emerge spontaneously from the intersite Coulomb interactions between the spatially extended iridium 5d orbitals, turning the metallic state into an electron-doped quasi-2D Dirac semimetal with important implications on the possible superconducting state suggested by recent experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Trivedi, T.; Sethi, J.; Joshi, P.K.; Naidu, B.S.; Donthi, R.; Jadhav, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R.G.; Jain, H.C.; Kumar, S.; Biswas, D.C.; Mukherjee, G.; Saha, S.
2011-01-01
Information on the high-spin states of nuclei promises to provide stringent test of the interaction of the Hamiltonian used in the calculation due to smaller basis space for high J-values. It is reported in a recent shell model review that no interaction is optimized for the region of interest around N = 50 and Z = 40 shell closure. The detailed spectroscopic information of the medium and high spin states in these nuclei is required to understand the shape transition between spherical and deformed shapes at N =60 as the higher orbitals are filled. Structure of isomers near shell closure carries important information of, for example, the extent of core excitation. In the present work, the spectroscopic study of the high spin states of 89 Zr isotope have been discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, N.G.; Henley, C.L.; Rischel, C.
2002-01-01
We study the low-lying eigenenergy clustering patterns of quantum antiferromagnets with p sublattices (in particular p = 4). We treat each sublattice as a large spin, and using second-order degenerate perturbation theory, we derive the effective (biquadratic) Hamiltonian coupling the p large spins....... In order to compare with exact diagonalizations, the Hamiltonian is explicitly written for a finite-size lattice, and it contains information on energies of excited states as well as the ground state. The result is applied to the face-centered-cubic Type-I antiferromagnet of spin 1/2, including second...
Hanle Magnetoresistance in Thin Metal Films with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.
Vélez, Saül; Golovach, Vitaly N; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Isasa, Miren; Sagasta, Edurne; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Hueso, Luis E; Bergeret, F Sebastian; Casanova, Fèlix
2016-01-08
We report measurements of a new type of magnetoresistance in Pt and Ta thin films. The spin accumulation created at the surfaces of the film by the spin Hall effect decreases in a magnetic field because of the Hanle effect, resulting in an increase of the electrical resistance as predicted by Dyakonov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126601 (2007)]. The angular dependence of this magnetoresistance resembles the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) bilayers, although the presence of a ferromagnetic insulator is not required. We show that this Hanle magnetoresistance is an alternative simple way to quantitatively study the coupling between charge and spin currents in metals with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Topological quantum phase transitions and edge states in spin-orbital coupled Fermi gases.
Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yi; Wang, Z D
2014-06-11
We study superconducting states in the presence of spin-orbital coupling and Zeeman field. It is found that a phase transition from a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state to the topological superconducting state occurs upon increasing the spin-orbital coupling. The nature of this topological phase transition and its critical property are investigated numerically. Physical properties of the topological superconducting phase are also explored. Moreover, the local density of states is calculated, through which the topological feature may be tested experimentally.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giner, Emmanuel, E-mail: gnrmnl@unife.it; Angeli, Celestino, E-mail: anc@unife.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Famaceutiche, Universita di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)
2016-03-14
The present work describes a new method to compute accurate spin densities for open shell systems. The proposed approach follows two steps: first, it provides molecular orbitals which correctly take into account the spin delocalization; second, a proper CI treatment allows to account for the spin polarization effect while keeping a restricted formalism and avoiding spin contamination. The main idea of the optimization procedure is based on the orbital relaxation of the various charge transfer determinants responsible for the spin delocalization. The algorithm is tested and compared to other existing methods on a series of organic and inorganic open shell systems. The results reported here show that the new approach (almost black-box) provides accurate spin densities at a reasonable computational cost making it suitable for a systematic study of open shell systems.
Bhandari, Nikhil; Dutta, Maitreya; Charles, James; Newrock, Richard S.; Cahay, Marc; Herbert, Stephen T.
2013-03-01
Spin-based electronics or ‘spintronics’ has been a topic of interest for over two decades. Electronic devices based on the manipulation of the electron spin are believed to offer the possibility of very small, non-volatile and ultrafast devices with very low power consumption. Since the proposal of a spin-field-effect transistor (SpinFET) by Datta and Das in 1990, many attempts have been made to achieve spin injection, detection and manipulation in semiconductor materials either by incorporating ferromagnetic materials into device architectures or by using external magnetic fields. This approach has significant design complexities, partly due to the influence of stray magnetic fields on device operation. In addition, magnetic electrodes can have magneto-resistance and spurious Hall voltages that can complicate device performance. To date, there has been no successful report of a working Datta-Das SpinFET. Over the last few years we have investigated an all-electric means of manipulating spins, one that only relies on electric fields and voltages and not on ferromagnetic materials or external magnetic fields. We believe we have found a pathway toward this goal, using in-plane side-gated quantum point contacts (QPCs) that rely on lateral spin-orbit coupling to create spin polarization. In this paper we discuss several aspects of our work, beginning with our finding what we believe is nearly complete spin-polarization in InAs QPCs by purely electrical means, our theoretical work to understand the basic mechanisms leading to that situation (asymmetric lateral confinement, lateral spin-orbit coupling and a strong e-e interaction), and our recent work extending the effort to GaAs and to dual QPC systems where one QPC acts as a polarizer and the other as an analyzer. Keynote talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.
Spin-Orbit Misalignments of Three Jovian Planets via Doppler Tomography
Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Addison, Brett C.; Tinney, Chris G.; Wright, Duncan J.
2017-10-01
We present measurements of the spin-orbit misalignments of the hot Jupiters HAT-P-41 b and WASP-79 b, and the aligned warm Jupiter Kepler-448 b. We obtain these measurements with Doppler tomography, where we spectroscopically resolve the line profile perturbation during the transit due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We analyze time series spectra obtained during portions of five transits of HAT-P-41 b, and find a value of the spin-orbit misalignment of λ =-{22.1}-6.0{+0.8^\\circ }. We reanalyze the radial velocity Rossiter-McLaughlin data on WASP-79 b obtained by Addison et al. using Doppler tomographic methodology. We measure λ =-{99.1}-3.9{+4.1^\\circ }, consistent with but more precise than the value found by Addison et al. For Kepler-448 b we perform a joint fit to the Kepler light curve, Doppler tomographic data, and a radial velocity data set from Lillo-Box et al. We find an approximately aligned orbit (λ =-{7.1}-2.8{+4.2^\\circ }), in agreement with the value found by Bourrier et al. Through analysis of the Kepler light curve we measure a stellar rotation period of {P}{rot}=1.27+/- 0.11 days, and use this to argue that the full three-dimensional spin-orbit misalignment is small, \\psi ˜ 0^\\circ . Based in part on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.
A generalized AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Tiecheng; You Fucai; Chen Dengyuan
2005-01-01
First we construct a new isospectral problem with 8 potentials in the present paper. And then a new Lax pair is presented. By making use of Tu scheme, a class of new soliton hierarchy of equations is derived, which is integrable in the sense of Liouville and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures. After making some reductions, the well-known AKNS hierarchy and other hierarchies of evolution equations are obtained. Finally, in order to illustrate that soliton hierarchy obtained in the paper possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures exactly, we prove that the linear combination of two-Hamiltonian operators admitted are also a Hamiltonian operator constantly. We point out that two Hamiltonian operators obtained of the system are directly derived from a recurrence relations, not from a recurrence operator
Spin-orbit evolution of Mercury revisited
Noyelles, Benoît; Frouard, Julien; Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael
2014-10-01
Although it is accepted that the significant eccentricity of Mercury (0.206) favours entrapment into the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, open are the questions of how and when the capture took place. A recent work by Makarov (Makarov, V.V. [2012]. Astrophys. J., 752, 73) has proven that trapping into this state is certain for eccentricities larger than 0.2, provided we use a realistic tidal model based on the Darwin-Kaula expansion of the tidal torque. While in Ibid. a Mercury-like planet had its eccentricity fixed, we take into account its evolution. To that end, a family of possible histories of the eccentricity is generated, based on synthetic time evolution consistent with the expected statistics of the distribution of eccentricity. We employ a model of tidal friction, which takes into account both the rheology and self-gravitation of the planet. As opposed to the commonly used constant time lag (CTL) and constant phase lag (CPL) models, the physics-based tidal model changes dramatically the statistics of the possible final spin states. First, we discover that after only one encounter with the spin-orbit 3:2 resonance this resonance becomes the most probable end-state. Second, if a capture into this (or any other) resonance takes place, the capture becomes final, several crossings of the same state being forbidden by our model. Third, within our model the trapping of Mercury happens much faster than previously believed: for most histories, 10-20 Myr are sufficient. Fourth, even a weak laminar friction between the solid mantle and a molten core would most likely result in a capture in the 2:1 or even higher resonance, which is confirmed both semi-analytically and by limited numerical simulations. So the principal novelty of our paper is that the 3:2 end-state is more ancient than the same end-state obtained when the constant time lag model is employed. The swift capture justifies our treatment of Mercury as a homogeneous, unstratified body whose liquid core had not
Lingos, P. C.; Wang, J.; Perakis, I. E.
2015-05-01
Femtosecond (fs) coherent control of collective order parameters is important for nonequilibrium phase dynamics in correlated materials. Here, we propose such control of ferromagnetic order based on using nonadiabatic optical manipulation of electron-hole (e -h ) photoexcitations to create fs carrier-spin pulses with controllable direction and time profile. These spin pulses are generated due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking arising from nonperturbative spin-orbit and magnetic exchange couplings of coherent photocarriers. By tuning the nonthermal populations of exchange-split, spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor band states, we can excite fs spin-orbit torques that control complex magnetization pathways between multiple magnetic memory states. We calculate the laser-induced fs magnetic anisotropy in the time domain by using density matrix equations of motion rather than the quasiequilibrium free energy. By comparing to pump-probe experiments, we identify a "sudden" out-of-plane magnetization canting displaying fs magnetic hysteresis, which agrees with switchings measured by the static Hall magnetoresistivity. This fs transverse spin-canting switches direction with magnetic state and laser frequency, which distinguishes it from the longitudinal nonlinear optical and demagnetization effects. We propose that sequences of clockwise or counterclockwise fs spin-orbit torques, photoexcited by shaping two-color laser-pulse sequences analogous to multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can be used to timely suppress or enhance magnetic ringing and switching rotation in magnetic memories.
Hamiltonian Approach to 2+1 Dimensional Gravity
Cantini, L.; Menotti, P.; Seminara, D.
2002-12-01
It is shown that the reduced particle dynamics of 2+1 dimensional gravity in the maximally slicing gauge has hamiltonian form. We give the exact diffeomorphism which transforms the spinning cone metric in the Deser, Jackiw, 't Hooft gauge to the maximally slicing gauge. It is explicitly shown that the boundary term in the action, written in hamiltonian form gives the hamiltonian for the reduced particle dynamics. The quantum mechanical translation of the two particle hamiltonian gives rise to the logarithm of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a cone whose angular deficit is given by the total energy of the system irrespective of the masses of the particles thus proving at the quantum level a conjecture by 't Hooft on the two particle dynamics.
Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skinner, T. D., E-mail: tds32@cam.ac.uk; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2014-02-10
Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.
Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Prominent Role of Spin-Orbit Coupling in FeSe Revealed by Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingwei Ma
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In most existing theories for iron-based superconductors, spin-orbit coupling (SOC has been assumed to be insignificant. Here, we use spin-polarized inelastic neutron scattering to show that collective low-energy spin excitations in the orthorhombic (or “nematic” phase of FeSe possess nearly no in-plane component. Such spin-space anisotropy is present over an energy range greater than the superconducting gap 2Δ_{sc} and gets fully inherited in the superconducting state, resulting in a c-axis polarized “spin resonance” without any noticeable isotropic spectral-weight rearrangement related to the superconductivity, which is distinct from observations in the superconducting iron pnictides. The contrast between the strong suppression of long-range magnetic order in FeSe and the persisting large spin-space anisotropy, which cannot be explained microscopically by introducing single-ion anisotropy into local-moment spin models, demonstrates the importance of SOC in an itinerant-electron description of the low-energy spin excitations. Our result helps to elucidate the nearby magnetic instabilities and the debated interplay between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in FeSe. The prominent role of SOC also implies a possible unusual nature of the superconducting state.
On-chip spin-controlled orbital angular momentum directional coupling
Xie, Zhenwei; Lei, Ting; Si, Guangyuan; Du, Luping; Lin, Jiao; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong
2018-01-01
Optical vortex beams have many potential applications in the particle trapping, quantum encoding, optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications and interconnects. However, the on-chip compact OAM detection is still a big challenge. Based on a holographic configuration and a spin-dependent structure design, we propose and demonstrate an on-chip spin-controlled OAM-mode directional coupler, which can couple the OAM signal to different directions due to its topological charge. While the directional coupling function can be switched on/off by altering the spin of incident beam. Both simulation and experimental measurements verify the validity of the proposed approach. This work would benefit the on-chip OAM devices for optical communications and high dimensional quantum coding/decoding in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)
2017-01-15
In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.
Spin-orbit coupling and electric-dipole spin resonance in a nanowire double quantum dot.
Liu, Zhi-Hai; Li, Rui; Hu, Xuedong; You, J Q
2018-02-02
We study the electric-dipole transitions for a single electron in a double quantum dot located in a semiconductor nanowire. Enabled by spin-orbit coupling (SOC), electric-dipole spin resonance (EDSR) for such an electron can be generated via two mechanisms: the SOC-induced intradot pseudospin states mixing and the interdot spin-flipped tunneling. The EDSR frequency and strength are determined by these mechanisms together. For both mechanisms the electric-dipole transition rates are strongly dependent on the external magnetic field. Their competition can be revealed by increasing the magnetic field and/or the interdot distance for the double dot. To clarify whether the strong SOC significantly impact the electron state coherence, we also calculate relaxations from excited levels via phonon emission. We show that spin-flip relaxations can be effectively suppressed by the phonon bottleneck effect even at relatively low magnetic fields because of the very large g-factor of strong SOC materials such as InSb.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A; Tkach, Yurii Ya
2009-01-01
Spin effects in a normal two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in lateral contact with a 2D region with spin-orbit interaction are studied. The peculiarity of this system is the presence of spin-dependent scattering of electrons from the interface. This results in an equilibrium edge spin current and nontrivial spin responses to a particle current. We investigate the spatial distribution of the spin currents and spin density under non-equilibrium conditions caused by a ballistic electron current flowing normal or parallel to the interface. The parallel electron current is found to generate a spin density near the interface and to change the edge spin current. The perpendicular electron current changes the edge spin current proportionally to the electron current and produces a bulk spin current penetrating deep into the normal region. This spin current has two components, one of which is directed normal to the interface and polarized parallel to it, and the second is parallel to the interface and is polarized in the plane perpendicular to the contact line. Both spin currents have a high degree of polarization (∼40-60%).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Jun, E-mail: xujun@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Bao-An [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shen, Wen-Qing [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2016-11-15
The spin up-down splitting of collective flows in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions as a result of the nuclear spin–orbit interaction is investigated within a spin- and isospin-dependent Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck transport model SIBUU12. Using a Skyrme-type spin–orbit coupling quadratic in momentum, we found that the spin splittings of the directed flow and elliptic flow are largest in peripheral Au+Au collisions at beam energies of about 100–200 MeV/nucleon, and the effect is considerable even in smaller systems especially for nucleons with high transverse momenta. The collective flows of light clusters of different spin states are also investigated using an improved dynamical coalescence model with spin. Our study can be important in understanding the properties of in-medium nuclear spin–orbit interactions once the spin-dependent observables proposed in this work can be measured.
Electron spin polarization in high-energy storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mane, S.R.
1987-01-01
In a high energy storage ring, a single photon emission has relatively little effect on the orbital motion, but it can produce a relatively large change in the electron spin state. Hence the unperturbed orbital motion can be satisfactorily described using classical mechanics, but the spin must be treated quantum mechanically. The electron motion is therefore treated semi-classically in this thesis. It is explained how to diagonalize the unperturbed Hamiltonian to the leading order in Planck's constant. The effects of perturbations are then included, and the relevant time-scales and ensemble averages are elucidated. The Derbenev-Kondratenko formula for the equilibrium degree of polarization is rederived. Mathematical details of the rederivation are given. Since the original authors used a different formalism, a proof is offered of the equivalence between their method and the one used in this thesis. An algorithm is also presented to evaluate the equilibrium polarization. It has a number of new features, which enable the polarization to be calculated to a higher degree of approximation than has hitherto been possible. This facilitates the calculation of so-called spin resonances, which are points at which the polarization almost vanishes. A computer program has been written to implement the above algorithm, in the approximation of linear orbital dynamics, and sample results are presented
Classical effective Hamiltonians, Wigner functions, and the sign problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samson, J.H.
1995-01-01
In the functional-integral technique an auxiliary field, coupled to appropriate operators such as spins, linearizes the interaction term in a quantum many-body system. The partition function is then averaged over this time-dependent stochastic field. Quantum Monte Carlo methods evaluate this integral numerically, but suffer from the sign (or phase) problem: the integrand may not be positive definite (or not real). It is shown that, in certain cases that include the many-band Hubbard model and the Heisenberg model, the sign problem is inevitable on fundamental grounds. Here, Monte Carlo simulations generate a distribution of incompatible operators---a Wigner function---from which expectation values and correlation functions are to be calculated; in general no positive-definite distribution of this form exists. The distribution of time-averaged auxiliary fields is the convolution of this operator distribution with a Gaussian of variance proportional to temperature, and is interpreted as a Boltzmann distribution exp(-βV eff ) in classical configuration space. At high temperatures and large degeneracies this classical effective Hamiltonian V eff tends to the static approximation as a classical limit. In the low-temperature limit the field distribution becomes a Wigner function, the sign problem occurs, and V eff is complex. Interpretations of the distributions, and a criterion for their positivity, are discussed. The theory is illustrated by an exact evaluation of the Wigner function for spin s and the effective classical Hamiltonian for the spin-1/2 van der Waals model. The field distribution can be negative here, more noticeably if the number of spins is odd
Srisongmuang, B.; Pasanai, K.
2018-04-01
We theoretically studied the effect of interfacial scattering on the transport of charge and spin across the junction of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling and ferromagnetic material junction, via the conductance (G) and the spin-polarization of the conductance spectra (P) using the scattering method. At the interface, not only were the effects of spin-conserving (Z0) and spin-flip scattering (Zf) considered, but also the interfacial Rashba spin-orbit coupling scattering (ZRSOC) , which was caused by the asymmetry of the interface, was taken into account, and all of them were modeled by the delta potential. It was found that G was suppressed with increasing Z0 , as expected. Interestingly, a particular value of Zf can cause G and P to reach a maximum value. In particular, ZRSOC plays a crucial role to reduce G and P in the metallic limit, but its influence on the tunneling limit was quite weak. On the other hand, the effect of ZRSOC was diminished in the tunneling limit of the magnetic junction.
Probing low noise at the MOS interface with a spin-orbit qubit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jock, Ryan Michael; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Mounce, Andrew; Srinivasa, Vanita; Ward, Daniel Robert; Anderson, John Moses; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Rudolph, Martin; Pluym, Tammy; Gamble, John King,; Baczewski, Andrew David; Witzel, Wayne; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2017-07-01
The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) material system is technologically important for the implementation of electron spin-based quantum information technologies. Researchers predict the need for an integrated platform in order to implement useful computation, and decades of advancements in silicon microelectronics fabrication lends itself to this challenge. However, fundamental concerns have been raised about the MOS interface (e.g. trap noise, variations in electron g-factor and practical implementation of multi-QDs). Furthermore, two-axis control of silicon qubits has, to date, required the integration of non-ideal components (e.g. microwave strip-lines, micro-magnets, triple quantum dots, or introduction of donor atoms). In this paper, we introduce a spin-orbit (SO) driven singlet- triplet (ST) qubit in silicon, demonstrating all-electrical two-axis control that requires no additional integrated elements and exhibits charge noise properties equivalent to other more model, but less commercially mature, semiconductor systems. We demonstrate the ability to tune an intrinsic spin-orbit interface effect, which is consistent with Rashba and Dresselhaus contributions that are remarkably strong for a low spin-orbit material such as silicon. The qubit maintains the advantages of using isotopically enriched silicon for producing a quiet magnetic environment, measuring spin dephasing times of 1.6 μs using 99.95% ^{28}Si epitaxy for the qubit, comparable to results from other isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems. This work, therefore, demonstrates that the interface inherently provides properties for two-axis control, and the technologically important MOS interface does not add additional detrimental qubit noise. isotopically enhanced silicon ST qubit systems
Spinning fluids in general relativity
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.
Higher-rank discrete symmetries in the IBM I. Octahedral shapes: General Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Isacker, P., E-mail: isacker@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S. [Department of Physics, PRIMALAB Laboratory, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)
2015-06-15
In the context of the interacting boson model with s, d and g bosons, the conditions for obtaining an intrinsic shape with octahedral symmetry are derived for a general Hamiltonian with up to two-body interactions.
The Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}: spin-orbit and anisotropic Coulomb interaction effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Pavarini, Eva [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
The topology of the Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is well described by local density approximation calculations with spin-orbit interaction, but the relative size of its different sheets is not. By accounting for many-body effects via dynamical mean-field theory, we show that the standard isotropic Coulomb interaction worsen or does not correct this discrepancy. In order to reproduce experiments, it is essential to include the Coulomb anisotropy. The latter is small but has strong effects; it competes with the Coulomb-enhanced spin-orbit coupling and with the isotropic Coulomb term. This mechanism is likely to be at work in other multi-orbital systems. Finally, we find a strong spin-orbital entanglement. This supports the view that the conventional description of Cooper pairs via factorized spin and orbital part might not apply to Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Degang
2006-01-01
We study a two-dimensional electron system in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in a perpendicular magnetic field. Defining two suitable boson operators and using the unitary transformations we are able to obtain the exact Landau levels in the range of all the parameters. When the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are equal, a new analytical solution for the vanishing Zeeman energy is found, where the orbital and spin wavefunctions of the electron are separated. It is also shown that in this case the Zeeman and spin-orbit splittings are independent of the Landau level index n. Due to the Zeeman energy, new crossing between the eigenstates vertical bar n, k, s = 1, σ) and vertical bar n + 1, k, s' = -1, σ') is produced at a certain magnetic field for larger Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This degeneracy leads to a resonant spin Hall conductance if it happens at the Fermi level. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi
2014-01-01
Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.
2006-12-01
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)
Generalized Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians by shape-invariant hierarchies and their SUSY partners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussin, V; Kuru, S; Negro, J
2006-01-01
A generalization of the matrix Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation is proposed by means of the shape-invariant hierarchies of scalar factorized Hamiltonians. A class of Darboux transformations (sometimes called SUSY transformations in this context) suitable for these generalized Jaynes-Cummings models is constructed. Finally one example is worked out using the methods developed
Superconductivity and spin excitations in orbitally ordered FeSe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreisel, Andreas; Andersen, Brian M. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Mukherjee, Shantanu [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY (United States); Hirschfeld, Peter J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2016-07-01
We provide a band-structure with low-energy properties consistent with recent photoemission and quantum oscillations measurements on the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, including a mean-field like orbital ordering in the d{sub xz}/d{sub yz} channel, and show that this model also accounts for the temperature dependence of the measured Knight shift and the spin-relaxation rate. An RPA calculation of the dynamical spin susceptibility yields spin excitations which are peaked at wave vector (π,0) in the 1-Fe Brillouin zone, with a broad maximum at energies of order a few meV. Furthermore, the superconducting gap structure obtained from spin fluctuation theory exhibits nodes on the electron pockets, consistent with the 'V'-shaped density of states measured by tunneling spectroscopy on this material. The redistribution of spectral weight in the superconducting state creates a (π,0) ''neutron resonance'' as seen in recent experiments. Comparing to various experimental results, we give predictions for further studies.
Energy-level repulsion by spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional Rydberg excitons
Stephanovich, V. A.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Zinner, N. T.; Marchukov, O. V.
2018-05-01
We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on two-dimensional Rydberg exciton systems. Using analytical and numerical arguments we demonstrate that this coupling considerably modifies the wave functions and leads to a level repulsion that results in a deviation from the Poissonian statistics of the adjacent level distance distribution. This signifies the crossover to nonintegrability of the system and hints at the possibility of quantum chaos emerging. Such behavior strongly differs from the classical realization, where spin-orbit coupling produces highly entangled, chaotic electron trajectories in an exciton. We also calculate the oscillator strengths and show that randomization appears in the transitions between states with different total momenta.
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2018-04-02
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yufeng
2003-01-01
A new subalgebra of loop algebra A-tilde 2 is first constructed. It follows that an isospectral problem is established. Using Tu-pattern gives rise to a new integrable hierarchy, which possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the well-known standard Schrodinger equation and MKdV equation are presented, respectively. Furthermore, by making use of bi-symmetry constraints, generalized Hamiltonian regular representations for the hierarchy are obtained. At last, we obtain an expanding integrable system of this hierarchy by applying a scalar transformation between two isospectral problems and constructing a five-dimensional loop algebra G-tilde. In particular, the expanding integrable models of Schrodinger equation and MKdV equation are presented, respectively
Effective hamiltonian within the microscopic unitary nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avramenko, V.I.; Blokhin, A.L.
1989-01-01
Within the microscopic version of the unitary collective model with the horizontal mixing the effective Hamiltonian for 18 O and 18 Ne nuclei is constructed. The algebraic structure of the Hamiltonian is compared to the familiar phenomenological ones with the SU(3)-mixing terms which describe the coupled rotational and vibrational spectra. The Hamiltonian, including central nuclear and Coulomb interaction, is diagonalized on the basis of three SU(3) irreducible representations with two orbital symmetries. 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs
Tunnel splitting for a high-spin molecule in an in-plane field
Zhu, Jia-Lin
2000-08-01
Direction and strength effects of a magnetic field on the ground-state tunnel splitting for a biaxial spin molecule with the model Hamiltonian H = k1Sz2 + k2Sy2- gµBHzSz- gµBHySy have been investigated within a continuous-spin approach including the Wess-Zumino-Berry term. The topological oscillation and the non-Kramers freezing indicated in the approach are in agreement with those observed in a recent experiment on Fe8 molecular nanomagnets. The behaviour of tunnel splitting with multiple orbits induced by strong fields has been revealed clearly.
Kohno, M; Fujita, T; Nakamoto, C; Suzuki, Y
2000-01-01
Using the SU sub 6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction which was recently developed by the Kyoto-Niigata group, we calculate N N, LAMBDA N and SIGMA N G--matrices in ordinary nuclear matter. Following the Scheerbaum's prescription, the strength of the single-particle spin-orbit potential S sub B is quantitatively discussed. The S subLAMBDA becomes small because of the cancellation between spin-orbit and anti-symmetric spin-orbit components. The short-range correlation is found to further reduce S subLAMBDA.
Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Charpentier, Thibault
2015-04-01
In this paper we present a theoretical perturbative approach for describing the NMR spectrum of strongly dipolar-coupled spin systems under fast magic-angle spinning. Our treatment is based on two approaches: the Floquet approach and the Floquet-Magnus expansion. The Floquet approach is well known in the NMR community as a perturbative approach to get analytical approximations. Numerical procedures are based on step-by-step numerical integration of the corresponding differential equations. The Floquet-Magnus expansion is a perturbative approach of the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we address the " γ -encoding" effect using the Floquet-Magnus expansion approach. We show that the average over " γ " angle can be performed for any Hamiltonian with γ symmetry.
Rakhmilevitch, David; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Bitton, Ora; Kronik, Leeor; Tal, Oren
2016-03-09
Molecular junctions based on ferromagnetic electrodes allow the study of electronic spin transport near the limit of spintronics miniaturization. However, these junctions reveal moderate magnetoresistance that is sensitive to the orbital structure at their ferromagnet-molecule interfaces. The key structural parameters that should be controlled in order to gain high magnetoresistance have not been established, despite their importance for efficient manipulation of spin transport at the nanoscale. Here, we show that single-molecule junctions based on nickel electrodes and benzene molecules can yield a significant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to ∼200% near the conductance quantum G0. The measured magnetoresistance is mechanically tuned by changing the distance between the electrodes, revealing a nonmonotonic response to junction elongation. These findings are ascribed with the aid of first-principles calculations to variations in the metal-molecule orientation that can be adjusted to obtain highly spin-selective orbital hybridization. Our results demonstrate the important role of geometrical considerations in determining the spin transport properties of metal-molecule interfaces.
The impacts of the quantum-dot confining potential on the spin-orbit effect.
Li, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Hai; Wu, Yidong; Liu, C S
2018-05-09
For a nanowire quantum dot with the confining potential modeled by both the infinite and the finite square wells, we obtain exactly the energy spectrum and the wave functions in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime. We find that regardless of how small the well height is, there are at least two bound states in the finite square well: one has the σ x [Formula: see text] = -1 symmetry and the other has the σ x [Formula: see text] = 1 symmetry. When the well height is slowly tuned from large to small, the position of the maximal probability density of the first excited state moves from the center to x ≠ 0, while the position of the maximal probability density of the ground state is always at the center. A strong enhancement of the spin-orbit effect is demonstrated by tuning the well height. In particular, there exists a critical height [Formula: see text], at which the spin-orbit effect is enhanced to maximal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2010-01-01
In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudowicz Czesław
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The interface between optical spectroscopy, electron magnetic resonance (EMR, and magnetism of transition ions forms the intricate web of interrelated notions. Major notions are the physical Hamiltonians, which include the crystal field (CF (or equivalently ligand field (LF Hamiltonians, and the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH, which include the zero-field splitting (ZFS Hamiltonians as well as to a certain extent also the notion of magnetic anisotropy (MA. Survey of recent literature has revealed that this interface, denoted CF (LF ↔ SH (ZFS, has become dangerously entangled over the years. The same notion is referred to by three names that are not synonymous: CF (LF, SH (ZFS, and MA. In view of the strong need for systematization of nomenclature aimed at bringing order to the multitude of different Hamiltonians and the associated quantities, we have embarked on this systematization. In this article, we do an overview of our efforts aimed at providing a deeper understanding of the major intricacies occurring at the CF (LF ↔ SH (ZFS interface with the focus on the EMR-related problems for transition ions.
Half-metal phases in a quantum wire with modulated spin-orbit interaction
Cabra, D. C.; Rossini, G. L.; Ferraz, A.; Japaridze, G. I.; Johannesson, H.
2017-11-01
We propose a spin filter device based on the interplay of a modulated spin-orbit interaction and a uniform external magnetic field acting on a quantum wire. Half-metal phases, where electrons with only a selected spin polarization exhibit ballistic conductance, can be tuned by varying the magnetic field. These half-metal phases are proven to be robust against electron-electron repulsive interactions. Our results arise from a combination of explicit band diagonalization, bosonization techniques, and extensive density matrix renormalization group computations.
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.
2017-09-01
We carry out the classical analysis of spin-orbit coupling in hydrogen-like atoms, using the modern expressions for the force and energy of an electric/magnetic dipole in an electromagnetic field. We disclose a novel physical meaning of this effect and show that for a laboratory observer the energy of spin-orbit interaction is represented solely by the mechanical energy of the spinning electron (considered as a gyroscope) due to the Thomas precession of its spin. Concurrently we disclose some errors in the old and new publications on this subject.
Spin Hall conductance in a Y-shaped junction device in presence of tunable spin-orbit coupling
Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh
2017-06-01
We study spin Hall effect in a three terminal Y-shaped device in presence of tunable spin-orbit (SO) interactions via Landauer-Büttiker formalism. We have evolved a fabrication technique for creating different angular separation between the two arms of the Y-shaped device so as to investigate the effect of angular width on the spin Hall conductance (SHC). A smaller angular separation yields a larger conductance. Also arbitrary orientation of the spin quantization axes yields interesting three dimensional contour maps for the SHC corresponding to different angular separation of the Y-shaped device. In addition to the GSH demonstrating bounded behaviour for different angular separations, there are distinct symmetry axes about which SHC demonstrates reflection symmetry. The results explicitly show breaking of the spin rotational symmetry. Further a systematic study is carried out to compare and contrast between the different SO terms, such as Rashba and Dresselhaus SO interactions and the interplay of the angular separation therein.
Quantum ring with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the regime of strong light-matter coupling
Kozin, V. K.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2018-04-01
We developed the theory of electronic properties of semiconductor quantum rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction irradiated by an off-resonant high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). Within the Floquet theory of periodically driven quantum systems, it is demonstrated that the dressing field drastically modifies all electronic characteristics of the rings, including spin-orbit coupling, effective electron mass, and optical response. In particular, the present effect paves the way to controlling the spin polarization of electrons with light in prospective ring-shaped spintronic devices.
Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.
2011-01-01
We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...... dots. Recurring shapes in the pair distribution functions of the yrast spectrum, which might be associated with rotational and vibrational modes, are also reported....
AN-type Dunkl operators and new spin Calogero-Sutherland models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkel, F.; Gomez-Ullate, D.; Gonzalez-Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Zhdanov, R.
2001-01-01
A new family of A N -type Dunkl operators preserving a polynomial subspace of finite dimension is constructed. Using a general quadratic combination of these operators and the usual Dunkl operators, several new families of exactly and quasi-exactly solvable quantum spin Calogero-Sutherland models are obtained. These include, in particular, three families of quasi-exactly solvable elliptic spin Hamiltonians. (orig.)
Repulsively interacting fermions in a two-dimensional deformed trap with spin-orbit coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchukov, O. V.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a two-dimensional system of fermions with two internal (spin) degrees of freedom. It is confined by a deformed harmonic trap and subject to a Zeeman field, Rashba or Dresselhaus one-body spin-orbit couplings and two-body short range repulsion. We obtain self-consistent mean-field $N...
Prospects for Measuring Planetary Spin and Frame-Dragging in Spacecraft Timing Signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schärer, Andreas; Bondarescu, Ruxandra [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Saha, Prasenjit [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angélil, Raymond [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Helled, Ravit [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jetzer, Philippe, E-mail: andreas.schaerer@physik.uzh.ch [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
2017-09-05
Satellite tracking involves sending electromagnetic signals to Earth. Both the orbit of the spacecraft and the electromagnetic signals themselves are affected by the curvature of spacetime. The arrival time of the pulses is compared to the ticks of local clocks to reconstruct the orbital path of the satellite to high accuracy, and implicitly measure general relativistic effects. In particular, Schwarzschild space curvature (static) and frame-dragging (stationary) due to the planet's spin affect the satellite's orbit. The dominant relativistic effect on the path of the signal photons is Shapiro delays due to static space curvature. We compute these effects for some current and proposed space missions, using a Hamiltonian formulation in four dimensions. For highly eccentric orbits, such as in the Juno mission and in the Cassini Grand Finale, the relativistic effects have a kick-like nature, which could be advantageous for detecting them if their signatures are properly modeled as functions of time. Frame-dragging appears, in principle, measurable by Juno and Cassini, though not by Galileo 5 and 6. Practical measurement would require disentangling frame-dragging from the Newtonian “foreground” such as the gravitational quadrupole which has an impact on both the spacecraft's orbit and the signal propagation. The foreground problem remains to be solved.
Multiple multi-orbit fermionic and bosonic pairing and rotational SU(3) algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kota, V.K.B.
2017-01-01
In nuclei with valence nucleons that are identical nucleons and occupy r number of j-orbits, there will be 2 r-1 number of multiple pairing (quasi-spin) SU(2) algebras with the generalized pair creation operator S + being a sum of single-j pair creation operators with arbitrary phases. Also, for each set of phases there will be a corresponding Sp(2Ω) algebra in U(2Ω) ⊃ Sp(2Ω); Ω = ∑ (2j+1)/2. Using this correspondence, derived is the condition for a general one-body operator of angular momentum rank k to be a quasi-spin scalar or a vector vis-a-vis the phases in S + . These will give special seniority selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. We found that the phase choice advocated by Arvieu and Moszkowski gives pairing Hamiltonians having maximum correlation with well known effective interactions. All the results derived for identical fermion systems are shown to extend to identical boson systems such as sd, sp, sdg and sdpf interacting boson models (IBM's) with SU(2) → SU(1,1) and Sp(2/Omega) → SO(2Ω). Going beyond pairing, for a given set of oscillator orbits, there are multiple rotational SU(3) algebras both in shell model and IBM's. Different SU(3) algebras in IBM's are shown, using sdg IBM as an example, to give different geometric shapes.